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everywhere - office,
hospital, school,
curtly, Finance, trust
etc., Management is
basically Planning,
Directing, Assessing,
Correcting, Motivating
and Achieving a set
goal. It is objective-
oriented. We always
have a doubt whether
it is an art or science.
It is the oldest of arts
and youngest of
science, because it is
of dynamic nature.

Managements need
different approaches;
for example Business
Management and
Management are
based on Common
principles but vary a
lot in the approach.
Economists say
Management is a
Factor of Production;
Socialist views it as a
Group of People;
others say that is a
process; Mary Parker
says ³ Management in
its true sense, a
process by which an
organization realizes
its objectives in a
planned manner´;
Management is all
about great ideas,
people and
achievements; though
there are many
definitions of
Management no single
definition is universally
accepted, as it
changes from situation
to situation, industry
to industry; it has got
different dimensions
and hence cannot be
defined precisely as a
Scientific Theory or
Law; James A. F. says
³ Management is the
process of Planning,
Organizing Leading
and Controlling efforts
of organization
members and of using
all other organizational
resources to achieve
Organizational goals´.

Dr. James Lundy¶s

views: ³Management
is a task of Planning,
Motivating and
Controlling the efforts
of others towards
specific objectives´.
According to Henry
Fayola, ³Management
is to forecast, plan,
organize, command,
coordinate and
control". Peter F
Duckers defines
Management as ³An
Economic Organ of
industrial society´;
E.F.L. Breach says
³Management is
concerned with seeing
that the job gets done,
its tasks are centered
on planning and
guiding the operations
that are going on in
the enterprise´;
According to George R
Terry ³Management is
a distinct process
consisting of planning,
organizing, actuating
and controlling
performance to
accomplish the
objectives by the use
of people and
Management is taking
inputs, transforming
them into output-
either a good or
service; the
effectiveness of this
transforming the input
into output depends
on the Management -
especially when the
resources are scarce;
It is a group activity;
motivating others and
getting the things
done within the
stipulated time,
without compromising
on the quality of the
result; it gives shape
and color to the great
ideas of the manager;
Management involves
dealing with people
who have different
sensitivity, knowledge,

Science is a collection
of systematic
knowledge, collection
of truths and
Inferences after
continuous study and
experiments. The
Relationship between
Variables and Limits
are defined and the
Fundamental Principles

Science has got three

specific characters:
1. It is a systematic
and organized
knowledge and based
on scientific methods
of observation.
2. Inferences are
arrived after
continuous observation
and experiments;
3. It has logical
principles which are
well defined and are
niversally applicable
without any

Management Principles
have also evolved and
it is changing day by
day according to the
change in the human
behavior; In science
keeping one factor as
Variable and all others
as constants the same
experiment is repeated
many times in order to
arrive at a conclusion;
but Management
involves human
element and hence all
the factors are wildly

Art uses the known

rules and principles
and uses the skill,
expertise, Wisdom,
experience to achieve
the desired result. The
point is how to get the
things done in the
desired manner to get
the desired result.
New methods can be
adopted from the past
experiences and
incidents what to do
and what not to do;
Effective Management
is extracting voluntary
cooperation from the
staff. So it is definitely
an art and it can be
acquired only by
practicing the
theoretical knowledge
skillfully and

Management has got

two faces like a coin;
on one side it is art
and on the other it is
science. Management
has got scientific
principles which
constitute the
elements of Science
and Skill and Talent
which are the
attributes of Art.

Management skills are

acquired by constant
practice as in the case
of medicine,
engineering and
accountancy; Mere
knowledge of concepts
will not fetch results;
understanding human
behavior, tactfulness,
vision, pragmatism,
creativity, compassion
towards staff, team
spirit are all needed by
a Successful Manager
Effective management.
The Science and Art
are not mutually
exclusive but
complementary to
each other.