Mould Design

Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof Institute of Production Design and Manufacturing UniKL IPROM July 2007-2008

Plastic Product Design
Plastic product
Ordered volume / mould life Volume per batch delivery
Plastic product technical details Material Shrinkage Tolerance Fitting condition with other parts

Number of cavities Injection machine selection Plastic mould design…

Design criteria
Type of mould Cavity layout Gating design Runner & sprue design Cooling channel design Ejection design Venting design Mould tooling material

Plastic Mould Design Design details
Two- or three plate? Standard / hot / cold runner? In-line / symmetrical / star? Standard / pin-point /tunnel / flash / tab / disc? Circular / semi-circ / rectangular / trapezoid / etc? Standard / U / spiral?

In-mould product design

Water / oil / air?

MOULD DESIGN

Design criteria
Type of mould Cavity layout Gating design Cooling channel design Ejection design

Plastic Mould Design
Design details
Pins / stripper ring / plate / air / slider?

Parting lines / inserts / core / ejector pins / plates? Plain tool steel / through hardening / case hardening / heat treatable / nitriding steels?

Venting design

Mould Material Shrinkage value / draft angle / surface quality? In-mould product design

MOULD DESIGN

Injection plastic material
Material
Application (where will it be used?) Engineering / precision / consumer Brand (Bayer, etc.)

Shrinkage Tolerance
Use standard tolerances Minimize the use of controlled tolerances

Fitting condition (single or assembly)
Static: minimize contact points, hence controlled tolerances Dynamic

Plastic injection machine
Fixed side Hooper Screw component Heating element

Clamping plate

Standard machine

Machine with two plastic material inputs

Shrinkage & draft
Material
Polystyrol

Inj. Pr, Ps (bar)
1200…1500

Hold Pr, Pn (bar)
(0.3…0.6)x Ps (0.3…0.6)x Ps (0.3…0.6)x Ps (0.4…0.8)x Ps (0.4…0.6)x Ps (0.3…0.5)x Ps

Mass tempt (ºC)
150…280

Mould tempt (ºC)
10…50

Shrinkage Draft (%) (%)
Ca. 0.45 1.5

ABS

1000…1500

180…240

50…85

0.4…0.7

-

Polyethylene

1200…1500

140…350

20…60

1.5…2

0.2…2

Polypropylene

1200…1800

150…260

20…60

1.2…2.2

1.5

Polycarbonate

1300…1800

230…320

85…120

0.7…0.8

1

polyvinylchloride

800…1600

140…210

20…60

0.5…0.7

1.5

Injection plastic material (2)
Semi-crystalline
PE, PP, POM, PA6, PA66, PBT

Amorphous
PS, ABS, PC, PMMA, PPE, ABS/PC, PVC-U, PVC-P, etc.

Amorphous/ Semi-crystalline
PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)

Injection plastic material (3)
Item A / SC ρ1 (gm/cm3) PE SC 0.92 0.96 0.72 0.76 no 220 300 20-60 50200 PP A 0.91 0.93 0.72 0.74 no 220 300 20-70 50-200 PS A 1.05 ABS A 1.06 – 1.19 0.95 – 1.05 4/100 210 260 40-80 50-100 PC A 1.20 POM SC 1.42 PMMA A 1.18 PA6 SC 1.14

ρ2 (gm/cm3)

0.95

1.08

1.16

1.09

0.98

Predrying (h/°C) Nozzle (°C)

no 220 280 15-30 50-100

3/120 300 320 80-110 100-150

no 195 215 40-120 50-100

4/80 200 - 250

4/80 230 240 60-100 20-80 1.0

Mould* (°C) Screw ** (bar)

40-80 100-300 0.6

Max screw 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.7 vel. (m/s) SC = semi-crystalline; A = Amorphous ρ1 = Density at room temperature; ρ2 = Density at processing temperature *Mould surface temperature; **Screw back pressure

Injection plastic material (4)
Item A / SC ρ1 (gm/cm3) ρ2 (gm/cm3) Predrying (h/°C) Nozzle (°C) PA66 SC 1.14 4/80 280290 60100 20-80 1.0 PPE A 1.05-1.1 2/110 280-300 PET A/SC 1.35 4/140 250-290 PBT SC 1.30 4/120 250-260 ABS/PC A 1.15 4/80 250-270 PVC-U A 1.35 no 180-210 PVC-P A 1.1-1.4 no 160-220 CA A 1.2-1.3 3/70 170-200

Mould* (°C) Screw ** (bar) Max screw vel. (m/s)

80-120 30-100 0.6

120-140 50-100 0.5

60-80 50-100 0.7

70-90 50-100 0.4

30-60 50-300 0.2

30-50 50-100 0.5

40-80 50-100 0.6

SC = semi-crystalline; A = Amorphous ρ1 = Density at room temperature; ρ2 = Density at processing temperature *Mould surface temperature; **Screw back pressure

Injection plastic material (5)
Groups Applications Consumer goods Parts with low surface quality and dimensional requirement, simple toys PS, PP, PE 100-150:1 Low 200-250 Closures Screw caps, lids and closures for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics Covers Vacuum cleaner housings, bumpers, instrument panels, lawn movers, power drills PS, PP, ABS/PC 100-150:1 Medium 350-400 Engineering packaging Floppy disks, CD jewel cases, video cassettes, slide frames

Typical materials Flow path to wall thickness Quality requirements Required mould cavity pressure (bar)

PE, PP 30-100:1 Medium 350-400

PS, ABS 100-150:1 Medium 350-400

Injection plastic material (6)
Screw barrel RPM
ShotWeight[g] x 60 RPM = Coolingtime[sec] x Plast.Flow[g/R] x Correctivefactor

Plasticising time
Plasticing time[s] = Plast.Flow ShotWeight [g] x 66 [g/R] x Corrective factor x RPM

Injection plastic material (7)
Follow-up pressure, PF (with regards to mould cavity pressure, PMC) Material PE, PP, PS, PA SAN, ABS, PPO, PET, PBT PMMA, PC, POM,ABS/PC Clamping Force, FC [kN]
FC = PMC[bar] x Part projected surface[cm2]/100 FC = PMC[bar] x Part projected surface[mm2]/10,000

PF PMC x 1.25 PMC x 1.3 PMC x 1.35

Cavity calculation
Volume required: 2,000 monthly Production data
One shift Eight hours per shift 22 days per month

Production allocation
Two days per month Injection machine cycle time approx 50 sec.

Cavity calculation (2)
No. of Cycle Time: 2days x 8hrs per day x 3600sec per hr / 50sec = 1152 No. of cavities: 2,000 u / 1,152 Cycle Time = 2 cavities

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