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IDEAL

COMMONWEALTHS
PLUTARCH'S LYCURGUS
MORB'S UTOPIA

BACON'S NEW ATLANTIS CAMPANELLA'S CITY OF THE SUN
AND A FRAGMENT OF

HALL'S MUNDUS ALTER ET IDEM

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY HENRY MORLEY
LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

THIRD EDITION

LONDON

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND
BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL

SONS'

g;v,asgpw

and new yoek
1887

i^Hitopadesa^ 31. 6. 24. G. 34. Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield. 25 27. Emerson's Essays. 14. Marlowe's Faustus and Goethe's Faust. 30. &^c. Locke on Civil Government and Filmer's "Pairiarcha. -»' 37." . 40. & 3. 2." The History of Thomas Rllwood.n&i'ke Heroic Deeds of Pantagruel. _ . Scott's Demonology and mtchcraft. 17. Quincey's Confessions of an Opiujn-Eater. — 43. aiid Poems. . 20. Sheridan's Plays. . 44. Stories . Iliad. Dryden's Virgil. 39. Goethe's Faust: Part II. . Thomas h Kempis. Voltaire's Candide. 29. Francklin's Sophocles. Southey's Life of Nelson. 10. 8. Sterne's Decameron. Famous Pamphlets. Defies Journal of the Plague Year. Boccaccio's 16. Daily Telegraph. 4. 36. Potter's ^schylus. Cavendish' s Life of Wolsey. Lewis's Tales of Terror and Wonder. 33. Birds. Chapman's Homer's Mediaeval Tales. ~ 15. By Miss Edgeworth. Knights. English Dramatists. 35. Hobbcs's Leviathan. Pabelais' Garganttiaa. De Butlet'sAnalogyofReligion. Coleridg^s Table-Talk. 19. 1.. 41. 38.12. 7. of Ireland. Popular Songs of Ireland. Frere's Aristophanes. 32. and yohttson's Rasselas. 13. 11. Z>ff« Quixote. 21. 45. Herrick' s ifesperides. Burlesque Plays and Poems. Acharniaiis. 42. 31. . 22. Burke's Speeches andLetters. /(ifea/ Commonwealths. Machiavelh's Prince. Tristram Shandy.Kcoo'ja^G MORLEY'S UNIVERSAL LIBRARY. g. Fables and Proverbs from^ the Sa}tskrit. " _ Chronicle of the Cid. Longfellow's Translation. 28. Bacon's Essays. 46. 18. ific. - Anster's Translation. Samuel Butler's Hudibras. Plays. Jonson's Plays and Poems. Dante's Divine Comedy. . Plays from Moliire. By 26. 5. Vestiges of the Natural History oj Creation. 33. Lamb's Essays of Eha. •'Marvels of clear type and general neatness.

In another of his dialogues. was dreamed of long before it was discovered. the Producers. the goddess Athene. In a State. had given to her Athenians a healthy climate. For he has received tradition of events that happened more than nine thousand years ago. had heard it from the priests of the goddess Neith or Athene at Sais.INTRODUCTION. and Temperance to -his Appetitive. the Auxiliaries. " Critias. Their Republic was like that which Socrates imagined.'' of which we have \ only the beginning. Atlantis had I ' : — — . the Guardians. and Temperance of all. while in the State as in the Man it is Plato . Critias has received this tradition. This was the tradition Nine thousand years before the time of Solon. from a ninetyyear-old grandfather. Injustice that disturbs their harmony. if it were set moving. Wisdom to his Rational part Courage to his Spirited . but in a larger form. and had begun to shape it into a heroic poem. This island. he says. a fertile soil. Courage of the Auxiliaries. was the friend of Solon. Solon. Because the character of Man appears in the State unchanged. Socrates wishes that he could see how j such a commonwealth would work. in his " Republic " argues that it is the aim of Individual Man as of the State to be wise. and temperate people strong in wisdom and courage. who was worshipped also in Sais. brave and temperate. whose father. These three virtues belong respectively to the Individual Man. and it had to bear the shock of a great invasion by the people of the vast island Atlantis. Critias undertakes to tell him. Wisdom should be the special virtue of the Guardians . larger than all Libya and Asia put together. there are three orders. was once in thus America the sea westward beyond the Atlantic waves. lawgiver and poet. he says. when the Athenians themselves were such ideal citizens. Plato represented Socrates as studying the ideal man himself through an Ideal Commonwealth. Dropides.

who cared little for his poetic method. the most famous of his many writings. there were forces of Reason able to Now. the Arabs. To Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus. gone resist and overcome brute strength. gone are the old virtues of Athens. brave. He imagined a traveller. But with the revival of learning he had become a force in Europe. The discovery of the New World at the end of the fifteenth century followed hard upon the diffusion of the new invention of printing. and wise. he took occasion to paint an Ideal Commonwealth as the conception of Lycurgus. however. Earthquakes and deluges laid waste the world. ten kings. caused the Then they Atlantid kings to grow ambitious and unjust. More wrote his Utopia when imaginations of men were stirred by the sudden enlargement of their conceptions of the world. descended from ten sons of Poseidon (Neptune). with its people and its wealth. and in his parallel Lives of Greeks and Romans. France and elsewhere. are the Atlantids. temperate. Vast power and dominion. Sir Thomas More's Utopia was written in the years 1515-16. spread the study of Greek.6 INTRODUCTION. a philosopher with the soul of a poet. when its author's age was about thirty-seven. the half mythical or all mythical Solon of Sparta. who was the god magnificently worshipped by its people. in one day and night. to the bottom of the ocean. and caused Little had been heard of him through Plato to live again. who made his voyages to it in the years 1499-1503. But in the little band of citizens. Plato. who became teachers in Italy. Thomas More and others have been indebted for some part of the shaping of their philosophic dreams. as well as to Plato. were swallowed by an earthquake. entered the Mediterranean and fell upon Athens with enormous force. and Amerigo Vespucci's account of his voyages. died in the year 347 before Christ. and over a part of Europe. Plutarch was writing at the close of the first century after Christ. The whole great island of Atlantis. that extended through all Libya as far as Egypt. sank The ideal warriors of Athens'. first printed in ISO?) was fresh in every scholar's mind. and were to be seen no more. a strong aid to the Reformers. and came at a time when the fall of Constantinople by scattering Greek scholars. Raphael Hythloday whose nattie is from Greek — . He was a young man of twenty when Columbus first touched the continent named after the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci.

after separation from his comrades. He entered the Dominican in 156-8. under the editorship of Erasmus. for its satire was too direct to be misunderstood. Thomas Campanella was Bacon's contemporary. a man only seven years younger . Peter Giles. but had not returned firom the last voyage until. even when it mocked English policy with ironical praise for doing exactly what it failed to do. statecraft." In his Ideal World of the New Atlantis. order when a boy. but had not been discovered. was published Bacon in 1629. and could not be.tNTRObUCttON. that Nature should be ( : . or ^gidius. so the New Atlantis implied foreboding of the Australian. placed his Ideal Commonwealth in those seas where a great Austral continent' was even then supposed to be. in the form of an Ideal Commonwealth described by Hythloday as he had found it in Utopia. but at the same time so practical and earnest that Erasmus tells of a burgomaster at Antwerp who fastened upon the parable of Utopia with such goodwill that he learnt it by heart. if he had not yet read it. somewhere in those parts. Thus he had found. the island of Utopia. ' 7 words that mean " Knowing in Trifles" who had sailed with Vespucci on his three last voyages. "for Nature is only governed o^ '_ by obeying her. and died in 1639. and . More was a wit and a philosopher. and more particularly English. but had a free and eager appetite for knowledge. More had gone on an embassy to Brussels with Cuthbert Tunstalwhen he wrote his philosophical satire upon European. three years after its author's death.. ' Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis. and that enlightened young secretary to the municipahty of Antwerp. As the old Atlantis implied a foreboding of the American continent. He urged. and if he wished to see the true source of all political evils.is his leader to the love of God. his Bacon in philosophy sought through experimental science the dominion of men over things. and an Italian who suffered for He was born in Calabria his ardour in the cause of science. ' — . Its name is from Greek words meaning Nowhere. It was printed at Louvain in the latter Jjart of the year 15 16. Science is made the civilizer who binds man to man. Henry VIII. And in 1 5 1 7 Erasmus advised a correspondent to send for Utopia. who is introduced into the " Utopia " was not printed in England in the reign of story." first written in Latin. he had wandered into some farther discovery of his own. like Bacon.

King of France gave him a thousand livres the Sorbohne vouched for Mr. the dead faith in Aristotle. Of Campanella's " Civitas Solis. who played much with the subject of cookery. attacked. where he was defended by Pope Urban VHI. He died in Paris. and given by his editors as an original piece in the manner of Rabelais„ It seems never to have been observed that this is only a translation of that part of Joseph Hall's " Mundus Alter es Idem. during which time he wrote much. He suffered imvain for him with the King of Spain. in the Convent of the Dominicans. lapsed into Campanella strenuously urged that men blind idolatry. William King. like Bacon. with one or two omissions of detail which can well be spared. Campanella went to against last Rome. •In the works (published March H. the translation here given. years. not written and of opinions he did not hold . and yet the same. that instead of following his energetic spirit of research. and made friend . preceded by a short description of the other parts of Hall's World which is other than ours. was seized and sent to Naples. the orthodoxy of his writings." which has not hitherto' been translated into English. the In Paris. continued violence of attack. studied through her own works. to leave But he was compelled at Rome. at the age of seventy-one. with firmness The Pope interceded in of mind. The Spanish inquisition books of God. Halliday. Richelieu be- came Campanella's pension of three . he was seven times put to the question and suffered. his escape as a servant in the livery of the French ambassador. M. He when He was accused of books he had joined in attack on him. prisonment for twenty-seven years. The fragment will be found at the end of this volume. who was an Italian patriot the Spanish rule." which deals with the kitchen side of Ufe. is a fragment found among his remaining papers. he." Released at last from his prison. should reform all sciences by following Nature and the had been stirring in this way for ten there arose in Calabria a conspiracy against Campanella.8 INTRODUCTION. . Thomas W. not through books . the most cruel tortures. in 1776) of the witty Dr. and one piece of his prison work was his ideal of " The City of the Sun. has been made for me by my old pupil and friend. 1885.

PLUTARCH'S LIFE OF LYCURGUS. .

.

with. But others who. who alleges for proof an Olympic quoit. kings were of the lineage of the Heraclidae there seeras to speak of the first but Xenophon and more immediate is descendants of Hercules. It true. more some say antiquity. As the history of those times thus involved. compute the time by the succession of the Spartan kings. that the : at dififerent times. the latest of the Lacedaemonian . place him much ever. earlier than the first Olympiad. his travels. Xenophon too confirms the opinion of when he makes him cotemporary with the is Heraclids. and joined with him in settling the cessation of arms during the Olympic games. on which was preserved the inscription of Lycurgus's name. For there are different accounts of his birth. Timasus. his nay. and especially of the laws and form of government which he established. his death. For some say he flourished at the same time with Iphitus. and ancient of them lived not long after Homer he had seen him.Life of Lycurgus. the actions on account of his particular renown . in relating the circumstances of Lycurgus's . how- supposes that. Eratosthenes and ApoUodorus. as there were two Lycurguses in Sparta of both are ascribed to one. But least of all are the times agreed upon in which this great man lived. Among these is Aristotle the philosopher. Of Lycurgus the lawgiver we have nothing to relate that is certain and uncontroverted.

LIFE OF LYCURGUS. and having only sprinkled his face in sight of the enemy. the father of . inclining to the interest of the and ingratiating himself with them. writers give us the Eunomus a different manner according to them. the succeeding kings. Upon this relaxation their encroachments increased. . Prytanis to this Eunomus of Eurytion. under. he assembled that his forces. his kingdom to the man would forbear drinking not one of them. Eurytion the son of Sous. relaxed the strictness of kingly government. or else giving in way tKfough weakness or hopes of favour. though he was highly honoured for this. being besieged by the Clitorians in a difficult post where there was no water.. says Lycurgus was the sixth from Patrocles. . and by a second. but from and this. and the eleventh from Hercules. When these conditions were sworn to. and offered . either becoming odious. for a long time anarchy and confusion . verted. and still held the country. was father to Lycurgus. provided that himself and all his army should drink of the neighbouring spring. tells us. but they all drank. by a former wife. were called Eurytionidse because Eurytion seems to be the first who people. genealogy of Lycurgus and for. named Dianassa. Eutychidas. Yet. because had not drank. we shall endeavour to select such as are least controcredit. that Prytanis. not Eunomus. Then Sous went down to the spring himself. he marched all off. whom Of the Lacedsemonians Sous made the Helotes their slaves. family had not their name from him. this it is related. however. The most distinguished of his ancestors was Sous. Lycurgus. would deny himself. he agreed to give up all his conquests. the his son. that. and Eunomus of Prytanis was born Polydectes. however. prevailed in Sparta by which one of its kings. and follow authors of the greatest But most in Simonides the poet. 12 life. Sous was the son of Patrocles. and grandson of Aristodemus. treating and them with greater rigour. and gained an extensive tract of land from the Arcadians.

But the citizens had a great veneration for him -months. leaving the kingdom to his eldest son Polydectes. lost his part life. " Spartans. he received a wound by a kitchen knife. the child to him. that he was at supper with the magistrates when she was delivered of a boy. on other accounts. see here carried your new-born king. and he kept This the administration in his hands only as his guardian. he is reported to have said to the company. charged her not to take any drugs to procure an abortion. When he received it. as soon as born. 13 to For while he was endeavouring some persons who were concerned in a fray. Lycurgus. it for Lycurgus to ascend the throne and he actually did so. which the Lacedaemonians give to the guardians of infant kings. should be destroyed. he declared that the kingdom belonged to her issue. to give it to the women^ut if a boy. till it appeared that his brother's widow was As pregnant. out of . of which he died. upon condition that he would marry her when king Though he detested her wickedness. nothing against the proposal. and were ready to execute his commands. soon as he perceived this. for he would take care that the child. who were present. But he too dying soon after. that she would destroy her child. and there were more that paid him their attentions. with orders. lest she should endanger her own health or life . the queen made him a private overture. He then laid him down upon the Charilaus. if it were a girl. and. and his servants. but pretending to approve it. he did with the title of Prodicos. when he heard she was in labour. to bring it To him." chair of state. because of the joy and named him and admiration of his magnanimity and justice testified by Thus the reign of Lycurgus lasted only eight all present. he sent persons to attend and watch her delivery. Soon after. the general voice gave . provided it were male. It happened in whatever business he might be engaged. Thus he artfully drew on the woman to her full time. he said of Sparta.LIFE OF LYCURGUS.

regard to his virtues. . . and opposed his advancement. and conversed with the his most of illustrious personages. to Lycurgus towards the instruction of Crete Lycurgus passed to Asia. is From said. they softened insensibly the manners of the audience. and matter of accusation against Lycurgus. drew them off from the animosities which then prevailed. and scrupled not to tell him that he was man. with had interest-enough to persuade him to go and settle at Sparta. who seemed t6 have been treated with contempts Her bipther Leonidas. as too high for sciyoung a and friends of the queenmother. Thales *as famed for his wisdom and political abilities he was withal a lyric poet. ^. There having observed the forms of government. desirous. who under colour of : Among whom he exercising his art. and united zealfor excellence and virtue. and fearing some dark design. He set sail. in them in some measure. than those that obeyed him as a guardian to the king. There were not. performed as great things as the most For his odes were so'many persuasives '^. all suspicion. till . as compare the Ionian expense and . Insinuations of the same kind were likewise spread by the queen-motheri ' Moved with mto this ill-treatment. particularly the relations welj> assured he would soon be king. Some others he rejected. wanting those that envied him. however. and resolved at his return use of them in Sparta. and have a son to succeed him in the kingdom. one day boldly attacked him with virulent language. to obedience and unanimity. make the friends he gained in Crete was Thales. case aiiy accident should befall the king. thus preparing in suspicions. he prepared the way ^ for the Spartans. as by means of melody and inumbersthey had great grace and power.^xellent lawgivers. therefore.14 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. and director of the administration. by travelling nephew should be grown up. he was struck with admiration to some of their laws. he determined to get clear of other countries. and landed in Crete. So that.

and. intermixed with his which had an irresistible he eollected them into one body.at the. For they perceived that their kings had barely the title and outward appendages of royalty. so as to effect . where consulted about his return. except Aristocrates. The Egyptians likewise suppose that he visited them and as of all their institutions . Returning then to a city thus disposed. and in his Indian excursions conversed with the Gymnoso- phists. men from . and a Spartan. by separating from these the mechanics and noble and This assertion of the more of Egyptians is But we know of no one.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. and transcribed them with pleasure. his glorious poetry was not yet fully known in Greece 'only some particular pieces were in a few hands. but in nothing else differed from the multitude. in order to take them home with him. and powers of absent. he took the same method Sparta. he was most pleased with their distinguishing the military . he met with Homer's poems. Lycurgus was the first that made them generally known. There also. son of Hipp^rchus. The kings. that drew the hearts of men to him. pi:e. persuasion. judge what 15 luxury with the Cretan frugality and hard diet. whereas Lycurgus had abilities from nature to guide the measures of government. and they hoped that in his presence they should experience less insolence amongst the people. ~~T?lTe Lacedaemonians found the want of Lycurgus when and sent many embassies to entreat him to return. rest of the people. For . he rendered the constitution more a piece. probably. as they happened to be dispersed. who has affirmed that he went to Libya and Spain. much political knowledge were charm. each had on their several manners and physicians compare bodies that are governments just' as weak and sickly with the healthy and robust. Observing that many moral sentences and stories. confirmed by some of the Greek writers. which were served by the posterity of Cleophylus. however. artificers. .

that Archelaus. Charilaus for is he joined in the undertaking. and promised that the constitution «he should establish would be the most excellent in Thus encouraged. Apollo had heard his request.i6 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. and accepted of their oath. but. he ordere(£t^rt3^of the principal citizens to appear armed in the market-place by break of day. she told him. gave Lycurgus the best assistance in the establishing of his laws. so far from being obstinate." to his request that As he might enact good laws. and regimen. But he was soon satisfied. it " Beloved of the gods. he was so remarkable the gentleness of his disposition. whose temperament is to be corrected and was necessary to begin a new With these sentiments he went to Delphi. Upon the first' alarm. most important was which sharing. but he that had the greatest share in the whole enterprise. as in the case of a body diseased and of bad humours. king Charilaus. sensible that a partial change. when he had offered and consulted the god. would be of no of full advantage. he applied to the nobility. as Plato . Nay. in which the priestess called him new formed by medicines. his partner in the throne. apprehending it to be a design against his person. to put their hands to the work . the first and that of a senate . to alter the he immediately applied himself introducing of whole frame of sort the constitution." Among the many new institutions of Lycurgus. he returned with that celebrated oracle. When "matters were ripe. was called Arithmiades. took refuge in the Chalcioicos. to strike terror into Hermippus has given names of twenty of the most eminent of them . addressing himself privately at first to his friends. " Yes. and us the such as might desire to oppose him. trying the disposition of otliers. Indeed. and preparing them the world. and desired them to concur in the business. who cannot find in his heart to punish the bad. and the some new laws. and afterwards by degrees. is reported to have said to some that were praising the young king. a good man to be sure. and rather a god than a man.

fomied of seven mul- tiplied by four. Aristotle thinks.. : kept it in a just equilibrium. the whole body might consist of members.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. and highly contributed to the preservation of the state. after six. whenever they saw the people too encroaching. but this establishment of a senate. together with the two kings. occasionally . on the other hand. too imperious and un- restrainecTBefofe^'ancnraving equal authority with them. called rhetra. and put it in a safe posture the twenty-eight senators adhering to the kings. says. that. having neither halls. and. an intermediate body. ran thus " When you have built > a temple to the Syllanian Jupiter. assemblies. according to was the number of senators fixed upon. first But Sphserus tells entrusted with the design. there is in its being a perfect number. and sometimes towards a pure demo- cracy. and Between these they held their by Babyce the bridge." 'Babyce and' Cnacion are now called Oenus. that — He had this institution so much he obtained from Delphi an oracle in decree. you shall summon the people to an assembly between BaByce and Cnacion. like ballast. But I rather think. at heart.— divided the people into tribes arid classes^i^d established ( "a ^egatfiLof thirty persons. Something. supporting the people. nor any kind of building These thmgs he thought of no advantage for that purpose. its behalf. just so many thirty senators were created.. by Cnacion is meant the river. all equal to its and withal the first number. and the SyUanian^Jinerva. that is parts. or the This was couched in very kncient and : uncommon which interpreted. when the kings attempted to Aristotle. 17 in the power of the kings. make themselves absolute. perhaps. and they shall have the determining But voice. sometimes inclining to arbitrary power. was the means of keeping them within tlie"5ounds of moderation. For before it had been veering and unsettled. including the two kings. This. because thirty associates of two of the through eight at Lycurgus deserted the business us there were oiily twenty- fear. terms.

who at Phoebus' shrine Your humble vows prefer. on observing the the splendid roofs. that he would leave the regal power to his children less than he received it. the attention. and every otKer The people thus assembled had no it upon trifles. because more lasting. suade the Spartans that this too was ordered by Apollo we learn from these verses of tfyfteusl"] c-^ as Ye sons of Sparta. upbraided him. in the reign of prero- gative. replied. O'er your beauteous lands Two guardian kings. but rather a disservice^. the when his wife vested with this dignity. But because. that it wanted indeed a bridle. in fact. in process of time. By these means they escaped the miseries which befell the Messenian and Argive kings. whose power was exercised with suoh wantonness~and violence. they shall dissolve the assembly." And. Elatus was the first in- Theopompus . Though the government was thus tempered by Lycurgus. it degenerated intojJi^oligarchy. as they distracted to their councils. changed the terms. and perverted the sense of the decrees. This curb yet soon after they found in the authority of the Ephori. who. about a hundred and thirty years after Lycurgus. " Nay but greater. And they found means to per. and turned statues and pictures. so stripped of all extravagant pretensions. theatrical ornament. the senate and " that is. and the voice Of the concurring people. a senate. the kings Polydorus and Theopompus inserted in the rhetra this clause " If the people attempt to corrupt chiefs shall retire : any law. who would not in the least relax the . no longer occasioned either envy or danger to its possessors. right to propose any subject of debate. attentive hear The god's decision. by additions or retrenchments.. lasting laws Shall with joint power establish. and annul the alterations.J LIFE OF LYCURGUS. the people. ^and were only authorized to ratify of rejecf wKat might be proposed to th^m by the senate and the kings. as Plato expresses it.

severity of their 19 power in favour of the people. they made it very evident that blessing it was well really a felicity more than human. which were only four thousand five citizens. and that Polydorus added three thousand afterwards . who hadino land. the city overcharged with many indigent persons. His proposal was put in practice. and all For. He made nine tjiousand lots for the territory of Sparta. that Polydorus doubled the number appointed by Lycurgus. and yet preserved no lasting happiness. and possessed of a better countrj-. and thirty of Laconia. and luxury. than and foresight from the disorderly governments. he persuaded. therefore. to have a legislator who knew But how to frame and temper government. the wealth centred in the hands of a evils of in- Determined. which he distributed among so many might seek between theni but that which thousand for the inhabitants of the rest But some say he made only six thousand shares for the city. to the Spartans. .LIFE OF LYCURGVS. people of Messena and Argos. but. were harassed with perpetual troubles. others. to root out the and those distempers of a state still more inveterate and fatal. living. avarice. l' was an event of a later date. it if in. and that subsisted the bad understanding between the kings and states. For he found a prodigious in' equality. Indeed. a their from so this heaven.^nd few. neighbouring related in blood to Sparta.them to cancel all former divisions of laM^and tomaSe^w ones. envy. as no other difference was left arises from the dishonour of base actions and the praise of good ones. I mean poverty and riches. they were ambitious of distinction they virtue. as at first they were in respects equal to her. of from nothing more does the wisdom Lj'fcurgus appear. in such a manner that they might be perfectly equal in their possessions and way of solence. Hence. A second and bolder political enterprise of Lycurgus was a new division of the lands. through the insolence of the kings and disobedience of the people.

In the next place. A story goes of our legislator. when the new required. but was ridiculed and despised so that the Spartans had no means of purchasing any foreign or curious wares . he stopped the currency of the gold and ("ordered that they should ) silver coin. and make use of iron money only. besides a quantity. " How like estate newly divided among many brothers \ is ! Laconia to an "^ After this. nor if cut in pieces be served by its use ? For we are told that when hot. nothing less thStn^ a "yoke~OT oxen. and therefore took another First method. I and said to some that were by. and consequently unfit for any other service. Who would steal or take a bribe. he excluded unprofitable and superfluou5_arts indeed. and they wanted nothing more. and seeing the shocks standing parallel and equal. that some time after returning from a journey through the fields just reaped. hundred. in but he soon all appearance of inequality "j. aaid to :_ money took posed of.. place. of wine and oil in proportion. When this became current. Such a provision they thought sufficient for health and a good habit of body. a whole room w^ ! *• remove it. when he could nof^conceaTHhe. counterworking their avarice by a stratagem. and twelve for each woman. to make it brittle and unmalleable. nor did any merchant-ship unlade in their harbours. when he could neither be dignified by thepossession of it. many kinds of injuStiCe ceased in Lacedasmon. if he had not done this. There . they quenched it in vinegar. wl>o would defraud or rob. as the manufactures could not be dis- Their iron coin would not pass in the rest of . perceived that they could not bear to have their goods directly taken from them. was capable of producing (one year with another) seventy bushels of grain for each man.20 UF£ OP Each lot LYCURGUS. order to take away ' he attempted to divide also the movables. he smiled. most of them would have fallen of themselves. 'Greece. booty . then to a great quantity and weight of this he assigned but a j small value so that to lay up ten mince.

This was the use ofpuHlic tables7iwhere all were to eat in common it as were appointed by same time they were forbidden to eat at home. in unregarded repositories. had its muddiness conlips. but must lie silver trinkets. to secure riches from rapine Theophrastus expresses and from envy. improvements the lawgiver was the cause for the Of these workmen having no more employment in matters of mere curiosity. died away of itself: even they who had great possessions. abandoned to all manner of sensuality and dissoluteness. Desirous to complete the conquest of luxury. private. and exter- minate the love of riches. Hence in their it was. and tables Lacedsemonian cup called highly valued. or dealers in gold money. and by the frugality of their table. and the it came clearer to thick part stopping the . because there was no by degrees the means that cherished and supported it.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. or to fatten like voracious animals in For so not only their manners would be corrupted. had no advantage from them. and and the a^rCrijtias"^forms us. in perpetual sick- great . wandering fortune-tellers. since they could not be displayed in public. to take from . losing useless. cothon. as beds. by the colour of the cup. but their bodies disordered. of the same iii5at7~and'SGdfi kinds of law. chairs. To effect and the same indulgence as this was certainly very it. he introduced a third institution. At the warm ness. or rather by their eating common. and Thus luxury. showed the excellence of their art in necessary things. to call in the assistance of butchers and cooks. : particularly in campaigns for the it water. but it was as in greater still. which must then of necessity be drank. they would require long sleep. cealed at the shelving brim. was useful . that excellent workmanship was shown necessary furniture. were not even to be found in all their 21 country either sophists. baths. upon expensive couches and tables. which was wisely enough and ingeniously contrived. though often would otherwise offend the sight. keepers of infamous houses.

therefore (we are were more offended with nay.a LIFE OF LYCURGUS. For what use or enjoyment of them. way to showed the people streaming with blood. that they surrendered Alcander to him. The rich. and to any one that did not eat and reproach him as an intemperate was sick of the told). without giving out one of his eyes with a stick. Unhappily. though not otherwise ill-tempered. Lycurgus then stopped passion. but showed no ill treatment either by word or action . and. The youth. Living in this manner with Lycurgus. : they loudly expressed their indignation so far as to assault Lycurgus with stones. so that he was forced to fly from the assembly and take refuge . and having an opportunity to observe the mildness and goodness of his heart. and so to come without it appetite to the public repast : made a point of to observe drink with them. destitute of life or motion. and like Hence an image. regret. struck came up with him. before he reached a young man his named Alcander. It must further be they observed. without murmuring. sorrow at the sight. He took him into his house. upon short.. only ordering him to wait upon him. however. " he told his friends that Lycurgus was not that proud and . that it was only at Sparta where Plutus (according to the proverb) was kept blind. it. and conducted him home with the utmost expressions of Lycurgus thanked them for their care of his person.in a temple. and. his strictjtemperance and indefatigable industry. instead of his usual servants and attendants. and. who was of an ingenuous disposition. hasty in his resentments. and dismissed them all except Alcander. and his face They were so struck with shame and his eye beat out. they proceeded this regulation than with any other. and effeminate person - that common diet. riches their very being. did as he was commanded. turning round. what peculiar display of magnificence could there be. where the poor man went to the same refreshment with the rich ? the observation. rising in a body. that they had not the privilege to eat at home.

the day following. and this punishment he suffered. and others. This. . and so phiditia take place of editia. they set a fine upon him. but. to offerthe sacrifice usual on occasion of victory. There Each monthly a bushel of meal. : . and that he built the temple in gratitude to the goddess for his cure. then. when. assemblies afterwards. or for to kill venison. and from a desire to sup with his wife. through resentment. of a wild and headstrong young man to become a very modest and prudent citizen. was the chastisement. and a little money to buy flesh and fish. If any of them happened to offer a sacrifice of first fruits. he sent a part of it to the public table after a sacrifice or hunting. In memory ofhis misfortune.. relate that his eye was hurt. which barely signifies eating. were of fifteen persons to a table.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. Lycurgus others. phiditia being used instead oi philitia or else from their teaching„^ugality and parsimony. so called their. or a few more or to bring in less. However. pounds of cheese. For a long time this eating in common was observed with great exactness so that when king Agis returned from a successful expedition against the Athenians. which the word pheido signifies. by him from a Yet iDioscorid^ who wrote a treatise concerning the Lacedsemonian govern-' ment. either from tendency to friendship and mutual benevolence. five : them was obliged : Polemarchs refused to send it nay. requested to have his portion at home. but not put out. gentle built man he might have been term which the Dorians use for the eye. two pounds and a half of figs. above all and engaging in his behaviour. severe 23 taken for. But it is not all impossible that the first letter might by some means or other be added. he was at liberty to sup at home ^ but thFrest were to appear at the usual place. the Spartans never carried staves to a temple to Minerva Optiletis. The their public repasts were called by the Cretans Andria but the Lacedaemonians styled them Phiditia. the eight gallons of wine. he neglected.

his head.' he strongly expressed his dislike Sir. . that they might accustom themselves to march in the darkest night boldly and resolutely. The dish that was in the highest esteem amongst them was the black broth. and said. he first pressed it flat in his hand if for a flatted ball was considered as a negative. to taste it for the sake of this broth. and were not to take it ill when the raillery was For it was reckoned worthy of a Lacedaemonian returned. thought it Arid but one the person was not admitted. the oldest man present pointed to the door. liberal breeding. related of a king of Pontus. such was found.24 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. he did ing the figure. which the waiter carried upon it In alter. if without not. into a vessel called caddos. was said to have no luck in the caddos. It is i3ut . he had only to bear a jest to desire them to be quiet. as so There they heard discourses and were instructed in the most concerning government. case he approved of the candidate. Each member of that small society took a little ball of soft bread in his hand. " to make this broth relish. but if any one's patience failed. that he purchased a Lacedae- monian cook. Indeed. as they proper that the whole company should be satisfied with each other. and they left off immediately. they went home without lights. This he was to drop. to when he came and the cook it is made first answer. necessary bathe in the Eurotas. There they were allowed to jest without scurrility. " Not a word spoken in this company goes out there. many schools of sobriety." After they had drank moderately. Children also were introduced at these public tables. He who thus rejected. : When they first entered. they were forbidden to walk with a on this or any other occasion." The admitting of any man to a particular table was under the following regulation. The old men it were so fond of that they ranged themselves and eat it. leaving the meat to the on one side young people. without saying a word. Such was the order light either of their public repasts.

as we have observed. woutd'aiiSwer in giver. and saw the ceiling of the room very splendid and curiously wrought. These would remain immovable. bedsteads with silver feet. and to admit of addi-' tions or retrenchments at the pleasure of persons so well £ducated. Arid this. these to a written form suffer it was better not to reduce and unalterable method. when he supped at Corinth. expense. From this plain sort of dwellings. golden cups. For what he thought most conducive to the virtue and happi- city. Lycurgus in ag left none of his laws in writing . For he resolved the whole business of legislation into the bringing up of youth. of his table. pro- ceeded the question of Leotychidas the elder to his host.LIFE Of LYCURGUS. " Treason lurks not under such a Indeed. and a train of expense that follows these but all would necessarily have the bed suitable to the room. contracts about property. directed that the ceilings of houses should be wrought with no tool but the axe and the doors with nothing but the saw. man could be so absurd as to bring into a dwelling so homely and simple. that such a house admits of no luxury and needless splendour. that they should not . in the youth." A third ordinance of Lycurgus was. Another ordinance levelled against magnificence and . and be the strongest and most lasting tie and the habits which education produced ness of a . each the purpose of a' law- As for smaller matters. as founded in inclination. purple coverlets. and i whatever occasionally varied. but to them to change with the times. " Whether trees grew square in his country. as Epaminondas is reported to have said afterwards. was the reason wKy'one of his ordinances forbad them to have any written laws. no dinner. the coverlet of the bed and the rest of their utensils and : furniture to that." so Lycurgus perceived before him. For. it was ordered one of the Rhetrcs that none should be written. was principles interwoven with the manners and breeding of the people.

. by regulating the marriages. the consequence of a recluse life. that their bodies being strong and vigorous. He ordered the virgins to exercise themselves and throwing quoits and darts ." These ordinances ' he called Hhetrw. when he saw him wounded. wrestling. and be delivered with safety. they might the better support the child-birth. and so gained an undue deference and improper titles. " The Thebans for making them good soldiers who neither fight were willing nor able to you before. as the Deity himself. and to dance and sing in their presence on certain pangs of [ to take festivals.^ey_too_shciuM become_^able warriors in their turn.^6 often LIF£ OP LYCURGUS: make war against the same enemy^st. . thus fortified by exercise. in running. They had. In order away the excessive tenderness and delicacy of the sex. indeed. For he did not (as Aristotle says) desist from his attempt to bring the women under sober rules. the children afterwards produced from them might be the same and that. pay you well This made against the Lacedfemonians. but notwithstanding this he took all possible care of them. and sometimes they sung encomiums on such as deserved them. he accustomed the virgins occasionally to be seen naked as well as the youug men. by being frequently put upon defending themselves. assumed great liberty and power on account of the frequent expeditions of their husbands. he taught the Thebans to make head Antalcidas say. that by frequent and continued incursions into Boeotia. And this they most blamed king Agesilaus for afterwards. if they had been oracles and decrees of As I for the education of youtlvwhich he lookedjupoli as \ the greatest and'mosFglorious work of a lawgiver. There they sometimes indulged in a little raillery upon those that had misbehaved themselves. thus exciting in the young men a useful emulation and love of glory. he began with : it at the very ~sdurce7ta]iing inFo Consideration their conception and birth. during which they were left sole mistresses at home.

to use Plato's expression. some marks of infamy were set upon For they were not pernaked virgins . there was nothing disgraceful in it. instead of when he came one day into company. V/hen a woman of another country said to her. and to sing a song composed agaiinst themselves. mitted to see these exercises of the people paid to the old . went away perfectly happy while their Satirical glances thrown out in sport.LIFE OF LYCURGUS." . " We are the only women that bring forth men. " You have no child to give place to me. it caused a simplicity of manners and an emulation for the : besThabit of bqd^j their ideas too were naturally enlarged. which expressed how justly they were punished for their disobedience to the laws. so that nobody found fault with what was said to Dercyllidas." These public dances and other exercises of the young maidens naked. and the magistrates commanded them to march naked round the market-place in the winter. It seems. To encourage it still more. though an eminent commander. As for the virgins appearing naked. "You of Lacedaemon are the only women in the world that rule the men :" she answered. Nay. especially as the kings and senate went with the other citizens to see all that passed. Hence they were furnished with sentiments and language. because everything was conducted with modesty. They were also deprived of that honour and respect which the younger those that continued bachelors. and. were no less cutting than serious admonitions . a young rising up and giving place. told him. when I am old. in sight of the young men. were. 27 For he who was praised for his bf'avery and celebrated among the virgins. as a conclusion follows from the premises. man. while they were not excluded from their share of bravery and honour. such as Gorgo the wife of Leonidas is said to have made use of. and without one indecent word or action. moreover. drew incentives to marriage : them almost geometrical as necessarily by the attractions of love.

untied her girdle. modestly retired to his usual apartment. the bridegroom carried off the bride by . he was equally studious to drive from that state the vain it and womanish passion of jealousy by making quite as reputable to have children in all common with persons of merit. The bridegroom. Having stayed there a short . whom he most . laid her upon a mattrass.^ for as they were not satiated like those that are always with their wives. spending the day with and observed the same conduct afterhis companions. violence when she had that Then the woman had the direction of the wedding. at the neither oppressed with wine nor enervated with luxury. but some of them even had children before they had an interview with their wives in the daytime. there still was place for unextinguished desire. and reposing himself with them in the night. dressed her in man's clothes. but kept their bodies fruitful. And this they did not for a ^hort time only. aji d tir e first ardour ofjheirlove fresh and_uriahatgd-.28 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. the bride at the same time exerted all her art to contrive convenient opportunities for their private meetings. but perfectly sober. but arrived sX full maturity. went in privately. and her in the dark. This kind of commerce not only exercised their temperance and chastity. and she was never chosen in a tender . He laughed at those who revenge with wars and bloodshed the communication of a married woman's favours in years should and allowed. nor even visiting his bride but with great caution and apprehensions of being discovered by the rest of the family . In their marriages. . as having always table. as to avoid offensive freedoiifin their own behaviour to their wives.age. to sleep with the other young men wards. have a young wife. cut the left bride's hair close to the skin. When he had thus estabUshed a proper regard to modesty and decorum with respect to marriage. that if a man he might introduce to her some handsome and honest young man. supped common time. and carried her he to another bed.

These regulations tending to secure a healthy offspring. he might treat with her husband for admission to her soil. women w'hich preva. considered children. though they may . company. subject of Geradas. or infirm. " he must forfeit a bull so large that adulterers in our country. he observed the vanity and absurdity of other nations. stock. not so much the property of their)' parents as of the state and therefore he would not have them begot by ordinary persons. and consequently beneficial to the state." says Geradas. when well descended and of a generous disposition. A had asked him. "How be found 1 can an adulterer . and yeTTceep their wives shut up. "But what if there should be one?" then. that if a married man of character should entertain a passion for a woman on account of her modesty and the beauty of her childi'en. it 29 and when she had a child of this generous up as his own. where people study to have their horses and dogs of the finesffbreed they can procure either by interest or money . that they may have children by none but themselves. nor any advantage. but by the best men in it. Lycurguri spring of excellent parents." at this. When said. were no detriment to those whom they belong to. an ancient Spartan. that so planting in a beauty-bearing he might produce excellent children. that adultery saying. decrepit. bring of." My friend. As if children. " What punish- ment " their law appointed for adulterers there are He answered. the stranger expressed his surprise and " How can such a bull Geradas answered with a smile. and consequently good for nothing. no The "Why other replied. he might drink of the Eurotas from the top of Mount Taygetus. In the next place. and who have the trouble of bringing them up. in the first place. On the other hand. the congenial offFor.LIFE OF L YCURGUS. approved race.iled upon this was not known amongst them. stranger ? " A is thus related. were so far from en- when sprung from a bad couraging that licentiousness of the afterwards. he allowed. happen to be doting.

since nature had any strength or goodness of constitution. and to leave all ill humour and unmanly crychildren sink ing. same order and discipline. he was fortunate in a nurse. nor to be afraid of being alone. as Plato slave. nor were the parents : them as they pleased but as soon as they were seven years old. but with wine. thus their For the same reason the women did not wash their new-born making some trial of habit of body. their limbs had a freer turn. they ordered it to be thrown into the place called Apothetae. and their countenances a more liberal air. a Spartan. for. It This is the account we have of their f to the father to rear what children he was obliged to carry the child to a place called Lesche. he was not so in a pre- for their children said to have ceptor: for Zopyrus. where they were and had all kept under the exercises their and . and Alcibiades the Athebeen nursed by Amicla. but he . besides. but if it was weakly and deformed. by Pericles. vantage either to itself not given it at first or to the public. to have no terrors in the dark. imagining that sickly and epileptic and die under the experiment. Great care and art was also exerted by the nurses . no better qualified than a common tutors The Spartan children were not in that manner. to be examined by the most ancient men of If it was strong and the tribe. Lycurgus ordered them to be enat liberty to educate rolled in companies. they used them to any sort of meat. infants with water.3° LIFE OF LYCURGUS. under purchased or hired with money. tells us. and assigned it one of the nine thousand shares of land . while healthy became more vigorous and hardy. appointed to that office was. they gave orders for its education. Hence people of other is countries purchased Lacedse- monian nurses nian But if . which is a deep cavern near the mountain Taygetus concluding that its life could be no ad- was not left pleased. who were assembled there. as they never swathed the infants. ? " be found in Sparta marriages. well-proportioned.

making them go barefoot. that they might observe with exactness the spirit of each. He who showed the most conduct and courage amongst them. but as their fathers. on beds made as they advance in age of the tops of reeds. and governors so that there was neither time nor place where persons were wantr ing to instruct and chastise them. One of the best and ablest thistle-down. guardians. appointed inspector of the : and he gave the command of each company to the and most spirited of those called Irens. All the rest of their education was calculated to make them subject to and conquer. As for learning. was made captain of the company. command. and but one upper one a year allowed them. and play. to endure labour. for the most part. and bore . therefore. to fight They added. without knives. their under garment was taken away. and not indulged the great favour of baths.with patience the punishment he inflicted so that their whole education was an exercise of obedience. except on some particular days of the year. they had just what was absolutely ne- cessary. and the old men^ attended more constantly their places of exercise. the most distinguished amongst them became the favourite companions of the elder. The rest kept their eyes upon him. Hence they were necessarily dirty in their persons. They slept in companies. not slightly and in a cursory manner. recreklions in 31 common. quite naked. and oils'. and brought from the banks of the Eurotas. and their : firmness in battle.LIFE OF L YCU'RGVS. An Iren was one that had been two years out of the class of boys youth discreetest . In winter they were permitted to add a seemed to have some warmth in it. obeyed his orders. cutting their hair very closs. At this age. . moreover. The old men were present at their diversions. which they gathered with their own little hands. observing their trials of strength and wit. At twelve years of age. and often suggested some occasion of dispute or quarrel. as that : men of the city was. to their discipline.

But if any one be caught.32 LIFE OF LYCURGVS. ingeniously contriving to do it when persons are asleep. have slighter children indeed. is Indeed. and the younger to gather pot-herbs these they steal where they can find them. They steal. or keep but indifferent watch. which stretches itself out in breadth and mount upwards by their natural lightness. they but slender at all times. under the lash at the altar of . The boys steal with so much caution. that. but with hunger. they and the body easily . appear incredible. a youth a Melliren one of the oldest lads. their supper against want. the animal spirits are make them grow tall. Nor does this we consider what their young men can for we have seen many of them expire Diana Orthia. because the suppleness of the matter more readily obeys the plastic power. whilst the heavy and gross resist her by their weight. they punished not only with whipping. that one of them having conveyed a young fox under his garment. He sends the oldest of them to fetch wood. suffered the creature to tear out his bowels with his teeth and claws. or else craftily and warily creeping to the common tables. choosing rather to die than to be detected. either slily getting into gardens. which then gives a fine proportion to the limbs . ing their pregnancy. This Iren. For when not too much oppressed by a great quantity of food. twenty years old. these are speculations which However. he is severely flogged for negligence or want of : dexterity. but of a finer and more delicate turn. command and has them to serve him at his house. and freely shoots up in height. to fence may be is forced to exercise their courage first and address. whatever victuals they possibly can. This also contributes to make them handsome for thin and slender habits yield more freely to nature. gives orders to those under his in their little battles. are If they are discovered. too. So women that take physic durthickness. This the to intention of their spare diet a subordinate one is. we shall leave to others. if endure to this day . then.

seasoned with humour. on the contrary. indeed. and an united endeavour to m. also taught to use sharp repartee. but He was permitted. 33 to order used one was 6f the boys to sing a song. the worth of speech was to consist in its being . reposing himself after supper. because the boy whom he had taken into his affections let some ungenerous word or cry escape him as he was fighting. that the virgins too had their lovers amongst the most virtuous matrons.'ike him as : accomplished as possible." and hesitated in his answer. The old men and assigned for it. The adopters of favourites also shared both in the honour and disgrace of their boys and one of them is said to have been mulcted by the magistrates. and of a soul that would not aspire to honour. For or if one of them was asked. but. " Who or " What he thought affairs of such an This accustomed them from their childhood to of their country- judge of the virtues. The boys were pithy. to see whether the Iren exercised his authority in a rational and proper manner. if he had punished them either with too much severity or remissness. as we have observed. "Who is a good citizen. magistrates often attended these little trials. A competition of affection caused no misunderstanding. The Iren. who an infamous one. he was to be chastised him- self. and whatever they said was to be concise and For Lycurgus. but rather a mutual friendship between those that had fixed their regards upon the same youth. he was considered a boy of slow parts.LIFE OF L YCURGUS.s wrong. He whose account of the matter wa. fixed but a small value on a considerable quantity of his iron money. to inflict the penalties. The answer was likewise to have a reason and proof conceived in few words. This loye was so honourable and in so much esteem. by way of punishment had his thumb bit by the Iren. to another he put [which required a judicious answer the best rnan in the city ^action ? " ? " : some question for example. to enter into the men. when the boys were gone.

When one advised hini to establish a popular government in Lacedfemon. However." answered in his laconic way. sententious in his discourse. " How we best guard against the invasion of an enemy ? "— " By continuing poor.t. that they hated^ long speeches. concern- ing the constitution. to me there seems to enemies' hearts with them. whether they should enclose Sparta with walls. " That we offer might never be in want. As debauchery often causes fireakness and sterility in the body." That again. King Agis. for instance.34 LIFE OF I." like replies of his are said to Several such letters be taken from the : which he wrote shall to his countrymen as to their question. if we may judge by some of his answers which are recorded \ tha. so the intemperance ofthe tongue makes conversation empty and insipid." said he. "And yet we can reach "our Indeed.YCURGUS." be something in this concise manner of speaking which immediately reaches the object aimed at. and The would swallow them with ease upon the stage. when a certain Athenian said. "and first make a trial of it in thy cerning sacrifices to the Deity." trifling and of so value. him are genuine or not. in their replies. comprised in a few plain words. when they inquired of him." said he. the following apophthegms are a farther proof. what of. sort of martial exercises he allowed he answered." to Whether these and some other letters ascribed is no easy matter to determine. " of something to Once more. conwhen he was asked why he little appointed them so him. own family. and not desiring in your possessions to be one above another. " All. " laughed jugglers at the Lacedaemonian short swords. .' which has a wall of men instead of brick." And to the question. " That city is well fortified. therefore. except those in which you stretch out your hands. pregnant v/ith a great deal of sense and he contrived that by long silence they might : learn to be sententious and acute. and forcibly strikes Lycurgus himself was short and the mind of the hearer. " Go.

the nephew of Lycurgus. it " My good friend. " Archidamidas Enough to Even when they indulged a vein let men there was in.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. Archidamidas replied. " True. and saying that his own couiitrymen called him Philolacon that least like you.all the time." finding fault with Hecataeus the sophist. if the Eleans do justice once in five years?" When a stranger was professing his regard for Theopompus. answered. " What great matter is it. When a troublesome fellow was pestering Demaratus with impertinent questions. may be gathered from these instances. King Leonidas time about said to 35 at one who discoursed it is an improper affairs of some concern. as I said. were seasoned with humour. for we are the only people of Greece that have learned no ill of you." The manner of their repartees. and this in particular several times repeated. replied to an orator of Athens. For one being asked to go and hear a nor person who imitated the nightingale to perfection. the son of Pausanias." of pleasantry. To Some pepple because. mitted to one of the public repasts. one might perceive that they would not use one unnecessary word. Sparta. of what not to the pur- pose to talk Charilaus. who said tlie Lacedemonians had no learning. if they called you Philopoliles " (a lover of your own countrymen). when adto speak. the king answered him. keep bad men at a distance. "He that knows how knows when to speak. Agis said. "Who is is the best man in Sparta?" He answered. being laws. few laws are sufficient. were commending the Eleans for managing the Olympic games with so much justice and propriety. " asked why his uncle had made so few men of few words." "He To some who (a lover of the Lacedaemonians). Plistonax. also which." To one who asked what number of said. he said nothing. answered. " My friend. E 2 . an expression escape them that had not some sense worth attending to. were much better." to the purpose. you should not talk so much of.

Try us : our vigour is not gone . bold Once the in battle we shone j young men answered. Their songs had a it which could rouse the to action. soul. in misery and rather chose to drag on life and contempt.consisted chiefly of the praises of heroes that had died for Sparta. Nor did they forget to express an it ambition for glory suitable to their respective ages. or else of expressions of detestation for such wretches as had declined the glorious opportunity.36 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. for. and impel For an enthusi- astic manner The language was plain and manly. Victims of Mars. The palm remains fqr us alone. young man answered one that promised him some game-cocks that would stand their death. they. than those of the body. " Give me those that will be the death of others. . corresponding with the three ages of man. less cultivated among in them. Nor were poetry and music spirit." upon reading this epitaph. and the boys concluded. The old men began. Whoquench'd " the rage of tyranny fall. " May I never sit in any place where I cannot rise before the aged!" This was the manner of their apophthegms so that it has been justly enough observed they should have burn out!' A ' : that the term lakonizein (to act the LacedEeihonian) is to be referred rather to the exercises of the mind." Another seeing some people carried into the country in litters. than a concise dignity of expression. Of this may not be amiss to give an instance. at Seliiius they fell. " I have heard the nightingale herself. the subject serious and moral. Another said. There were three choirs on their festivals. And they deserved to let it instead of quetiching it. said.

if 37 of the we consider with some still attention such LacedEeraonian poems as are airs extant. On these occasions they relaxed the severity of their discipline. permitting their men to be curious in dressing their hair. putting his troops in mind. as well as that those divinities might teach them to despite danger. not only of their warlike turn. while they performed some exploit fit for' them to celebrate. And Melody exerts her charlns. Becomes the And the king always offered sacrifice to the muses before I a battle. warrior's lofty fire. arms and apparel. suppose. like •for They let their more particular care. There in grave council sits the sage . of their early education and of the judgment that would be passed upon them . . The former muse thus speaks of Lacedsemon. and elegant in their expressed their alacrity. we must agree that Terpander and Pindar have very fitly joined valour and music together. Thus we ' are informed. when they expected an action. but their skill in music. while they horses full of fire and neighing hair. but took . to have it well combed and shining remembering a saying of Ly-curgus. that " a large head of hair made the the race. grow from their youth. There gleams the youth's bright falchion Lifts her : there the sweet voice pavilion. flute and get into those which were played upon the when they marched to battle. . For as the Spartan poet says. To swell the bold notes of the lyre. Indeed.LIFE 6F LYCURGUS. therefore. There burns the youth's resistless rage To hurl the quiv'ring lance The Muse with glory crowns their arm"!. And Pleasure leads the dance. there awful Justice opes Her wide And Pindar sings.

a gentler face than usual. had always with him some one that had been crowned in the public games of Greece. they continiied the : they were assured of the victory after that they immediately desisted. moving forward cheerfully and composedly. and their whole treatment more indulgent: so that they were the only handsome more people in the world with whom military discipline wore. out. It was at once a solemn and dreadful sight to see them measuring their steps to the sound of music. victory?"" He answered with a smile.38 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. too. when large sums were offered him on condition that he would not enter the Olympic lists. and the ugly more terrible. as under the conduct of When the king advanced against the enemy. graceful. . of the young men. and commanded them all to set garlands upon Iheir heads. having with much difficulty thrown his antagonist. were more moderate. that a Lacedaemonian. possessed as they were of a firm presence of mind. refused them. And they tell us. one put this question to him. while himself began the paean. he. generous nor worthy of a Grecian to destroy those who made no farther resistance. with harmony. " Spartan. This was not only a proof of magnanimity. during the campaigns. which was the signal to advance. in When the army was drawn up." honour to fight foremost in the ranks before my When pursuit they had routed the till enemy. the king sacrificed a goat. their diet not so hard. For when it their adversaries found" that they killed such as stood fugitives. and without the least disorder in their ranks or tumult of spirits. what will you get by this heaven.. but it deeming neither of great service to their cause. Neither time of war. "I shall have the prince. fear nor rashness was likely to approve men so disposed. to battle." The exercises. with courage and confidence of success. but spared the fly they concluded it was better to than to meet their fate upon the spot. and the enemy near. and the musicians to play Castro's march.

but for his country. not Hence.YLUKGUS. The discipline of the Lacedaemonians continued after For no man was at live as he pleased . where all had their stated allowance. rendered it more magnificent sorting to so great mediately. concluded it was from heaven. :. Some. and as there was no man to be seen. liberty to camp. they employed themselves in inspecting the boys. . greatest privileges that Lycurgus procured his countrymen. It was not they were arrived at years of maturity. the city being hke one great. and ordering. or in learning One of the of those that were older than themselves. the consequence of his for. and among the rest/HermippusTThat Lucurgus at first had no communication wUhTTpfiituS . and an experienced com(JPhilostephanus^ allso mander. if they had no for himself.bidding them to exercise any mechanic trade. he heard behind him a human voice (as he thought) which expressed some wonder and displeasure that he did not put his countrymen upon rean assembly.Phalereaii he never had any military employment. and that there was the profoundest peace imaginable constitution of Sparta. 39. and happening to be a spectator. that Lycurgus himself was a to man of "great personal valour. each man concluding that he was born. him the first division of cavalry into troops of in a square who were drawn up says. however. to discover and lasting. But Demetrius Jthe . along with him. acquaint us. worth their while to take great pains to raise a fortune. was the enjoyment of leisure.[i3ippiasjthe sophist tells us. and teaching them something useful. but coming that way. He turned round imwhence the voice came. particular orders. the ceremonies of the festival. when he established the His providing for a cessation of arms during the Olympic games is likewise a mark -of the humane and peaceable man. and knew their public charge. He joined Iphitus. therefore. since riches there were of no accouHt-: and the Helotes. ascribes fifty.d^lfJ:^ Ul< 1. that body.

a^^jibius. or business. but pos- sessed an equal competency. immoderately severe in his manner but. feasting. or meeting to exercise. or upon the praise of the excellent. and had a cheap and easy way of supplying their few wants. and the last was expressed with that pleasantry and humour. but seldom turned upon money. attended by his condoling friends. common entertainments and parties of pleasure. he desired the company to show him the person that was conness demned of riches for keeping up his dignity. Hence. tilled who the ground. 1 to market under years of age. thirty They their went not adopters. great dejection. when they were not engaged in war. or converse. The Spartans knew neither riches nor poverty. Like . was informed of a purpose we-have a story of a at Athens while the man who was fined for idleand when the poor fellow was returning home in . their . all necessary concerns being managed by their relations and reckoned a credit to the old to be seen sauntering in the rnarket-place . Ijimself us. which conveyed instruction and correction without seeming to intend it. hunting. it was deemed more it Nor was them suitable for to pass great part of the day in the schools of exercise. To this Lacedaemonian. and all desire Lawsuits were banished from Lacedaemon with money. their time was taken up with dancing.40 LIFE OF LYCURGUS. tells in he dedicated a little statue to the god of laughter it each hall. he taught his citizens to think notKjhg disagreeable than to live by (or for) themselves. Nor was Lycurgus . — Upon I ' more thelvhole. were answerable for the produce above-mentioned. Their discourse trade. all So much beneath them they reckoned attention to mechanics arts. who. and therefore ordered in to take place on all proper occasions. happening to be court sat. or the contempt of the worthless. He con- sidered facetiousness as a seasoning of their hard exercise and diet. or places of conversation.

ambassador to the king of Persia's lieutenants. or strongest of the strong. of tliose that threescore years old. it and the contest was swiftest truly glorious was not who should be the among the swift. This was the most respectable fill dispute in the world. some persons appointed for the purpose were shut up in a room near the place . LIFE OF LYCURGVS. to ordered the most worthy were for full up any vacancy that might happen. where they could neither see nor be seen.for their country. was asked whether they came with a public commission. and had not a wish but. always assembled about their prince. as I said before. he men to be selected. and only hear the shouts of the to bear this : among who was the wisest and best He who had the preference was . " If successful. was indeed a man of honour. but good and wise. and said there was not such a Agrileonis. which put into his hands The lives and honour of the citizens. Afterwards. but I^acedsemon can boast of many better men than he." . andl They were possessed with a thirst of honour. they acted with one impulse for the public good.^ The manner of the election was this when the people were assembled.. . to which he sentiments answered. whether Brasidas died honourably and as became a Spartan? they greatly extolled his merit. for the public ourselves. or on their own account." first The senate." he went away "rejoicing that there were three hundred better men than himself found in the city. " Say not so. consisted at of those that were assistants to Lycurgus in his great enterprise. the man left in Sparta. These are confirmed by some of their aphorisms. if unsuccessful. asking some Amphipolitans that waited upon her at her house. 41 bees. When Peedaretus lost his election for one of the "three hundred." Pisistratidas going with some others. my friends for Brasidas whereupon she replied. mark of superior excellence through lifa this great authority. for mother of Brasidas. an enthusiasm bordering upon insanity. and every other important affair.

In the first place. and lived as isefore. He that had the most and Then he loudest acclamations. and went round to give thanks to the gods: a number of young men followed. he ordered the dead to be buried in the city.. in which they set down in different columns the number and loudness of the shouts. and their address on the occasion was. saying at the same time." he went to the When he had finished the :procommon table. and the women celebrated: his virtues in their songs. according to the number of the competitors. that they might have no uneasiness from them. only they marked them as first. was crowned with a garland. I give to you. " Sparta honours you with cession. and blessed his worthy lif6 and Each of his relations offered him a repast. arid even ^permitted their monuments to be erected near the temples accustoming the youth to such sights from their infancy. striving which should extol hind most. was declared duly elected. nor any horror for death. Lycurgus likewise made good regulations with respect to burials. one of which he and as all the women related to him attended at the gates of the public hall. except the red cloth and the olive leaves in which it was wrapped. one after another according to lot. shut up had writing tables. for by them they decided this and most other Each candidate walked silently throiigh the assemThose that were bly. to take away all superstition. third.' of a dead body. he suffered nothing to be buried with the corpse. without knowing who they were for . and so on.42 constituents affairs. and presented her with the portion. In the next place. second. : LIFE OF LYCURGUS." Then she was conducted home with great applause by the rest of the women. or with treading Nor would he suffer the relations to inscribe any- . he called her for whom he had the greatest esteem. Only two portions were set before him. as if people were polluted with the touch upon a grave. this collation. conduct. " That which I received earned away : as a mark of honour.

was the Cryptia. not. which. He forbid strangers too to resort to Sparta. therefore. as -Thucydides says. then. "like discords in music. The governors of the youth ordered the shrewdest of them from time to time to disperse themselves . which the fault some people well find with enough calculated Perhaps it to produce valour. Thus to right far. He fixed eleven -days for the time of mourning on the twelfth they were to put an end to it. after offering sacrifice to Ceres. if that was the laws of Lycurgus. we can perceive is no vestiges of a disregard and wrong. as Aristotle says it was. passions and desires. but even with their necessary actions he interwove the and the contempt of vice and he so filled it was next to impossible. not to be drawn and formed to honour. but not to promote justice. lest they praise of virtue : the city with living examples. who could not assign a good reason for their coming.LIFE OF LYCURGUS. it more expedient for the city customs and manners.)except of those men that fell m battlerOt'lhose women who died in some sacred office. out of -fear they city. thought it to keep out of corrupt to prevent the introduction of a pestilence. •For the same reason he would not permit all that desired to go abroad and see other countries. which gave Plato so bad an impression both of Lycur- gus and his laws. gain traces of a little discipline. For along with foreigners come new subjects of discourse new discourse produces new opinions . allowing really them one of this lawgiver's instituitons. and- should imitate the constitution of that make improvements in virtue. 43 names uponjthe tombs. life of and of a different form of government. that should contract foreign manners. would disturb the established government. : . No part of life was left vacant and unimproved. than even He. as they called it. or ambuscade. but lest they should teach his own people some evil. and from these there necessarily spring new . for person^ who had these from their infancy before their eyes.

to the number of two thousand or more. it was in aftertimes that these cruelties took place among the Lacedaemonians. states. Those who say that a freeSparta was most a freeman. but they excused themselves. Thus they tell us. that they might be massacred under pretence of law. and in that condition led them into the public halls. declared them free. and a slave mo* seem well to have considered the difference of But in my opinion. and killed all the Helotes they could meet with. and took a great number of the Helotes prisoners. Thucydides relates in his history of the Peloponnesian war. either then or since. declared war against the Helotes. and conducted them to the temples of the and no one gods . but soon after they all disappeared could. Aristotle particularly says. the country. They ordered them too to sing men what drunkenness mean songs. Aleman. as soon as they were invested in their office. they Nay. chiefly after the great earthquake.ttacked them. joining the Messenians. great inhumanity : In other respects they treated them with sometimes they made them drink till they were intoxicated. sometimes by day. fell upon them in the fields. and brought the city to t{ie greatest . that the Ephori. give account in what manner they . they ordered them to sing the odes of Terpander. at night they sallied out into the roads.'^ and rested in the most private places they could find. were destroyed. or Spendon the Lacedae- monian. as history informs us.44 in LIFE OF LYCURGUS. it was man in a slave. to show the young was. that the Spartans selected such of them as were distinguished for their courage. but necessary provisions. and murdered the ablest and strongest of them. crowned them with garlands. did infinite damage to the country. when. provided only with daggers and some In the daytime they hid themselves. but not to meddle with any thaf were genteel and graceful. alleging that forbidden by their masters. and to dance ridiculous dances. that when the Thebans afterwards invaded Laconia. the Helotes. a.

city which kept to the constitution he had This oracle would be the most glorious in the world. all When and desired him to set forward.ycurgus was charmed with the beauty and greatness of his _ political establishment. which he could nor disclose to them till he had consulted the oracle . Lycurgus took down in writing. as Plato says of the Deity. Apollo answered. when he saw it exemplified in fact. that they would abide by the promised' to do so. he offered the gods. he rejoiced when he had created the world. that they in and move on due order. so I. and sent it to Sparta. and told them the provisions he had already made for the state were indeed sufficient for virtue and happiness. he would acquaint them with the pleasure of Apollo. he took an oath of the kings and senators. present establishment till Lycurgus came back. and afterwards of all the citizens. I would judge in this case by the mildness and his conduct) to justice which appeared in the rest of which also the gods gave their sanction. %nd consulted the oracle. without altering till he returned from Delphi and then . and that the established. that the laws were excellent. and to deliver it down unchanged to the latest times. I 45 can never ascribe to Lycurgus so abominable an act as that of the ambuscade. and secure the happiness of the state. and embraced his friends and . they had must therefore inviolably observe his laws. was next desirous to make it immortal. sacrifice to He then took his journey to Delphi. He then offergd anptlier sacrifice. and the government was come to such maturity as to be able to support and preserve then. so far as human wisdom could effect it. When he arrived there. When his principal institutions had taken root in the manners of the people. He anything in them.LlhE OF LYCURGUS. For this purpose he assembled all the people. extremity. whether his laws were sufficient to> promote virtue. but the greatest and most important matter was still behirid. that itself. and given it its first motion .

While these were in force. This was by means of Lysander who. . from weakening the constitution. though himself incapable of bein^ corrupted by money. not so much under the political regulations of a life .death was not desirable. that only with a club and lion's skin he travelled over the world.Sparta continued superior to the rest of its it Greece. both in government at home and reputation abroad. filled his country with the love of it. abstaining from food. down to Agis the son of Archidamus. its share of virtue. and his death was left guardian of those invaluable blessings he had procured his countrymen through life. that it gave for the As it additional vigour. He brought both goid and silver from the wars. when -. as the strict rules of a philosophic and as the poets feign of Hercules. indeed. persuaded that the very death lawgivers should have its of use. and with money came its^mseparable attendant avarice. and though it it seemed to be estabaris- lished in favour of the people. and while he was not unhappy in any one cirGumstance. but voluntarily there to put a period to his while he was yet o£ an age when life was not a burden. common- wealth. clearing it of lawless ruffians and . have sidered as a great action. destroyed himself by . and the reign of fourteen successive kings. and their exit. it was so far appointment of the Ephori. so long as retained the institution of Lycurgus \ and this it did during the space of five hundred years. ances were so illustrious. tocracy. whose perform. and be conwas the To him. his expectations. He. and with luxury too. so far from being insignificant. strengthened the But in the reign of Agis (money found its wayintoSgajt^.46 his son. Sparta was — . the conclusion of life crown of happiness. and thereby broke through the laws of Lycurgus. as they had taken an oath not to depart from Nor was he deceived in his establishment till his return. their oath. LIFE OF LYCURGUS. determined never to release his citizens from life . therefore.

that I am surprised at those who say the Lacedaemonians knew indeed how to obey. so it is by the' abilities of him that fills the throne that the people become ductile and submissive. Such was the conduct of : <• .LIFE OF LYCURGUS. but even desired to be either ships. So much did justice and good government prevail in that state. . These. very often without either shield or lance. where the beauty of life and.47 cruel tyrants. is sure to be well followed horsemanship that a horse is made gentle and tractable. when one told him that Sparta was preserved by the good administration of its kings. that people did not only endure. the Eleans said. both of the magistrates and people. they treated him with the greatest honour and respect. When they had received him. the utmost perfection. He who knows how to lead and as it is by the art of well. but not how to govern and on this occasion quote the saying of king Theopompus. wherever they came. but only a Spartan general. and such as these." It is certain that people will not continue pliant to those who know not how to command but it is the part of a good governor to teach obedience. so the Lacedaemonians with a piece of parch- ' ment and coarse coat kept Greece in a voluntary obedience. to whose^ directions all parties concerned 'immediately submitted. and only by sending one ambassador . Hence enough to have have the conduct of mysteries and processions . Brasidas by the Chalcidians. : the Lacedaemonians. and laid seditions asleep. were called moderators and reformers. Calli- and Agesilaus by all the people of Asia. replied. " Nay. They asked not of them money or troops. compose their quarrels and unite in one swarm. who. put an end to wars.political order were taught in cratidas. and Sparta itself was considered as a school of discipline. destroyed usurpation and tyranny in the states. their subjects. that Stratonicus seems facetiously he would order " the Athenians to . so Gylippus was revered by the Sicilians. Thus bees. Lysander. rather by the obedience of their subjects. when their prince appears.

Diogen^. that the honours paid him Lacedsemon were far beneath his merit. but he considered happiness like that of a private man. which had formerly happened to the heaven. however." Socrates. except Euripides. confounded those who imagine life that the so is much talked of strictness of a philosophic impracti- cable. one of the scholars of when he saw upon their success at Leuctra. and the most favoured of Some say. iT^Iato. has had. This was matter of great satisfaction and triumph to the friends of Euripides. Therefore Aristotle in of opinion. but(Apollo- . them pluming themselves " They were just like so many school-boys rejoicing that they had beaten their master. Zenq. con- itinuance might be the more secure. Yet he who. as : of divinity which no other man. hovi^ever eminent. he. Lacedaemonians was spoken gameSj as their particular province . It is also said. I say. though they left only an idea of something excellent. It that his city should govern its was not. who died and was buried at Arethusa in Macedonia." This : in jest but Antisthenes. his tomb was struck with lightning a seal for fice. as flowing from virtue posed and self-consistency he therefore so ordered and disit. and by showing a whole city of : philosophers. and they offer him a yearly sacria god.j> and other writers upon government. not in idea and in words. and the to be beaten. have taken Lycurgus for their model and these have attained great praise. : and their ha\ ing a sufficiency within _^themselves. that when his remains were brought home. most venerable of men. Yet those honours were very great he has a temple there. if the other did amiss. that by the freedom and sobriety of its inhabitants. Lycurgus died at Cirrha. its . that the same thing should befall him after death. stands in the rank of glory far beyond the founders of is all the other Grecian states.4S to preside in LIFE. said (more seriously) of the Thebans. but in fact produced a most inimitable form of government. OF LYCURGUS. the principal design of Lycurgus many others.

on the pretence that he was returned. and as he died His friends and relations observed his anniversary. ages. Thus he guarded against the possibility of his remains being brought back to Sparta by of Lycurgus. son of Hipparchus. threw his ashes into the sea.LIFE OF LYCVRGUS. that the friends whom he sojourned. and make innovations in the government. This is what we had to say of Lycurgus. the called Lycurgidse. 49 that he was brought to Elis and died Aristoxenus adds. show told. near the high road. : We are he an only son named Antiorus the faVnily was extinct. and. which subsisted for many and the days on which they met for that purpose they Aristocrates. and^imseus^ and Aristoxenus write. at his request. themis/will have it. that the Cretans there.nay.. tomb left at Pergamia. that he ended his days his in Xlfete. without issue. . relates. the Lacedaemonians. burned his body. lest they should then think themselves released from their oath. with and at last died in Crete.

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.SIR THOMAS MORE'S UTOPIA.

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for treating and composing matters between them. BOOK Henry_the Eighth. that they need not my I would. and that according to agreement spoke for . Show the sun with a lanthorn. Margrave of Bruges was their head. so by a long practice in affairs he was very . having some d iffp^prifit^s with King of England. whom I will say not because I fear that the testimony of a friend will because his learning and virtues are too great for them justice. aThis amhassaHo r. was George Temse. nothing that incomparable but of man whom the the king with such universal applause lately Rolls ." Those that were ap- pointed by the prince to treat with us met us at Bruges.'^"'' rnejntfx Elanders. a become a great of no small consequenc e C harles the most serene prince of C^stilfj. but rather me to do and so well known. but he that was esteemed the wisest. the rest. commendations unless " . made Master of . according to the proverb. they were all worthy men. the Provost of Casselsee both art and nature had concurred to make him he had a eloquent : he was very learned in the law . be suspected. the unconquered the virtues that monarch. and as great capacity. and the chief man among them . prince adorned with all I. The . to I was colleague and companion Cuthbert Tonstal.Utopia.

u see that man? I was just thinking to bring him to you. which an absence of four months had quickened very much. tion was so pleasant and so innocently cheerful. that there is not perhaps above one or two anyis where to be found that in all respects so perfect a friend. that his to company in a great measure lessened any longings go back to my country. for some days to know the prince's pleasure." Then said I." " And oh his own too. yet no man has more of a prudent simplicity his conversa. so that by his looks and habit I concluded he was a seaman. Peter Giles. there no artifice : in him and . . there was one that was more acceptable to me than any other. born at Antwerp. though . which is the chief church. "Do yo. for I do not be found a more learned and a better bred young man for as he is both a very worthy and a very knowing person. it." I answered. and the most frequented of any in Antwerp. And since While I was there. " He should have been very welcome on your account. . and to my wife and children. he said.. . and of a good our business would admit I went to Antwerp. so he is so civil to all men. rank in his town." replied h€. who seemed past the flower of his age his face was tanned.54 UTOPIA. he came and saluted me and as I was returning his civility. he had a long beard. . One day as I was returning home from Mass at St. I saw him by accident talking with a stranger. After we had several times coming to an agreement. and so full of candour and less than he deserves know if there be anywhere to : affection. who is a man of great honour. he took me aside. so particularly kind to his friends. and his cloak was hanging carelessly about him. Mary's. among many that visited me. As soon as Peter saw me. " if you knew the man. they went to Brussels met without dextrous at unravelling them. is He is extraordinarily modest. for there is none alive that can give so copious an account of unknown nations and countries as he can do which I know you very much desire.and pointing to him with whom he had been discoursing.

for at first 55 sight I took him for a you are much mistaken. and from at last. for he used often to say. but as a traveller. "dear. would be so acceptable braced each other." said he. that he among his brothers. having applied himself more particularly to that than to the former. but is seaman. or rather a philosopher. strange good fortune. had the heaven T^t this disposition of mind had cost him still over him. The leaving him thus did not a little 'gratify one that was more fond of travelling than of returning home. with five Cas'tilians. to - man whose conversation he: knew and upon that Raphael and'I eracivilities After those were past which are usual with strangers upon their first meeting." When Peter had said this he. to be buried in his own country. if God had not been very gracious to him for after birthy divided his estate " . who from his family carries the name of Hythloday. He is a Portuguese by himself much to philosophy. in intending to give me the acquaintance of a . except what is to be found in Seneca and Cicero. and." " But eminently learned in the Greek.UTOPIA. where he very happily found some Portuguese ships. only he did not return with him in his last. by thence to Calicut. that are now published . he got to Ceylon. " I did not guess amiss. in their last voyage to New Castile. that he might be one of those twenty-four who were left at th"e^faftliest place at which they touched. and entering into the garden. to me. I thanked him for his kindness. This Raphael. and he that had no grave. " for he has not sailed as a seaman. run the same hazard as Americus Vesputius. beyond all men's expectations. in and was so desirous of seeing the world. had travelled over many countries. that^the way to heaven was the same Jrom all places . because he had given which he knew that the Romans have left us nothing that is valuable. is not ignorant of the Latin tongue. my house.. but obtained leave of Bun almost by force. sat we all went down on a . and bore a share in three of his four voyages. returned to his native country.

and cities. forgot. he and companions that stayed behind New Castile. Under and a. told us. to very There they found the conveniences of seeing many countries on all hands. the soil more verdant. that had not only mutual commerce among themselves. by degrees them insinuated themselves into the affections of the people of the country.56 UTOPIA. the soil was withered. together. towns. their sails were made of reeds and wicker woven close their neighbours. and with than the beasts themselves. and waggons when they travelled over land he sent with them a very faithful : guide. and in . it that were both happily governed and well the equator. but conversed familiarly with them into the heart of a prince. peopled. a grew milder. meeting often with them. for no ship went any voyage into which he and his companions were not very welcome. that were neither less wild nor less cruel inhabited. new scene opened. the air less burning. but traded remote countries. and to com- monwealths.. both boats when they went by water. and cities. they came to and recommend them to such mind to see : and after many towns. and entertained one another in discourse. all and all places were either quite un- abounded with wild beasts and serpents. and conveniences of travelling. there lay vast deserts that were parched . that He his when Vesputius had in sailed away. and got so far whose name and country I have he both furnished them plentifully with also with the all things necessary. that . only some were of leather . who was to introduce other princes as they had a days' journey. The first vessels that they saw were flat-bottomed. and canvas sails. and even the beasts were less wild and at last" there were nations. green bank. or But as they went farther. and some few men. : all things both by sea and land.s far on both. and treating gently : and at last they not only lived among them without danger. •with the perpetual heat of the sun things looked dismally. sides of as the sun moves. but afterwards they found ships made with round keels.

and cruel men-eaters J every place . We asked him many questions concerning all these things. of which till then they were utterly ignorant. which was thought would prove so much to their advantage. were that he told us he had observed in present purpose would be too great a digression from our whatever is necessary to be told. may perhaps be related by us on a more proper occasion.UTOPIA. of which "an account may be \ given. than which nothing is more common . concerning those wise and prudent institutions which he observed among civilized nations. and had spoken as distinctly ^of the cvfstomsand government of every nation through . they are perhaps more secure than safe is reason to fear that this discovery. He got wonderfully into their favour. to which he answered very willingly . all and only in summer-time. it : ^bSf " it is not so easy to find states that are well and wisely governed. Raphael had errors that dLs- coursed with great judgment on the . as I have already promised. but now they count so that there seasons alike. all t^i respects like our ships . so he reckoned up not a few things from which patterns might be taken for'~correcting "the errors of these nations among whom we live . for everywhere one may hear of ravenous dogs and wolves. trusting wholly to the loadstone. by showing them the use of the needle. only we made no inquiries after monsters. and the seamen understood both astronomy and navigation. They sailed before with great cautipn. AJ he told us of many things that were amiss in those new-discovered countries. at some other time particulars that for at present I intend only to relate those he told us of the manners and laws of the will Utopians : but I begin with the occasion that led us to After speak of that commonwealth. many were both among us and these nations had treated of the wise institutions both here and there. in which . may by their imprudence But it become an occasion of much mischief too long to dwell on all to them.

that^ you.58 UTOPIA. Raphael. me or with others of my temper." Upon perceive. when they then unwill- ingly give that which they can enjoy I think my no longer themselves. "I need not be much concerned.' and by which you can make your own condition happier. Yet I think you would do what would well become so generous ." " Happier !" answered Raphael. " I wonder.' and to the public. — And with there are so many that court the favour of great loss if men." " The change of the word. and not to expect that for their sakes I should enslave myself to any king whatsoever. and be of how it sure there are great use to all your friends. is such. as if he had spent his whole life in it. both of men and things. "is that to be compassed in a way so abhorrent to my genius ? Now I live as I will." ansv/ered he. said. but be of great use to them. by the examples you could set before them. for I am none to whom you would not be very acceptable. said I. and be useful to them. having already done for them all that was incumbent on me for when I was not only in good health. " does not alter the matter. for your learning and knowledge. but fresh and young. and indeed I value and admire such a man"much more than I do any of the great men in the world. Raphael." said he. "I that there will be no great they are not troubled either this. and by this means you would both serve your own interest. Peter being struck with admiration. neither desire wealth nor great- ness.." "Soft and fair. " I do not see any other way in — — — which you can be so useful." "But term' it as you will. to which I believe few courtiers can t)retmd." said Peter. comes that you enter into no king's service. and the advices you could give them ." replied Peter. but only that 'you should assist them. which he had passed. "X do not mean that you should be a slave to any king. I distributed that among my kindred and friends which other people do not . contented with this. part with till they are old and sick friends ought to rest . both in private to your friends." — " As for my friends. that you would not only entertain them very pleasantly.

whom by their their fawnings interests they endeavour to fix to own : loves his young. which I know you would do if you were in such a post for the springs both of good and : . thaa on governing well those they possess. it is only those for whom the prince has i and flatteries and indeed to be flattered. over "a" whole" nation. princes agglv^Jljeroselves more Jo affi. and if they court any. the public would not be one jot the better. without any other learning. that we all love The old crow to please ourselves with our own notions. right or wrong. would render you a very counsellor to any king whatsoever. both in your opinion of me.. the rest would sink. "Mr. that they imagine they need none . as from a iastingTountain. and only admire themselves. And ' among the ministers of princes. and putting him on noble and worthy actions. so. in the and ' judgment you make of things for as I have not that capacity that you fancy I have . or at least that do not think themselves so wise. even with- ~Dtrt~pra:ctrce in affairs. or so great a practice as you have had. a person should -but propose anything that he had either read in history.irs of war tha n toJhajis£a&iLaEts--o£-peac&_. there are none that are not so wise as to need no assistance. evil flow from the prince. even though you may happen to find it a little uneasy to yourself and this you can never do with so much advantage. as by being taken into the counsel of some great prince. if I had it. would think that the reputation of their wisdom and that their interest would be much depressed." said he. of persons Now if in such a Coutt. and the ape her cubs.„apdm-thfese Ineither have any knowledgejjior__dgJLimich_jd^e„it : ' they are generally mdre^eFon acquiring hew kingdoms. or observed in his travels. Sa iniich learning as you have. much personal favour. made up who envy all others. if you would apply your time and thoughts to public affairs." — : fit " You are doubly mis- taken. when I had sacrificed my quiet to it.UTOPIA. 59 and philosophical a soul as yours is. and Nature has so made us. For most. More. .

I have met with and absurd judgments of things in many places. it they could not run down : and if all other things failed. Archbishop of Canterbury. though decently to them." "W^lLISU-SZSL answered he. o-^'''" I was then much obliged to that reverend prelate. that was not less venerable for his wisdom and virtues. as bearing a great resemblance to his own temper. but serious and grave those that . " Peter (for Mr. particularly I. than for the high character he bore. He spoke both he was eminently skilled in the law. Cardinal. had a vast understanding. John Morton. but though they willingly let go all the good They would up their rest "things that were among those of former ages. he sometimes took pleasure to as suitors to try the force 6f him upon business. not broken with age. then they would them. morose. it that such or such things pleased for us if our ancestors. by speaking sharply. with which he was much delighted. ]\Iore knows was of well what he was).^. rnatch on such an answer.-(. and a prodigious memory and those excellent talents with which Nature had furnished l. He a middle stature. and by that he discovered their spirit and presence of mind. were engaged in it. and he looked on such persons as the fittest . there?" said — "Yes. not long after the rebellion in the west was suppressed with a great slaughter of the poor people that -r^-^-"'"14^7 ^^^. and were well set we could but ." I was. once in England. wei'e improved by study and experience. " and stayed some months there. and Chancellor of England : a man.im. yet if better things are proposed they cover theniselves obstinately'with this excuse of reverence to past times.6o if UTOPIA. that any should be found wiser tl ian "his ancestors . fly to this." said he. and . when it did not grow up to impudence. When I was in England the king depended much on his counsels. came gracefully and weightily men for affairs. as a sufficient confutation of all that could be said as if it were a great misfortune. his conversation was easy. his looks begot reve- rence rather than fear. these proud.

u in England^^t^a'^great part of_Jlie world imitate some ill his life. were then hanged so fast. that since so few escaped.' said I. UTOPIA. and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and of dying for it. and some time ago their who being thus mutilated in the service of their king and country. 6 the government seemed to be chiefly supported by him . there were yet so were still robbing in all places.' said I. which is not soon lost when I it is purchased so dear. 'for many lose their limbs in civil or foreign wars.' There has been care enough taken for — ' that. for from his youth he had been all along practised in affairs. who. as he said.' said he. are readier to chastisejheir scholars than to Tliiilfe are dreaHful punishments enacted against tmevS^rbut it were much better to make such good provisions by which every man might be put in a method how to live. since this itself ing thieves was neither just in for as th£_seveftty. In this. said. that there were sometimes twenty on one gibbet. and upon that he said he could not wonder enough how it came to pass. he had with great cost acquired a vast stock of wisdom.saJheremedy was not tMj4. there was no reason to wonder at the matter.'— 'That your turn. who took occasion to run out in a high commendation of the severe execution of justice upon thieves. I who took the way of punish' boldness to speak freely before the Cardinal. ' ' man masterT that teach them. and having passed through many traverses of fortune. in your wars with France. Upon many thieves left who this. by which they may make a shift to live unless will not they serve have a greater mind to follow ill courses.silSEl£jhg|Lafit-^be^ cost a to no punishment how severe soever being a^le to restrain those froni_ robbingwho can finj^out no other way oflivelihood. to One day when at table was dining with him there happened be one of the English lawyers. as lately in the Cornish rebellion.was nor good for the public effec- tQQ-g£ati.1 . not onlyj _o. ' there are man} handicrafts. and there is hus- bandry. can no more follow .

and whafelse can they do? for when.' To this he answered. even to : the beggaring of themselves but besides this. thus turned out of doors. knowing that one who has been bred up in idleness and pleasure. and poor men dare not do it . to raise their revenues.'You may as well' say. Ind look ghastly. so soldiers often prove brave robbers . who never learned any art by which they may gain their living . as fall sick. than is to be found among tradesmen or ploughmen. for in them consists the force of the armies for which we have occasion . and are too old to learn wars are only accidental things. since their birth inspires them with a nobler sense of honour. for you will never want the one. This sort of nien ought to be particularly cherished. Now when the stomachs of those that are no less keenly. for in all This indeed is the only instance of their other things they are prodigal. dies. on the labour of their tenants.(52 UTOPIA.' fall ' out every day. consider those things that . so near an alliance . and in so low a diet as he can afford to give him. whom.. and who was used to walk about with his sword and buckler. new ones but since and have intel-vals. soon as either their lord are turned out of doors . frugality.pand often the heir is lidt able to keep together so great a family as his predecessor did. or they theniselves for your lords are readier to feed idle people. and are tattered. There is a number of noblemen among you. they carry about with them a great number of idle fellows. as far below nor will he serve him. that subsist on other men's labour. by wandering about. they have worn out both their health and their clothes. than to tak6 care of the sick . ' that you must cherish thieves on the account of wars. despising all the neighbourhood with an insolent scorn. let us : old trades.' replied I. that are themselves as idle as drones. is not fit for the spade and mattock a poor man for so small a hire. they great pare to the quick. they rob : ' — ' . as long as you have the other and as robbers prove sometimes gallant soldiers. grow keen. men of quality will not entertain them. and^ these.

sa is commoi among this you. that the mechanics -towns. times seek occasions for making war.^of pestiferous sort of people. and are softened with their effeminate manner of life. are not afraid if of dis- with those idle gentlemen. But this bad yet a icustom. or as Sallust observed. kept up in time of peace : if such a state in a nation can be called a peace and these are kept pay i^on the same account that you plead for those idle retainers about noblemen . learned to appears plainly even from often find your raw I jvili this. of keeping nfany servants. that their trained soldiers . that they may grow dull by too long an intermission. how dangerous it is to feed such beasts. And it seems very unreasonable. and they son. they are not abled by some misfortune in their body. this being a maxim of those pretended statesmen that it is necessary for the public safety. would be less fit for action if they were well bred and well employed. But France has its cost. which vi^ere both overturned and quite ruined by those standing" armies. is full of soldiers.' UTOPIA. to have a soldiers to good body of veteran think rdw men are not their "soldiers ever in readiness. that they in may train the art of cutting throats. or the clowns in the fighting in the country. so that you need not fear that those well- shaped and strong men (for it is till only such that noblemen love to keep about them. Every day's experience shows. Carthaginians. for keeping their hands in use. Th"^ up not be depended on. The fate of the Romans. they spoil them) who now grow feeble with ease. there is (>^ between those two sorts of life. or dispirited by extreme want. In France there is more . and many other nations and cities. for the still whole country . which you need never have but when you please. you may think I flatter the English. and Syrians. should make others wiser: and the folly of this maxim of the French. men lest prove too hard for them of which not say much. you should maintain so many idle . not peculiar to nation. that for the prospect of a war.

out of their possessions. reserving only the churches. and untowns . even though they might stay I for a buyer. is at an end. Imfi g at their ease. and even it jse holy men the abfiots. As if forests and parks frad swallowed up too little oTThe land. By which means those miserable people. not knowing and they must sell almost for nothing their household stuff. there the nobility and gentry. or to go about and beg ? And if they do this. are turned . or by main force. soil yield a softer and richer ''•Pol than ordinary. But I do not hence ti "THat this necessity of stealing arises only from is another cause of ' it more that ? ' said the Cardinal. but can find none that will . for when an insatiable wretch.' ' — . will always^ disturb you in time of peace.64 men. The increase of pasture. who is v'a plague to his country. do no good to t hepublic. but either to steal and so to be hanged (God knows how justly). both men and women. or being weaned out with ill usage. they are forced to sell them. hands). by which your sheep. people. nor thinking _Jj_biii-f instparl nf go od. which are naturally mild. not only villages.' said kept in order. whi ever to be more considered than war. but for wherever it is found that the sheep of any. as UTOPIA. which could not bring them much mflney. resolves to inclose many thousand acres of ground. they are put in prison as idle vagabonds. those worthy countrymen turn the best iiihabit^d places in solitudes . married and unmarried. the ' What u I. and easily may be said now to devour men. and enclose grounds that they may lodge their sheep in them. resolve to d o They Stop the course of agriculture. as well as tenants. with their poor but numerous families (since country business requires many whither to go forced to change their seats. When . destroying houses and towns.^ while they would willingly work. enough that they. old and young. not contented with the old rents ^^hich their farms yielded. that little money for . the owners. — peculiar to England. for it will be soon spent what is left them to do. by tricks. are all .

sell them it till i "sooneFthan they have a mirid to so they never do TKey'have raised the price as high as possible. in were to be ploughed and reaped. sell them much neglected. will sjiffer rnuch by the cursed avarice of a few persons . yet they are in so few hands. then the stock must decrease. by a rot among the sheep. which seemed as to this particular the happiest in the world.UTOPIA. sirice though they cannot be called a monopoly. that as they are'not pressed it. the rising of corn makes all people lessen their families as much as they can . cloth are no more able to buy it. hands. this must needs end in great scarcity and by these means this your island. ' and these are so rich. And if I do not think that all the incon. because they are not engrossed by one person. and this likemakes many of them idle. for there is wh ich they have been bred. and what can C . And on all the same account because labour being it is. But suppose the sheep should is in- crease ever so much. so for as they sell they are consumed faster than the breeding countries from which they are brought can afford them. but buy them lean. . This likewise \ many is places raises the price of corn.. and . also so risen. For since the increase of pasturej God has punished the avarice of the owners. besides this. their price not like to fall . and country none who make it The rich do not breed cattle! their business to breed them. which has destroyed vast numbers of them. veniences this will produce are yet observed the cattle dear.ground_ left. will One shepherd can look after a flock. many villages being pulled down. and at low prices . nc more occasion for country labour. hire to 65 them . as they do sheep. that the poor people wool to The price of who were wont . that the other kinds of cattle are so dear. there are ( again at high rates. and\ after they have fattened them on their grounds. touTit might have seemed more just had it 'fell on make wise the owners themselves. to. which | stock an extent of ground that would require if it many . when there is no arable .

among the farmers themselves. cards. will certainly grow thieves at there may be work found forces to whom want last. must in the conclusion houses. which- ' though it may have the appearance of justice. that so for those companies of idle people be thieves/ or who now being idle vagabonds. in which money runs fast away. and then punish them for those crimes to which their first education disposed them. according to the formality of a debate. there is an excessive vanity in apparel.your poverty and misery .. who are dismissed by them do. the counsellor who was present had prepared an answer. and give orders that those who ha?^ dispeopled so much soil. dice. and the manufacture of the wool -be regulated. have also many infamous and besides those that are known. and had resolved to resume all 1 had said. 1 If you do not find a remedy to these evils.66 those UTOPIA. leave fewer occasions to idleness . let agriculture be set up again. and among . but either beg or rob ? of a great And to this last. a man mind is milch sooner drawn than to the former. and great cost in diet and that not only in noblemen's families. all L ranks of persons. yet in itselijs _ you suffer your people to be ill educated. Luxury likewise breaks in apace upon you. if For things are generally repeated more faitlifuily than they are ' . and quoits. that areas bad almost as mono. to set forward. but even among tradesmen. tables. what else is to be concluded from this. jbetake themselves to robbing for a supply. may either rebuild the villages they have pulled it : down. and their manners to be corrupted from their infancy. or polies let out their grounds to such as will do restrain those engrossings of the rich. foot-ball. in which' neither just nor convenient. but that you first make thie^'es and "^ then punish them?' —-^' While I was talking thus. Uhd those that are initiated into them. or useless servants. it is a vain thing to boast of your severity in punishing theft. the taverns and \alehouses are no better add to these. tennis.' iBanish these plagues. \You .

that it be of equal. ' this will take up too much time therefore we will you of the trouble of answering.' said having heard of many things among us which you have been able to consider well but I will make the whole .s if there were no be made between the killing a'man and the if _ taking his purse. matter plain.' seems to me a very unjustthing to take away a fnr nntVn'ng life : man's life for a little money .shall we kill. ' there were four things Hold jLOur peace. is we examine things impartially. if Raphael's affairs and yours cah admit of it. if men thought their lives ill would be . between which. and will first repeat in order alL that you have our all said. and will in the place answer your arguments.' said th e . except when the laws of the land c 2 . so easily for a one shall say. difference to makes all crimes equal. . we ought not that approve of these terrible laws that make the smallest offences capital. a. which shall be to-morrow. ' ' 6J not the. it. answered. what fear or force could restrain men ? On the' contrary.UTOPIA. extreme justice for an extreme injury. God has commanded ^Jittlgjnoney ? us not to But kill and . that by that law we are only forbid to any. nor of that opinion of the Stoics. Cardinal. kill. he. aslf memories. And that ' I may begin where I promised. but for his breaking the law. I must say. safe. Value with a is man's and is if it is not for the money to that one suffers. there no if likeness nor proportion. they would look on the mitigation of the I punishment answei'ed. But. Raphael/ said he to me. to you. I would gladly know upon what reason it is that you think theft ought not to be punished by death ? Would you give way to it ? Or do you propose any other punishment that will be more useful to the public ? For since at present ease ' death does not restrain theft. thp ypj-]^ pari said. and reserve it to our next meeting. chief trial to be made were of men's You have talked prettily for a stranger. ' as It an invitation to commit more crimes. then I will show how much your ignorance of last affairs has rnisled you.

there is more and less danger of discovery. other things put God. since security. what more convenient way of I think it punishment can be found ? is much more is easier . when he' that can best " ' make it is put out of the way . we cannot imagine that in this new law of mercy. these reasons is it is. and it is plain and obvious that it is and of ill consequence to the commonwealth.! what is and this so makes murder a this.to has given the Jews. UTOPIA. lawful action. to . upon to the same grounds. though it was rough and" severe. that it frees people from the obligation of the divine law. than to invent anything that worse why should we doubt but the way that was so long in use among the old Romans. But as to the question. was very proper for their punishment? They condemned such as they found guilty of great crimes. either of our own qr of other people's lives. in which God treats us with the tenderness of a father. if the punishment the same. person this will naturally incite him to kill the whom otherwise he would only have is robbed. He . so that terrifying thieves too much. us a greater license to cruelty than He did Upon death absurd. by the same rule_men may If in all -of what restrictions they please upon the laws by the Mosaical law. provokes them to cruelty. who understood so well the arts of government. that I think putting thieves to not lawful . if he is convicted of he were guilty of murder. and not put to death for theft. to find out that.68 allow of it . ? but^to_ give a prefererice to hurrian la ws b efSTE the_divine is And if once admitted. that a thief and a murderer should be equally punished . if it is pretended that the mutual consent ofman in making laws can authorize manslaughter in cases in which God has given us no example. men were only fined. as being a yoke laid on an obstinate and servile nation. laws may be made for in •some cases allow of adulteryand perjury: God having taken from us the right of disposing. for if a robber sees that his danger theft as if is the same.

-amojig bound to makejestitution-JxL the owner^ andjot as iFis^in. which is done made out of them. have no wars among them they live rather conveniently than with splendour. for they reckon that the prince has no more right to the stolen goods than the thief.UTOPIA. and b eing contented with the productions of their o wn country. and then they They suffer no other uneasiness. who are a considerable and well-governed people. secure them from all invasions. the remainder : children ' . work that their 69 mines with whole lives in quarries. Ijut this of are shut up. then the goods of the thieves are estimated. constant labour for as they work for the public. and may be rather called a happy for I do not think nation. so they are well entertained out of the public stock. . than either eminent or famous so their mountains. or to dig in chains about them. nor chained.. was whichl observed in my trave ls in Persia. . They pay a yearly tribute to the King^^ofPersiaj but in all ofiier'fespects'tl^y'are a freeliation. . that they are known so much as by name to any but their next neighbours. they are whipped but if they work hard. If they are idle or backward to work. among the Pol^erits. unless there happened to be some extraordinary circumThey go about loose and free. . they havej ittle commerce w ith any other nation and as they. working for the public. only the lists of them are called always at night. are Those that are foundguiltj[_ofJii£fl. they are well used and treated without any mark of reproach. an dare environed with hills. have their borders . according ownjaws. . stances in their crimes. But the method that I liked best. and governed by their They lie far from the sea. t^eni. no inclination to enlarge and the pension they pay Thus they to the Persian. IcTtTie'genius of their country. other. to the prince. whic h is very fruitful. and restitution being is given to their wives and and they themselves are condemned to serve in thegublicworks^but are neither imprisoned. but if that which was stolen is no more in being. places.

drink. but in other places. for any other slave to be accessory to it engages in cover it he is condemned . rather in repenting . if they giye them money norTs*uTess''p^aricFany freeman to take money from them. upon any account whatsoever and it is also death for any of these slaved (so they are called) to handle arms.•JO UTOPIA. public revenues are . than in persisting in it. a charitable contribution uncertain." or tcr talk with a slave of another jurisdiction and the very attempt of an escape is no less penal than an escape itself. raised by. to go out of their bounds. and taker. but every private man that has occasion to hire workmen. in and if a freeman Those that dismoney . Those of every division of the country are distinguished by a peculiar mark which it is capital for them to lay aside. it is death colour . . in- differently different places. he may quicken them with the whip. goes to the market-places and hires them of the public. By this means there is always some piece of work or other to be done by them and besij^e their livelihood. so they are of their proper . either meat. both to the giver . and it is obvious that they are as advantageous as they are . it . Their friends are allowed to give them raised for their maintenance. with liberty. or clothes.of their engaging in such a design. They all wear a peculiar habit. a piece of one of their ears is cut off. but it is death. whatever is bestowed on them. set them or there is a constant tax of a poll-money In some places they are set no public work. to slavery. is \ln some places'. that they are plentifully it . are rewarded if freemen. of one certain colour. to : . and if slaves. and. yet so merciful and though supplied by aside for this way may seem are the inclinations of that people. a little lower than he would do a freeman ii they go lazily about their task. and their hair is cropped a little above their ears. " These are their laws and rules in relation to robbery. together with a pardon for being accessory to it that so they might find their account. : . they earn somewhat still to the public.

mild and gentle . and even then their cropped ear would betray them. but they treated see the necessity in.UTOPIA. that counsellor . for habit being in the parts of fly different from what commonly worn. without endangering the whole nation. feared from them. upon the good character" that is given of them. which cannot be done. None are quite hopelessof_reCoveririg_jtheir 'patience. for there is nothing left them by which they do travellers can rob. from one jurisdiction to another. unless a general conspiracy were amongst all the slaves of the several jurisdictions. he shook his head. I added.„since by Jheir obedienceand and by givmg good grounds to believe" that t hey will change their manner of life for jhe Juture. so they cannot all hope it to escape . 71 since vice is men preserved. unless they would go naked. they may expect at last to 'obtain t heir liberty and some are 'every yearjrestored Jojt. since as they are disarmed.magnified so much. than could ever be expected from that severe justice which the To this he answered. is The "only danger to be their conspiring against the govern- ment laid : but those of one divisio'n and neighbodrhood can do nothing to any purpose. ^When I had related all this. Nor is there : any hazard of their falling back to their old customs little and so apprehend mischief from them. they cannot away. since they cannot meet or talk together. that I did not see why such a method might not be followed with more advantage. that they generally make use of them for guides. As he said this. : — it could never take place in England. freedorn. made . money their is is a sufficient conviction : and as they are certainly punished if discovered. and the discovery so profitable. horwill any venture on a design -where the concealment would be so dangerous. and of make them tliey of employing the rest of their lives in repairing the injuries have formerly done to society. and such a manner as to being honest. not only destroyed. or be the better for so the very having of it.

i^t ' . since But if. the vagabonds ought to be treated . except the Cardinal. it might take place and if it did not succeed. who said that it was not easy to form a judgmeiuoi its success. because it was his own observation. hfi. and held his peace. though we have made we have not been able to gain our end. the worst would be. yet . yet some- times he said. often. that I had taken care unpleasant so as to justify the old proverb. followed. throws the dice of the thieves. while all the company seemed of his opinion. 'when the_ sentence of death was_j)assed_upon a thief. or at all dangerous. one of the company had said. things that were not will ' That he who sometimes have a lucky hit. ' unjust.' said was a method that never yet had been tried. that he The jests seemed to be which he offered were so cold and at we laughed more it . this matter. though they had despised it when it came from me but more particularly commended what related to the vagabonds. And I do not see. for it.72 . thg-pnnce would reprieveTniinor~a _whilet_and^ make the experiment upon him^ denymfmm the privilege of a sanctuary and then if it had a good effect upon him.' When. some grimaces. inconvenient. it was very ridiculous . so that there remained nothing but that some public provision might be made for the poor. Leave that to me. whom sickness or old age the fool. that counterfeited the fool so naturally. him than at them . had done.' added he. . for there is no sort ' . against whom. as were by chance. to execute the sentence on the condemned persons at why it would be either last. to admit of such a delay in the : in my opinion.' said ' and I shall take care of them . they all commended the motion. UTOPIA. that There was a jester standing by.' When the Cardinal. so some good use may be made really one. and the Cardinal had taken care of the vagabonds. dull. had disabled from labour. but I shall venture at for as it is not foreign to of it. " I do not know whether it be worth while to tell what same manner many laws.

and wished him to govern his passions. (for " In patience possess your soul. and biter. ' be not angry.' That is done already. perceived that he was not ill pleased at it only the friar himself was vexed. you hang- man do not sin in it. I had nothing to give them and they now know me so prevail so far as to : well. sending all these beggars to monasteries. and the be nuns. backand then cited some dreadful threatenings out of the Scriptures against him.' Good said he." I shall give —The am friar answered you his own ' words). for I know no vagabonds like you. except you take care of us friars. because they hope for nothing. ' I not angry. " Be and sin not. UTOPIA. who looking at the Cardinal. who though he was a grave morose man. There was a divine present.' ' — ' answered the fool.' This was well entertained by the whole company. by what he proposed for restraining vagabonds. jester thought freely. slanderer. and approved of it in jest but the rest liked in earnest. as may be easily imagined. and with their sad complaints.. at least I ye angry. made lay-brothers. 73 of people whose sight I abhor more. for the Psalmist says. and said to him. 'for the Cardinal has provided for you. yet he was so pleased with this reflection that was made on the priests and the monks. no than if I were a priest but I would have a : law made. — ' . and setting them to work. and calling and son of perdition. having been so often rexed with them. ' for it written. that he began to play with the fool. . that they will not lose their labour. fell into such a passion. th^y could never draw one penny homjxie: for either I had no mind to give them anything. ' Now is the he was in his element. or when I had a mind to do it.' The Cardinal smiled. but as lolefuUy soever as they have told their tale. that he could not forbear railing at the fool. him knave." Upon this the Cardinal admonished him gently. No. the men to women it the Benedictines to be to . This will not deliver you from all beggars. and laid about him friar. but let me pass with- out giving me for more in faith any trouble.

' said the feel. the length of which I had been ashamed. contracted but I any part of it. fawned so on him. for if the many mockers of Elisha. and dismissing us. how little courtiers would value either me or my counsels. which I ought to have said. and soon after rose from the table. and perhaps better for you. but presently approved of it. 'but in my opinion.' .' answered he. and flattered him to such a degree. felt the effects of his zeal which that mocker. by whiph all that jeer us are excommunicated. that rogue. of if.' said he. ' — ' not wisely done for there are so many bald men ? We have likewise a Bull. who was but one bald man. and show him the ditch into which he will fall. if he is not aware of it . lord. resolved to give it you to lose I might have at large:. '' The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up and we as he went up to the house of God. "Answer a fool according to his folly. " for holy men have had a good zeal. turned the discourse another way . went to hear causes. Ihave run out into a tedious story. . said. begged as : it of me. the wisest of men. Mr. that you might observe how those that despised what I had proposed. I had not observed you to hearken to if you had no mind it." To this I answered. my is ' I speak not but from a good zeal. More. as it . that they in good earnest applauded those things that he only liked in jest.' sing in our church. he made a sign to the fool to withdraw. that were Solomon. no sooner perceived that the Cardinal did not dislik-e it. as you earnestly it. "You have done me a great kindness . my lord. that those who mocked EUsha — Cardinal. " Thus.' —When the Cardinal saw that there was no end of this matter. will perhaps 'You do this perhaps with a good intention. And from hence you may gather." which I now do. felt the effect of his zeal. it were wiser in you.74 UTOPIA. not to engage in so ridiculous a No. what will become of one mocker of so many friars. among whom contest with a fool. that scoundrel.

while philonations will be haippy. " Do not you think. and were called into council. were pro- posing many expedients : Milan may be kept as by what arts and practices and Naples. pro- posing good laws to him. for as everything has been related by you. they who from their childhood are corrupted with false notions. for I still you your could overcome that aversion which you have to the Courts of Princes. both wisely and pleasantly. what could it signify if I were his cabinet- about the King of France. in whose and though you are me. 75 ia this relation . by the advice which it is in power this is to give." —" They are not would willingly their it their duty to assist kjngs with their '' so base-minded. and grown y_6ung again." said he. or kings become philosophers it is no wonder if we are so far ffom that happiness.had so oft slipped out : . sophers will not think councils. done it by their books. yet you are the dearer. it : but that they do many of them have already power would but But Plato judged right. : my . but after think that all this if cannot change my opinion . or at least be laughed at pains ? For instance. In his hearing. and.' UTOPIA. if those that are in hearken to good advice. that if I were about any king. do a great 'deal of the chief design that . would never fall in entirely frith the councils of philosophers. and this he himself found to be true in the person of Dionysius.ought to propose to himself in living that for your friend Plato thinks when either philosophers become kings. that . every good man . 40 you have that I was in' my own country. you might. and endeavouring to root out all the cursed seeds of evil that I found in him. I should either for my be turned out of his Ctiurt. good to mankind. . where several wise men. made me imagine by ""recalling that' good Cafdinal'to frortl family I was bred my childhood upon other accounts very dear to because you honour his -memory so much I thoughts. that except kings themselves "became philosophers.

may it. cannot be done avowedly) who has a pretension to the crown. and stay at home. of their hands. maybe kept Now when things are in so great a fermentation.76 UTOPIA. aud wish them to change all their councils. to be kept as long as he finds his account in and that he ought to communicate councils with them. I should propose to them the resolutions of the : . to to be set on be depended on. to be let_ loose upon England on every occasion and some banished nobleman is to be supported underhanH (for by the league : The do with England a treaty and if their alliance is not to be made as firm as possible. Brabant. by the hope of an alliance . One proposes a league with the Venetians. how the Venetians. and then it will be easily taken Another proposes the hiring the out of their hands. hardest point of of peace is all is what foot. till his success makes him need or fear them less. Germans. Another proposes the gaining the Emperor by money. and give them some share of the spoil. and then how Burgundy. since the kingdom of France was indeed greater than 'could be well governed by one man. if so mean a man as I should stand up. io let Italy alone. and all doms which he has swallowed be added to his empire. and so many gallant men are joining councils. recovered. but suspected^ as„enemies therefore the Scots are tc be kept in readiness. by which means that suspected prince in awe. Another thinks the Prince of Castile is to be wrought on. Another proposes a which is omnipotent with him. it. and some other kingalready in his designs. and in order to cement the yielding up the King of Navarre's pretensions. how to carry on the war. Flanders. peace with the King of Arragon. yet it is to and they are to be called friends. : it. and that some of his courtiers are to be gained to the French faction by pensions. and after may be subdued. them the rest of Italy. that therefore he ought not to think of adding others to it and if after this. and the securing the Switzers by pensions.

of their king. blood was the glory without received . a people that lie 77 on the south-east of Utopia. while their king. oppressed their that w ith taxes. in . that he should love his people. . was the less able to apply his mind to the inWhen they saw this. To this I would add. and their laws fell into contempt . order to add to the dominions of their prince another kingdom. since no man would willingly have a groom that should be in common between him and another. be no end to these evils. and that there would terests of either. robbery and murders everywhere abounded. and the consumption both of treasure- and of people therefore it must follow them j perhaps upon some misfortune. for they were too great a since he could not hold both people to be governed by a divided king. but found that the tmubl& of keeping eq ual to that_ by which it it was_ was gained j that the conquered people were always either in rebellion or exposed to foreign invasions. they by joint councils made an humble address to their king. either for or against them. Achorians. their spilt for and consequently could never in the meantime they were money went out of the kingdom. they might be forced to throw up all at last seemed much inore improve his ancient kingdom flourish eligible that the all king should it he could. and to be contented with his old one.UTOPIA. disband their army. to which he had some pretensions by an ancient alUance. the vast confusions. mannprg hpi'npr ^nrrnptc^ri "long after dethroned). and make as much as possible. desiring him to choose which of the two kingdoms he had the greatest mind to keep. that that after all those warlike attempts. Upon which the good prince was forced to quit his new kingdom to one of his friends (who was not . distracted with the care of two kingdoms. it who not the smallest benefit from even in time of peace and by a long war. procurmg the that their least advantage to the people. while they were obliged to be incessantly at war. This they who long ago engaged in war. jynquered.

govern them gently. " if I should sort with another kind of . and make them impute it to the piety of their prince. and would not easily. so there subjects~]A third offers . and this with such appearances of religion as might work on the people. so the selling licenses dear would look as if a prince were tender of his people. or at low rates. if not too Pray how do you think would such a speech as big for him. and then the dispensing with these prohibitions upon great compositions. " I think not very well. since it^jvould look like the executing a law. dispense with anything that might be against the public good. that as it would bring in a vast treasure. many things under severe penal-. This would serve two ends. so they had been also broken by them .rand proposes the levying' the penalties" of these laws. that he should live among ihem. . and lowering it when his revenues were to come in. that so he might both pay milch with a ministers.yS UTOPIA. and that a peace be concluded as soon' as that was done . and to his tenderness for the lives of his some old musty laws. Another proposes that the judges must be made sure. might be a very good pretence for it. whose chief contrivances and consultations were. by what art the prince's treasures might be increased Where one proposes raising the value of specie wheti the tiflg's debts are large." " But what. both of them acceptable to many for as those whose avarice led them to transgress would be severely fined. that money might be raised in order to carry it on. and the doing of jasti^er-i A fourth proposes the prohibiting of ties. that they tnay . this be heard?"--"I confess." said I. ' little. that have been antiquated by a long disuse and which. and be beloved of them. as they had been forgotten by all' the subjects. and in a httle receive a great deal: another proposes a pretence of a war. since that which had fallen to his share was big enough. and let other kingdoms alone. especially such as were against the interest of the people. to those who might find their advantage in breaking them." said he.

the king. yet still some one ot other of them. but that fit which the king out of his goodness thinks think left it is to leave him. j which undoubted prerogative will be pretended. will either be said that equity or some words^ in the law will sense will the king'-s is be found sounding that way.UTOPIA. and being 'once brought in question. 79 declare always in favour of the prerogative. would find out some pretence the point : or other to give the king a fair colour to carry for if the judges' but differ in opinion. and breaks that height of spirit. rnay then take advantage to expound the law for hisown profit . either out of contradiction to others. that there be as ?is little of this as-may be. or the make their court. Thus all consent to that maxim of Crassus. as that" above all law . the clearest is thing in the world "truth made by that means disputable. can do nothing unjustly . and to which a religious judge ought' to have a special regard. or to may be. it: all of them may be ing sent to the bench to give sentence boldly. that the king may hear them argue those points in which he is concerned . makes them beats them down. And they the prince's interest. as the for fair pretences will never king would have when sentence. that they must be oftto sentfot to Court. It lies -of his side. that might otherwise dispose . since he must maintain his armies out of it : that a king. that is property in him. is~t'o^ be wantbe given in the prince's favour. or some forced be put on them . since how unjusf soever any-of his pretensions pride of singularity. not excepting the very persons of his subjects and that no man has any other property. whereas necessity and poverty patient. and they being thus gained.advantage that his people! .• and when all other things fail. either out of fear or modesty. even all though he would. blunts them. should have neither riches nor liberty since these things make them and -unjust easy and less willing to submit to a cruel government. less if it were his . that a prince cannot have treasure enough.. while the iudges that stand out will be brought over.

but by taking shows that he knows to govern a free nation. a man of a noble and exalted temper. than he that is uneasy in his present circumstances ? And who run to create confusions with so desperate a boldness. He is an un. and not for his that by his care and endeavours they may be both easy and safe and : . hope to gain by them ? If a king should fall under such contempt or envy. than in his own if I should show that they choose a king for their own sake. rather to shake off his sloth. that cannot cure one disease without : cast- ing his patient into another so he that can find way for correcting the errors of his life. he would rather govern rich men. as over rich and happy subjects. that therefore a prince ought to take fliappiness than of his more care of his is people's own. and mischievous to him and that not only his honour but his safety consisted more in his. than to retain it by such methods. And therefore. Fabricius. takes . Nor is it so becomhis subjects in their duty. Now what if after all these propositions were made. that are much mistaken that think the poverty of a nation a means of the public safety. . lose the majesty due to it. than be rich himself since for one man to abound in wealth and pleasure. jaid.'as thc5se who have nothing to lose. Who quarrel more than beggars ? Who does more earnestly long for a change. it were certainly better for him to quit his kingdom.8o UTOPIA. He down himself ought his pride . when all about him are mourning and groaning. is to be a gaoler and not a king. that he could not keep usage. I should rise up and assert. or to lay for the contempt or hatred that his people have for him. and but by oppression and ill by rendering them poor and miserable. people's wealth. them to rebel. that such councils were both unbecoming a king. from them the conveniences of not what it is no other people. as makes him while he keeps the name of authority. ing the dignity of a king to reign over beggars. skilful physician. . as a shepherd to take more they is (care of his flock than of himself It is also certain.

and will be beloved by all the good. his wise cbnduct let :l I \ I \ so. to that men had taken all I their bias another way. terror Such a king as this will be the of ill men. to which a judge would not give way in a private man. without wronging others.UTOPIA. never to have _at Qnce above a thousand pounds of gold in his treasures. To these things I would add. Let him live upon what belongs to him.much silver as is tell us. by which their king^on the day on which he begins to reign.te Let him punish crimes. that law among the Macarians. its rise 8 from the vices in himself. a people that lie not far from Utopia. it makes him less disposed to oppress his subjects. is tied by an oath confirmed by solemn sacrifices. they was made by an excellent king. I should talk of these or such like things. I say. and never wanted. or the . ratheri than be severe when he has suffered them to be too common let him not rashly revive laws that are abrogated by disuse. . and accommoda. but would look on him as a crafty and unjust person for pretending to it. and by him endeavour to prevent them. be to could say?" — "No doubt. so necessary for the course of commerce and and when. and let him never take any penalty for the breach of them. equal to that in value.' especially if they have been long forgotten. very how deaf would they deaf. This law. sum might be had occasion any accident but that it if either the king against rebels. . the invasion of an enemy kingdom against was not enough to en- courage a prince to invade other men's rights^a circumstance that thought that tion of was the chief cause of his making that law. sufficient for for it He own wealth and up of so much treasure. it was a good provision for that free He also circula- money. thought that moderate . who had more regard to the riches of his country than to his therefore provided against the heaping as might impoverish the people. " If. a king must distribute all those extraordinary accessions that increase treasure beyond the due exchange: pitch. or his expeSse to his revenue." answered I.

and you cannot cure some receivedlvi£e_ac: for the j. is not unpleasant is among it but there no room for great affairs are carried on was saying. You are not obliged to assault people with discourses. is an opposite nature." — Courtsof Princes. "but not this speculative phSosophy that makes everything.-thaT' are out of their road. would it not be better for you to say nothing than by mixing things of such different natures to make an of impertinent tragi-comedy ? is corrupt the play that in For you spoil and hand when you mix with it things better. when one of Plautus's comedies is upon the stage and a company of servants are acting their parts. that knows proper scene. you must not therefore abandonjthe_ commOTiwealth." replied he. in the for "That is what I "that there is no room for philosophy by authority.Jf ill opinions cannot be^ quite rooted out.s to itself to it. even though they are much Therefore go through with the play that acting the best you can. and do not confound it because another that is pleaIt«js even so in a commonsanter comes into your thoughts. for one is never to offer at propositions^or advice that courses so we are certain will not be entertained." said I. you should come out in the ' garb of a philosopher. in the Courts of Princes where with different sentiments. same reasons you should not forsake the ship in a storm because you cannot command the winds. accommodate. to be : — alike fitting at all times is but there its is another philosophyjhat more pliable. 110 and wonder. and in the councils of princes . when you see that their received notions must prevent your making an impression upon them. Dis- much out of the road could not avail anything.ording to your wishes. and teaches a man with propriety and decency If act that part which has fallen to his share. and repeat out of Octavia' a discourse of Seneca's to Nero." "Yes. nor have any lation effect on men whose mitids were prepossessed This philosophical way of specufriends in a free conversation.82 UTOPIA. there is. wealth. things -with You ought rather to cast about and to manage .

and hope to see. Ac- cording to your arguments. of this age than any part of my discourse has been but the preachers seemed to have learned that craft to which you advise me. and jas for lying. we must. " all that I could be able to do Would be to preserve myself from being mad while I endeavoured to cure the madness of others j for if I speak truth. though they might seem better. give over pressing the greatest part of those things that Christ hath taught us. all Z^. have fitted His doctrine as if it had been a leaden rule. The greatest parts of precepts are more opposite to the lives of the men . I am sure I cannot do itj But though these discburses ungrateful to them.may if you are not able as possible .UTOPIA. for they can only be unpleasant to those who are resolved to run headlong the contrary way . and if we must let alone every^ thing as absurd or extravagant which by reason of the wicked lives of many may seem uncouth. Christians. I must repeat what I have said to yoU . for they observing that the world would not willingly suit their lives to the rules that Christ has given. the dexterity in your power. so that well they. to . which only call past evils to mind and give warning of what may follow. or as the Utopians practise in theirs. whether a philosopher can do it or not. I : may be uneasy and either do not see why if they should seem foolish or extravagant indeed I should propose such things as Plato has contrived in his commonwealth. have nothing in them that is so absurd that they may not be used at any time. I cannot tell. even among . which is founded on 2gr6perty^ there being no such thing among them. yet they are so different from our establishment. but to proclaim on the house-tops that which He taught in secret." answered he. as certainly they are. that I could not expect that it would have any effect on them but such discourses as mine. though He has commanded His us not to conceal them. to" make them g6 except all be as little ill for men were gooci everything cannot that is a blessing that I do not at present be right.

he be so far from being able to it. he still : remains steady and innocent. But I see no other effect of except it be that men become more secure ness by it.84 their lives. A man must barefacedly approve of the worst and consent to the blackest designs so that he : would pass coldly for a spy. would be to and take delight in being wet if he knew no purpose for him to go and persuade . it would be best for him to keep within doors and since he had not influence enough to correct other people's folly. take care to preserve himself. as that he will find no occasions of doing any good : company will sooner corrupt him. follies and knavery and by mixing counsels with them. " It was no ill simile by which Plato set forth the un- reasonableness of a philosopher's meddling with government. that if they go not well they may go as little ill as may be . compliance in their wicked in a I shall And this is all the success that I rest. was to see a great company run out every day into the that it rain. . or possibly for a traitor. them to return to their houses. for in Courts they will not bear with a man's holding his peace or conniving at what others do. in order to avoid the storm. share of all the blame that belongs wholly . that so UTOPIA. I shall then only do not comprehend what you mean by your casting about. that did but : approve of such wicked practices is and will therefore when a man you the for call ill engaged in such a society. than be the better him or if notwithstanding all their ill company. some way or other they might agree with this one another. says he. counsels. or by the bending and help forward their madness. or if I agree with and then them. for I must always differ from the signify nothing. If a man. mend matters by his casting about. can have Court. to . and that all that could be expected by his' going to speak to them would be that he himself should be as wet as they. I - handling things so dexterously. yet their will be imputed to him his he must bear to others.

and the latter.\Therefore when ot I reflect on the wise and good constitution all me Utopians. by one title must needs follow. must freely own. give too plain a demonof which the lawsuits that every I say. . that how plentiful soever a nation ihay be. it all that he can compass'. what is their own from what is another's day break and are eternally depending. which cannot be obtained so long as there is-property TVfor when every man or draws to himself another. the power either to obtain or preserve or even to enable men out. the former useless. things are so well governed. when. the be absolutely miserable. and yet there is lives in plenty . I g row more favourable to Pl ato. because the best things worst [men. who deserve that be interchanged . but wicked and ravenous. the rest must fall into indigenceTjSo that there will be two sorts of people among them. because things will be divided all among a few (and even these are not in being left to respects happy). such an equality. certainly to distinguish . " 85 I Though to speak plainly is my real sentiments. where notwithstanding every one has his property . that every man when I compare with them so many other nations that are still making new laws. that as lon^ as there is any property. and whil^ moH?Y the standard of alloth^jtJiiags. balance all these things in my thoughts.UTOPIA. nor rest happily. and_ do not ake an y laws for such a s •wandef-t-hat-he'xe solved not to m would not submit to a community of a all things : for so wise man could not but tbresee that ttie setting all upon a level was the only way to make a nation hap py.and yet can never bring their constitution to a right regulation. among whom few laws . its where virtue hath and with so due reward. yet all the laws that they can invent have not it. I cannot think that a will fall to the share of the all nation can 'Be'''go'vernecl either justly or happily: not justly. I many stration. who by their their fortunes should constant industry serve the public more than themselves. . yet a few dividing the wealth of it among themselves.

as good diet and care might have on a sick man. have such effects. From whence I am persuaded. but it could never be quite healed." answered things are me that men cannot live common how can there : conveniently. that by applying a remedy to one sore. nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit. contrfeiry. stop. you will provoke another . and insolent. to laws were an extent in soil. and it will fall out as in a complication of diseases. I say. might rather to be trusted to the wise. while the strengthening rest. so the confidence that he fcis in other men's industry may make him >slothiul::\it every will man excuse himself from labour ? people come to be pinched with want. where all be any plenty. what can follow upon . and yet cannot disthis pose of anything as their own . long as that is thejar best part of 'load of care s m ankind anxieties. where For as the hope of gain doth not excite him. is taken away there can be no equitab le jjr just d istrib ution oT things. nor made burthensome by a great expense . but they can never be quite must removed. which ought neither to be sold." body weakens the seems to — "On the one part of I. nor can _the3^orld be happjlj^ that tin-pro perty governed : for as. since otherwise those that to restrain the people that they might not them would be tempted to reimburse themselves by and violence. and modest men. and that which removes the one ill serve in cheats : symptom produces the j" it others. as long as property remains . and at made to determine at how how much money every man hmit the prince that he might not grow too great.86 sincere UTOPIA. and it would become necessary to find out rich men for undergoing those employments which ought These laws. those pressures that lie on a great part of mangreat kind may be made For if lighter . will main taiaedtJhe greatest andj be stilLoppressed with_a ' and I confess without taking it quite away. whose recovery is desperate they might allay and mitigate the disease. become too and that none might factiously aspire to public employments .

" —"As for the antiquity." " You will not easily persuade me. getting safe ashore. since you have no notion. if I mistake not." said he. for their Chronicle mentions a shipwreck that was made on their coast 1. of such a constitution but if you had been in Utopia with me.200 years ago and that some Romans and Egyptians that were in the ship. UTOPIA.)^^ are.said he."." that any nation in that new world is better governed than those among us. that And as for those discoveries.h in inr|. they had towns among them before these parts unless you were so much as inhabited." said Peter. especially when the reverence and authority due to magistrates falls to the ground ? For I cannot imagine all how that can be kept among those that are in things equal to one another. had never seen a people so well constituted as they. and had seen their laws and rules. that indeed I should never have if it world to that you . have been either hit 'on by chance. for the space of i^yp yptirg in : which them.. during which time I was so left delighted with them. for if they are to be believed. spent the rest of their days amongst . or of ours. . being more ancient. " you cannot pass a true judgment of had read their histories . a long practice has helped us to find out life : many conveniences of to " and some happy chances have discovered other things us.did. not deny but we are more ingenious than they ppplirgjjii. so our had not been to make the discovery of the Europeans you would theji confess that new — government. as I.ig|jy !^. these might have happened there as well as here. 87 but perpetual sedition and bloodshed. which no man's understanding could ever have in- vented.." — up "I do not wonder. I do. For as our understandings are not worse than theirs. but tJTPy pv^ppH ng n^^ir. us before our amval among them they call us all by a general name of the nations that lie beyond the Equinoctial Line . it. " that it appears so to you. or at least no right one. or made by ingenious men.. I lived among them and . either of their government.r|^ They knew htde concerning .

all that you imagine we desire to to know. we have been so far from improving it. of having their shore. and acquired all the useful arts that were then among the Romans. their rivers. . this is the true cause ' f their being and living happier than we. constitution. that from this single opportunity they drew the advantage of learning from" those Tinlooked-for guests.38 UTOPIA. And both Peter and I desired Raphael to be as good as his word. And you may it well imagine that we desire —" do very have digested the whole matter some time. of which we it are hitherto " for I willingly." said he. their people. yet I believe learn or put in the good inventions that were would be long before we should practice any of the good institutions that are all it among them. and such was their ingenuity. carefully I. When he saw that we were very intent upon it. them." said ignorant. and sat down in the same place. though we come not UllUlt u fj. and after dinner came back. so happily did they imcast upbn prove that accident. but set out in order all things relating to their soil. and then we shall have leisure enough. some of our people But if such an accident has at any time brought any from thence into Europe. and. their manners. as in after-times perhaps it will be forgot by our people that I was For though they from one such accident made ever there. that we do not so much as remember jt ."— Upon this I said to himjT" I earnestly beg you would describe that island very particularly to us7~l Be not too short. We went and dined. he paused a little to recollect himself. o f iirtdfrgtanHrngjTr niiU ward advantag es. in a word.ht!m irrp pi nt-."— " Let us go then." in He consented. themselves masters of among us . and which were known to and by the hints that they gave them. but first will take up " and dine. they themselves found out even some of those arts these shipwrecked : men which they could not fully explain . and began in this mariner." I will know everything concerning them. . I ordered mr servants to take care that none might come and interrupt us. their towns. laws. _ABd better governed.

occasioned commerce but the by rocks on the one hand. that they now far excel all . carries. . In this bay there is no great current. which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles. any fleet that might come against them. In the one single rock which appears above water. as it were. : not unlike a crescent between horns. would be certainly losO On the other side of the and the coast is jsland there are likewise maJiy harbours fortified. The channel is there is known only to the natives. enter into the bay. and to that measure of politeness. men can hinder the descent of a great army. and is well secured from winds. and may therefore be easily avoided. and shallows on the middle of it other.UTOPIA. one continued harbour. same breadth over a its great Its part of figure is but it grows narrower towards both ends. how great soever it were. which gives all that live in the island great convenience for mutual entry into the bay. he would run for even they themselves could some marks that are on the coast did not way^^and if these should be but a little shifted. is very dangerous. and are very dangerous. but a part of the Utopus that conquered it (whose name it still continent. the whole coast is. so that if any stranger should pilots. and holds almost it . middle two hundred miles in the at the broad. both by nature and art. the other rocks lie under water. for Abraxa was its first name) brought the rude and uncivilized inhabitants into such a good government. the sea comes in eleven miles broad. that a small number of so not pass it saf^Tii direct their . But they to report (and there remains credible) that this good marks of it make it was no island at first. and on the top of it there is a tower in which a garrison is kept. without one of their great danger of shipwreck . 89 BOOK The island of Utopia is II. and spreads itself into a great bay.

venient place for their assemblies. they have much more ground no town : desires to enlarge its bounds.four cities the manners. he ordered that the a deep channel to be dug fifteen miles long natives might not think he treated and them like slaves. and to bring the sea quite round them. for the people consider them- selves rather as tenants than landlords.so VfopiA. but foot in one day from it. come back to the town. and the most remote are not so far distant. than they terror. designed to separate them from the continent. They have built over ^ all the country. to consult about their common concerns. and are furnished with all things necessary for country labour. family thirty families there is a magistrateT] this family There is a' and over ' i \Every year twenty of have stayed^ . were struck with admiration and in the island. being situated near the centre of so that the most conjurisdiction of . The at twenty-four miles distance from one man can go on it. "to labour in carrying to work. jfor that is of it the is island. !>. And who at first it laughed brought at the folly of the undertaking. it on. forty i men and women besides two slaves.. all and laws of which near in are the same. which are well contrived. farmhouses for husbandmen. to that which (IBve ry city sends three of their wisest senators chief town it. after they . that a lies as the lie ground on which they stand least will allow. . no sooner saw to perfection. but also his own soldiers. next once a year to Amaurot. . master and a mistress set over every. and they are contrived as the same manner nearest another. all large and well There built : ar e fifty. The : every city extends at least twenty miles towns lie and where the wider. he not only forced the inhabitants. customs. cities to dwell in Inhabitants are sent by turns from the them jjno country family has fewer than in it. all As he set a vast number of men it he beyond men's expectations brought his neighbours to a speedy conclusion. To accomplish this.

that thgji.UTOPIA. which might otherwise be fatal. They breed very few horses. either of ploughing or carriage. sometimes boiled with -honey or liquorice. and in their room there are other twenty sent from the townHthat they may learn country work from those thathav&Aieen already one year in the country. in order to be hatched. and even no more fit for They sow no corn. and so commit no errors. either by land or hens most convenient. but less trouble that which is to . every year such a shifting of the husbandmen. with which they abound and though labour. and are kept only for exercising their youth in the art of sitting and riding them'. but they seem to consider those that feed them a. and often water. hew wood. . they are . yet they find oxen can hold out longer. to prevent any < man being forced against his life it. and as they are not subject to so less mauy diseases. and convey water. By this means such as dwell in those country farms are never ignorant of agriculture. pleasure in that they deSire leave to continue in many years. and they are no sooner out of the shell. for they do not put them to any work. infinite multi- for the and hatch them. and But though there is bring them under a scarcity of corn. 91 two years. but vast nuinber of eggs are laid in a gentle and equal heat.are good meat at last. horses are stronger.s their mothers. so they are kept upon a charge. cyder. or perry. will to follow that hard ' course of too long . A be their bread. but ^TKose they have are full of mettle. as they must teach those that come to them the Bext from Jhe town. in which they employ oxen for though their do not sit . breed cattle. . for tHey drink either wine. as is it to the towns. and with when they are so worn out. and able to stir about. they know exactly how much corn will serve every town) . lyet many among them till take such it .3 These husbandmen the ground. in the country . tude of chickens in They breed an a very curious manner . and follow them as other chickens do the hen that hatched them.

knows one of their towns. it is all the rest yielding in precedence to this. for from the one side of hill. down it is descent for two miles to the river Anider but a broader the other river. or rather a rising ground: it. for as none is more eminent. without for they festival anything -in exchange to see it And the magistrates of the town take care . knows them all. and all that tract of country which belongs to it. When the time of harvest comes. yet they sow much more. way that runs along by the bank of that The Anider rises about eighty miles above Amaurot. known its to me. I shall therefore describe one of them . they commonly despatch it all in one OF THEIR TOWNS. . so there was none of them better five years altogether in it. it which in a little shoots up almost to the top of the runs . and none that is He __S0 like so proper as Amaurot . but it still grows it is and larger. given them meet generally day. upon a in the towns. for reaping the harvest them know how many hands they will . because the seat of their supreme council . it does. lost in the ocean. PARTICULARLY OF AMAUROT. but other brooks falling into it. they are one another. after sixty miles course below sea. larger it is grown half a mile broad till . the magistrates in the country send to those and let need day. they carrying the town. I having lived side of a It lies upon the is hill. it. As it runs by Amaurot. in the town once a month.not produce. between the town and the and for . and breed more cattle than are necessary and they give that overplus of which for their consumption When they want they make no use to their neighbours.gz UTOPIA. except where the situation makes some difference. anything in the country which fetch that from for it. and the number they call for being sent to them. figure almost square. ma small spring at first . of which two are more considerable than the rest.

the water is brackish it is but a little as it runs by the town. it is carried in earthen pipes to the' lower streets to and for those places of the town which the water of that small river cannot be conveyed. which though it is not great. set thick with thorns. enemy might not be the water. and so runs down through it. it 93 ebbs and flows every six hours. The town is a high and thick wall. for it rises out of the same hill on which the town stands. it quite fresh ebbs. . that so if they should happen to be besieged. with a strong current. and falls into the Anider. for and above higher. so that ships without along the side of the town. nor poison able to stop or divert the course of it . that there' nothing but water in the force . cast round three sides of the town. and the river is instead of a ditch on the fourth side. there he gardens behind all their houses. not of timber.UTOPIA. There . the lie all town which is any hindrance farthest from the sea. yet it runs pleasantly. tide is some miles. these are^ferge but enclosed wuh buildmgs. they have great cisterns for receiving the rain-water. which supplies the want of the other. that a whole side of a-strRe t"~IfrHirs like one hous e. as they are easily opened. from thence . a bridge cast over the consisting of river. in which there are forts . some miles above the town. fair stone. butv of . continues fresh all along to and when the the sea. The^treetsare^ery and are well sheltered froni the '^inds. which. so that every house has both a to the garden. that on all co nvenient for hands face the street. the fresh water being driven back with that. for about thirty river. The inhabitants have fortified the fountain-head of this river. The_streets ajetwenty feej broXd . Their buildings are good. many stately arches it lies at that part of the There is likewise another river that runs by it. which springs a little without the towns . miles so full. many compassed with towers and there is also a broad and deep dry ditch. The is tide comes up salt its . all streets . door to the doors have and a back door Their two leaves. and afe_so uniform. all carr iage.

and run backwards 1. From these it appeg. houses by lo^tsT^They cultivate their gardens with great so that they have. the first designed at man to bring to perfection. that so oiled or free gummed that it DS\th keeps out the wind and gives admission tp the light.rs that their houses were at first low and mean. them are fa. for they say. like cottages. are preserved with an exact care. but he left all that belonged to the ornament and improvement of it. in it. and so finely kept. plastering. or brick their walls they flat.ced either and between the facings of Their roofs are throw in their rubbish. with stone. and gardens so well. to be added by those that should come after him. is humour of ordering their not only kept up by the pleasure they find this And but also by an emulation between. and yet resists the weatherTnpre than lead. that contain the town and state. both vines. and were built with mud walls and thatched with straw. made of any sort of timber. the inhabitants of the several streets. . and flowers in them . that being too much for one gardens . fruits ' herbs. which costs very Httle. that I fruitful never saw gardens anywhere that were both so so beautiful as theirs. every man may freely enter into any house whatspevg rprAt every ten years end they shift their care. They have great quantities of glass their windows.. But now their houses history of their are three stories high : the fronts of . and on them they lay a sort of plaster. who vie with each other j and there is is indeed nothing belonging to the whole town that both the more useful and more pleasant.and yet is so tempered that it is not apt to take fire. and all is so well ordered. So that he who founded town. is among themj -with which they They use also in their windows a thin glaze linen cloth. seems to have taken care of nothing more than of their- whole scheme of the town was by Utopus.760 years. property own accord j\_and there being no among them. Their records.94 so they shut of their UTOPIA.

nd grants called the It council-chamber. and consult with the Prince. state.''"and therefore when anything of great importance is set on foot.^ a fundamental rule of their in government. "Pr'""^:^g-Qiit-<^f a who are named by_ th£_£eo£le_ of the four Biltthey take an oath before they will 4ivisi£Bis-of—the^^ei^'j proceed to an election. T^^_Png£fi_J5_ifli_life. but now called who was the Philarch and over every ten Syphogrants. grants.~~jIt death for any to meet it and consult concerning the the people. unless^ he . ciently called the Syphogrant. so that fit choose him whon^' give their voices for the office. it is the Prince . are in number c>nn^ . that they they think most secretly. till it anything has been is first debated three either in their. is these are changed every day. the most part continued. that nor conclusion can be made that relates to the pTOlTc. and enslave the people . aiiciently called the Tranibor. and only annual. several days in their council. or in the assembly of the whole body of These things have been so provided among them. OF THEIR MAGISTRATES. J^t of All the Sypho- who fou r. there another magistrate. unless be ordinary council. that and the Tranibors may not conspire together to change the goveriiment. is 95 who was an. "The Tranibors are new chosen every year. cerning the affairs of the state in general. into There are always two Syphoa. Thirty families choose every year a magistrate.UTOPIA. The Tranibors meet every third day. that falls out but seldom.rhgn?pthf. but yet they are for All their other magistrates are. They it is not known for whom every one gives is removed upon suspicion of some design to enslave the people. or such private differences as ' may arise sometimes among the people though . with the families subject to is them. either con- his sufirage. oftener if necessary. but of late the Archphilarch.

Tiazard their country rather than endanger their own reputation. and in the heat of discourse. but are likewise is themselves. who after they have communicated to the families that' belong to their divisions. whole island. and by a perverse and preposterous sort of shame. every man has some p'ecuIiaFtrade to whichJie. is. it and have j considered among themselves.\that so men may not rashly. there is smith's work. OF THEIR TRADES. UTOPIA. which so them_all. ^ever to debate a thing on the same day in which it is first_proposed^ for that is always referred to the next meeting. it from their childhood. Besides agriculture. to comm on or_fiaXj_jnasonry. about the town. And may therefore to prevent this. Agriculture is that which is so universally und&rstood among thempttelTio pefsOTjTiffieTman or woman. AND MANNER OF LIFE. they might rather study to support their first opinions. and the married and unmarried. Throughout the island they wear the sa^jje-sert-ef-clothes without any other distinction. or venture the being suspected to have wanted foresight in the expedients that they at first proposed. make report to the senate and upon great occasions. where they not only see others exercised in it at work. except what distinguish tlie is necessary to two sexes.' they take care that they rather be de- liberate than sudden in their motions. for no sort oflradethat isin-gfeat esteem among them.g6 sent to the Syphogrants it . that instead of consultmg the good of the public.'is ignorant of partly it. suc h arithe~manufacturr~of wool. the matter is referred to the council of the. One rule observed in thencouncil. . they are instructed in at school. engage themselves too so on/^ hich might bias them so much. applies hiraself. or carpenter^s jsork . partly by what they learn and by practice they being led out often into the fields. .

inclinations often following descent. and calculated as both for their summers and winters. It is ordinary to . appoint work. that is also allowed. their Every family makgs wqll own clothes. from morning to night. The rest of their time besides that taken up in work. which as it is indeed a. counting. and almost the only business of the Sypho:rmts. three of which are before dinner and three after.. he desires to acquire another. from noon. yet they are not to abuse that interval to luxury and idleness. but if any man's genius lies another way. 97 is and as it neither disagreeable nor uneasy. and is managed in the same manner as the former. go to bed and sleep eight hours. deal in wool and flax. he is by adoption translated^ into a family that deals in the trade to which he is inclined : and when father. have 'public lectures every morning before daybreak at which . he follows that which he likes best. but must employ it in some proper which is exercise according to their various inclinations. but they dividing the day I and night into twenty-four hours. so is suited to the climate. for the most part. is to take care that no man may live idleAbut that every one may follow his trade diligently. leaving the ruder trades to the men. that is to be done. six of these for 'is left to every man's discretion . women men. care is taken not only by his but by the magistrate. They then sup. and at eight o'clock. learn one or other of the trades formerly mentioned.^t they do not wear themselves out with perpetual toil. so all it is everywhere the common course of amongst mechanics except the Utopians . When he has learned both. that he may be put to a discreet and good man. And if after a person has learned one trade. which suit best with their weakness. more occasion for the other. /The same trade generally passes down from father to scHT. heavy life slavery. but all among them. as if they were beasts of burden. eating and sleeping.UTOPIA. The fashion never alters it . unless the public has CThe chief. Women. for the most part reading.

employ themselves at that as many of them do. cliiefly those that have estates in land. vices . and this you will you consider how great a part of all other nations is quite idle. but are rather to serve their country. as men that take care After supper. and of those that are called religious men add to these all rich men. and their agreement : and mischievous of games not unlike against virtue. First. other. and if some few women are convenient . that since there are only six hours appointed for work. is But it is so far from being true. if hu^ands are idle then consider the great company of idle priests. they iiaay fall under a scarcity of necessary provisions. in which the enmity in the vices among themselves. and as also the assaults or secretly undermines virtue . their : . both men and women of one sort or other. an hour in winter some diversion.C)g UTOPIA. women generally do little) who are the half of mankind . who are marked out for literature yet a great many. choose rather to time in their trades. the one is between several numbers. they spend in their gardens. But others. they are not 'hindered. ' none all are obliged to appear but those . either with where they entertain each music or discourse. two sorts our cKess . They do not so much as : know dice. in summer and in the halls where they eat. who are called noblemen and gentlemen. that are not made for contemplation. that this time not sufficient for supplying them with plenty of all things. go to hear lectures of to their inchnations. in which one number. or any such foolish games Jthey have. as it were. either necessary of rather too much . however. according if ranks. together with the special oppositions between the particular virtues methods by which vice either openly and virtue on the other hand resists it. consumes another the other resembles a battle between the virtues and the vices. that it is easily apprehend. in commended. otherwise you may imagine. . is not unpleasantly represented. diligent. put the time appointed for labour is to be narrowly exammed.

UTOPIA. they are obliged to return to work. you can scarce their find five hundred. and upon the whole account you will find that the number of those by whose labours niankind is supplied. every one of whom consumes as much as any two of the men that are at work. for there. exemption allowed to those. is [The . For if those who work were employed are kept . and fif all they that languish out their lives in sloth and idleness. and serve only to support riot and luxury. that go about pretending some disease. in excuse for their begging. if all those who labour about useless things. either men or women. were forced to labour. though excused by the law. but work. were set to more profitable employments. profitable.their examples they like may excite the industry of the rest of the people. espeThis city. 99 made up of idle persons. that by. And sometimes a mechanic. in a great that lies and in all the territory round it. there would be such an abundance of them. give rise to many trades that are both vain and superfluous. are capable of labour. all those strong and lusty beggars. that are not engaged in even the Syphogrants. appears very plainly in Utopia. or pleasant to cially while pleasure is all that is mankind. only in such things as the conveniences of life require. that more for show than use . that the prices of them v/ould so sink. are who being recommended secret suffrages of to the people by the by the if the Syphogrants privileged from labour. D i . add to these. together with their families.^ou may easily imagine that a small proportion of time"^WBuld serve for doing either necessary. by age and it strength. yet do not excuse themselves. kept within its due bounds. that they may apply fall i themselves wholly to studyj] and of those hopes that they any of these short : seemed at first to give. is much less than you perhaps imaginedj^Then consider how few of those that work are employed in labours that are of real service for we who measure all things by money. priests. that tradesmen could not be maintained by their gains .

with but little labour . but called of late their Ademus. be considered that the needful because often a cost. and when they appear in public they put on an upper garment. at which he might have kept up with a small charge : it frequently happens. they are clothed with leather and skins. but show their foresight in preventing their decay who thinks he has a . that the materials readiness for raising a building very suddenly. you may easily make the estimate how much it Hiay be done in those few hours in which they are obliged to labour. cast carelessly about them. is eased from being a tradesman. all things are at no less charge. is neglected same house which by another. so that his successor must. nor to be less labour. so regulated that men very seldom build upon a new piece of ground and are not only very quick in repairing their houses. that the one person built at a vast expepse. which hides the other. anciently called their Barzenes. so that their buildings are preserved very long. As to their clothes. which will last seven years . numbers among them that are employed in any fruit- And thus from the great neither suffered to be idle. builds another But among the Utopians. is to" among them are managed with less labour than anywhere else. architecture . their priests. and ranked among their learned men. their Tranibors. repair that thriftless heir suffers a house that his father a great built to fall into decay. aijd thus the builders to whom that care belongs may be in when there observe how are often without employment. more delicate sense of the beauties of and he suffering it to fall to ruin. except the hewing of timber. make a Out considerable that so employs his leisure hours. The building or the repairing of houses among us employ many hands. and the squaring of is stones. any occasion for it. and is the Prince himself .: loo UTOPIA. of these they ambassadors. But besides all that has been already arts said. as to advancement choose thsir in learning. work is spent in them while they are at labour. little : .

are married out but all . . But all it is now time ' to explain to you the mutual inter- course x>f-this people. four or cloth. it / since they content themselves with fewer things. all of one colour. without to the fineness of the thread five : much regard while in other places. and they value cloth only by the whiteness / of the linen. I loi is and these are of the wool. man is content with one. their commerce. he had them. since/the chief end of the constitution to is I to regulate labour by the necessities of the public. and the rules by which things are distributed among them. which very often serves him two Nor for is if there anything that can tempt a man to de- more. j OF THEIR TRAFFIC. and that less the natural colour is As they need woollen cloth than is used less anywhere costly. so their families are made up of those that are nearly related to one another.V nor would he make one jot the better appearance for thus. to numbers are sent out is mend the highw ays?^ '^ut when no public undertaking ( be performed. or the cleanness of the wool. it. the hours of working are lessenedTj The magis^ates never engage the people( ini unnecessary 'labour. in which they think the happiness (i of life consists. so that which they make use of much They use linen cloth more . sire . Their women. but that is prepared with less labour. will scarce serve one few. that for want of other work. As their cities are composed of families. of different colours.UTOPIA. when they grow up. else. and to / fallow all the people as much time as iS necessary for the im- I Iprovement of their minds. he would neither be the warmer. since they are all And and out : employed in some useful labour. and while those that are nicer think ten too there years. man every . upper garments of woollen as and many vests of silk. that there is falls ' a great abundance of all things among them J so that vast it frequently happens.

is i^ecessar^_for_his^jubsis_tence^ If an lessene'dThe number of the inhabitants of any of their towns. they drive them out those bounds which tiiey . . such care is taken of the that it becomes fraitful enough for both. but there can be no determined number for the children under age. if they are willing to live with them . the-males. . they supply cities that . besides those of No-family may have less tharu ten. and conform happiness to both nations tion. f'J i UTOPIA. provision is made th at Hone of their cities unless age has may contain above six. thousand families. do if not increase so is from others that breed faster and any increase over the-whole island. and send them over to the neighbouring continent. weakened his understanding and in that case. though it might be otherwise too narrow to and barren for any one of them. of which they make no use A but w hjch^ jg suffergi] . for a nation to Ein3er others from possessing a part of that soil. But if the natives refuse conform themselves to their laws. live still in the same house. ' . . where. and where and this they do that of their own accord. common parent. This rale is easily observed. or by any accident '"be dispeopled. they fix a colony. then they draw out a number of their citizens out of the several towns. |For they account a very just cause of war. of mark out for themselves. By fast. they quickly enter into their to their rules. and more than sixteen pers ons in it . ' in great obedience to their . both children and grandchildren. if they find that the inhabitants have more soil than they can well cultivate. by removing some of the children of a more fruitful couple to any other family that does not abound so the country round much there in them. : proves a for according to their constitusoil. it. he that is next to him in age comes in his room. taking the inhabitants into their society. But lest any city should become either too great. the same rule.Jojie^idle and uncultivated J since every man has_byjhe| acci3ent~has~so law ofHarare-trright to such a \ ucn waste portion of the earth as.lop. it and use force if they resist. method of life.

and always the younger serves the elder. and bread. without their towns. great numbers were carried for they will then supplied by recalling as colonies .. ravenous but besides it in man a pride that v^ makes him fancy a particular glory to excel others in pomp and But by the laws of the Utopians. UTOPIA. their filth . there Near these markets thereXare others is no room for this. smce they are" governor. there is is the fear^STwant that ^s'any ot"Trh5"wnoIe race of animals either greedy or . which are among the best of . is carried from thence to houses appointed for that purpose. : . for killing their beasts. and there is no danger of a man's asking for more than he needs they have no inducements to do this. the is its man of every family. that it 103 "cannot be made up from the other towns of the island. when . but also fish. There are fruits. that they shall always v. and children their parents. many by the plague the loss is as are wanted from their these. and cattle.rit fear. where there are not only herbs. and for washing away excess.qr le avingany thing jn. and in the middle of each there is a market-place what is brought thither. is without diminishing them too much. places running water. as has been already said. bscause they think and good-nature. since! there is such plenty of everything among them . exchange. f There is no reason for giving a deiiial to any person.. without either pa yi ng fp rjt. for all sorts of provisions. which fallen out said to have but twice since they were off first a people. and thither every father goes and takes whatsoever he or his family stand in need of. rather than suffer the abandon towns in the island to sink too low. But to return to oldest their manner of living in society. fowl. and manufactured by the several families.which is done by their Slaves : for they suffer none of that pity their citizens to kill their cattle. Wives serve their husbands. Every city is divided into four equal parts. appointed near some also. be supplied. . in which all things of a sort are laid by themselves .

the Tranibors.104 UTOPIA. and are so : : I 1 i . only. In these halls they all meet and have their repasts. if he would not choose rather to go thither than home. and strangers. they serve the Prince. and according to the number of those that belong to the hall. The stewards of every one of them come to the market-place at an appointed hour. and are so constantly attended by their skilful physicians. in the place. 1 little towns by this means. much impaired those affections that are born with us. The Syphogrants dwell in those that are set over thirty families^ fifteen lying on one side of it. and as inany on the other. if there are any. should lie fall sick at is scarce one in a whole town that. that as none is sent to them against large that they may pass for : they had ever such a . that such iof them as are sick of infectious diseases may be kept so far from the rest that there can be no danger of contagion. In every street there are great halls that lie at an equal distance from each other. then the best things that are left in the market are distributed equally among first the halls. they could |lodge them conveniently. then will. distinguished by particular names. in proportion to their numbers. After the steward of the hospitals has taken for the sick whatsoever the physician prescribes. that are built without their walls. the chief priest. The hospitals are furnished and stored with all things that are convenient for the ease and recovery of the sick and those that are put in them are looked after with such tender and watchful care. the ambassadors. they But they take more care of their carry home provisions. and at such a distance. which . so there ill. are : by the butchering of animals nor do they suffer anything that is foul or unclean to be brought within their townSj lest the air should be infected by ill smells which might prejudice their health. if number of sick persons. these are lodged and provided F sick than of any others they have belonging to every town for in public hospitals four hospitals.

the rest of the younger sort of both sexes. it. they are fit for marriage. fully . Yet after the halls are served. and a ness fire that they is may and dress them before mother. either serve those that sit at table-. if Every child nursed by own death or sickthe Syphois does not intervene. the whole At the hours of dinner and Syphogranty being called together by sound of trumpet. which it. and the 'Ordering their tables. All the children under five years old among till the nurses. rise _ may. UTOPIA. if there shift its is occasion for it. indeed falls I OS out but seldom. hindered to carry provisions for they home from will the market-place know that none does that but for some good reason . there any of them should be taken suddenly ill. no hard matter. and in that case grants' wives find out a nurse quickly. that which room. They sit at three or more tables. without disturbing the and go to the nurse's . . supper. and the if women sit on the other side. and for whom there are houses well furnished. except only such as are in the hospitals. yet none does it willingly. All the uneasy and sordid services about these halls are performed by their slaves^ but the dressing and cooking their meat. and cradles in which lay the they may young children.. no man is . particularly appointed for their reception when they come among them. all those of every family taking it by turns. who is are there with the sucking children where always clean water at hand. since it is for any to give themselves the trouble to make ready an ill dinner at home. for though any that both ridiculous and foolish home. no uncommon case amongst women with child. belong only to eat at I may / women. its so the child whom they nurse considers the nurse as sit mother. she rest. when there is a much more plentiful one made ready for him so near hand. or lie sick at home. for any one that can do offers herself cheer- for as they are much inclined to that piece of mercy. they meet and eat together. according to their number the the men is sit towards the wall.

that the put in for a share talk. and after them the rest are served alike. during their meals. that Syphogranty. but sit long at supper after th-e one. account. during which they think the stomach carries on . Syphogrant and his wife . sit the table. Dishes are not served up to the whole table first first. yet all the rest fare as well as they. who are so placed. this which they say was appointed on gravity of the old people. for If there is a temple within his wife sit with the Syphois . next to him sit there go always four to a mess. for that is the chief and most con- any other formaHty of dining. whose all seats' are distinguished from the young. The old men distribute to the younger any curious meats that happen to be set before them. \^th dinner and supper are begun with some lecture of morality that is read to them . Thus old men are honoured with-i particular respect. lo6 or if UTOPIA. . might restrain the younger from indecent words and at gestures. they are not strong enough for that. spicuous place . they engage them to in that free spirit. nor have they In the middle of the first which stands across the upper end of the hall. stand by them in great silence. if there is not such an abundance of them that the whole company may be served alike. that so : younger may not on the contrary. and grant above all the rest : next them there a mixture of old and young.] but it is so short. with some and pleasant en- largements . that the that is and the reverence all due to them. so they are young are mixed with the more ancient'. and eat what is given them . but they do not engross the whole discourse so to themselves. the priest two of the most ancient.. but the best are set before the old. that as the set near others. and are to sleep after They despatch their dinners quickly. that : it is not tedious nor uneasy to tli&rti to hear it from hence the old men take occasion to enteruseful tain those about them. they may out the force of every one's way of conversation find and observe his temper. because they go to work the other.

but are everywhere treated as stay in if they were at home. and looks after them but unless there arfe women in the company. they want all nothing that may cheer up their : they give themselves a large allowance that way. while" they are at table.oxen. or desires to travel and see the rest of the country. the concoction more vigorously.never_sup without mu§ic4 and there is always fruit served up after meaT. and sprinkle about fragrant ointments and sweet waters spirits : in short. 107 ThCT. carry with them a passport from is the Prince. and sent home disgracefully and if he falls again into the .UTOPIA. granted and limits the time of their return. : : . which both certifies the license that for travelling. when there at is no particular occasion for him home : such as travel. and no family wants any necessary sort of it is from them that provisions are sent unto those that live in the towns. passport. without leave. is found rambling without a is severely treated. and is very well used by those of his own trade but if any man goes out of the city to which he : belongs. he punished as a fugitive. If any man has a mind to visit his friends that live in some other town. They are furnished with a waggon and a slave. Thus do. every one follows his proper occupation. as a needless encumbrance they carry no provisions with them yet they want nothing. he obtains leave very easily from the Syphogrant and Tranibors. he is and . those eats at that are in the towns live together. where they live at great distance. If they any place longer than a night. who drives the' . OF THE TRAVELLING OF THE UTOPIANS. some burn perfumes. every one provision. and indulge themselves in such pleasures as are attended with no inconvenience. but in the country. for home. the waggon is sent back at the end of the journey while they are on the road.

And it is certain that a people thus ordered must live in great abund- ance of all things them. When ill they have thus taken care of their whole country. In their great council at Amaurot. leather. both of corn.send out commonly great quantities to other nations. honey. to their plenty or sc arcity. or be obliged to beg. and these being equally distributed among man can want. wood. or are supplied from one another one family. for accord ing. done freely. they supply. is UTOPIA. as if he were still within it. no . and what are under any that so the is one may be furnished from the other . this towns abound in provisions. . in order an exportation of the overplus. wax. which they do to prevent the consequences of an unfavourable season. or forming themselves into parties : all men live in full view. no alehouses nor stews among themj nor any other : . to which there are three sent from every town once a year.. all They and order a seventh part of these goods to be freely given to the poor of the countries to which they send them. condemned to slavery. and without any sort of exchange . If any man has a mind freely [ to travel only over the precinct of his own city. which they . io8 like fault. he may do it. and cattle . they not only bring back those few things that they need . and to employ themselves well in their spare hours. and laid up stores for two years. occasions of corrupting each other. flax. both to perform their ordinary task. he must labour with them and conform to their rules and if he does this. And by this exchange. he may freely go over the whole precinct being thus as useful to the city to which he belongs. wool. as it were. nor pretences of excusing any from labouiV^There are no taverns. they tallow. he expects to be entertained by them. so that indeed the whole island is. with his father's permission and his wife's consent if but when he comes into any of the country houses. they examine what scarcity. Thus you see that there are no idle perscmajmong them. so that all are obliged. sell the rest at moderate rates. of getting into comers.

in "^ / / proportion as they differ from own custom s^jBut one who find. than to call for it themselves but if they see that any of their other neighbours stand more in need of it. will not wonder to since their constitution differs so much from ours. but likewise a great deal of gold and driving this trade so long. that it work even on it is : will engage them it. that can judge aright. their value of gold . because if I had not seen it myself. I could not have been easily persuaded to have believed it upon any^ -—. as to be hardly credible. or at least to desert thit the best — — — ' y / It is certain that all things appear incredible to us. it In great extremities * or sudden accidents they employ in hiring foreign troops. they make use of it themselves.. or enjoy the the Utopians and they choose rather to let the greatest part of it lie in their hands who make advantage by it. UTOPIA. raise it owe it to them. and means of raising mutual jealousies among them for this end they have an incredible treasure . either to betray their own side. which is the only occasion in which their treasure can be usefully em: : ployed. then they call it in and lend it to them whenever they are engaged in war. but the writing runs in the . but in such a manner as I am almost afraid to tell. This I have the more reason to apprehend. whom people will they more willingly expose to danger than their : own they give them great pay. name of the town and the towns that from those private hands that their public call for it • owe them money. knowing well that this their enemies. lest you think it so extravagant. but they do not keep it as a treasure. it and by so that their is not to be imagined : vast a treasure they have got among them how now do not much care whether they sell off their merchanmoney in hand. lay it up in profit of it till chamber. private man stands bound. A great part of their treasure is now in bonds but in all their contracts no they dise for . at home (for indeed they scarce need anything but silver . or upon trust. : man's report. 109 iron).

an indulgent parent. would fall. a war made it necessary to employ all it in paying their soldiers. they value it no farther than it is deserves. into vessels. or glass. their opinion that Nature. us. So that it : must prefer iron live either to gold or silver for men can no more without iron. the people might grow too fond of if and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down. but keep as a provision events which seldom happen. silver and for should be measured by a very different standard they have it since no use for money among themagainst selves. which make an agreea]jle_ap]jearance though formed of brittle grials: ^Mferthey maks stools of gold and silver and thal^t only in their public halls. and between which there are generally long intervening intervals.. 110 J UTOPIA. . and give which the people are apt If they to a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their should work that it own private advantage. but in t heir jj rivate houses Yof the same metals they" Tikewise make chains' and fetters for their skves~7 to some very different from ours. it is of men has enhanced the value of gold and because of their scarcity. They eat and drink out of vessels of earth. has freely given us all the best things in great abundance. . or any sort of plate. To prevent exis it these inconveniences. so and will scarce gain belief among who value gold so much. raise a jealousy of the Prince birth to that foolish mistrust into and Senate. but Nature has marked out no use for the other metals. and lay it up so carefully. . they fear it. on the contrary. they in proportion to its use. The silver. such as water and earth. which as agrees with their other policy. but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless. that plain. so essential as not easily to folly be dispensed with. as Whereas. is. If these metals were laid it up in any tower in the kingdom. than without fire or water. they have fallen it upon an pedient.

that silk is despised. they do not look after they find them by chance. I never sions that saw a clearer instance of the opposite impresdifierent customs make on people. the deputies from several towns to wait for their coming. as a badge of infamy.UTOPIA. but when they grow to years. lay them aside and would be as much ashamed to use them afterwards. to render gold and thus they take care. they of their own accord. by all possible means. And from hence it that while other nations part with their gold if and silver. who are delighted with them. but their rocks. parting with a all they possess of when trifle. knowing their customs. to who came Amaurot when I was there. and with them they adorn their children. . than I observed in the ambassadors of the Anemolians. Ill of which. They if find pearls and diamonds and carbuncles on them. as children among us. underall standing that they were coarsely clothed. they polish them. and silver of no esteem. and gold is a badge of infamy. and see that none but children use such baubles. those of Utopia would look on their giving in those (metals. as imwillingly as one tore out their bowels. that fine clothes are in no esteem among them. there were any use for them) but as the or as we would esteem on their coast. . and having had commerce with them. they hang an ear-ring of gold. are of their puppets and other toys. when they come to years. the loss of a penny. and in the same manner. bid "by their parents. without being . As they came to treat of aflfairs of great consequence. and glory in them during their childhood . use to come very modestly clothed. took those fine had none of things among them of which they made no use it for granted that they and they being a vain-glorious rather than a wise people. lie met together and The ambassadors of the nations that near Utopia. and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal is. but the Anemolians lying more little remote.

when see they compared their rich habits vrith the plain clothes of the Utopians. clad in silk garments of different colours. It appeared so ridiculous a show to nations. 'M While their mothers very inno- cently replied. this I believe is one of for the ambassador's fools. how they looked big. that though they paid that had never stirred out of their country. their country. they looked upon them as slaves. the marks of infamy. " Hold'^ur peace. much pomp. who were of the nobility of were in cloth of gold. You might have seen the children. who were come out : in great numbers to them make their entry and. that resolved to set themselves out with so they should look like gods. and strike the eyes of the poor Utopians with their splendour. they were set out withTall those things that. and forbore them with reverence. to observe how much they were mistaken in the impression which they hoped this pomp would have made on all them. yet selves. they were too slight to bind their slaves. and adorned with ear-rings massy chains. or the playthings of childrenH It was not unpleasant to see. when they saw to treat so full of gold and chains. who could easily break them .. were either the badges of slavery. and had not seen the customs of other that were the most meanly clad. call to their mothers. and who had thrown away push them gently^ and cry out. on the other. mius three ambassadors all made their entry with an hundred attendants. and besides hung so loose about them. that . their jewgls. on the one side. as some reverence to those if they had been the the ambassadors them- ambassadors." their chains. 112 UTOPIA. who were grown big enough to despise their playthings. and the greater part in the ambassadors themselves. and rings of goldj^their caps were covered with bracelets set full of pearls and other gems : in a word. I among the Utopians. Others censured the fashion of that they were of and observed no use . V See that gre^fool that wears pearls if and gems. as he wereyet a child.

and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses. a jewel or a stone. though they neither in owe him anything. of a finer tliread it for how fine soever that thread may was once no better than the fleece of a sheep. he were a thing that its belonged to his wealth. But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them. that can look up to a or to the sun how any(should value himself because his cloth : made be. their plumes fell. and that sheep was a sheep still for all its wearing it. which despised by them as it was esteemed in other and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to. a resolution that they immediately took. he himself would very if soon become one of his servants. that even men was made. should have many wise and good men to serve him. only because he has a great heap of that metdl and that if it should happen that by some accident or trick of yet lead. or is The Utopians wonder how any man much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of star. yet merely because he rich give him little .sort dependent on is his less bounty. and by whom it has its value. law (which sometimes produces as great changes as chance itself) all this wealth should pass from the master to the his meanest varlet of whole family. and so were bound to follow But they much more admire and detest the folly of those who when they see a rich man. and so get from them. nor are any . as fortune. and is as bad as he is foolish. and accord- was as much nations. and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formerly valued themselves. They wonder much to hear that gold which in itself is so useless a thing. That a man of who has no more sense than a log of wood. when on their engaging in some free discourse with the Utopians. it 113 they thought easy to throw them away. they discovered their sense of such things and their other customs.'^ UTOPIA. should be thought of less value than this metal. should for whom it be ever3rwhere so much esteemed. ingly laid it aside . should be so himself.

114 than divine honours . and in which a man can fully express his mind. long as he s^^ notwithstanding it all his wealth. logic. UTOPIA. labour as to give themselves entirely these being only such persons as discover from their child- hood an extraordinary capacity and disposition for letters yet their children. and geometry. being bred in a country whose customs and laws are opposite to all such foolish maxims.. that none of them could comprehend what we meant when we talked to them of a man in the abstract. even though they know him to be so that covetous and base-minded. both in music. and partly from their learning are but few in and studies . their own tongue. and yet they had made the same discoveries as the Greeks. But as they are almost in everything equal to the ancient philosophers. as none of them could perceive him). he will not part with one farthing of lives. and fantastical images made in the mind. yet from every one. for though there any town that are so wholly excused from up to their studies. for they have never yet fallen upon the barbarous niceties that our youth are forced to learn in those trifling logical schools that are are so far from I i among us . to them as These and such like notions has that people imbibed. partly from their education. many countries. It runs over a great tract of pure in all places. but it i? not equally They had never so much as heard of the names of any of those philosophers that are so famous in these parts of the world. and a great part of the nation. as common to all men in particular (so that though we spoke tinct of him as a thing that we could point at with our fingers. they mindmg chimeras. arithmetic. both men and womenTare taught to spend those hours in which they are not obligSflTto work in readingl and this they do through They have all their learning in the whole progress of life. and yet disif he were some monstrous Colossus . before we went ariiong them . which is both a copious and pleasant language.. so they far \ j exceed our modern logicians .

partly as our ancient philosophers have done. it has not so much as entered into their thoughts. since without the former they reckon that all our inquiries after happiness must be but conjectural and defective. indeed. and nature both of the heavens and the earth they dispute of them. as well as from natural reason.UTOPIA. "S empty notions. or but as to the philosophy of these its saltness of the sea. well contrived and accurately divided. yet the chief part of a O man's happiness in pleasure. and have many instru- ments. They have a particular sagacity. founded upon much observation. and stars. the causes of the . But for the cheat. by which they very compute the course and positions of the sun. of divining by the stars by their oppositions or conjunctions. or if that term their belong only to the endowments of the soul. or giant. not the whole. and whether not in : any outward thing can be called truly good. / . They seem. wind. likewise into the nature of virtue They inquire and pleasure . they have the same disputes among them as we have here they examine what are properly good both for the body and the mind. moon. so they upon some new do all things agree among themselves. of original ebbing and flowing. in which. for rain. in judging of the weather. and of the . and partly hypothesis. as they differ from them. and. and or in a to that it consists? many? Whether in some one thing. V > strange. but chirfd^gute wherein great ' is concerning the j^ppiness of a man. for the support of that opinion so indulgent to pleasure^for tjiey never dis- pute concerning happiness without fetchmg some arguments from the principles of religion. they make use of arguments even from its severity and roughness. Yet for all this ignorance of these \ they knew astronomy. and were perfectly acquainted with the motions of the heavenly bodies. what notwithstanding may seem more religion. by which they know when they may look other alterations in the air things. more inclinable if opinion that places. As to moral philosophy.

and think that we are made for that by God they believe that a man then follows the dictates of Nature when he pursues . that it a living according to Nature. to whom we owe both all that we have. pointed rewards for good and virtuous actions. In the next place. a party among them who is is place happiness in bare virtue others think that our natures are conducted by virtue to happiness. they think that man to believe unlawful I . after there nothing to be expected all sorts death ? Yet they do not place happiThere is . ^|hey end . if but willingly to undergo prospect of a reward. his is much man has no for And whole what reward can there be life. but only in those that in thera- selves are good and honest. that a lesser pleasure might 1 not stand in the way of a greater. reason directs us to keep our minds as free from passion and as cheerful as we can. define virtue thus. and that no pleasure ought to be pursued that should draw a great deal of pain after it for they think virtue. using pnly this caution. but in pain. that is it the maddest thing difficult life. and that God of His goodness has designed and that He has therefore apit should be happy. world to pursue a sour and a thing and not only to renounce the pleasures of pain and trouble. ii6 UTOPIA. and punishtliat ments for vice. that the soul of These are is man immortal. and all that we can ever hope for. to be distributed after this life. in the . ness in ' of pleasures. and that we should consider ourselves as bound by the ties of good-nature and humanjtyjo use the kindling in us a love . as that which the chief good of man. their religious principles. and freely confess that if these were taken away no man would be so insensible as not to seek after pleasure by all possible means. or avoids things first according to the direction of reason dictate of reason is they say that the and reverence for the Divine Majesty. these principles of religion are conveyed Though down among fhem even reason itself determines a and acknowledge them.. one that has passed if not only without pleasure. lawful or by tradition.

but on the contrary. Upon this that no man ought to seek his own conveniences ..~for there never was any man such a morose and severe pursuer of virtue. that though he set hard rules for men to undergo much pain. in order to relieve and ease the miserable. Nature much more vigorously leads them to do / all this for himself A life of pleasure is either a real evil. such an enemy to pleasure. in furnishing them with_the_comforts_ of life. or if it is a so that we not only may. Nature inno man so much raised above the rest of mankind as to be the only favourite of Nature. 117 all our utmost endeavours to help forward the happiness of other persons^. Thus. and of in that case we ought not is to assist others in their pursuit it all it. so they imagine that Nature prompts all people on to seek after They also observe that pleasure. who.UTOPIA. for Nature cannot to i be^good and kind to others. from we can. there being no virtue more proper and peculiar to our nature. seems to have placed on a level all those that they infer belong to the same species. and deadly . ia-ffihich-pleasure' consists. many watchings. it. . but ought to help most hurtful others to Since no good of why then ought not a man to begin with himman can be more bound to look after the another than after his own. as from that which good self? thing. and other rigours. so eagerly as to prejudice others that not only all and therefore they think agreements between private persons ought . as the end of all they do. yet did not at the same time advise them to do all they could. to free from trouble and anxiety. direct us to same time in order to our supporting the pleasures of clines us to enter into society . as they define virtue to be living according to Nature. to keep them. than to ease the miseries of others. and yet at the be unmerciful and crael to ourselves. and who did not represent gentleness and good-nature as amiable dispositions. for there is life. jKnd from " thence tJiey"in"fef that ff a man ought to^advarrce the welfare and comfort of the rest of mankind. on the contrary.

all be observed . Thus they . Thus upon an inquiry into the whole matter^ they reckoji p that all our actions. in which Nature teaches us to dehght. and the reflections that he makes on the love and gratitude of those whom he has so obliged. so if that should fail him. nor lose the possession of greater pleasures. an evidence of true wisdom for a man own it . for as he may expect the like from^ others ' when he may come to need it. has consented. as in our chief end and greatest happiness and they call every motion or state. yet the sense of a good action. of which religion easily convinces a good soul. and that by this means a good man finds as much pleasure one way. They account piety to prefer the public good to one's to private concerns but they think it unjust for a man by snatching another man's pleasures from him. and by which we neither injure any other person. ei ther of body or mind. though common. for a man to dispense with his own advantage for the good of others . mistake call . with a vast and endless joy. as far as the laws allow it. for they say that Nature leads us only to those delights to which reason as well as sense carries us. and even all our virtues. and of such as draw no troubles after them. \ '\i cautiotisly limit pleasure only to those appetites to which Nj^ire leads us . but they look upon those delightswhicb men by a foolish. And on the contrary. that is neither oppressed with tyranny nor circumvented by fraud. gives the mind more' pleasure than the body could have found in that from which it had restrained itself They are also persuaded that God will make up the loss of those small pleasures. terminate in I pleasure.ii8 to UTOPIA. advantages. but likewise that those laws oaght to be kept. a pleasure. with another . as he parts seek for pleasure. which either a good prince has published in due form. whicb a people. they think it a sign of a gentle and good soul. for distributing or to those conveniences of They think to pursue his it is life which afford us all our pleasures.

or making him ? Will the bending another man's knees give ease to yours ? And ? will the head's being bare cure the yet it madness of yours this false And is wonderful to see hpw notion of pleasure bewitches many who delight themselves with the fancy of their nobility. as others. pleasures. rich. sure can one legs to man find in another's standing bare. they reckon such as mentioned before. if that respect folly is not paid them. but are made even I the greatest designs Among those who pursue these sophisticated plea- sures. : appetites after forbidden objects. and in that they have of themselves . why ? should a fine thread be thought better than a coarse one And yet these men. for if you consider the use of if clothes. and imagine that a respect is due to them for the sake of a rich garment. and are jjtSased with thife conceit. which signify nothing : for what true or real plea. . they had some real advantages and did not owe them wholly to their misseem to fancy themselves to be more valuable. they have a good deal of bitterness in them and yet from our perverse . things as the use of words as things that greatly obstruct their real happiness. It also a great to be taken with outward marks of respect. that they are for descended from ancestors. instead of advancing it. as if U9 they could change as easily the nature of . pleasure. in which they think they are doubly mistaken. resent is it as an affront. that there is no room left for pleasures of a triier or purer kind. look big. There are many things that in themselves have nothing that is truly delightful on the contrary. because they so entirely possess the minds of those that are once capti- vated by them with a false notion of pleasure. who have been held some successions and who . who think iine themselves really the better for having clothes. both in the opinion that they have of their clothes. are not only ranked among the of life. to which they would not have pretended if they had been more meanly clothed and even beyond takes.UTOPIA.

have had great possessions whit the left for nobility at preseiiFj yet they this is all that makes do not think themselves a less not5Te. being thus cut off from being useful. or gaming : of whose . The Utopians have no better opinion of those who are much taken with gems and pre- cious stones.I20 UTOPIA. Those are no better whose error 'is somewhat it different of their fear of losing hiding from the former. enjoy any true pleasure in it? only a false shadow of joy. : but merely to please themselves with the contemplation of The delight they find is it. Among those foolish pursuers of pleasure. times universally of the . or rather the restoring to it again. and who account if it a degree of happiness. . they reckon all that delight in hunting. nor will men buy it unless it be dismounted and taken out of the gold the jeweller is then made to give good security. either to its owner or And yet the owner having hid it to the rest of mankind ? carefully. that by such an exact caution a false one might not be bought instead of a though if you were to examine it. your eye could find true no difference between the counterfeit and that which is true . is next to a divine one. though their immediate parents have none of this wealth to them. he thinks he is now sure of it. out the it fit in the earth. or though they themselves have squandered it away. so that they are all one to you as much as if you were Or can it be thought that they who heap up an useblind. in fowling. aud who hide it . extraordinary is . very that all especially be of that for the sort of stones sort is then in greatest request same not at ^ame value . If it should be the owner. would find no difference between his having or losing it for both ways it was equally useless to him. for what other name can it it. they can purchase one that if it . of which he knew nothing. because stole. is glad. though he might live per- haps ten years after the theft. less mass of wealth. and required solemnly to swear that the stone is true. not for any use that it is to bring them.

are all slaves . yeTthey imagine that . or that at least by the frequent returns of so brutal a pleasure must degenerate into it. for they have no such things among them. they think the doing of it so often should give one a surfeit of one find it and what pleasure can and howling of dogs. and those. turned over to their butchers. as pleasures the Utopians. and they look on hunting one of the basest parts of a butcher's work for they account it both more profitable and more decent to kill : those beasts that are more necessary and useful to mankind . 121 madness they have only heard. pore than of seeing one dog run after another . They look on the desire as a mark of a mind that of the bloodshed. what sort of pleasure is it that men can find in throwing the dice ? For if there were any pleasure in it. as has been already as said. Thus. be reckoned among pleasures create : for though these things this may some tickling in the senses (which seems to be a does not true notion of pleasure}. observing that there is nothing in them truly pleasant. which seem rather odious than pleasant sounds? /^r can theycom: in hearing the barking prehend the pleasure of seeing dogs ruit-Sfter a hare. for if tKeseeing them run is that which gives the pleasure. though the rabble of mankind look upon these. harmless and fearful hare should be devoured by strong. and on innumerable other things of the same nature. on the contrary. fierce. is already corrupted with cruelty. : Therefore all this business of hunting is. among the Utopians. even of beasts. show whereas the killing and tearing of so small and miserable an animal can only attract the huntsman with a false of pleasure. conclude that they are not to . this ought rather to stir pity. But they have asked us.UTOPIA. and cruel dogs. you have the same entertainment to the eye on both these occasions since that is the same in both cases but if the pleasure lies in seeing the hare killed and torn by the dogs. from which he can reap but small advantage. that a weak.

nor act others. the one that which gives our senses sorne either real delight. This lively healrii. nor its being relieved when overcharged. and the assured hopes of a the pleasures of the body t They is divide is into two sorts . independent of all external objects of delight and though this pleasure does not so powerfully affect us. and performed. vitiate a man's may as women with child think pitch or tallow taste sweeter than rupted. feed the internal heat of life us to the propagation of the species. taste. or that which arises frorn satisfying the appetite which Nature fcas wisely given to lead by recruiting nature. and in that : delight which the contemplation of truth ^carries with it . and yet by a secret. does not it change the -nature of other things. of itself gives an inward . and supplying those parts which by eating and drinking. future happiness. when *' entirely free from all mixture of pain. The pleasures of the mind lie in knowledge. this is the pleasure that arises from music. and strikes the mind with generous impressions of pleasure that arises neither from our receiving '{ . so neither can the nature of pleasure. to which^ th^^add the joyful reflections on a well-spent hfe. but as a man's sense when corby a disease or some ill habit. on the senses as some of the all it may all be esteemed as the greatest of pleasures. or when nature is eased of any surcharge that oppresses it . pleasure. unseen virtue affects the senses. from the thing itself. There is another kind . change They reckon up several sorts of pleasures. either honey . when life and active n spirits seem to actuate every part. that bitter things which may so pass for sweet . : (the Utopians reckon the foundation and basis of the . what the body requires.122 arise UTOPIA. but from a depraved custom. ' bodily pleasure is that which results Another kind of from an undisturbed and vigorous constitution of body. raises the passions. yet it so strongly ^. which they call true ones some belong to the body and others to the mind. and almost all. when we are relieved from sudden pain.

being thus refreshed. does. the victory must yet breed a greater pleasure.lutely deny it it. which as opposite nature to pleasure as sickness is itself is to health : . drive away hunger. or that so it it begets a pleasure. that health accompanied with pleasure is it. they absowelfare. that those whose health : have a true pleasure in the enjoyment of it and they reason thus what is the pleasure of eating.UTOPIA. ? entire health could be called Some have thought pleasure but what was excited But this that there was no by some sensible motion in opinion has been long ago excluded from among them. They look upon free- dom a from pain. they look upon that as a It is is much it one. in their opinion. if it does not from perfect health. to be This subject . has been very narrowly canvassed among them and it has been debated whether a firm and a pleasure or not the body. be granted. so if it they hold. state of stupidity rather than of pleasure. 123 since this alone '. that does not all not really pain. . and so neither knows nor rejoices in its own If it is said that health cannot be felt. as all gives entire heat . whether be said that health fire is in itself a pleasure. makes the state of life easy and desirable really capable of and when rise this is wanting. and so recruiting itself recovers its former vigour? And . otherj^oys of life . except that it it we fancy becomes stupid as soon as it has obtained that which pursued. so that agree that health is t he now they almost universally greatest of all bodilv plcap^^p^ j_ is and that as there in its is a pain in sickness. with the assistance of food. and any should say that sickness only carries pain along with fetch of subtilty. but that a man's — health which had been Weakened. but that alter the matter. it finds a pleasure in that conflict and if the conflict is pleasure. a man is no other pleasure. for what man is is in health that does not perceive awake ? Is there any man that is so dull and stupid as not to acknowledge that he feels a delight in And what is delight but another name for pleasure? health ? when he .

but a miserable state of a life. all ' But of virtue. be mos t valu- mind and the witness of a good conscience. .hat^He in the . but when they are mixed with the contrary give pains. and both expire They think. pain.any man a real happiness in these enjoyments. balances the pleasure so it it and here the pain outand as the pain is more vehement. thirst. for we can never relish them. if pleasant to us. begins before the pleasure. who has planted in us appetites. These are indeed the lowest of pleasures.Cjf. and with due Author of by which those life things that are necessary for our preservation are likewise made be. for as it lasts much longer . and by consequence in perpetual eating. all imagines that there . than to be obliged to indulge it. They account health the chief pleasure that belongs to the body for they think that the pleasure of eating and drinking. pleasures. the chief of which arises out of true other delights of sense. none of those pleasures are to be valued any further than as they are necessary . The pain of hunger must us the pleasure of eating. therefore.are not pleasant in themselves. and the least itching.\l:e must then confess that he would be the happiest of if men and ing. yet they rejoice in them.. drinkand scratching himselfjj which any one may easily see would be not only a base. does not cease but with the pleasure that extinguishes together. and all the ableJ. rather than to find ease by t his remedies so it is more is desirable not to ne ed sort of pleasure. pure.124 y UTOPIA. so it. still otherwise than as they resist those impressions that our natural infirmities are making upon . gratitude acknowledge the tenderness of the great Nature. But they. are only so far desirable as they give ' or maintain health. they esteem those to . he were to lead his life in perpetual hunger. For how miserable a thing would bitter those daily diseases of hunger and thirst were to be carried off by such drugs as we must use for those .us : for as a wise man and desires rather to avoid diseases than to take physic to be freed from .

and therefore rejects all His blessings . marked out nor is peculiarly for man. . that • : . and life. as one who should afHict himself for the empty shadow of virtue . They relishes also entertain themselves with the other delights let in at their eyes. for which he expects a greater recompense from God. to give you This . unless some discovery from Heaven should inspire him with sublimer notions. satisfaction. that constitution. for I have only undertaken. which they think always it follows dishonest pleasures. their nostrils. their ears. or the force of his natural strength sloth to corrupt the sprightliness of his and laziness. and that pleasure may never breed pain. as the pleasant and seasonings of which Nature seems since to have of . I have not now the leisure to examine whether they think right or wrong in this matter nor do I judge it necessary. or for no better end than to render himself capable of bearing those misfortunes which possibly will as the mark of a mind that is both cruel to itself. But they think madness for a man to wear out the beauty of . any farther than as they dis- by them . body by madand reject it is \ \ by renouncing his own. So that they look on such a course of life unless \ \ 1 and ungrateful to the Author of Nature. never happen. he can either serve the public or promote the happiness of others. \ . his face. as if we would not be beholden to Him for His favours. nor do they apprehend the concords yet in all or discords of sound pleasures whatsoever they take care that a lesser joy does not hinder a greater.UTOPIA. no other sort animals contemplates the figure and beauty of the universe tinguish meats delighted with smells. is their notion of virtue and of pleasure they think no man's reason can carry him to a truer idea of them. . diseases that return seldomer 125 upon us? And thus these pleasant as well strength as proper gifts of Nature maintain the and the sprightliness of our bodies. fasting . or to waste it by ness to weaken the strength of his the other delights of life .

it was strange to see how eagerly they were set on learning that language. we found they made such progress. They learned successful than to write their . by their temperate air. but an account of principles. yet they fortify themselves so well life. against the unhealthiness of their and by is their industry they so cultivate their soil. the Greeks. or of some rivers. so as to be floated to them for it is a harder work to carry wood at any distance over land. But a very short trial. and though they are but of a middle soil and have neither the fraitfuUest course of nor the purest air in.126 UTOPIA. except their historians and their poets. as well as cheerful and pleasant . The inly all the art that the . when . that we saw our labour was like to be more we could have expected. Their principal motive for this is the convenience of carriage. there not in the whole world either a better : people or a happier government their bodies are vigorous stature. their constitution. niDt husbandman employs in manuring and improving an ill soil. not to defend all their I am is sure. that their timber may be either near their towns. and lively . or growing on the banks of the sea. than out of any hopes of their reaping from after it any great advantage. and freer from : one may there see reduced to practice. that they would value much). than corn. concerning that there rather in compliance with their importunity. apt to learn. nor are there anywhere healthier men. that whatsoever may be said of their notions. it is necessary. where there were none before. They are unwearied pursuers of knowledge hints of the learning for when we had given them some and discipline of we know whom we only instructed them (for was nothing among the Romans. but except in that case they love their ease. We began to read a little of it to them. people are indilstrious.the world. that there no- where to be seen a greater increase both of corn and diseases for cattle. but whole woods plucked up by the roots. and none can endure more labour. and in other places new ones planted.

among their though some studied learned men. for I was coming back. nor have they any dictionaries but Hesichius They esteem Plutarch highly. Thucydides. to my great regret. we were a monkey had seized upon leaves. that it would have looked like a miracle if the greater part of those whom we taught had not been men both of extraordinary capacity and of a fit age for instruction. In three years' time they became masters of the I whole language. they remembered it so faithfully. One . 12? and to ptonounce their language so exactly. which they hold in greati estimation . Thrieius Apinatus. and were much taken with Lucian's wit^ and with his pleasant way of writing.UTOPIA. and for historians of my companions. had so quick an apprehension. was imperfect at sea. for though there is no nation in the Euripides. that are of Greek derivation. As for the poets. yet they retain many names. characters. of merchandise. while it. I believe that they their wer e^^ g. learned that language the more from its having i sortie relation to their own. Herodotus and Herodian. jcdbany for their I of the Greeks . am indeed apt to think that they easily. happened to carry with him some of Hippocrates's works. both towns and magistrates. and Sophocles ofAldus's edition . doras with for I did not carry me . by of their own "accord. happened to carry a great many books with me. I had also Theophrastus on Plants. and I gave them all my books. and Dioscorides. and in many places torn out the They have no Theo- books of grammar but Lascares. and Galen's Microtechne. that I rather thought never to have returned at all. when my so far from thinking of soon which. Homer. so that they read the best of the Greek authors very exactly. instead I sailed fourth voyage . among which were many of Plato's and some of Aristotle's works. for though language comes nearer the Persian. and became so ready and correct in the use of it. . they have Aristophanes. They were it for the greatest part chosen from their chief council. for having laid it carelessly by.

but be quickly supplied with many copies of them at present. and the mystery of printing . looks on this glorious scene with the eyes of a dull and un- concerned spectator. Two things they : owe yet manufacture of paper. now they ha^ee^jy^ted the manuand set up pri'^SJppresses. but think that such inquiries are very acceptable to the Author of Nature . so an exact and curious observer.when fenced with a' love for learning. as they search into the secrets of Nature. We showed them some books printed by Aldus. yet : by several impressions they If have multiplied them into many to thousands. They seized the hints we gave them. little : world that needs physic so as they do. on reeds. but that a great part of the invention was their own. by which. is who ad- mires His workmanship. so that if had but a good number of Greek authors they would . and imagine that as He. and though at first iJaey could not arrive at perfection. Before this they only wrote on parchment. but as we had never practised these arts. they. so they not only find this study highly agreeable. like the inventors of curious engines amongst mankind. much more acceptable to Him than one of the herd. has exposed this great machine of the universe to the view of the only creatures capable of contemplating it. The minds of the Utopians . and conquered every difficulty. we described them in a crude and superficial manner. who like a beast incapable of reason. though they have no more than those I have mentioned. we explained to them the way of making paper. any man was go among th^m that had . or on the barks of trees factures of paper. yet there is not any that honours of it it so much they reckon the knowledge one of the pleasantest and most profitable parts of philosophy. yet by making many essays they at last found out and corrected all their errors. the it to perfection.128 UTOPIA. and the art of printing they are not so entirely indebted to us for these discoveries. are very ingenious in discovering all such arts as are necessary to carry to us.

'

UTOPIA.
some extraordinary
talent, or that

129

by much

travelling

had

observed the customs of

many

nations (which

made

us to

be so well received), he would receive a hearty welcome ; for they are very desirous to know the state of the whole world.
can a

Very few go among them on the account of traffic, for what man carry to them but iron, or gold, or silver, which
merchants desire rather to export than import to a strange

and as for their exportation, they think it better to manage that themselves than to leave it to foreigners, for by this means, as they understand the state of the neighbouring countries better, so they keep up the art of navigation, which cannot be maintained but by much practice.
country
:

1

]

OF THEIR SLAVES, AND OF THEIR MARRIAGES.
They do
not

make

slaves of prisoners of war, except those
;

that are taken in battle

n^'ot

the sons of their slaves, nor of

th ose of other natio ns
as are

:

the s laves

among them
life for

are only siich/k.

condemned
or,

to that state of
is

the commission of •^

some crime,
trade,

which

more common^ sucnasTESrmerin those parts to

~ctIants~5na~condemned to die

which they
',

whom

they sometinies redeem at low rates

and

in

other places have
petual labour,
that t heir

them

for nothing.

They

are kept at perthis difference,

and are always chained, but with
natives are treated

own

much worse

than others
rest,

;

they are considered as more profligate than the
since they could not

and

be restrained by the advantages of so

excellent an education, are judged worthy of harder usage.

Another
countries,

sort

of slaves are the poor of the neighbouring
offer

who

of their

own accord

to

come and

serve

them;

they treat these better,

and use them
is

in all other
their im-

respects as well as their

own countrymen, except
it
;

posing more labour upon them, which
those that have been accustomed to

no hard task to and if any of these

;

I30

UTOPIA.

have a mind to go back to their own country, which indeed falls out but seldom, as they do not force them to stay, so
they do not send them away empty-handed.
I have already told
their sick, so that

nothing

you with what care they look after is left undone that can contribute
:

either to their ease or health

and

for those

who

are taken

with fixed and incurable diseases, they use
to cherish them,
possible.

all

possible ways

and
visit

to

make

their lives as comfortable as

They

them

often,
:

and take great pains
is

to

make

their time pass off easily

but when any
is

taken

witli,

a torturing and lingering pain, so that there
exhort them, that since they are
the business of
life,

of recovery or ease, the priests and magistrates

no hope, either come and now unable to go on with

to all about them,

are become a burden to themselves and and they have really outlived themselves,

they should no longer nourish such a rooted distemper, but

choose rather
^

to. die,

since they cannot live but in
if

much
they

misery

:

being assured, that

they thus deliver themselves

from
;

torture, or are

willing that others should

do

it,

be happy after death. Since by their acting thus, they '•lose none of the pleasures, but only the troubles of life they think they behave not only reasonably, but in a manner [Consistent with religion and piety because they follow the
shall
;

advice given them bvtheir priests,
*of the will of

who

are the expounders
per-

God. TSuch as are wrought on by these

suasions, either starve themselves of their

own
;

accord, or

take opium, and by that means die without

pamX But no
and
if

man

is

forced on

this,

way
it,

of ending his
this

life

they
fail

cannot be persuaded to
in their attendance

does not induce them to
;

and care of them
it

but as they believe

i

'

chosen upon such an any man takes away his own life, without the approbation of the priests and the Senate, they give him none of the honours of a decent funeral, but throw his body into a ditch.
that
is

a voluntary death, when
is

authority,

very honourable, so

if

UTOPIA.
Their

131

women

are not married before eighteen, nor their,
if

men

before two-and-twenty, and

any of them run into

for-

bidden embraces before marriage they are severely punished, and the privilege of marriage is denied them, uiiless they
can obtain a special warrant from the Prince.
orders cast a great reproach
the family in which they happen, for

Such

dis-

upon the master and mistress of
it is

supposed that they
,

have

failed in their duty.
is^

The reason
if

of punishing this so

sevei'ely

because they think that

they were not

strictly

!

would engage in a state in which they venture the quiet of their whole lives, by being confined to one person, and are obliged to endure all the inconveniences with which it is accompanied. In choosing their wives they use a method that would appear to us very absurd and ridiculous, but it is constantly observed among them, and is accounted perfectly consistent with wisdom. \ Before marriage some grave matron presents the bride nake^T^whether she is a virgin or a widow, to the bridegroom; and after that some grave man presents the, jbridegropm naked to the bride. We indeed both laughed at this, and condemned it as very indecent. But they, on the other hand, wondered at the folly of the men of all other nations, who, if they are but to buy a horse of a small value, are so cautious that they will see every part of him, and take pfF both his saddle and all his other tackle, that there may be no secret ulcer hid under any of them ; and ^^at yet in the choice of a wife, on which depends the happiness
restrained from all vagrant appetites, very few
,

or unhappiness of the rest of his

life,

a

man

should venture

upon

and only see about a hand's-breadth of the face^ all the rest of the body being covered, under which there may lie hid what may be contagious, as well as loathtiTist,

some.

\

All

men

are not so wise as to choose a
;

woman
:

only

for her

and_evenwise men considerjiie body ,aSml]3at_which adds not a little to the mmd and It is certain there may be some such deformity covered with the
good
qualities

E 2

132
clothes as
is

UTOPIA,
may
totally alienate a

man

from his wife when
is

it

too late to part with her.

If such a thing

discovered

after marriage,

a
it

man
is

has no remedy but patience.

They

therefore think

reasonable that there should be good

provision

made against such mischievous frauds. There was so much the more reason for them

to

make

a

regulation in this matter, because they are the only people

of those parts that neither_allowj^polygamy,_nor of divorces,^

except in the case of ISuItery, or insufferable perverseness
for in these cases the

j.

Senate dissolves the marriage, and
;

grants the injured person leave to marry again
guilty are

but the

made

infamous, and are never allowed the privilege

of a second marriage.

None
;

are suffered to put

away

their

wives against their

wills,

from any great calamity that may
for they look

have

fallen

on

their persons

on

it

as the height

'

of cruelty

and treachery

to

abandon

either of the married

when they need most the tender care of their comfort, and that chiefly in the case of old age, which as it -carries many diseases along with it, so it is a disease of itself. _£ut it frequently falls out that when a married couple do not well agree, they by mutual consent separate, and find out
persons
other persons with
happily.

,

whom

they hope they

may

live

more

Yet

this is

not done without obtaining leave of

the Senate^Vwhich never admits of a divorce, but upon a
strict inqttify

into the grounds

made, both by the senators and their wives, upon which it is desired j and even when
it,

they are satisfied concerning the reasons of

they go on
in

but

slowly,

for they

imagine that too great easiness

granting leave for

new marriages would very much shake

the kindness of married people,
that defile the, marriage-bed.

^hey

punish severely those
parties are married

IfBoth
;

they are divorced, and the injured persons
another, or

may marry one
,

whom

they please

but the adulter er and the
if

adidleiess_axe-ce.Bd«mngito^Kg£^"Yet

either of the

injured persons cannot shake off the love of the married

UTOPIA.
person, tHey

133

-

may live with them still in that state, but they (T must follow them to that labour to which the slaves are condemned; and sometimes the repentance of the condemned,
together with the unshaken kindness of the innocent

and
they

injured person, has prevailed so far with the Prince that he

has taken off the sentence

;

but those that relapse

after

are once pardoned are punished with death.
-AQieir lajy-4Ges.uiot determine the
-

punishment

for other

jrimes

;

but that

is left

to the Senate, to

temper it-acfifiiding

_toJbe cjrcmast ances of the'lactr' Husbands have power to
correct their wives,

and parents

to chastise their children,
is

unless the fault

is

so great that a public punishment

thought necessary for striking terror into others.

\S^ the
them-

j^

most

part, slavery is the
\

punishment even of the greatest
less terrible to the criminals

:

crimes

for as that

is

no

them in a more for the interest of the commoniWealth than kilKng them since as their labour is a greater Benefit to the pubUc than their death could be, so the sight of their misery is a more lasting terror to other men than that which would be given by their deatliT] If their slaves "rebel, and will not bear their yoke, and suHmit to the labour
selves than death, so they think the preserving
state of servitude is
;

that
'

is

enjoined them, they are treated as wild beasts

in order, neither by a prison, nor by and are at last put to death. But those who bear their punishment patiently, and are so much wrought on by that pressure that lies so hard on them that it appears they are really more troubled for the crimes they have committed than for the miseries they suffer, are not out of hope

that cannot
their chains

be kept

;

but that at
the people

last either the

Prince

will,

by

his prerogative, or

by

their intercession, restore

them again

to

tjieir

liberty, or at least

that

much mitigate their slavery?^ jHe tempts a married woman to adultery, is no less severely
very
it
;

punished than he that commits

for they tejieve JJis^Jl.
is

^

deliberate design to commit a crime,

equal to the fact

/

and as ill. in their opinion. They all see that no beauty recommends a wife so much to her husband as the probity of her life. They think folly : take great pleasure in fools. so_thej_invite_them to the love pf Wtue bypublic honours : therefore they erect statues to the such worthy men as have deserved well of their memories of country. nor so tenderly used as any man should reproach another being misshaped or imperfect in any part of his body. since its not taking effect does not make it the person that miscarried in his attempt at all the less guilty. is thought a base and unbecoming thing to use them it so they do not to the araiss for people to divert the'mselves with their is and. could not be expected that they would be so well provided they must otherwise be. for his it If for. for sure never to comnone of the magis- trates are either insolent or cruel to the people : they affect the marks father to be called fathers. both to perpetuate the re- membrance If of their actions. he is pass they all live easily together. they well deserve the name. at all treated. so all are attracted by the other excellences which charm all the world.1^4 itself: UTOPIA. which is all it do to recom- mend themselves to others. and to their set these in their market-places. this : a great advantage fools themselves for if men were so sullen and severe as that they can not at all to please themselves with their ridiculous behaviour and foolish sayings. It is thought a sign of a sluggish and sordid mind not tqjgreserve buFit "5" likewise infamous carefully one's naturaJ_beauty ainong"them to use paint. As_they_fright men from committing crimes by punishments. posterity to follow their example. any man it . : and held only by beauty. and her obedience for as some few are catched would not it . and the people pay them all . but be thought a reflection on the person so would be accounted scandalous in him that had upbraided another with what he could not help. and by being really so. aspires to any office. and to be an incitement .

many delays. for they consider them a sort^j^_geople whpsp prnfji^sjnnjt jsjri disguise matt^'. whom otherwise crafty men would be evils sure to run down : and thus they avoid those which appear very remarkably among all those nations that labour under is a vast load of laws.law s. swell up to so many volumes for they think it an un. 135' of hohour the more freely. since a more refined exposition cannot be easily comprehended. as the high priest is also known by his being preceded by a person carrying a wax light..bHt»fiaffi.^ and t o wrest the laws and therefore they think it is mucE" better that every man should plead his own cause. together with the commentaries on them.the subjects.. j ^ serve to make the laws become useless to the greater part of direc- mankind. whose laws. as in other places the client trusts it to a coun- sellor.ha. And they argue thus every all and therefore the plainest and most obvious sense of the words is that which ought to be put upon them .Ke. either of garmenKTor of a crown^ but is only distinguished by a sheaf of corn carried before him . that man may know duty . and trust as . for as it is Every one of them is : skilled in their a very short study. and especially to those who need most the . TlieK. By this find out truth laid means they both cut aS. and more certainly: for after the parties have open the merits of the cause. it to the judge. fThe Prince himself has no distinction. because none are exacted from them. and would only this end. and such Is their constitution that they need not many. rrhey have no lawyers among them. and supports the simplicity of such well-meaning persons. without those artifices which lawyers are apt to suggest. They very much condemn other nations.UTOPIA. the judge examines the whole matter. law. so the plainest meaning always the sense of their laws are promulgated for his 1 of which words are capable laws. men to obey a body 6f laws that and so dark as not to be read and understood by every one of. \ reasonable thing to oblige are both of such a bulk.

and carry away others to govern in their stead. not to make a law at all. them it : for it is all one. the chief sinew of society. At the end of their government they bring to desire that they . In this they seem to have fallen upon a very good expedient since the good or . them back to Utopia. or couch in such terms that without a quick apprehension. them. have come them five would send magistrates to govern some changing them every year. friends. they never enter into an alliance with any state. Some liberties. of their neighbours. a and much it . all whom And as other nations are perpetually either making leagues or breaking them. with great expressions of honour and esteem. since they must so soon go for their ill own happiness and safety condition of a nation back to their own country . by the assistance of the Utopians. this by what they see . are not engaged in any of their heats or animosities and it is certain that when public partial either by avarice or affections. that they have neither the leisure nor the capacity requisite for such an inquiry. the faith of promises will have y and they are the more confirmed in do not knit men no great effect. there must follow a dissolution of justice. for wealth is of no use to them. man cannot find out the true since the generality of mankind are both so dull. shaken off the yoke of tyranny. and believe that i' if the common ties of humanity together.136 tion of to UTOPIA. They think leagues are useless things. meaning of and so much employed in their several trades. and others every years. for depends so much upon their magistrates. they could not have made a better choice than by pitching on men whom no advantages can bias. The Utopians magistrates from call those nations that come and ask them. who are masters of their own having long ago. and being with those virtues which they observe much taken among them. and they being strangers among judicatories are swayed. neighbours. study. but those to they have been of more particular service.

all pomp of the most sacred ceremonies on the contrary. there are set up | I two sorts of justice. such fraud and deceit. By world this for means it is. We know how religiously are sacred they are observed in Europe. which are purposely couched in such ambiguous terms that they can will always find some and thus they break both their And this is done with such impuleagues and their faith. more particularly where the Christian doctrine is received.UTOPIA. is among whom they and and inviolable. would with a never be so strictly bound but they loophole to escape at. among the nations round about them. promises. haughty scorn declaim against such craft. even though they were made with . . or to speak plainer. which not more distant from us in situation than there is the people are in their manners and course of no the trusting to leagues. some slight pretence being found in the words of the treaties. partly to reverence they pay to the popes who as they are most all own . they are on this account the sooner broken. far below the dignity of royal greatness. world. the one mean. But in that new-found life. so they exhort and when fainter methods do not prevail. that all sort of a low-spirited and vulgar justice passes in the virtue. and would readily say that they deserved to be hanged. they compel them to it by the severity of the pastoral cei^smiej^ and think that it would be the most indecent thmg possible if men who are particularly disother princes to perform theirs tinguished by the title of the faithful. if they found private men make use of it in their bargains. dence. and creeps on the ground. Which partly owing to the justice and the goodness of the princes religious observers of their themselves. should not religiously keep the faith is of their treaties. and therefore becomes none but the 'lower part of y . Or is at least. that those very men who value themselves on having suggested these expedients to their princes. 137 who are no strict observers of leagues and treaties.

OF THEIR MILITARY DISCIPLINE. so takes a freer compass j only measured by pleasure and interest. treaties .138 UTOPIA. and if that when treaties are upon by the unskilfulness of wording them there are not effectual provisoes made against them. but yet though still were more religiously observed. as if there were~no tie of dislike the Nature uni ting one nation to another. perhaps they would they lived change their mind treaties if among us . and which. them to engage in seem to be the reasons that determine no confederacies.~6nly"sepal'al6d perhaps^ by a mountam or'XTtfHiT-HndrTttarall'were born of hostility. they do not by . in opposition to the senti- / 1 . may not break out beyond the bounds that are set The other is the peculiar virtue of princes. of men's hearts become- thereby the engagements stronger than the bond and obligation of words. who make so little account of their faith. or restrain the license of preying each other. judge that no man is to be esteemed our enemy that has never injured us . they would custom of making them. restraints mankind. They. of the princes that lie and thus lawful ^nd unlawful are These practices about Utopia. is . ^ of the human nature is instead of a league. on the other hand. and so must be kept in severely by many that it. and that the partnership cut off the enmity. And that kindness and good-nature unite with greater strength than any since men more effectually and agreements whatsoever. to the more practised by men than by any sort of beasts. N They detest war as a very brutal thing reproach of human nature. and^so" might lawfully do their neighbours against all is in a state that mischief to which there no provision made made. which as it to it' is more majestic than that which becom'is the rabble. They. since the world has taken up a false max im_uBon it.

UTC ments of almost all 139 other natiol|jL ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ is nothing more inglorious than that glory wi|^iued by war. or wrong. or by perverse wresting of good ones.Tip pitViPr \n. because those injuries are done under some colour of laws. They indeed hel^their ends. who though before the war they were in all respects .d. for the merchants of the former having. and very much afflicted others. And ' therefore tliough they acc i^stom-theffll^^ exercises j„.w to military ia cases and the discipline of war. it. . . in which their many of their neighbours were engaged . but when the merchants of one thfe country are oppressed in Another. or out of good-nature or_mxaSi£assi on assist a n (^pres_sg. reparation were rejected. a little our time thought. drew on a terrible war. which. and being satisfied with the friends.t of necessity they rintjas]iTypngag. were yet subdued but though the Utopians had assisted . This before was the only ground of that war in which they engaged with the Nephelogetes against the Aleopolitanes. but also in offensive wars j^ but they never do that unless they' had been consulted before the breach was made. not only in defensive. but after a mischief ended in the entire conquest and series of much slavery of the Aleopolitanes. much superior to the Nephelogetes. and on being supported by their it not only shook some very . inJ^^^^T^liuiheir . so that a war was un-. nation in shaking_off_Jhfi_yQkeo£^t2rajyiy. This they count a juster c/ause of war than the other. as they great injustice itself right whether it met with was in among the latter.fri may not be quite useless^V-t they do dpfi-TiJtllcm i'njcg?iT^iiri]e-gg_lt. it keenness in carrying strength in maintaining flourishing states. neighbour makes an inroad carry another. from any unjust aggressors .- This they think to be not only <?)n when one order. /fliey had found just. either under pretence of some unjust laws. that all demands of avoidable. by public and away the spoils .p gfjypg^ nrthpi'r . grounds on which they went.

and erect trophies to . the offenders are condemned either to death or sla-i^ery. they decla. And in no victory do they glory so much as in that which is gained by dexterity and good conduct. of a bloody and think it would be as foolish a purchase as to buy the most valuable goods at too high a rate.ture.re war . or their subsistence. only by men. and . among' suffers.the honour of those who have succeeded . with the death of but if any of their people is either killed or many persons wounded wrong- fully. ye' y so vigorously assist friends in in But though tl\on for the injuries they have received obtaining repEga. fraud a more sensible injury to upon his own them than it is to merchan- the Utopians. little inconvenienpe either to their . as soon as they hear of it they send ambas- up to and demand that the guilty persons may be delivered them and if that is denied. for then do they reckon that a man acts suitably to his nature when. They would be both troubled and ashamed victory over their enemies. that no othgr. a loss attended with so lives. be complied with. it be done by public authority or. provided no violence was done to their against %T[e}V^ould only on their being refused satisfaction person? trading ^ith such a people. creature but a man could be capable of. In such cases they appoint public triumphs. yet if any such frauds was committed affairs of tij^ggives.he conquers his enemyin^udilalwLy-as. whom \h^ the public in such a case only in return for the As they expect nothing in cKses they export but which they so much abound. 'without bloodshed. whether private sadors.ffOPIA. 140 T chey pretended to no share their of the them spoil- in the war. This is not because °^°^consider theirtieighbours more than their own citizgnsj 'fet since their neighbours trade every one is 'stock. but if it . and is of little use to themV the loss does not much affect them they think therefore it would be too severe to revenge .

all This carried secretly. who are those on whom.vepr§veBtedJhe war or if thaFcaSfiOt^be-d^n^o take so severe a revenge off" those that have injured them that they may be terrified from doing the like for the time to come. — le only design of the Utopians in war force.hi. As soon great as they declare war. lions. They offer not only indemnity.UTOPIA. In these they promise great rewards to such as shall kill the prince. They consider the . both in strength and fierceness.||'^ f to the prince himself. so they i -. another. but rewards. in which as are superior to ire all ' many of them men. By these ends they measure all their designs. next! war. that there is no sort of crime to which men cannot be drawn by them. and dogs. shall take him alive and put him in their hands. shall kill and lesser in proportion to such as any other persons. \ 141 Bears. if to such of the persons themselves that are so marked. affixed in the most conspicuous places of their enemies' is country. that are sealed with their common places seal. their that is by the s trength of his u nderstanding. : they will act against their countrymen that are trustful named of their in their by this means those schedules become not only disbut are jealous of one fellow-citizens. it and are much distracted by fear and danger . is to obtain \ j ' had been granted them in time ~3K0jildJia.nrlipg. have been betrayed by those in whom they have trusted most for the rewards that the Utopians offer : are so unmeasurably great. instead of killing the' person so marked. \|i boar^wolves. sub dued by 'his reason an^ nndaw. for has often fallen out that many of them. they cast the chief balance of the And they double the sum to him that. out. and alFother aminals employ bodily force one against another. they take care to have a many schedules. and even the Prince himself. and manage them so that it is visible that the appetite of fame or vain-glory does not work so much on them as a! just care that if it j by which of their own security. and done in many at once.

and thaj. pity them no less than their own people. to aspire to the crown. then they engage their neighbours against them. but a. and they observe the promises make of this kind most religiously. I If they cannot disunite them by domestic broils. both on their own side and on that of their enemies. even with the their gold of their But as they keep occasion. though it appears to others to be base and cruel as a wise course. without so much as hazarding one battle They think it likewise an act of mercy and to decide it. They very much approve of this way of corrupting their enemies. and animate the prince's brother. or some of the nobility. as knowing that the greater part of them do not engage in the war of their own accord. . and lie offer a recompense proportioned to the danger not only a vast deal of gold. These they of their plentifully supply with money. but they look on it ' make an end of what would be otherwise a long war. then they sow seeds of contention among their enemies. to . when that offers itself they easily part with to then. which are never driven into wanting to princes when they have occasion : for them. who undertake such services.142 risk that those run UTOPIA.re it by the passions of their prince. in so doing they are kind even to their enemies. • that they would not prince exchange enemies' one of Country. by the death of a few that are most guilty . where they among may go and enjoy them very securely they . so and silver only for such an it. since it would be no inconvenience it though they should reserve nothing of to themselves. and. though but very for sparingly with any auxiliary troops they are so tender willingly own people. love to that mankind to prevent the great slaughter of those killed in must otherwise be the progress of' the war. For besides . and make them feet on foot some old pretensions. If this method does not succeed with them. but great revenues in lands. that other nations that are their friends. them.

who delight in the and rpcks. forgetting both their relations and former friendship. to serve : : : yet this money. and will frequently pay. 143 the wealth that they have-among them at home. They watch all opportunities of engaging in it. cold and labour. but will not engage to serve for any determined time. they have a vast treasure abroad. Great numbers of them go out. nor do they care either for their houses or their clothes. upon a higher advance There are few wars in which they make not of their pay. by princes of different interests and such a regard have they for money. who live five hundred rniles east of Utopia. is of little use . as it were. and will perhaps if they offer them a greater encouragement return to them the day after that. and agree upon such terms. many nations round about them being deep in their debt so that theyhirejoMiersjfro^all : pl aces for ^cairying o n their warSj but chiefly from the "Zapolets. or upon rapine . only for war. They woods are a rude. and so have lived long and familiarly together. and are made. they serve those that hire them. but those that lead to the taking it aWay . and very readily embrace such as are offered them. Cattle is all that they look after and for the greatest part they live either by hunting. and fierce nation. They do not apply themselves to agriculture. and know nothing of the delicacies of life. So entirely does their avarice influence them . kill one another upon no other consideration than that of being hired to it for a little money. which they value so highly. that the next day they may go over to the enemies of those whom they serve. a considerable part of the armies of both sides so it often falls out that they who are related.UTOPIA. and offer themselves for a very low any that will employ them they know none of the arts of life. both with much courage and great fidelity. that they are easily wrought on by the difference of one penny a day to change sides. among which they were born and bred up. wild. and were hired in the same country. They are hardened both against heat.

so they make use of this for th econsumption of war.thintrTEat if any man if is pressed that wants courage. which among them all but of a poor and miserable form. he will not only act faintly. soever. for they j This nation serves the Utopians against pay higher than any other.144 to UTOPIA. When they draw out troops of their own since people. . that such accidents as may befall their generals may not en- danger their armies. Yet they make This is them good most religiously to such as escape.d&1i«er~tIi£ world frorajiuch a lewd and vicious sort of people. who during his command are but private men. out of which the greater part never returns to claim their promises. the third comes in his place and thus they provide against ill events. worst-sod. for Gone are forced to go against their they . . this for a people what- Th e Utopians hold . mates them to adventure again.. men for their maxim. that as they seek out the best sort of own us e at home. but by' his cowardice dishearten othersT^ But an invasion is if made on their country they make use of such men. they quickly waste on luxury. that seem to have run together as to the drain of human nature. what they purchase thus with their is blood. a nd reckon it a service do ne to man- kind if thev could be a means -lQ. There are two sent with him. they take such out of every city as freely offer wills. to whom they join a few of their o^vn people. Next to these they are served in their wars with those upon whose account they undertake them. to expose themselves to all sorts of hazards. for them. themselves. but the first is to succeed him if he should happen to be either killed or taken and in case of the like misfortune to him. and send some men of eminent and approved virtue to command in chief. and with the auxiUary troops of tbeir other friends. ot I men and therefore they hire them with the offers of vast rewards. whenever there for it . ani- occasion of for the Utopians are not at all troubled how many these happen to be killed. they have good .

so and danger fall upon the becomes necessary for them- selves to engage. and therefore when they come to be engaged in action they continue to if fight to the last man. bodies. near one another . and they stand often next army. on the contrary. possibility of flying. and as they will continue in action. But as they force no man to go into any foreign war against his will. that being so posted they may find no opportunity of flying away and thus either shame. increases their courage . all their enemies stand before them. or if a child survives his parents. they then charge with as much courage is it as they avoided it before with prudence : nor a fierce charge at first. 145 and either put them them on the walls of their towns. insomuch that they . and it is matter of great reproach if husband or wife survive one another. though they are not brave. their husbands in the front of the They also place together those who are related. them which often skill in military men of great courage and thus they are animated Their by a noble and affairs 'invincible resolution. if it is and possible let all the action if it troops that they hire.UTOPIA. or the imaboard their ships or place . may be the nearest and readiest to do it . and the wise sentiments which. much sooner die than give ground for the certainty that their children will be well looked after when they are dead. " but it increases by degrees. the heat of action. they grow more obstinate and press harder upon the enemy. And as they use prudent methods to avoid the endangering their own men. that those whom Nature has in- spired with the greatest zeal for assisting one another. because nothing else is left them. frees them from masters all that anxiety concerning . according to the laws of their country. so they do not virtue of necessity hinder those women who are willing to go along with their husbands. they often make a and behave themselves well. kindred. they encourage and praise them. parents and children. and those that are mutually allied. are instilled . bears down their cowardice .

set service. them : in their education. who never close weapons when. waiting a fit opportunity. have turned the whole action. In the greatest heat of action. but counting the day their own. and wresting out of their hands a victory that seemed certain and undoubted.146 into UTOPIA. when spent and wearied out. . give over the pursuit by others. that when the main body of their army has been quite defeated aud broken. and are much. they will rather let their enemies is all escape than pursue them. have fallen on them in their chase. they have been forced to engage the last of their bat- talions before they could gain the day. and when straggling in disorder and apprehensive of no danger. give additional vigour to their * minds |for as it it they do not undervalue life so as prodigally it to throw away. more bent on taking many prisoners than on killing those that fly before them. When they have' obtained a victory. when others get in between them . and are relieved by ambuscade. they can get near him. when their own remembering well what has often fallen' out to themselves. so that unless he secures himself by flight. while the vanquished have suddenly become victorious. they are not so indecently fond of as to preserve by base and unbecoming methods. as not to retain an entire body still in order . when their enemies in disorder army imagining the victory obtained. . nor so do they ever that if let their men so loose in the pursuit of their enemies. single out the general of on him either openly or pursue him everywhere. or with those which wound at a distance. a few of It is an hard to tell whether they are more dexterous in laying or avoiding ambushes. they kill as few as possible. they seldom fail at last to kill or to take him either attacking him with prisoner. irregular pursuit. when it is far from their thoughts They sometimes seem to fly and when they intend to . who have devoted themselves to that their enemies. the bravest of their youth. have into let themselves loose them that lay for a reserve.

or by : some stratagem delude their enemies if they retire in the daytime.UTOPIA. and are very expert. they do it in such order. When a town is surrendered to them. They have no swords. They fortify their camps with a 4eep and large trench.Qmitry waste. practise swimming.. that it is no less dangerous to fall upon them in a retreat than in a march. or are like to off in so that it is If they see they are ill be overpowered by numbers. the chief consideration had in the making them. . and all even take possible neither horse nor foot know but hurt that they may treaJ If down.^ Both norse and foot make great use of arrows. . they then either march the night with great silence. .ruaiah. a great line and a strong fortification is finished in so short a time that it is scarce credible. and throw up the earth that is dug out of it for a wall nor do they employ only their slaves in this. unless he is a spy.es7tiiey They^eggr care that la]^Jiieir-'e»eB9iesLj. they observe that it so religiously no proYQqa]^ns_wiin5"ake them breaFit in.t]ieir. is that they may be easily carried and managed. . so that when so many hands are at work. but the whole army works at it. nor burn their corn. they do their design. and disguise them so well. it J47 very hard to find out posted. they take it into their protection and when they carry _a place by storm. / All that are trained up to war. but put those only to the sword that . give ground. and yet is not so heavy as to make them uneasy in their marches they can even swim with it. They no man whom they find disarmed.. They are very good at finding out warlike machines. they : j never plunder it. If they agree to a truce. but fight with a pole-axe that is both sharp and heavy. lor'tKey do not may have use for it themselves. Their armour is very strong for defence. that the enemy does not perceive them till he feels the use of them so that he cannot prepare such a defence as would render them useless . except those that are then upon the guard . by which they thrust or strike down an enemy.

or one of 'the planets: . When a war is ended.^ome wor- shipping t]^_sun. by which means they upon the place . OF THE RELIGIONS OF THE UTOPIANS. and if that should happen. they do no hurt . They send some of own people to receive these revenues. which they keep for the next occasion. or lend to that nation in which it lies. it ' opposed the rendering of up. the revenue which they draw out from several countries on such occasions. This they most commonly do. they do not oblige th^ir friends to reimburse their expenses. is now above 700. but would not call for auxiliary troops to their assistance. is encourage to adventure on desperate any prince that engages in war with them for invading their country. either in money. they making preparations prevent him.000 ducats a year. but they obtain themi of the conquered. or in lands. and distribute the rest arr^png their auxiUary troops. for they do not willingly suffer any war to break in upon their island . by many increases. they would only defend themselves by their own people. they give them good rewards out of the estates of those that they condemn. not only in different parts of the island. which for falls out but very seldom. but even in every town/. others t he moon. and if any of them had advised a surrender. out of these lands that they assign rewards to such as they If attempts. who have orders to live magnificently. There are several sorts of religion s. and make the rest of the tliem garrison slaves. consume much of it and like princes. but for the other inhabitants. and make his country the seat of the war . unless some great occasion. but they themselves take no share of the spoil.148 UTOPIA. out of which a constant revenue is to be paid them risen to their . and either bring over it the rest to Utopia. should oblige them to It is call it all.

s 149 pyj7inpni: ome worship such men : as have been a. honours are ascribed by the consent of By degrees. or glorV j_no t o Ql y (3. and acknowledge that the Deginnings. so After they villingly offered ng their religion over a vast / up by them. but by His power and virtue call the Him :h€ jfifer they Father of All. :he They differ in this. all He ill is also that great Essence to whose glory and majesty nations.diTiary. whoirrthe^cail inthe langiiage_aL :his.hn. that is spread over the whole iniverse. UTOPIA. was the chief occasion of spreadnumber of nations . and end of divine come only from Him . and grow up to that one religion that is the jest and most in request and there is no doubt to be made . they fall off from the various superstitions that ire among them. all things :hough they differ concerning other things. the increase. jsthe_su£reme_ God yet the greater and wiser sort o f hem worship none of thesgi^but adq re sag eternalj_ijivisible. as a Being that is far : - V- ibove all our apprehensions.dgitiss. yet al l agree in that they th ink the re is one supreme Being that made^d-g0verns the wmIjJ. and of the vonderful coristancy of so many martyrs. had heard from us an account of the doctrine.. it is not to / . 3ut that all the others had vanished long ago. th^t is is God whom he thinks worships this one thinks supreme Being. he course of life. made them afraid that the God whose had like to have been abandoned.. whose blood. not by His bulk. the vicissitudes.t. nor do they honours to any but to Him alon^ And indeed. and the miracles of Christ. the progress. had interand revenged themselves on those who despised :heir authority. r^ their cbtintry Mithras. which being considered as nflicted vorship )Qsed. and mother igree in that his idol that God. but they all one principle. n fi ni t e ^ and incomprehensible Deity . that whoever is this supreme Being. ^j.t: :irnesfbr virtue. if some of those vho advised them to lay aside their superstitions had not net with some unhappy accident. by Heaven.s " in fm-mpr .

or whether favourable to that ? . . even though he had no authority derived .. I shajt not determine wlif ther thisjpr oceeded rora_ajiy_secret init was because. but they had not done when I them. but . being newly baptized. did. that can only be administered by priests . so none of the four that survived of were in priest's orders. Those among them that have not received our religion. whether one chosen by them to be a priest would not be thereby quaUfied to do all the things that belong to that character. \ be imagined how inclined they were to receive it.J . other sacraments. that were to be damned . impious and sacrilegious persons. They have had great disputes among themselves. everlasting this burnings. Upon his having frequently triall preached in manner. ' but they are instructed concerning them. all He . it is From whichsoever of these motives it that manv of them came over to our and were initiated into it by baptisnnj But as two our number were dead. might be. one man was only punished on this occasion. . 1 true religion. and use none ill that goes over to it so that all the while I was there. notwithsay to the contrary. from the Pope and they seemed to be resolved to choose it some left for that employment. and that it v/as still kept up in some communities among the sincerest spiraHon of God. he was seized.seem ed so community of goods. it. I I ' sort of Christians. and with so much heat.. dispute standing that we could publicly concerning the Christian religion with more zeal than discretion . not for having disparaged . do not fright any from it. condemned all their rites as profane as to and cried out against all that adhered to them. and after he was condemned to banishment. that he not only preferred our worship to theirs. which is an opinion so particuiajTs'weli as so dear to them since they perceived that Christ and His followers lived by that rule. we therefore could only baptize them so that to our great regret they could not partake of the . «'iSo UTOPIA. and long most vehemently for them.

which he saw suffered tions much by daily conten- and irreconcilable heats.^if supported only by the stFength-of argum. as corn is pxejjadicsd-mind j carried on with violence . every different party in religion fought by themselves. if such debates' and tumults.for rest false. interest of religion itself required He judged it all not fit to determine anything rashly.^t. their government. and the and foolish. and might endeavour to draw others to it by the force of argument. JteL the nafe force of truth would. after he had subdued them. since instead of uniting their forces against him.UTOPIA. by which they were so divided among themselves. un^- on the other hand. that he found it an easy thing to conquer them. but for his inflaming the people to sedition their most ancient laws. bright. tliat he ought to use no other and was neither to mix with it and such as did otherwise were to be condemned to banishment or slavery. as the most were the most obstinate. so the best and n:\ost wicked are always holy religion might be choked with superstition. who might inspire men in a different manner. he therefore thought it indecent any man to threaten and terrify another to make him believe what did not appear to him to be true. and by amicable and modest ways. reproaches nor violence . ^ at lastbreajc. not only for preserving the public peace. he made a law that e very man might be of what religion he pleased. Ihat. for this is 151 : . he im agined. This law was made by Utopus. but because he thought the it. And supposing that only one religion was really true. but without bitterness against one of those of other opinions ._aii4 attended to with a gentlte and. forth and shine while. ' but force but that of persuasion. no-BHaa-ea^rt At the first constitution of to be'punished for his_religiQp. Utopus having understood that before his coming among them the old inhabitants had been engaged in great quarrels concerning religion. and seemed to doubt whether those different forms of religion might not come from God. their religion. and be pleased with this variety .

but despise them. that they might be free to believe as they should see cause . to. . as men yet they do not punish them. so that . knd apprehends nothing after death. onl)rh. They never honours or any that hold these maxims. because they lay that I a . he therefore left men wholly to their liberty. will not scruple . and they now look on those that think otherwise as scarce fit to be counted men. and reckon it no better than a beast's thus they are far from looking on such men as fit for human society. nor employ them in any public of base and sordid minds : either trust. without a wise overruling Providence state of this life : /for they all formerly believed that there was a after rewards and punishments to the good and bad . being confident that they will be cured of those mad opinions by having reason laid before them. since they degrade so noble a being as the soul.e made a solemn and severe law against such as should solaTdegenerate from the dignity of human nature as to think that our souls died with our bodies. men are not tempted to sort of fraud. There are many among them that run far to the other extreme. or that the world was jroverned by chance. is lie or dis- guise their opinions which being a abhorred by the Utopians. man pleases this down as a maxim cannot make himself believe anything he nor'do they drive any to dissemble their thoughts by threatenings. : ' IS2 with briars and thorns .^r I force. as oft as he dares do it. suffer. UTOPIA.. when by raise offices. or to be citizens of a well-ordered commonwealth since a man of such principles must needs. though it is neither thought an ill nor unreasonable . especially before the common people . despise all their laws and customs for there is no doubt to be made that a man who is afraid of nothing but the law. They take but they care indeed to prevent their disputing in defence of these opinions. this means he may satisfy his appetites. to break through all the laws of his country. and even encourage them and to dispute concerning them in private with their priests other grave men. either by fraud .

they lay the body in the ground . yet they )th lament no man's death. They think that such a man's ppearance before God is. When they come from discourse of his good life and worthy tie funeral. for believe that though by the imperfection of human sight hey are invisible to us. to depart with if for they look on this as a very ill resage. conscious to itself of guilt. ut sing hymns when they carry out their bodies. from some secret of approaching misery. and full of hope. cannot be acceptable to Him.spect paid to the memory of good men both the greatest icitement to engage others to follow their example. but speak of nothing oftener and with more pleasure nd set Lon to the fian of his serenity at the hour of death. ?hey believe ouls not to inconsistent with the happiness of departed at liberty to be be where they will. except they see him life . lat le and therefore is not at all discouraged. was afraid and quite to leave the body. yet they are present lear among us. as opeless. and those discourses it that pass concerning themselves. does not go out cheerfully. and comlending their souls very earnestly to aviour is > God : their whole be- then rather grave than sad. and do not . up a pillar where the pile was made. They think the souls of beasts are immortal. and [le [ley most acceptable worship that can be offered them . They are almost laded that good :ate . men will and not capable of so great a all of them very firmly perbe infinitely happy in another all that so that though they are compassionate to are ck. dragged to it. though far inferior to dignity of the human soul. but when any die heerfuUy. with an inscriphonour of the deceased. when they see any die in this They are manner nd carry them out in silence and with sorrow. who is eing called on. iiits the soul. appiness. they do not mourn for them. they burn the body. but backward nd unwilling. they ctions.UTOPIA. They is think such . and truck with horror as it were. and praying lod that He would be merciful to the errors of the departed oul. I 153 pinion.

. an d the other vain ways of divination. and observe all they say or do. repair bridges. to imagine them capable of the ingratitude of not desiring see those friends with strictest whom after they lived on earth in the : bonds of love and kindness besides they are per- suaded that good men death have these affections and all other good dispositions increased rather than diminished. but they serve even private men. Others fell and cleave timber. They adoring tojiini. com. ikfigion neglect learning. have been answered in a miraculous manner. nor do they allow themselves any leisure time. and that sometimes their public prayers. think the contemplating God in His works. but are perpetually employed. more than tbii slaves themselves . is a very acceptable piece of worship /There are many among them. as trusting to their protection. or dig turf. and look on them as effects and indications of the presence of the supreme Being. with assured confidence of being heard. Nor do these only serve the public.aniuag_£ther_mtions but have great reverence for such miracles as cannot flow from any of the powers of Nature. and other necessaries on carts into their towns. scrjmucE~"obServed J . is while this opinion of the their presence of their ancestors a restraint that prevents engaging in ill designs. of which they say many instances have occurred among them. gravel. Some of these visit the sick others mend^high\fays. which upon great and dangerous occasions they have solemnly put up to God. believing that by the good things that a man does„^e secures to himself that happiness that comes after death. They despise and„super£litIouT and laugh at auguries. cleanse ditches. and the Him for them. that upon a motive of and apply themselves to no sort of study. and bring woo^. and therefore conclude that they are still among the living. IS4 UTOPIA.!!!. or stones. From hence they engage in all their affairs with the greater confidence of success.

in he men lives are called the . are frightened by le labour and loathsomeness of it. it. Dthing in which they are more cautious than in giving leir -4 opinion positively concerning any sort that' lead' those severe .complishing they cheerfully. 155 for if there is anywhere a rough.UTOPIA. own accord. eaning themselves from fe. human nature and to their • nor do they avoid any pleasure that does not and therefore eat flesh so much the illingly. so they life whole their in hard labour themselves. inder labour. or a fe of labour to an easy life . . and therefore prefer a married ate to a single one and as they do not deny themselves bich they hope for hereafter . that means. from which many it. as they find that by this means they are the ble to work j the Utopians look upon these as the . hard. . ) . that they more esteemed by the whole nation. they pursue. even by the and painfullest methods possible. D ' . and spend and yet they do not value lemselves lise upon own. if not the despair of . but they esteem the others as the most holy. and sordid piece work to be done.ason who from the principles of would prefer an unmarried state to a married. they are so far from being despised. so they think the begetting of children is debt which they owe to 3untry . all the pleasures of the present ardest which they account hurtful. but they reverence and admire There is ich as do it from the motives of religion. nor lessen other people's credit to stooping to such servile but by their (nployments. and of their share . lit themselves to much toil.ct. as they ease . some live_ unmarried andL"liastg. the this. more more wiser '> They ould indeed laugh at any man.ke that to their and by afflict . of religion. le pleasure of it.-and_abstain_from eating any sort qf.hers leir very much.ilesli and thus re so much Of these there are two sorts. that blessedness they are the more cheerful and the nearer they approach and earnest in their Another sort of them is less willing to Qdeavours after it. .

All that him in secret. both good in themselves and will be useful to - . niannefs'of the •pe0pie. The care of all sacred things. for as punishment more dreaded byTh. and punished. by the Senate.jje_commitfed toTHop. which answers those we call religious orders.. only to exhort and admonish the people for the power of thing correcting I \ and punishing is ill men belongs wholly to the 'I^ie^ severest Prince and to the other magistrates. Their priests are ij men of eminent piety. suffrages given in secret. for there are only thirteen in every town. the excluding those that are despe- \rately wicked from joining in their worshig.!. but when they go to war. one for every temple . They by are chosen by the people as the other magistrates are. seven of these to go out with their forces.^ 'sort of it There is not any this. that the priest does.. for that is incumbent on them . to language of their country Brutheskas. country. . and those who hig'i-priest. till served in their absence attend upon vacancies fall the for there is one set over all the rest.. they are seized on for their impiety. .. and therefore they are but few. It is a reproach to a man to be sent for by any of them. . be long exempted from their share of trouble for if they do ' not very quickly satisfy the priests of the truth of their repentance. for preventing of factions and when they are chosen they are consecrated by the college of priests. or is for them to speak to always gives some suspicion.em than loads is them with infamy.iS6 UTOPIA. and seven others are chosen supply their room in their absence . and an inspection into Jiie. but these enter again . upon their employment when they return by death . so it fills them with secret horrors. priests. the worship df God. they use possible methods ftf to infuse very early into the trnrlrrj^rl flrrihlr minrln rhildrni such _opimQ]is_as are! their. such their reverence to their religion nor will their bodies . the- The education of youth belongs to yet they do not take so much care of instructing them in letters as all informing their minds and manners aright j..

yet there being few priests. nor are any but ancient widows chosen into that order. for man is a changeable creature. so that it and because must be a very unusual thing to find one his virtue. ' UTOPIA. and it is. on any man. who merely out of regard to and for his being esteemed a singularly good man.' They >also think it difiScult to find out many of such an exalted pitch of goodness. God . the mselves are mad e priests. to their own consciences. was raised up to so great a dignity. and these having no authority but what rises out of the respect that is paid' them. lest greater numbers sharing in the. same honour might make the dignity of that its order which they esteem so highly to sink in reputation. Nor are the priests in greater veneration they are among their among them than neighbouring nations. both because they have so few these are chosen with much caution. mit any crime. and conduc e much to jgreserve the peace of the government. . degenerate into corruption and vice. paid the priests and if they should happen to comit.. they follow men through the whole course of their lives. they would not be questioned for Their punishment for they is left to God. as you may it. though that falls out but seldom. imagine by that which I think gives occasion for When the Utopians engage in battle. do not think how wicked soever he dedicated to in this. And if such a thing should fall out. nothing of great consequence to the public can proceed from the indemnity that the priests enjoy. They have indeed very few of them. 157 For when deep impressions of these things are made at that age. which siiffrrs hy nntViingjB0f5^tbaju-bjLvices"that rise out of 1 Th e wives of their pries ts are the most extraordinary women of the whole country sometimes the women ill opinions . the priests who . as to be equal to that dignity which demands the exercise of more than ordinary virtues. None than is of the magistrates have greater honour paid them . been in a peculiar manner nor do they find any great inconvenience lawful to lay hands that has priests.

nor there any nation about them so upon their persons and inviolable. is been often no their rage • less able to preserve their own people when from the fury of their enemies.158 accompany them vestments. The first and the last day of the month. which answers in our language to the festival that begins. in a place not far and lifting up their hands to heaven. but their fortunes secured to them all account that much. TEejMmeasure their nionfiis by'lhe coiiirse of is a-festrral: the moon. and stopped the effusion of more blood . which proceeds not from any error in the ai-chitecture. that they have . the war. and their. and of the year. which the more necessary. their side. and particularly that it may be gained without the effusion of much blood on either side and when the victory turns to from the first field . or ends the season. apparelled in their sacred down during the action. kneel to UTOPIA. cruel. that fly. years by the_^ course of the sun. they are a little dark within. than to save their enemies from . they are preserved by that means . they run in among their own men to restrain their call to fury . and treat upon this the nations round about consider them so them with such reverence. and if any of their enemies see them. the enemies were running upon the slaughter and priests by interposing have separated them from one another. They Jiaxe. have not only lives. built. as they have so few of them .magnificenLtemples. and then for victory to their own side. so that by their mediation a .. and forced to so that their spoil. for peace. for it has sometimes fallen out. and such as can come*so their it near them as to touch their garments. their armies have been in disorder. that are not only nobly is but extremely spacious. . and the last the Trapemernes . . pray.. but is done with design. or them. for their priests think that too much light . peace has been concluded on very is reasonable terms fierce. The or barbarous as not to look as sacred ' first days are called in their language the Cynemernes.

to pray for the happy progress of all their affairs In the during. and beg pardon for it. for a great impiety to enter upon them with disturbed thoughts. is many different.. that they may offer up they hold it their devotions with a pure and serene mind . whatsoever otherwise they think it to be. Though there are all these. which is the common name by which they all express the Divine Essence. that period upon which they then enter. it 159. or with a consciousness of their bearing hatred or anger in their hearts to any person whatsoever and think that they should become liable to severe punish- . They meet in their temples on the evening prayers that concludes a season : may of the festival ' and not having yet broke their fast. before they go to the festival which concludes temple. agree in the main point. according to the way of his religion. which. nor are there any of them among them but such as every one use without prejudice to his own opinion. have either erred or failed in their duty. and confess everything in which they"*.fornns of religion among thenij yet how various soever. UTOPIA. of and that a more moderate degree both recollects the mind and raises devotion. which is then at an end and the next day being that which begins the new season. both wives and children fall on their knees before their husbands or parents. Thus all little discontents in families are removed. the worshipping the Divine Essence and therefore there every . those rites that are peculiar to is in their private houses. 'dissipates the thoughts. li itDthingT5~l3e-seeirtrrTieard in their temples in which the several persuasions sect performs among them may not agreeT^r it. nor there anything in the public worship that qontradicts the particular ways of those different sects^i There are no images for God in their temples. nor do they call this one God by any other name but that of Mithras. they thank God for their good success during that year or rnonth. they meet early in their temples. the period. so that every ^ one may represent Him to his thoughts.. .

so that those their them at home may see and they intermingle them so. men go and the women females all and the males and place themselves before the head and master to the left . from nor do they whose bounty it lives. or the offering up their blood. or mistress of that family to which they belong. so they think those sweet savours and lights. cheerfulness during the divine worship. deportment in public ought to beget in themselves that religious dread of the supreme Being. which incitement to virtue. All the people appear in the temples in white garments. suitable to the divine Being. the two sexes are separated. but are birds. and have a ^eat number of wax lights during their worship not out of any imagination that such oblations can add anything to the divine Nature. if ments they presumed to ofifer sacrifices without cleansing their hearts. that these creatures have derived their to take pleasure in their deaths. but the priest's vestments are parti-coloured. and both the are wonderful. that the younger and the older may be set by one another for if the younger sort were all set together.broidered nor set with precious stones. and inflame them with greater energy and jl . for they are neither em. together with some other ceremonies. is the greatest and almost the only They think is it ofifer up no living creature in sacrifice. by a secret and unaccountable virtue. elevate men's souls. i6o UTOPIA. and reconciling all their differences. they would perhaps trifle away that time too much in which they who have the government of . ordering and placing those plumes . work and colours They are made of no rich materials.. which even prayers cannot do but as it is a harmless and pure way of worshipping God. In the to the temples. laid together with so true value of them is They say that in the composed of the plumes of several much art and so neatly. yrhey burn incense and other sweet odours. that the far beyond the costliest materials. the right hand.

among us but as many of them are much sweeter than Yet in one thing ours. or to express grief of remorse. are^ mistakfiG. they all fall prostrate on if it the ground. they very much exceed us . so others are made use of by us. is adapted to imitate and express the passions.nd governor of the world. which pass down among their priests in a secret tradition concerning them.knnwledere God to be the author a. all their music. . As soon as the priest appears in those ornaments. that whatsoever is pronounced by the whole assembly may be likewise applied by every man in particular to his own condition . this posture. "that whether the subject of the hymn be cheerful or formed to sooth e^or "trouble the mind. i6i some dark mysteries are represented. upon a sign given by the priest. as were the effect of the After they all have been for some time in they stand up. on cannot but be struck with appearance of a Deity. the music ta^es the impression of whatever is represented. and JheJfountain_of_all the j[ood they receive. both priests up very solemn prayers to God in a set form of words and these are so composed.-an4_iLthei:e_is_ either a religion betteiTgovemment or a more acceptable to-God. vand_are j)f a religion whigh they hope others : is the ttueSt_of all but if they.in the world. with so that such as look much reverence and so deep a silence it. . When "this is done. some musical instruments playing all the These are quite of another form than those used while. andjn ordering it so . and of their duties both to Him and to their neighbours. — and therefore^ ofier up to Hi m their thanksgiving . and sing hymns to the honour of God. affects and - kindles the passions.-th&t p articular bless Hi mrfoTHis goodness in tliey are born under__the ha ppiest gove rnmeat.UTOPIA. and isTo happily suited to' every occasion. both vocal and : instrumental. these thpy ar. putting them in mind of the blessings that they have received from God. in and people offer . and works the sentiments deep into the hearts' of 'the hearers. and that they are as hieroglyphics.

which I Ithink the best in the world. every man knowszealously pursue the it is men that unless he provides for himself. but indeed the only fiwealth that truly deserves that I'is do not only. . Him is by the most prosperous ended. for among them there is no unequal distribution. rather than be detained long from seeing life. jthe constitution of that commonwealth. yet they . they desire to be quickly delivered. and though no man has anvthinp:. for in good . indeed. according to the He is pleased with a variety of give Then they pray last to himself. the commonwealth may be. as particularly as I could. but in Utopia. own concerns to the where every man has a riglit to every- thing. to though by the most course of kind of death. then they pray that He may them life. public: fifferently all and. vowing that hey resql ve_to_ follow if Him whithersoev«^HlI]^gr^^±em. " whejce-najQan any property. them an easy passage at not presuming to set limits to but if it Him. early or late it should be may be wished without derogating from His supreme authority. and bring all the world both to the same rules of and to the same opinions concerning himself. and spend the rest of the day in diveir- W Tnus have I descnbed to you. unless.1 62 UTOPIA. none in necessity. that while people talk of a . religioSTtHe fortify But thei7'govOTinieEr-is-i*H~l3Sst^^ truest. they all stores full. he must die of hunger his so that he sees the necessity of preferring public . in it. how flourishing soever . and terrible to be taken to himself. know that if care is taken to keep the public no private man can want anything .of the no wonder to see men act so other commonwealths. commonwe^&^every Ban only seeks his own wealth but there. they little When this prayer all fall down again upon the ground. let they implor e His goodness to t them know it. commonit name. and after a while they rise Up. so that no man is poor. unsearchableness of His mind. religions. that God may . In all other places visible. go home to dinner. how for.

that no commonwealth employed in things that are of . and must lead so miserable a dition of the beasts is life. man so rich as to lead . and tofiriented with the apprehenin their old age . in but ^ow^aft^wajde unable to follow continu e still it. wife. that either does nothing at or at best is no use to the public. and is consumed as fast as it comes in. is who were once engaged . there is no overplus left to lay up for old age^ v"^^ Is not that government both unjust and ungrateful. that works harder even than the beasts themselves. ? He is not afraid of the misery of raise nor is he contriving how to a portion for his daughters. or a ploi^ghman. so they feed almost as and have no anxiety about well. UTOPIA. other man. and is employed in labours so necessary. a banker. . and with more pleasure what is to come. will both plentifully and nappily labour. if I see anything that is among whom. can only earn so poor a livelihood. F 2 . Ijut is secure in this. a smith. a serene and cheerful free from anxieties neither apprehending want himself. whilst these men are depressed by a barren^ J .163 for what can make a life. or any all. and fruitless sions of want employment. j that the con- j much better than theirs ? For as the 1 beasts do not work so constantly. all live many generations asTie'canTancy. that is so prodigal of its favours to those that are called gendemen. nor vexed with the endless complaints of his wife his children. are all rich . there nobleman. a goldsmith. could hold out a year without them. upon what is so ill acquired and a mean man. should^ live in great luxury and splendour. a carter. his children thatb oth he andhis to as and grandchildren.. may that a looks either like justice or equity :/fbr what justice in this. i would gladly hear any man comamong them with that of all other I perish. than there elsewhere of these that einployedis is pare the justice that nations . since that which they get by their daily labour does but maintain them at present.

so that though it is a thing most unjust in itself. or such others flattery. can have no other notion of all the oth er governments that I see a^^ who on preteacg-pf-mana ging the p ublic-cmly jMiraie J-hpir private endSj__|aid devise all the ways and arts they can find out. without whom all could not subsist? But after the public has reaped to the ad- vantage of their service. or live either by . and they age. quarrels. then they are accounted laws. con- . such as ploughmen. by a most insatiable covetousness. give such small rewards to those who deserve so well of the public. yet they have given those hardships the laws to be name and colour of justice. who are idle. preserve all that they have so or Jayiw^Jtlian_thatJhe£are acquired. . Yet these wicked men after they have. first. sickness. and then that they may engage the poor to toil and labour for them at as low rates as possible. by procuring made for regulating them. is much it. anxiety and great ' occasions of mischief cut off with And-who does not see th at the frauds. or goldsmiths. is which divided that among themselves with which all the rest might have been well supplied. colliers. as I hope for mercy. that they may. I Therefore I must say that. but by the laws which they procure to be made to that effect to . without danger. takes no care of those of a meaner sort. all their labours and the good they have done is is forgotten and all the recompense given them that they are left to die in great misery. The richer sort are often endeavouring to bring the hire of labourers lower. robberies.' 164 UTOPIA. and oppress them as much as they please. are far from that happiness that is enjoyed among the Utopians for the use as well as the de: sire of money being extinguished. tumults. not only by their frandulent practices. thefts. or by contriving the arts of vain pleasure and on it the other hand. And if they can but prevail ill to get these contrivances established authority. and smiths. come be oppressed with and want. by the show of public considered as the representative of the whole people.

treacheries. nature. and yet if at the end of was made of the granaries of all the rich men that have hoarded up the corn. sense of every man's interest. would : perish in the itself. labours. if and would not be satisfied with none were left that were miserinsult. ' commands. none would have felj/ the terrible effects of that scarcity . if that blessed thing called money. who as He was infinitely wise.UTOPIA. knew best. and that if it had been distributed among them. i6s murders. added to the authority of^ Christ's what was us. would all fall off. same moment fall. did not hinder for this vice does not as I measure happiness so much by its own conveniences ^ by the miseries of others being thought a goddess. in order to the take one instance. solicitudes. v^l'i'rid ^y t^'"' wnrlH ? Men's all fears. that plague of human it . for the relief of Ivhich money seems most apprehending necessary. whom she might Pride thinks its own . with the value of money even poverty this aright. which is pretended to be invented for it procuring them. seditions. it would be found that there was enough among them to have prevented all that consumption of men that perished in misery . and was not less good in discovering it to would have drawn all the world over to the laws of the if Utopians. over . of so pride. and witchcrafts. was their riot really ! the only thing that obstructed being procured rich men are sensible of this. if money were not any mcrp. Consider any year that has been so unfruitful that many/ thousands have died of hunger that year a survey . and know how much a. so easy a thing would be to supply all the necessities of life. would But. which are indeed rather punished than restrained by the severities of law. and to be rescued out of so much misery than to abound with so much wealth and I cannot think but the I do not doubt but that they well . cares. and watchings. greater happiness it is to want nothing necessary than to abound in many superfluities. able. tentions. that source much misery.

. many things occurred to me. as in their notions of religion and divine matters . that seemed otherwise be well secured a. who have often though in vain tempted their ruin. so it is like. to be of great continuance.1 66 UTOPIA. splendour. are the true ornaments of a nation. and was not remembering that he had taken notice of some who seemed to think they were bound in honour to support the credit of their own wisdom. but chiefly what seemed the foundation of all the rest. the^ living in common. according to the common opinion. for they having rooted out of the minds of their people is all the seeds both of ambition and faction. but as long as they live in peace at home. in which I wish that all the world could be so wise as to imitate them for they have . the envy of neighbouring princes. indeed laid down such a scheme and foundation of that as policy. yet Raphael was weary. they may This out is that infernal serpent that creeps into the breasts of mortals.together with several other particulars. which alone to has-been the ruin of many states. magnificence. by which which. it happiness shines the brighter by comparing that with the by displaying its own misfortunes of other persons. at there no danger of any commotion home . and majesty. men live happily under it. When Raphael had though thus made an end of speaking. as well as their way of making war. . . that seemed very absurd. would be quite taken away. by finding out something to censure in since I perceived that sure whether he could easily bear contradiction.nd are . will never be able to put their state into any commotion or disorder. and possesses them too much to be easily drawn and therefore I am glad that the Utopians have fallen upon this form of government. wealth. feel their poverty the more sensibly. both concerning the manners and laws of that people. all nobility. all their at- governed by such good laws. without the use of money.

to see followed in our govemmentsT) . howevfiiv^ll^fimlarfi. J:haiL-hope.._. all 167 ..UTOPIA. and a person who has obtained a great knowledge of the world/^cannot pe rfect ly agree to eyCTVthing he has relatgji. and told him I would find out some other time for examining this subject more particularly. Jtha. though it must be confessed that he is both a very learned man.tl jather wish. own I only comand the account he had given of it in general \ and so taking him by the hand. carried him to supper..Utopia. and for discoursing more copiously upon it and indeed I shall be In the meanglad to embrace an opportunity of doing it.caIth. while. mended . many Jhmgsjii ^^the other men's inventions. besides their their constitution.Qf.. CommQPw.

.

BACON'S NEW ATLANTIS. .

New
We
sailed

Atlantis.

from Peru, where we had continued by the

space of one whole year, for China and Japan, by the South
Sea, taking with us victuals for twelve months ; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months' space and more. But then the wind came about, and settled in the west for many days, so as we could make little or no way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then again there arose strong and great winds

from the south, with a point east ; which carried us up, for
all

victuals failed us,
-So

by which time our though we had made good spare of them. that finding ourselves, in the midst of the greatest wilderthat

we could

do, towards the north

:

ness of waters in the world, without victual,
selves for lost

We gave

our-

men, and prepared for death. Yet we did lift up our hearts and voices to God above, who showeth His wonders in the deep ; beseeching Him of his mercy, that as in the beginning He discovered the face of the deep, and brought forth dry land, so He would now discover land to us, that we might not perish. And it came to pass, that the next day about evening we saw within a kenning before us, towards the north, as it were thick clouds, which did put us
in

some hope of land

:

Sea was utterly unknown

knowing how that part of the South and might have islands or conti:

nents, that hitherto were not

come

to light.

Wherefore we

172 bent our course

NEW
thither,
:

ATLANTIS.

land, all that night

and

where we saw the appearance of in the dawning of next day, we
it

might plainly discern that

was a land
it

flat

to our sight,

show the more dark. And after an hour and a halfs sailing, we entered into a good haven, being the port of a fair city. Not great indeed, but well And we built, and that gave a pleasant view from the sea. thinking every minute long till we were on land, came close But straightways we sajv to the shore and offered to land.
and
full

of boscage, which

made

-

divers of the people, with hastons in their hands, as

it

were

forbidding us to land

:

yet without any cries or fierceness,

but only as warning us

off,

by

signs that they

made. Whereadvising with

upon being not a
ourselves what

little

discomfited,
do.

we were

we should

During which time there
about eight persons
in

made
it,

forth to us a small boat,, with
his

whereof one of them had in
ship,

hand a

tipstaff of

a

yellow cane, tipped at both ends with blue,

aboard our

without any show of distrust
of our

who made at all. And

when he saw one
afore the rest, he

number present himself somewhat

forth a little scroll of parchment (somewhat yellower than our parchment, and shining like

drew

the leaves of writing tables, but otherwise soft

and

flexible),

man. In which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew, and in ancient Greek, and in good Latin of the school, and in Spanish these words " Land ye not, none of you, and provide to be gone from this
delivered
it

and

to our foremost

:

coast within sixteen days, except you have further time given

you

;

meanwhile,

if

you want

fresh water, or victual, or help

for your sick, or that your ship

needeth

repair, write

down your

wants, and you shall have that which belongeth to mercy.''

This

scroll

was signed with a stamp of cherubim's wings,
;

not spread, but hanging downwards

This being delivered, the

officer returned,

and by them a cross. and left only a
Consulting hereupon

servant with us to receive our answer.

amongst ourselves, we were much perplexed.

The

denial

NEIV ATLANTIS.
of landing, and hasty warning us away, troubled us
:

173

much on

the other side, to find that the people had languages, and

w^re so

full

of humanity, did comfort us not a

little.

And

^bove

all,

the sign of the cross to that instrument, waS to us
it

a great rejoicing, and as

were a certain presage of good.

Our answer was in the Spanish tongue, " That for our ship, it was well for we had rather met with calms and contrary winds, than any tempests. For our sick, they were many, and in very ill case so that if they were not permitted to land, they ran in danger of their lives." Our other wants we set down in particular, adding, " That we had some little store 'of merchandise, which if it pleased them to deal for, it might
;
;

supply our wants, without being chargeable unto them."

We

offered

some reward

in pistolets unto the servant,

and a

piece of crimson velvet to be presented to the officer; but
the servant took

them

;

and so

left us,

them not, nor would scarce look upon and went back in another little boat

which was sent for him.

About three hours after we had despatched our answer came towards us a person (as it seemed) of a place. He had on him a gown with wide sleeves, of a kind of water chumelfit, of an excellent azure colour, far more glossy than ours his under apparel was green, and so was his hat, being in the form of a turban, daintily made, and not so huge as the Turkish turbans and the locks of his hair came down below the brims of it. A reverend man was he to behold. He came in a boat, gilt in some part of it, with four persons more only in that boat and was followed by another boat, wherein were some twenty. When he was come within a
there
:

\

;

;

flight-shot of

our ship, signs were

made

to us that

we should

send forth some to meet him upon the water, which we presently did in our ship-boat, sending the principal man

amongst us save one, and four of our number with him. When we were come within six yards of their boat, they called to us to stay, and not to approach farther, which we

174
did.

NEW A TLANTIS.
We "We
lift

And thereupon the man, whom I before described, stood up, and with a loud voice in Spanish, asked, " Are ye
Christians?"

answered,

were;" fearing the

less,

At up his right hand towards heaven, and drew it softly to his mouth (which is the gesture they use, when they thank God), and then said " If ye will swear, all of you, by the merits of the Saviour, that ye are no pirates nor have shed blood, lawfully nor unlawfully, within forty days past you may have license to come on
because of the cross we had seen in the subscription.

which answer the said person

:

;

;

land."

We

said, "

We

were

all

ready to take that oath."

Whereupon one of those that were with him, being (as it seemed) a notary, made an entry of this act. Which done,
another of the attendants of the great person, which was
with him in the same boat, after his lord had spoken a
to him, said aloud
:

little

would have you know, that it is not of pride, or greatness, that he cometh not aboard your ship but for that, in your answer, you declare that you have many sick amongst you, he was warned by the' conservator of health of the city that he should keep a distance." We bowed ourselves towards him, and answered "We were his humble servants; and accounted for great honour and singular humanity towards us, that which was already done but hoped well, that the nature of the sickness of our men was not infectious." So he returned ; and
lord
:

"

My

:

a while after came the notary to us aboard our ship
in his

;

holding

hand a

fruit

of that country, like an orange, but of
:

colour between

orange-tawny and scarlet

which

cast a

most excellent odour.

He

used

it

(as

it

seemed)

for a pre-

servative against infection.

He

gave us our oath, " By the
:"

name

of Jesus, and His merits

and

after told us, that the

next day by six of the clock in the morning,

we should be
both for

sent to, and brought to the strangers' house (so he called
it),

our whole and for our sick.

where we should be accommodated of So he left us

things,
;

and when we

not to wonder at us. "That his care which he took of desolate strangers. because we might have the whole The next morning that . and said. For (as I after learned)-they call . as if it had been." He led us through three fair streets . and then asked us. built of brick. follow my : ' advice. : For (said he) if you will go with me some few of you. He brought us first into a fair parlour above stairs. He must not it) be twice paid he ha^ salary 'twice-jmid. and said. but in so civil a fashion. he went before us. of somewhat a bluer colour than our brick . "What number of persons we were? and how many sick ? " We answered. which was about an hour after. some of glass. which ye will bring on land. and the rest for you of your number. and turned to us." He desired us to have patience a little. and then he led us to see the chambers day before us for our business. but to welcome us . being in number riineteen. one labour meaning (as I take that sufficient of the state for his service. and told us: "He came to conduct us to the strangers' house and that he had prevented the hour. God would reward. as we passed by them. and to stay till he came back to us. and see the place. :" 175 " him some for p^^tolets." We thanked him. he smiling. and how it may be made convenient and then you may send for your sick. and when we were on land. and our guide.NEW offered ATLANTIS. " He was but our servant. The strangers' house is a fair and spacious house. said. and divers of them. ." And so six of us went on land with him . and all the way we went there were gathered some people on both sides. an officer that taketh jgwards^ early. which is their gesture when they bid any welcome. some of a kind of cambric oiled. whereof our sick were seventeen. and with handsome windows. there shall first - which were provided for us. standing in a row . theire came to us the same officer came to us at first with his cane. " We were in all (sick and whole) one and fifty persons. put their arms a little abroad.

they mended so kindly and so fast. rest Whereupon six of us only stayed. He had also a tippet of fine Imen. for so long it is since any stranger and therefore take 'ye no care .you such further time as shall be convenient. and chiefly as Christians. As for any merchandise you have brought. am a Christian and therefore am come to you. So we spent our three days joyfiilly. and I do not doubt. And if you have any other request to make. which I think you will not be unwillstate hath given : ing to hear. either in merchandise or in gold and silver : for to us it is all one. : for it hath laid up revenue these thirty-seven years arrived in this part . little. He said. and the office avoided the room. He desired to speak with some few of us. clothed in blue as the former was. that the strangers' house at this time rich. service. there came to us a new man. and without care.178 civilly. but myself shall be able to obtain for . We him in a very lowly and submissive manner. in expectation what would be done with us when they were expired. he did bend to us a of our parts saluted and put his arms abroad. to offer you my both as strangers. NEW ATLANTIS. and by vocation I priest. who thought themselves cast into some divine pool of healing. ye shall be well used. is Ye shall also imderstand. and much aforehand . we had every hour joy of the amendment of our sick. The morrow after our three days were past. and without giving any the least occasion of offence. for the law in this point not precise . that we had not seen before. as looking that from him we should receive sentence of life or death. The you license to stay land for the space of sjx weeks if is and let it not trouble you. . Some on things I may tell you. During which time. At his coming in. the state will defray you all the time you stay. and have your return. your occasions ask further time. Neither shall you stay one day the less for that. " I am by governor of this house of strangers. save that his turban was white with a small red cross on the top.

NEW
hide
it

ATLANTIS.

179

not;

for
fall

ye shall find we will not

make your

Only by the answer ye shall receive. this I must tell you, that none of you must go above a karan (that is with them a mile and a half) from the walls of the city, without special leave." We answered, after we had looked a while upon one another, admiring this gracious and parent-like usage, that we could not tell what to say, for we wanted words to express our thanks and his noble free offers left us nothing to ask. It seemed to us, that we had before us a picture of our salvation in heaven for we
countenance to
; ;

were a while since in the jaws of death, were now brought into a place where we found nothing but consolations. For the commandment laid upon us, we would not
that
foil

to

obey

it,

though

it

was impossible but our hearts
that our tongues

should be inflamed to tread further upon this happy and
holy ground.

We

added,

should

first

cleave to the roofs of our mouths, ere
either this reverend person, or this

we should

forget,

whole nation, in our most humbly besought him to accept of us as his true servants, by as just a right as ever men on laying and presenting both our earth were bounden; He said, he was a persons and all we had at his feet. priest, and looked for a priest's reward ; which was our So brotherly love, and the good of our souls and bodies.
prayers.

We

also

he went

fi-om us, not without tears of tenderness in his eyes,

and left us also confused with joy and kindness, saying amongst ourselves, that we were come into a land of angels, which did appear to us daily, and present us with comforts,
which we thought not
of,

much

less

expected.

The next
to us again,

day, about ten of the clock, the governor

came

and

after salutations, said faniiliarly, that

he was

meaner sort, or else gone abroad), sat down with him ; and when we were set, he began thus " We of this island of Bensalem
(the rest were of the
:

come to visit us ; and called and we being some ten of us

for

a chair, and sat him

down

;

i8o
(for

NEW
so they called
it

ATLANTIS.
have
this
:

in their language)

that

by

means of our solitary situation, and of the laws of secrecy', which we have fur our travellers, and our rate admission of we know well most part of the habitable world, strangers and are ourselves unknown. Therefore because he that knoweth least is fittest to ask questions, it is more reason,
;

for the entertainment of the time, that

ye ask

me

questions,

than that I ask -you." We thanked him, that he would give us leave so
that

answered, that

we humbly And to do.
known
said)

we conceived by the

taste

we had

already, that there

was no worldly thing on earth more worthy to be
than the state of that happy land.
since that

But above

all

(we

we were met from the several ends of the world, and hoped assuredly that we should meet one day in the kingdom of heaven (for that we were both parts Christians), we desired to know (in respect that land was so remote, and so divided by vast and unknown seas from the land where our Saviour walked on earth) who was the apostle of that nation, and how it was converted to the faith ? It appeared in his
face, that

he took great contentment in

this

our question

he said, "
the
first

Ye

knit
:

my
it

heart to you, by asking this question in

place

for
:

showeth that you
I shall gladly,

first

seek the kingyour

dom
',^

of heaven

and

and

briefly, satisfy

demand. About twenty years
ca^ife to pass, that there

after the ascension of

our Saviour

it

was seen by the people of Renfusa
might be some mile

(a city

upon the

eastern coast of our island, witliin sight,
it

the night was cloudy and calm), as
in the sea, a great pillar of light
;

not sharp, but in form of

a column, or cylinder, rising from the sea, a great way up
towards heaven
cross of light,

and on the top of it was seen a large more bright and resplendent than the body of
;

the pillar.

Upon which
and so
after

so strange a spectacle, the people

of the city gathered apace together

upon the sands,

to

wonder

;

put themselves into a number of small

:

1

NEW A TLANTIS.
boats

.

1

8

boats to go nearer to this marvellous sight.

But when the
pillar,

were

come

within about sixty yards of the
all

they found themselves
yet so as they might

bound, and could go no
to
all as

further,

move

go about, but might not
in a theatre,
It so fell out,
sign.

approach nearer
beholding
that there
this

;

so as the boats stood"

light, as

an heavenly

was in one of the boats one of the wise men of Salomon's Hou se ; which house or college, my good brethren, is the very eye of this kingdom, who having
the Society- of

a while attentively and devoutly viewed and contemplated

and cross, fell down upon his face ; and then upon his knees, and lifting up his hands to heaven, made his prayers in this manner " Lord God of heaven and earth ; thou hast vouchsafed
this pillar

raised himself

'

of thy grace, to those of our order to
creation,

know

thy works of

and to discern (as far as appertaineth to the generations of men) between divine miracles, works of Nature, works of art and impostures, and illusions of all sorts. I do here acknowledge and testify
true
secrets of
;

and

them

before this people, that the thing
eyes,
is

we now

see before our

thy finger, and a true miracle.

And

forasmuch as

we

learn in our books, that thou never workest miracles,
(for the

but to a divine and excellent end
are thine

laws of Nature

great

own laws, and thou exceedest them not but upon cause), we most hun^bly beseech thee to prosper this
;

great sign,

mercy

and to give us the interpretation and use of it in which thou dost in some part secretly promise, by

sending it unto us.' " When he had made his prayer, he presently found the

boat he was in movable and unbound; whereas all the rest remained still fast ; and taking that for an assurance of
leave to approach, he caused the boat to be softly

with silence rowed towards the pillar; but ere he near
itself
it,

and came
cast
stars,

the pillar
it

and

cross of light broke up,

and

abroad, as

were into a firmament of

many

i82

NEW

ATLANTIS.
after,

and there was nothing left .to be seen but a small ark, or chest of cedar, dry and riot wet at all with water, though it swam and in ihe fpreend of it, which was towards him, grew a small green branch of palm and when the wise man had taken it with all reverence into his boat, it opened of itself, and there
which also vanished soon
; ;

were found in
contained

it

a book and a

letter,

both written in

fine

parchment, and wrapped in sindons of linen.
all

The book

the canonical books

of the Old and

New
well

Testament, according as you have them (for

we know

what the churches with you receive), and the Apocalypse itself; and some other books of the New Testament, which were not at that time written, were nevertheless in the
book.
''
'

And
I

for the letter,

it

was

in these

words

:

Bartholomew, a servant of the Highest, and apostle of

Jesus Christ, was warned by an angel that appeared to
in a vision of glory, that I should

me

commit
testify

this

ark to the

floods of the sea.
that people

Therefore

I

do

and declare unto

where

God

shall

ordain this ark tp
is

come

to

land, that in the

same day

come unto them

salvation

and peace, and goodwill from the Father, and from Lord Jesus.'
"
as the letter,

the

There was also in both these writings, as well the book wrought a great miracle, conform to that of the apostles, in the original gift of tongues. For there being at that time, in this land, Hebrews, Persians, and Indians, besides the natives, every one read upon the book and letter, as if they had been written in his own language. And thus was this land saved from infidelity (as the remain of the old world was from water) by an ark, through the apostolical and miraculous evangelism of St. Bartholomew.'' And here he paused, and a messenger came, and called him forth from us. So this was all that passed in that
conference.

The

next day, the same

governor

came again

to us,

;

NEW ATLANTIS,
immediately after
"

,

183

dinner, and excused himself, saying, That the day before he was called from us somewhat abruptly, but now he would make us amends, and spend time with us, if we held his company and conference agreeable." We answered, that we held it so agreeable and pleasing to us, as we forgot both dangers past, and fears to come, for the time we heard him speak ; and that we thought an hour spent with him was worth years of our former life. He bowed himself a little to us, and after we were set again, he said, " Well, the questions are on your
part."

One

of our number said, after a

little

pause, that

there was a matter
fearful to

ask,

we were no less desirous lest we might presume too

to
far.

know

than

But en-

couraged by his rare humanity towards us (that could scarce
think ourselves strangers, being his vowed and professed
servants), we would take the hardness to propound it humbly beseeching him, if he thought it not fit to be answered,' that he would pardon it, though he rejected it. We said, we well observed those his words, which he formerly spake, that this happy island, where we now stood, was known to few, and yet knew most of the nations of the world, which we found to be true, considering they had the languages of Europe, and knew much of our state and business ; and yet we in Eu;:ope (notwithstanding all the remote discoveries and navigations of this last age) never heard any of the least inkling or glimpse of this island. This we found wonderful strange ; for that all nations have interknowledge one of another, either by voyage into foreign parts, or by strangers that come to them ; and though the traveller into a foreign country doth commonly know more

.,

by the eye than he
traveller
;

yet both ways suffice to
degree,

in

some

home can by relation of the make a mutual knowledge, on both parts. But for this island, we
that stayeth at
;

never heard
arrive

tell of any ship of theirs, that had been seen to upon any shore of Europe no, ngr of either the East

to be hidden and unseen to distance from them. any ship of any other part of the return for West world. " You shall think credible) understand (that which perhaps you will scarce t hat about three thousand Y ears. that this land had laws of secrecy touching strangers. of the languages. . that we did well to ask pardon for this question we now asked.i84 or NEW Indies.the navigation^^Jhe^ w. for that it imported. " You remember it aright . and therefore in that I shall say to you. For the situation of lordship said) in the secret conclave of such a vast sea might cause it. I well. ^. o r some- what _more. to bring thern It spirits of the air into all news and all. to think. and yet I say. of those that lie such a was a thing we could not tell what to make of. (especiall£_^r remot e voyages) was greater than at this day^. them. was answered by us he spake it in all possible humbleness. And it yet the (as his marvel rested not in this. we knew That we were apt enough somewhat supernatural in this island. To this he said. that sent forth parts. a land of magicians. it and yet to have others open. and as in a light to At this speech the governor gave a gracious smile and said. Do not think with yourselves. books. that they should have knowledge affairs. that that but merrily.orld. But to let his lordship know truly what it was that made us tender and doubtful to ask this question. that I increased with you. .ago. it was not any such conceit. but yet with a countenance taking knowledge. there was but yet rather as angelical than magical. nor yet of ATLANTIS. intelligence of other countries. But then. I must reserve some particulars. greater know not how much it is know it then than now whether it was. which it is not lawful for me to reveal. but because we remembered he had given a touch in his former speech. but there will be enough left to give you satisfaction. for that it seemed to us a condition and propriety of divine powers and beings. that had made them. as if we thought this land others. within these threescore years.

that were no sailors. as to other . men . straits. as far as to the borders of the East Tartary.Paguin the same with Cambalaine) and Quinzy. Of all this there is with you sparing memory. that saved the remnant of men from the universal deluge. palace. And (as it Cometh to pass) they had many times men of other countries. and of Palestine. whereby the same. this land was known and frequented by the ships and vessels of all the nations before named. " At that time. men Coeli cUmb up all had been a Scala be poetical and fabulous yet so much is true. . that the said country of . little tribes with us at this day. the several degrees of ascent. whom we have some And for our own they went sundry voyages. ^ NEW ATLANTIS. For though the great narration and description which is made by a and man . as well to your Hercules. which you is call the Pillars of parts in the Atlantic (which and Mediterranean Seas as to. as if it . was -likewise great. upon the Oriental Seas. that the descendants of Neptune planted there. which as so many chains environed the same site and temple did . and an age after or more. but we have large knowledge thereof. which have now but junks and canoes. "^ 185 that the example of the ark. " At the same time. This island (as appeareth by faithful registers of those times) had then fifteen hundred strong ships. with you. Persians. China also. of great content. had great fleets so had the Carthaginians their colony. which is yet farther west. or none . Toward the east the shipping of Egypt. city hill and and to the manifold streams of goodly navigable rivers. and especially the Tyrians. The Phoenicians. so as almost all nations of might and fame resorted hither . of stirgs and ships. Arabians. the inhabitants of the great Atlantis did flourish.. and of the magnificent temple. abounded then in tall ships. and the great Atlantis (that you call America). Chaldeans. that came with them as . or what it was but such is the truth. gave confidence to adventure upon the waters.

by name Altabin. But whether were the ancient Athenians . through the South Sea upon this our island . in arms. had some relation from the Egyptian that priest. not by a great earthquake. For within less than the space of one hundred years the Great Atlantis was utterly lost and destroyed. But the divine revenge overtook not long after those proud e!»terprises. For the king of contenting himself only with their oath. and for the former of these. dismissed them all in safety. then named Tyrambel. and compelled them to render themselves without striking a stroke . I had the glory of the repulse and resistance of those can say nothing but certain it is there never came back either sbjp or man from that voyage. handled the matter so. whom he citeth. as it seemeth. knowing well both his own strength and that of his enemies. for that whole subject to earthquakes. shipping. foi. those countries having at this day far greater rivers. that they should no more bear arms against him. and they of Coya.iS6 NEW ATLANTIS. so that although destroyed man . or at least within the space of ten years. in mjost it same inundation was not deep. such a thing there was. I Atlantis. as well that of Peru. waters. But it is true that the forty foot.ces. as at one time. as that of Mexico. if they had not met with enemies of greater clemency. both by sea and land . as your tract is little man saith. as he cut off their land forces from their ships. a wise man and a great warrior. they both made two great expeditions . but by a particular deluge. and after they were at his mercy. it For assuredly. Tortune. Neither had tlie other voyage of those of Coya upon us had better . and riches . and entoiled both their navy and their camp with a greater power than theirs. or inundation. this island. they of Tyrambel through the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea . from the ground. were mighty and proud kingdoms. than and far higher mountains to pour down any part of the old world. not past places. then called Coya. i^hich was into Europe. the same author amongst you. so mighty.

than the rest of the world. had a long continuance. younger_a_Jhousand~yeSi^afnflre-i:east. to clothe themselves with the skins of tigers. that they regions. down they took from those their ancestors of the mountains. for that there was so much time between the universal flood and their particular inundation. Noah they. So you see. peopled the country again slowly. and other things neces- and woods. by the infinite flight of birds. they were forced to begin the custom of Only they take going naked. whereby they of the vale that were not drowned perished for want of food. who were invited unto it. though it were shallow. yet that inundation. were not able to leave letters. although they had depth of the water. been used. the feathers of birds. we lost our traffic with the Americans. which was the chief family of the earth). with lay nearest to us.7 . arts. by this main accident of time. it is As for the other parts of the world. which continueth at this day. yet 1 8 some few wild for inhabitants of the wood trees escaped. and knew no means of hc^hter apparel. and civility to their^ little. and great hairy after have in those parts . For the poor remnant of human seed which remained in for their mountains. that came up to the high grounds. when and found the intolerable heats which are there. So as mairvel you not at the thin population of America. in regard they we had "most commerce. while the waters stood below. and beast generally. NEW A TLANTIS. by little and and being simple and a savage people (not like and his sons. or by a . and this also great pride and delight in they came into the valley. For as buildings in many places higher than the sary. bears. whom of all others. following most manifest that in the ages (whether it were in respect of wars. in respect of the extreme cold of those goats. Birds also were saved by flying to the high men. nor at the rudeness and ignorance of the people you must account your inhabitants of America as a young people. posterity tions and having likewise in their mountainous habita.

of time) natural navigation did everywhere greatly decay. and was wholly bent to make his kingdom and for good his name . arid therefore why we by should sit at give you an account itself. to your principal question. in the greatest part thereof. it be ^rom other nations. and it will home. inscrutable giver of our nation. ago. but scarce any one to his noble way to the better . strength. and likewise by sailing unto some and are under the crown and laws of this state and recalling into his memory the happy and flourishing estate wherein this land then was. being 5. but our shipping. so as it might be a thousand ways altered to the worse. but only (as far as human foresight might reach) to give perpetuity to that which . man : I and we esteem him as the lawThis king had a large heart. For I cannot say. I must yield you some other cause.900 years whose memory of all others we most adore not . and finding also the shipping of this country might be plentifully set on work. part of intercourse which could sail to us. hath long since ceased as this of yours. king. J « people happy. to give you satisfaction. and such vessels as could hardly brook the So then. and specially far voyages (the rather by the use of galleys.1 88 revolution ^EJ^^ ATLANTIS. sufficient He therefore taking into consideration how and substantive this land was. though a mortal was' Salomona . and all things that appertain to navigation. mariners. a super- stitiously.000 miles in circuit. except But now of the cessation of that other part of intercourse. is as great as shall ever. about 1. but as a divine instrument. pilots. and of rare fertility of soil. that ocean) were altogether left and omitted. which might be by our sailing to other nations. I draw now nearer. . to you see how it were by some rare accident. both by fishing and by transpor- tations from port to port. . if I shall say truly. though nothing wanted and heroical intentions. small islands that are not far from us. for number. "There reigned in this island. to maintain itself without any aid at all of the foreigner.

a law of pusillanimity and But is this restraint . NE IV A TLANTIS. fearful foolish nation. should have very good conditions. that be taken where they came but travelling fit Now for our for a dream. which showeth. but as many as would stay. which admirable of ours hath one only exception. and means in so to live from the state. For first. But there it is a poor thing and hath made them a But our lawgiver curious. What those few that returned may have reported abroad. . preserving the good which cometh by . that now we have memory not of one ship that ever returned. was the in his time so happily established. in taking order and making provision for the relief of strangers distressed." At which speech (as reason was) we all rose up. entrance of strangers after which at that time was the calamity of America) was frequent. that of the strangers that should be permitted to land. they should return.. our lawgiver thought ahogether to restrain it. he took this course he did ordain. as many at all times might depart as many as would . chose to return in our bottoms. Wherein he saw so far. it against humanity. I know not. It is true. and dis- cover their knowledge of this estate. or can is . doubting novelties and commixture of manners. and but of thirteen persons only. made his law of another temper. many ages since the prohibition. For the sail Chinese where they will. that their law of keeping out strangers fear. he hath preserved all points of humanity. and yet continued in use. whatsoever they have said. to detain strangers here against their . that. ignorant. wills and against policy. whereof you have tasted. So is it not in China. could at several times. the like is law against the admission of strangers without license ancient law in the an kingdom of China. He went. and bowed ourselves. But you must think. from hence into parts abroad.on: "That king also still desiring to join humanity and policy together and thinking . therefore his other 1 89 fundamental laws of this amongst kingdom he did ordain (though it interdicts and prohibitions which we have touching .

from the cedar of Libanus to the moss that groweth out of the wall all things that have life and motion. in things. and all that therein is. When the king had forbidden to all his people navigation into any part that was not under his crown. namely. think. digress. which is famous with you. that every twelve years there . which we call Salomon's House the noblest foundation. or society. he made out of the true nature of the nevertheless this ordinance . as earth. and men the more fruit in their use of them. an order.1 90 NEIV A TLANTIS.t purpose. : communicating with strangers. But the records write it as it is spoken. as should be Solomon's House. maketh me This think that our king finding himself to symbolize. whereby God might have more glory in the workmanship of them. that all amongst the excellent It of that king. which lived many many years before him. and sometimes the . my dear friends. Works whereby I am satisfied that pur excellent king had learned from the Hebrews that God had created the world. is for that I find in ancient records. Ye shaK acts understand. one above the erection hath the pre-eminence. and of . with that king of the Hebrews. that ever was upon the dedicated tr> kingdom. this order or society sometimes called Solomon's College of the Six Days' House. that natural history which he wrote of all plants. But now to come to our presen. but you will by-and-by find it pertinent. Some think if it beareth the founder's name a little corrupted. him with the title of this founda- And I am the rather induced to be of this opinion. So as I take it to be denominate of the king of the Hebrews. was and institution of . and avoiding the hurt ahd And here I shall seem a Uttle to I will now open it to you. honoured tion. for we have some parts of his works which with you are lost. within six days and therefore he instituted that house. did give it also that second name. for the finding : all things. creatures It is we and the lantern .of this the stud y of the wor ks and it of God. and no strangers to us .

191 ships. what time of stay We would demand of the state. all which was light . all astonished to hear so strange things so probably perceiving that it And he we were willing to say someoff.-p desired. and good quantity of of- treasure to remain with the brethren. colour themselves under the names of other nations. : abroad tiE the new mission. new missions. and in the end concluded that we might do well to think with ourselves. Whereupon we all rose . such things. I may not do it. trade. and what places of rendezvous are appointed for the like is it circumstances of the much to your desire. of the growth of said this. two of the appointed to several voyages there that in either of these ships should be a mission of three fellows or brethren of Salomon's House. to have light. nor for . after they had landed the brethren. for the buying. not for gold. manufactures. and patterns in every kind that the ships. but had not feady. silks. nor for nor any other commodity of matter first but only for God's creature." And when he had all . arts. should return . this kingdom. and rewarding of such persons. and the practice. neither But thus you see we maintain a or jewels. he was silent. whose errand was only to and state of those countries and especially of the sciences. for he would procure such time as ". silver. as they should think fit. the ships are not otherwise fraught than with store of victuals. and withal to bring unto us books. parts of the world. what.NEW ATLANTIS. and that the brethren should stay give us knowledge' of the affairs to which they were designed. and to what places these voyages have been designed . I say. instruments. in great courtesy took us and descended to ask us questions of our voyage and fortunes. and inventions of all the world . Now that for me to tell you how the vulgar for sort of mariners are contained firom being discovered at land. and bade us not to scant ourselves . should be set forth out of . spices. and how they must be put on shore any time. and so were we for indeed we were told.

and so took his leave. till men to look to our ship. showing This is nation to be compounded of it is goodness. the Tirsan estate suits These two days the good sitteth in consultation. but he would not suffer us. that the state used to offer conditions to strangers that would stay. which is done at the cost of the state. and reverend custom all it is. but with much ado we restrained them. as it were. into their bosom. and lived most joyfully.192 NEW ATLANTIS. not of the meanest qualiry. One day there were two of our company it is that country. granted to any man that shall live to see thirty persons descended of his body. worthy to hold men's eyes. to crave conditions . as they call it . concerning of the family. as indeed. to make this feast. We now for freemen. alive together. bidden to a natural. we might agree what course took ourselves to take. two days before the feast. as was enough to make us forget all that was dear to us in our own countries . and obtaining acquaintat ance with many of the city. of both sexes. and all the persons of the family. seeing there was no danger of our utter perdition. and all above three years old. a most that pious. The father of the family. and continually we met with many things. if there be a mirror in the world. feast of the family. There. and is assisted also by the governor of the city or place where the feast is celebrated. right worthy of observation and relation . they are compounded and . are summoned to attend him. going abroad and seeing what was to be seen in the city and places adjacent. whose hands we found such humanity. taketh to him three of such friends as he liketh to choose. whom they call the Tirsan. But when it came once amongst our people. within our tedder. up and presented ourselves to kiss the skirt of liis tippet. if there be any discord oi between any of the family. the manner of it . we had work enough to get any of our and to keep them from going presently to the governor. and such a freedom and "desire to take strangers.

if any be subject to vice. but not in When the Tirsan come he sitteth down . leaded with gold and seen. is it. with divers other the like orders and advices. whereof after it is taken down. to live in who is called ever after the Son of the Vine. The Tirsan cometh . to put in execution. ever choose' one house with \ im. or take courses' is they are reproved and censured. which room hath an pace at the upper end. with above on the right hand of the glass. and the courses of which any of them should take. with a fine net of silk and silver. There.NEW appeased. though such reverence and obedience they give to the srder of Nature. made round or an ivy somewhat whiter than ours. broiding or binding in the ivy and is ever of the work of some of the daughters of the family and veiled over at the top. and the females following him and if there be a mother. The reason or Tirsan hereafter appear. by his public authority. there is a . for it is of ivy . the decrees if and orders of the Tirsan. with a table and carpet before oval. from whose body the whole lineage is descended. and competent There. of a silver asp. that seldom needeth . (dll The Tirsan doth also then man from amongst his sons. But the substance of it is true ivy . where she forth. the friends of the family are desirous to have seme leaf or sprig to keep. but more shining . Against the wall. the half-pace. order means to ill live. taken for their reHef. On the feast day. the father room half- cometh feast forth after divine service into a large is where the celebrated. they should be disobeyed. The governor assisteth to the end. And the state is curiously wrought with and silk of divers colours. and all it is like the leaf Over the chair is a state. winter. sitteth. in the middle of a chair placed for him. is a privy door. the males before him. So likewise direction life given touching marriages. traverse placed in a loft chair. is ATLANTIS. and a carved window of blu'e is . green sUver . 193 distressed or if any of the family be decayed. forth with all his generation or lineage.

in their language. or 'pther nations. and many privileges. The herald and children are clothed with mantles of sea-water 'green satin but the herald's mantle train. the king is debtor no man. our well-beloved friepd and creditor." which proper only to to this case. supported by two of his sons. both at his back. and it is ever styled and directed. < . " To is such an a title one. other child the cluster of grape? which is of gold . the father or Tirsan standeth up. without difference of sex. arid on either side of him two young lads : whereof one carrieth a ^ j scroll of their shining yellow parchment.194 the chair wall. and all ' the lineage place themselves against the half-pace.' Then the herald mounteth the halfpace. Bu': the grapes are daintily enamelled and if the males of the family be the greater . but well kept and without disorder. and points of honour. " Happy are the people of charter . This charter the herald readeth aloud . and while it is read. This scroll is| the king's' charter. . embossed or and though such charters be expedited of course. and upon the return of the their feet. but the king's for propagation of his subjects. the room being full of company. NEW ATLANTIS. containing gift of revenue. after some pause there cometh in from the lower end of the room a Taratan (which is as much as an herald). granted to the father of the family . and stand always upon When he is set. in gold : Bensalem. For they say. and delivereth the charter into his hand and with that there is an acclanjation. which is thus much. cometh up as far as the half-pace. in order of their years. Then the herald taketh into his hand from the . by all that are present. such as he chooseth. ar |i there first taketh into his hand the scroll. both and the grapes. is streamed with g61d| and hath a incli- Then the herald with three curtsies. and the other cluster of grapes of gold. exemptions. the seal set to moulded is the king's image." the stalk. and as of right. according to the number and dignity of the family. with a long foot or stalk. yet they are varied by discretion.

except he hap He is served only by his own children. Son of the Vine. and having withdrawn himself alone into a place. and the last was the father of the of faithful : concluding ever with a thanksgiving for the nativity whose birth the births of all are only Dinner being done. male who perform unto him all service of the table upon the knee. and the women only stand about him. with a crescent on the top. as an ensign of honour. by name as he pleaseth. of what degree or to dignity so ever. time. varied according to the invention of him that composeth it (for they have . in blessed. then they are enamelled into a greenish yellow. Then he them is one and by one. the Tirsan retireth again . such as are be of Salomon's House. are in family. The grapes number as many as there are descendants of the This golden cluster the herald delivereth also to the Tirsan. the grapes are enamelled purple. The room below his half-pace hath tables on the sides for the guests that are bidden . to be in house with him it beareth before his father. number. and comely order excellent poesy). with a set little 195 sun on the top . but the subject of it is always the praises Adam. who are served with great and towards the end of dinner (which in the greatest feasts with them lasteth never above an hour and a half) there is an hymn sung. whereof the former two peopled the world. and Noah. as before and none of his descendants with him. calleth who forth stand about him as at the •by first. The person that called " 2 . he cometh forth the third of our Saviour. is who when he : goeth in public ever after. with all his descendants. Tirsan retireth . that who presently delivereth it over to that son he had formerly chosen. and Abraham .. though seldom the order of age be inverted. NEW ATLANTIS. and thereupon called the forth again to . where he sitteth alone under the state. After this ceremony ended the father or after and some time cometh sit dinner. where he maketh some private prayers. if the females. to give the blessing . leaning against the wall.

because they are of far differing For whereas they and have a secret inbred rancour against the people amongst whom they live these. or her head. the day. the Prince of Dove be upon thee. and other for the rest of feast. and persevere to the And in the withal delivereth to either of figure of them a jewel. of Surely this man and whom I speak would ever acknowledge that Christ was . Which a they may better do. whom the they leave to their own religion. and that done. give God the praise. made fall an ear of wheat. this done. and saith. and they call Him also the Milken Way.'' This he saith to every of them. which they ever after wear in the turban. and make the days good and many. and many other . . if there be any of his sons of eminent merit and virtue. and giveth the blessing in these words " Son of Bensalem (or daughter of Bensaiem). they recreations. give unto our Saviour many high attributes. or hat. extremely.. so they be not above two. hate the name of Christ. and the Eliah of the Me-ssiah. This is the full order of that By that time six or seven days were into straight acquaintance with a spent. laying his arm over their Peace. after to music their front of their and dances. I was fallen merchant of that city. contrariwise. he would tell how God made Him ruler of the seraphim s. he calleth for them again." born. which guard His throne .196 NEW ATLANTIS. it is well you are end. manner. removed) kneeleth down before the and the father layeth his hand upon his head. whose name was Joabin. : word . and disposition from the Jews in other parts. thy father saith it the man by whom thou hast breath and life speaketh the (the table being before chair. the blessing of the everlasting Father. love the nation of Bensalem. He was a Jew and circumcised for they have some few stirps of Jews yet remaining among them. born of a Virgin and that He was more than a man . they standing : " Sons. and the Holy of thy pilgrimage shoulders.

You so not under the heavens chaste a nation all of Bensalem. pollution or foulness. nor so free from the virgin of the world . and excellently seen in the laws and customs of that nation. so much is be.mily and indeed we have experience. whereas other kings should keep a great distance. that excellent institution of the feast of the fa. the King of Bensalem should sit at His feet. and and whether they were is one wife ? affected. have read in one of your European books. and I will understand that there as this is you what I know. I It is I remember. 197 high names. yet they are far from the language of other Jews. do flourish an extraordinary manner. tfell But hear shall and prosper ever after. But yet setting aside these Jewish dreams. And for the country of Bensalem. for that. that . whether they kept marriage tied to well. being desirous by tradition among the Jews there to have it believed that the people thereof were of the generations of Abraham. which though they be inferior to His divine majesty. and such For that where population as with them it seemed to of plurality of wives. of an holy hermit amongst you. much And because propagation of families proceedeth copul?ition. that those families that are partakers of the blessings of that feast. methought. there commonly permission said : To this he " You have reason for to commend . I desired to from the nuptial know of him what laws and customs they had concerning marriage. and of great policy. the man was a wise man and learned. by another son. and that Moses by a sit secret cabala ordained the laws of Bensalem which they that at now use in . and His throne Hierusalem. in me now. I had never heard of a solemnity wKerein Nature did so preside. this man would make no end of commending it. I was much affected with the relation I had from some of the company of their custom in holding the feast of the family. whom they call Nachoran .NEIV ATLANTIS. and when the Messias should come. Amongst other discourses one day I told him.

in- or or reputation. wherein is sought alliance. The haunting of thos?^ dissolute places. infinite And that therefore are you men marry life. them but a very bargain portion. and the delight ments (where sin is turned into dull thing. Nay. no dissolute houses. for is ordained a remedy for unlawful concupiscence and natural concupiscence seemeth as a. But when men have at hand a remedy. to there appeared to him a little foul ugly Ethiope . not.. marry years to is past. They hear you defend these things. marriage They say ye have put marriage out of office. were tolerated only as no. or resort to courtezans. as done to avoid greajter evils. as it ought to be if those things for necessity . more fair and admirsee the spirit of chastity of Eensalem. spur to marriage. there is nothing. And custom of change.198 JVEIV ATLANTIS. fore. but choose rather a libertine and impure single . than to be yoked in marriage late. and many that do when the prime and strength of their And when they do marry. marry. which permit such things. with detestation. Neither is it possible that those that have cast away so basely so much 'of their strength. marriage with is almost seen expulsed. are in no more punished the depraved men than in bachelors. what is marriage . no courtezans. with some desire (almost and not the faithful nuptial union of man and wife. . there- with them there are no stews. in meretricious embrace- art). that Know. they wonder. should greatly esteem children (being of the same different) of issue matter) as chaste the case " men do. more agreeable to their corrupt there will. So likewise during marriage is much amended. able than the chaste minds of this people. and if desired to see the spirit of fornication. as . amongst mortal men. maketh marriage a and a kind of imposition or tax. but they rernain still a very married affiront to marriage. that was first instituted. nor anything of that kind. at you in Europe. but it he had desired would have appeared For to him in the likeness of a fair beautiful cherubim.

offered his daughters little nay. where the married couple are permitted. for that the same vices lust and appetites do Still remain and abound. ' 19^ But they say. They have ordained that none do intermarry. to see one another' naked. unnatural lust. or contract. but if. they say further. righteousness righteousness of Europe. before they contract. the chiefest bridle of say to him.NEW ATLANTIS.'' And when he had said this the good Jew paused a little . who . and to speak generally (as I said before) I have not read of any such chastity in any people as theirs. that all vices.you give it any vent it will rage . and yet there are not so faithful and inviolate friendships in the world again as are there. and went on this manner " They have also many wise and excellent laws. touching marriage. furnace. this is a preposterous wisdom his guests . They allow no polygamy. deflowering of virgins. as for masculine love. said only this . Marriage without consent of parents they do not make void. advoutries. to save from abusing. yet thinking it decent that upon his pause of speech I should not be altogether silent. is. untU a month be past from their first interview. And their usual saying is that whosoever is unchaste cannot reverence himself . they have no touch of it . I have read in a book of one of your men. unlawful if being like a you stop the flames altogether it will quench. for the children of such marriages are not admitted to inherit above a third part of their parents' inheritance. that I would next religion. whereupon I. for they think . : " that he was come to bring to memory our the sins " and that I confess BenSalem was greater than the At which speech he bowed his head. that there gained in this . and they say that the reverence of a man's self. of a feigned commonwealth. it a scorn to give a refusal after so familiar knowledge but because of many . : but they mulct it in the inheritors . as the widow of Sarepta of said to Elias . This they dislike . far more willing to hear him speak on than to speak myself. Jike. and the and they is call it Lot's offer.

with two horses at either end. and said. His beard was cut round and of the same colour with his hair. and shoes of peach-coloured velvet. his entry. with a girdle of the same his neck. of the news." And seemed the as to we were thus in conference. His . that one of His I the fathers of Salomon's . comely of person. without wheels. whereupon he turned "There night is word come to the governor of the city. . they have a more way. and said. coming will in state but the cause of his coming is provide you and your fellows of a good standing to see I his entry." The next morning he came to me again. set in borders of gold. them severally bathe naked. they were of colour brown. for they have near every town a couple of it is pools (which they call Adam and to Eve's pools ). "You will am commanded away in haste. and told him I was most glad. The and adorned with crystal and two footmen on each chariot was all of cedar. or Spanish montero . there came one that be a messenger. where permitted to the friends oije of the friends of the man. neck was bare to the shoulders. and had an aspect as if he pitied men. we have is seen none of them this dozen years. same about He and a Sindon or tippet of the had gloves that were curious. richly trapped ." thanked him. The day being come he made He was a man of middle stature and age. . House will be here this day sevensecret. to me. Jew. He was carried in a rich chariot. and a cape his : under garment was of excellent white linen down to the girt foot. His hat was like a helmet. set with stone litter-wise. and his locks curled below it decently .200 hidden defects in civil NEW ATLANTIS. joyful as it seemed. save that the fore-end had panels of sapphires. in blue velvet embroidered side gilt in the like attire. somewhat lighter. and . men and women's bodies. that spake with pardon me. and another of see of the woman. He was clothed in a robe of fine black cloth with wide sleeves. and the hinder- . for I in a rich huke.

his Horsemen he had none. as show was . of and under his foot curious carpets of silk of divers colours. but far finer. He held_i2p his bare hand. bare-headed. . Next before the chariot went two men. He . but every one stood in them. and who carried the one a crosier. set round like hat-bands. The windows likewise were_not_aswded. also a sun of gold^ radiant upon the top. arid for hath appointed the next day after to-morrow. but in silence. that he will admit all your company to his presence. The chariot was covered with cloth of gold tissued upon blue. and down to the foot.' and shoes of blue velvet . and stockings of white silk . the pastoral of cedar. And because he meaneth to give you his blessing. and hats of blue velvet. young men all. _kegt_i so that there The street was wonderfully well was never any army had t heir men stand in better battle-array than the people stood. as blessing the people. in regard of some charge the city hath laid upon me for the entertaining of this great person. the companies of the city. with wings displayed. chariot . he hath . stafif but the crosier of balm-wood. with fine plumes of divers colours. He had before him fifty attendants. and said. like the Persian. girt. and have private if they had been placed. Behind his chariot went all the officers and principals of sat alone. a kind of excellent plush. Wi)LexLJiis_ Jew "I shall not be able conference with one of you.aS-h£_JEent. in white satin loose coats up to the mid-leg. " Ye are happy men for the father of Salomon's House taketh knowledge of your being here. blue upon cushions. in linen garments shoes of blue velvet.. to avoid tumult and trouble. that ye shall choose this . said to me. There was the midst . and commanded me to tell you. neither before all nor behind as it seemeth. neither of them of metal. the other a pastoral staff like a sheep-hook." Three days after the Jew came to me again. NEW end the like of ATLANTIS.passed< the to attend you as I would. tlie 201 ' emeralds of Peru colour. in on the top before a small cherub of gold.

.jK. for the love of God and men. ." We came at our day and and We found under I was chosen by my him in a fair chamber. ments and functions whereto our fellows are assigned. . and in posture of blessing and we every one of us stooped down. saw him wear in the chariot but instead of his gown. and kissed the end of his tippet. a:nd secret motions of things . state . that attired in white. foot. on either hand one. And fo'Sthly^lSe ordinances and_rites which we observe. holding forth his hand ungloved. and caused me to sit down beside him. I will keep this order. as we were taught. forth of the room. a relation of the true state of Salomon's House. empire.the several employ- ments jye have for our . without any degrees 'to the he was and carpeted set upon a low throne richly adorned. save his head of blue satin embroidered. of the same fine black. . When we came in. to make you know the true state of Salomon's House. to the effecting of things possible. and the depth of the cave. richly hanged.orks.LStt-i^lffldation. he had on him a mantle with a cape. he stood up. We have and deep caves of several depths the deepest are isunk 600 fathoms and some of them are digged and made \inder great hills and mountains so that if you reckon large . my son I will give thee the greatest jewel For I will impart unto thee. " The end of our foundation is the knowledge of causes. finely His under garments were the like that we . together the depth of the hill. and I remained. in the Spanish tongue . it NEW ATLANTIS.202 appointed hour. instruments are these. (F^^I will set forth_unto y ou the end P. Son. : God bless thee. and the enlarging of the bounds all of hmnap /"The preparations and . and spake to me thus " I have. thg^preparatioM and Jnstru"thirdW. we bowed low at our first entrance and when we were come near his chair. he had two pages of honour. . and a rich cloth of state over He was alone. That done. in the forenoon. fellows for the private access. Secondly. the Then he warned the pages rest departed. fastened about him.

by whom also we learn many things. both salt and fresh. snow. and for the view of divers meteors— as winds. where cements. and some of them hkewise hill set upon high mountains. for we find a difference in things earth. whom we visit sometimes. are fiery meteors also. or in air below the and things buried . We of composts and soils. by compositions and materials which we use and lay there for many years. indurations. and some of the And upon them. " We have burials in several earths. also have great variety and some of them more fine. for insulation. as the Chinese do their porcelain. and from the open air. And we use them for all coagularefrigerations. in some places. and instruct towers. dwellings of hermits. find that the 203 depth of an hill. and for prolongation of life. hail . for the making of the earth fruitful. conservation. we put divers But we have ^ them in greater variety. well accommodated of all things necessary. above three miles deep. account the air between the high places and the low. according to their several heights what to observe. And these places we the upper region. some of them. bodies. These caves we call the lower region. refrigeration. the highest about half a mile in height. and indeed live very long . in the highest of call them three miles at least. We use them also for burials of some natural bodies. " We have high towers. whereof we have use for the fish and fowl. We use them also sometimes (which may seem strange) for curing of some diseases. in some hermits that choose to live there. We use these and situations. rain. For we and the depth of a cave from the flat. they are. buried in earth. is the same thing . and conservations of tions. We use them likewise for the imitation of natural mines and the producing also of new artificial metals. as a middle region. both remote alike from the sun and heaven's beams.NEW ATLANTIS. is so that the vantage of the with the tower. "We have great lakes.

204
in 'water.

iV^'fF

ATLANTIS.
strain

We

have also pools, of which some do

fresh water out of salt,

and others by

art

do turn

fresh water

salt. We have also some rocks in the midst of the sea, and some bays upon the shore for some works, wherein is We have likewise required the air and vapour of the sea. violent streams and cataracts, which serve us for many motions and likewise engines for multiplying and enforcing of winds to set also on divers motions. " We have also a number of artificial wells and fountains, made in imitation of the natural sources and baths, as tincted upon vitriol, sulphur, steel, brass, lead, nitre, and other minerals and again, we have little wells for infusions of many things, where the waters take the virtue quicker and And amongst them we "Ijetter than in vessels or basins. have a water, which we 'call water of Paradise, being by

into

;

;

that

we do
life.

it

made

very sovereign for health and prolonga-*

tion of

)>

"We have also great and spacious houses, where we imitate and demonstrate meteors as snow, hail, rain, some artificial rains of bodies, and not of water, thunders, lightnings ;

also generations of bodies in air
others.

as frogs,

flies,

and

divers

"

We

have also certain chambers,- which we

call

chambers

of health, where

we

qualify the air as
divi.rs diseases,

we

think-

good and
of

proper for the cure of
health.
" AVe

and preservation

have also

fair

the cure of diseases,
arefaction
;

and large baths, of several mixtures, for and the restoring of man's body frotn

sinews, vital parts,

and others for the confirming of it in strength of and the very juice and substance of the

body.
"

We

have also large and various orchards and gardens,

wherein we do no t so

much

respect beauty as variety of

ground andsoil, proper^ oi

(iivers

U e e s a i ld-tte r fe b,
set,

ai iJ s

eme

very* spacious, where trees and berries are

whereof we

NEW ATLANTIS.
make
these
divers kinds of drinks, besides the vineyards.

205

In

we

practise likewise all conclusions of grafting,

and

inoculating, as well of wild-trees as fruit-trees,

which prothe same
earlier or

duceth

many

effects.

And we make by
and
to

art, in

orchards and gardens, trees and flowers, to
later than their seasons,

come

by their natural by art greater much than their nature and their fruit greater and sweeter, and of differing taste, smell, colour, and figure, from their nature. And many of them we so order, as that they become of medicinal use. "We have also means to make divers plants rise by mixtures of earths without seeds, and likewise to make divers new plants, differing from the vulgar, and to make
speedily than

come up and bear more course they do. We make
;

them

also

one tree or plant turn into another. " We have also parks, and enclosures of all sorts, of beasts and birds ; which we use not only for view or rareness, but likewise for dissections and trials, that thereby may take light what may be wrought upon the body of man. Wherein

we

find

many

strange effects

:

as continuing

life

in

them,

though diverss parts, which you account

and taken

forth

;

be perished resuscitating of some that seem dead in
vital,

and the like. We try also all poisons, and other medicines upon them, as well of chirurgery as physic. By art likewise we make them greater or smaller than their kind is, and contrariwise dwarf them and stay their growth
appearance,

we make them more

fruitful

and them differ in colour, shape, activity, many ways. We find means to make comrhixtures and copulations of divers kinds, which have produced many new kinds, and them not We make a number of barren, as the general opinion is.
kinds of
serpents,

contrariwise "barren

and bearing than their kind is, and not generative. Also we make

worms,

flies,

fishes
effect)

of
to

putrefaction,

whereof some are

advanced

(in

creatures, like beasts or birds,

and have

sexes,

be perfect and do pro-

2o6
pagate.

NEW ATLANTIS.

i

Neither do we this by chance, but we know beforehand of what matter. and commixture, what kind of those
creatures will arise.

"

We We

have also particular pools where we make

trials

upon

fishes, as

we have

said before of beasts
places' for
flies

and

birds.
of those
;

"

have also

kinds of worms and

breed and generation which are of special use

such as

are with you your silkworms and bees. " I will not hold you long with recounting of our brew-

houses, bake-houses,
drinks,

and kitchens, where are made divers and meats, rare and of special effects. Wines we have of grapes, and drinks of other juice, of fruits, of grains, and of roots, and of mixtures with honey, sugar, manna, and fruits dried and decocted ; also of the tears or wounding of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And these drinks are of several ages, some to the age or last of forty years. We have drinks also brewed with several herbs, and roots, and spices ; yea, with several fleshes, and whitemeats whereof some of the drinks are such a;s they are in effect meat and drink both, so that divers, especially in age, do desire to live with them with little or no meat or bread.
breads,
;

And above
,

all

we

strive to

have drinks of extreme thin
all biting,

parts, to insinuate into the

body, and yet without

sharpness, or fretting ; insomuch as

some of them put upon
little

the back of your hand, will with a
to the palm,
also waters,

stay pass through

and yet taste mild to the mouth. We have which we ripen in that fashion, as they become

nourishing, so that they are indeed excellent, drinks, and

many

roots,

use no other. Bread we have of several grains, and kernels; yea, and some of flesh, and fish, dried; with divers kinds of leavings and seasonings ; so that some do extremely move appetites, some do nourish so, as divers
will

do

live of

them, without any other meat,

who

live

very long.

So for meats,
tender,

we have some of them

so beaten, and

made

and

mortified, yet without all corrupting, as

a weak.'

NEW ATLANTIS.
heat, of the
as

207

stomach

will turn

them

into

good

chilus, as well

a strong heat would meat otherwise prepared.

We

have

some meats also and bread, and drinks, which taken by men, enable them to fast long after ; and some other, that used make the' very flesh of men's bodies sensibly more hard and tough, and their strength far greater than otherwise it would be.

"We
and

have dispensatories or shops of medicines j wherein
easily think,
if

you may

we have such

variety of plants,

more than you have in Europe (for we know what you have), the simples, drugs, and ingredients of medicines, must likewise be in so much the greater variety. We have them likewise of divers ages, and
living

creatures,

And for their preparations, we have manner of exquisite distillations, and separations, and especially by gentle heats, and percolations through divers strainers, yea, and substances; but also exact forms
long fermentations.
all

not only

of composition, whereby they incorporate almost as they

were natural simples.

have also divers mechanical arts, which you have and stuffs made by them, as papers, linen, silks, tissues, dainty works of feathers of wonderful lustre, excellent dyes, and many others, and shops likewise as well for such as are not brought into vulgar use amongst us, as for those that are. For you must know, that of the things before recited, many of them are grown into use throughout the kingdom,
not
;

"We

but yet,

if

they did flow from our invention,

we have

of

them
"

also for patterns

and

principals.

diversities, and that keep and quick, strong and constant, soft and mild, blown, quiet, dry, moist, and the like. But above all we have heats, in imitation of the sun's and heavenly bodies' heats, that pass divers inequalities, and as it were orbs, progresses, and returns whereby we produce admirable effects. Besides, we have heats of dungs, and of

We

have also furnaces of great
;

great diversity of heats

fierce

2o8
bellies

NEW ATLANTIS.

and maws of living creatures and of their bloods and bodies, and of hays and herbs laid up moist, of lime unquenched, and such like. Instruments also which generate heat only

insulations

;

nature or art

by motion. And farther, places for strong and again^ places under the earth, which by These divers heats we use, as the yield heat.

nature of the operation which we intend requireth. " have also perspective-houses, where we make demon-

We

and radiations, and of all colours; and out of things uncoloured and transparent, we can represent unto you all several colours, not in rainbows, as it We is in gems and prisms, but of themselves single.
strations of all lights

represent also

all

great distance,

multiplications of light, which we carry to and make so sharp, as to discern small
:

points

delusions

Also all colourations of light and lines. all and deceits of the sight, in figures, magnitudes,
;

motions, colours

all

demonstrations of shadows.

We

find

also divers means, yet
originally

unknown to

you, of producing of

light,

from divers bodies.
off,

We

procure means of seeing
;

objects afar

as in the

heaven and remote places
off,

and

represent things near as afar

and

things afar off as near

making feigned
sight far

distances.

We

have also helps for the

glasses

; we have also and minute bodies, perfectly and distinctly ; as the shapes and colours of small flies and worms, grains, and flaws in gems which cannot otherwise be seen, observations in urine and blood not otherwise to be seen. We make artificial rainbows, halos, .and circles

above spectacles and glasses in use
to see small

and means

about

light.

We

represent also

all

manner of

reflections,

and multiphcations of visual beams of pbj'ects. " We have also precious stones, of all kinds, many of them of great beauty and to youunknown ; crystals likewise, and
refractions,

glasses of divers kind
vitrificated,

;

and amongst them some of metals

and other
Also
a

materials, besides those of

make

glass.

number of

fossils,

which you and imperfect

making all smells to breathe out of other mixtures. extenuate and sharp . where divers we make pleasant wines. where are prepared engines m. differing in the letters or articulate some rendering the voice. .hearing greatly. We have certain helps. sound from that they receive.ake swifter motions than any you have. where we practise and demonstrate all sounds and their generation.NEW minerals.than those that give them. so that they will deceive any man's taste. some shriller and some deeper . We represent small sounds as great and deep. "^^hicli ATLANTIS. all articulate sounds and letters. likewise great sounds. We represent and imitate and the voices and notes of set to the and birds. fivers instruments of music likewise to you unknown. some sweeter than any you have . And in this all house we contain also a confituresweetmeats. with bells and rings that are dainty and sweet. and salads. arid instruments for all sorts of motions. not. yea. and them more easily and with small by wheels and other means. we have also divers strange -arid as " and it artificial echoes. we make divers tremblings which in beasts ear their original are entire. and to practise to either out of your make them and force. wherewith we join also- practices of taste. house. both natural and artificial. and warblings of sounds. many times. of quarter-sounds We and have harmony lesser slides of which you have souiids. milks. and to maKe them stronger muskets or any en'gine that you have multiply . 209 gious virtue : you have not. reflecting the voice it . We have all means to convey sounds in trunks and pipes. which do further the . in strange lines and distances. -Likewise loadstones of prodiand other rare stones. We multiply smells which may seem divers we imitate smells. There we imitate We have also engine-houses. dry and moist. "We have also sound-houses. We make imitations of taste likewise. "We strange : have also perfume-houses. far in greater variety than " you have. were tossing it louder than and some that give back the voice came. and broths.

anjLtheiiJallacies. both for pleasure and use. wild-fires burning in water and unquenchable. fishes. of birds . and without all affectation of strangeness. the riches of Salomon's House. other like motions of return. under pain of ignominy and fines. make them more miraculous. also swimming-girdles and supporters. . living by images men. we have some degrees of flying in the air. we have also a great motions. various " We We sented all have also a mathematical-house. false apparitions.210 N£IV A TLANTIS. number of other fineness and subtilty. But we do hate impostures and lies. " For the several employments and offices of our fellows. to all our fellows. do not show any natural work or thing adorned or but only pure as it is. " These are. could in a world of particulars deceive the senses if and labour all we would disguise those things. and serpents . who bring us the books and parts. We have ships and boats for going under water and brooking of We have divers seas. that have so And surely you many things truly natural which induce admiration. insomuch as we have severely forto it bidden that they swelling. and some curious clocks and perpetual n|otions. where we all represent manner of feats of juggling. we have twelve that sail into foreign countries under the names of other nations (for our otvn we conceal). my son. and more violent than yours are. will easily believe that we. We represent also ordnance and instruments of war and engines of all kinds . and likewise new mixtures and compositions of gunpowder. and patterns 6f experiments of all other These we call merchan^oflight abstracts. as well of geometry as astronomy. strange for equality. creatures We of imitate also motions of birds. exceeding your greatest cannons and basilisks. beasts. exquisitely made. impostures and illusions. also fire-works of all We imitate also flights variety. " have also houses of deceits of the senses. where are repreinstruments.

" Lastly. and the easy and clear discovery of the virtues and parts of bodies. to consider of the former labours and collections. which are not brought into These we call mystery- men. and cast about draw out of them things of use and practice for man's life and knowledge. " We have three others that do execute the experiment so directed. " We have three that try new experiments. looking into the experiments of their fellows. These we call intrepreters of Nature. novices and apprentices. These we call inodulators. and report them. have three that collect the experiments of all meand also of liberal sciences. These \ 1 we call compilers. and aphorisms. " We have also. employed men do not fail number of servants and attendants. of a higher light. " Then after divers meetings and consults of our whole number. means of natural divinations. and which not and take all that the succession of the former besides a great : : . as you must think. "We chanical arts. have three that collect the experiments which are in These we call deprepators. m? n and women. we have three that take care out of them to direct new experiments. " These we call pioneers We have three that draw the experiments of the former four into titles and tables.NEW ATLANTIS. " Such as themselves think good. These we call dowry-men or benefactors. axioms. more penetrating into Nature than the former. We have three that bend themselves. we have three that raise the former discoveries by to how J experiments into greater observations. as well for works as for plain demonstration of causes. And this we do also we have consultations. and also of practices arts. which of the inventions and experiences which we have discovered shall be published. " all 211 We books. or miners. to give the better light for the drawing of observations and axioms out pf them. These we call lamps.

that discovered West Indies also the inventor of ships your Monk : : was the inventor of ordnance and of gunpowder the inventor of music the inventor of letters the inventor of the inventor of observations of astronomy the printing that : : : : : inventor of works in metal tor of silk of the : the inventor of glass : : the inven- worm : : the inventor of wine . in the right understanding of those descriptions you might easily err. . : - of all manner of the more rare and excellent inventions all : in the other we place the statues of principal inventors. of excellent works . circuits or visits.212 NEW ATLANTIS. the inventor all of corn and bread the inventor of sugars and these by you have. And forms of prayers. some of silver. some of gold. imploring His aid and blessing for the illumination of our labours and turning them into good and holy uses. the There we have the statue of your Columbus. : an oath of secrecy for the concealing of those which we think fit to keep secret though some of those we do reveal and some not. swarms of hurtful creatures. of divers principal cities it kingdom where as cometh to pass we do publish such new also profitable inventions as we think good. some of iron. " Lastly. For upon every invention of value we erect a statue to the inventor. plagues. which since you have not seen. we have two very long and in one of these we place patterns and samples fair galleries sometime to the state. " For our ordinances and rites. it were too long to make descriptions of them and besides. scarcity. " We have certain hymns and services. . which we say daily^ of laud and thanks to God for His marvellous works. some of marble and touchstone. of the we have . And we do declare natural divinations of diseases. him a liberal and honourable reward. These statues are some of brass. Then we have divers inventors of our own. some of cedar and other special woods gilt and adorned . tempest. and give more certain tradition than . earthquakes.

. " relation it. I give ." And when he had up . publish for the THE REST WAS NOT PERFECTED. knelt down and he laid his right my this head. upon all occasions. where they come. what for the prevention and remedy of said this. my son. largesses. and said. he stood . temperature of the year." having assigned a value of about two thousand ducats for For they give great a bounty to me and my fellows. divers other things . a land unknown. and the people shall do and we give counsel thereupon. great inundations. I. 21 comets. God bless thee. as I had hand upon and God bless which I have made. and been taught.NE W 'A TLANTIS. thee leave to ^ood of other nations for we here are And so he left me in God's bosom. them.

.

CAMPANELLA'S CITY OF THE 'SUN. .

.

In the course of my journeying I came to Taprobane. M. befell you here ? came upon a large crowd of men and armed women. many of whom did not understand our language. I have already told you how I wandered over the whole earth. The greater part of the city is built upon a high which which rises from an extensive plain. it is me forthwith to the City of the Sun.The City A and a of the S UN. where through fear of the inhabitants I remained in a wood. Tell me after what plan this city is built and how governed ? Capt. however. . hill. his guest. 1 stepped out of this I found myself on a large plain immediately under the equator. And what . now. extend for some distance beyond the base of the is of such a size that the diameter of the city is upwards of two miles. When G. Prithee. Poetical Dialogue between a Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitallers Genoese Sea-captain. G. and was compelled to go ashore at a place. tell me what happened to you during voyage ? Capt. Capt. so that its circumference becomes about seven. I and they conducted G. but several of its circles hill. M. the diameter of the city than if it is really more were built on a plain. On account of the humped shape of the mountain. that M.

so that he who wishes to capture that city must. and are ring. enclosing arcades continued round the whole like peristyles. I think that not even the wall could be occupied. circles named from It is divided into the seven planets. storm it seven times. however. which are very beautiful. it is towards the four points of the compass. There are galleries for. promenading upon these arches. except on the inner or concave partition. guns with breastworks. as it were. flights The higher parts.2i8 THE CITY OF THE SUN. A pace was i^ yards. however. i. seven rings or huge. are reached by of marble steps. Arches run on a level with the middle height of the palaces. or cloisters of an abbey. which are supported from beneath by thick and well-shaped columns. and have windows the concave and convex partitions. from which one enters directly to the lower parts of the building. But the palaces have no entrances from below. so thick are is it the earthworks and so well fortified towers. and the these is by four streets way from one and through four to the other of gates.cx30 . in all large palaces all joined to the wall of the such a manner as to appear one palace. » These rooms are divided paces making a mile. When I had been taken through the northern gate (which is shut with an iron door so wrought that it can be raised and let down. that look Furthermore. and locked in easily and strongly. its projections running into the grooves of the thick posts by a marvellous device). From hence can be seen second circuit. and ditches. From these one enters the higher oii rooms. first For my own part. so built that if the first circle were stormed. it would of amount of energy to storm the and in each succeedsecond. which lead to galleries for promenading on the inside similar to those on the outside. still the strength and energy would have to be doubled ing case necessity entail a double more to storm the third. I saw a level space seventy paces* wide between the first and second walls.

2I9 walls. arches measuring about eight paces extend from the heads of the columns outwards. is Leaving this circle one gets to the second first. from one another by richly decorated outer wall of the ring . or is about eight spans thick the concave. strong and . round the ways into the upper houses. and adorned with galleries for walking. The temple itself is on a space of more than three hundred and fifty paces. half. one mounts that by means of steps so formed steps succeed an ascent is proceeds in a slanting direction. girt The temple is built in the form of a circle . say. whence other columns rise about three paces from the thick.THE CITY OF THE SUN. I pray you ! Tell on ! I am dying to hear not Capt. which the nearly three paces narrower than the wall of the second ring is Then is first seen adorned above and below with similar galleries for walking. But when the two gates. enclosing palaces. pole. three the intermediate walls are one. Without it. contains another small vault as were rising and in this is a spiracle. hill is On the top of the midst of this there rises a temple built with wondrous G. A very large upon thick columns. since it have been passed. Tell on. or perhaps one and a plain. extending along their outer side. it is with walls. and the a rather spacious plain. but stands grouped. and this is hedged round by columns. those of the outscarcely most and the inmost discernible. one another at almost imperceptible heights. built with great it beautifully care in the centre or. more. It has also similar peristyles supported by columns in the lower part. And so on afterwards through similar spaces and double walls. dome. M. and there on the inside of it another interior wall enclosing palaces. out of it. way being stiU over a level plain. and in the art. the till the last circuit is reached. but above are excellent pictures. and supported by columns. The convex . which is right over the There is but one altar in the middle of the temple. that is to walls. altar.

and these bear the names of the seven planets.220 erect wall. supporting the temple. explain to . whole system of government Capt. Nothing seen over the altar but a large globe. and behind the level space above the bands or arches of the exterior are and interior columns there priests many cells. At the top of the building several small and beautiful cells surround the small dome. <vith their be discerned representaof heaven from the iirst to the sixth proper names and power to influence there can terrestrial things are the poles marked in three little verses for each. is be made in their The pavement of the Its temple bright with precious stones. G. and in the recess of the wall. upon which Furthermore. large doors. M. The flag is marked with figures up to thirty-six. and this shows in what quarter the wind is. They seem. on the altar. in the vault of the dome tions of all the stars magnitude. A revolving flag projects from the smaller dome. THE CITY OF THE SUN. there are which is adorned with numerous immovable seats. but these are not perfect because there is relation to the globes no wall below. Between these and the former columns for there are galleries walking. to right latitude of the place. though we should call him Meta- . pray you. placed as it were Portable between the inside columns. call for I am anxious to hear The great ruler among them is a priest whom they by the name Hon. both small and large. the heavenly bodies are painted. where the and religious officers dwell to the number of forty-nine. seven golden lamps hang always burning. worthy hero. chairs are not wanting. There and greater and lesser circles according to the too. and another globe upon which there is a representation of the earth. me their it. and the priests know what sort of year the different kinds of winds bring and what will be the changes of weather on land and sea. is many and well adorned. the flag a Furthermore. with beautiful pavements. under book I is always kept written with letters of gold.

and of the discipline of the schools. a tenth. first On the interior wall of the circuit all the mathematical in figures are conspicuously painted — figures more number . there are pictures of stars in their different magnitudes. Sin and head over all. a third. the implements of war. a sixth. To Power belongs the care of all matters relating to war and peace. Three princes of equal power viz. should fly away from his audience. a ninth.^ . Poeta . a fourth. being scattered. Physiologus .THE CITY OF THE SUN. He governs the military magistrates and the soldiers. call They have but one book. is all business — and these in our tongue we should call Power. Logicus cus j . But Wisdom is the ruler of the liberal of mechanics. as authority. Grammati. next to Hoh. with the powers and motions of each.. the fortifications. expressed separately in three little verses. the smiths and workmen connected with matters of this sort. This with which they they read to the people after the custom of the Pythagoreans. lest the sounds of his voice. Historiographus . 221 He and the supreme Pon. Medicus . and in it all the sciences are written conciseness and marvellous fluency of expression. he is ruler in every affair of a warlike nature. Politicus a thirteenth. physic^ matters. the Mor—assist him. arts. a fifth. It is Wisdom who causes the exterior and interior. Arithmeticus under his control. and. a second. a twelfth. As many doctors as there are. and to have all the sciences painted upon them in an admirable inanner. in temporal and spiritual and lawsuits are settled by him. storming of places. Cosmographus . He attends to the military arts. Geometra a seventh. which is let down when the priest gives an address. the armories. Wisdom and Love. of all sciences with their magistrates and doctors. and has the management of the munitions. an eighth. an eleventh. the higher and lower walls of the city to be adorned with the finest pictures. On the walls of the temple and on the dome. are There is one doctor who is called Astrologus . Moralis. Rhetor . Wisdom.

On the inside of the second circuit. given at one view. : to parts of the human body and found to things in the and also as to their uses in medicine. Following upon this. the laws. with the sources from which the last are extracted. On the exterior convex wall is first an immense drawing of the whole earth. the rainbow. thunder. &c. there are tablets setting forth for every separate country the customs both public and private. in rivers. hundred years which cure all diseases. storms and thunder. rain. and resemblances to celestial things and to metals sea. There are definitions and propositions. the origins and the power of the inhabitants and the alphabets . There these are also vessels built into the wall above the arches. lakes . &c.. of minerals is piece of the metal itself also there with and metals. lakes and streams . are full of liquids from one to three and old. marked symmetxically. and with the explanation of them neatly written and contained each in a little verse. rivers. On the exterior wall are all the races of fish. that all is to say of the second ring of buildings. upon the With the specimens there are explanations as to where they were first found. the different people use can be seen above that of the City of the Sun. Hail and snow. &c. and air. which are on the face of the earth as are also the wines the oils and the different liquids. thanArthimedes or Euclid discovered. their qualities and strength. and common little stones. the outside are marked all On and the seas. &c. The the inhabitants even have the art of representing in stone all phenomena of the air. all On the interior of the third circuit of trees and herbs are depicted. what are their powers and natures.222 THE CITY OF THE SUN. whatever else takes place in the suitable figures are represented with and little verses. the different famiUes is such as the wind. are seen and a an apposite explanation in two small verses for each metal or stone. paintings of kinds of precious . and there a live specimen outer of each plant in earthenware vessels placed partition of the arches.

of living. the relation in each case being completely manifest.. and the purple shell-fish There are sea-urchins to be and mussels . Phoroneus. the gnats. how great a number of breeds there and how beautiful are the forms there cleverly displayed On the sixth interior are painted all the mechanical arts. as many in number portrayed. and in law are represented. shown in marvellous characters of painting and drawing. shown all the and worms . On the exterior are races of creeping animals. Pompilius. . Jupiter. of horses alone. another like a garment. and others like images training of those things existing among us.THE CITY OF THE and seas. in warfare. We indeed know not the thousandth part of them. Zamolxis. Osiris. Solon. and a great deal more than you all or I can think On the fifth interior they have as the larger animals of would astonish you. with the several instruments for each and their manner of use among different nations. &c. strength. produced both by nature and art. sizes. their resemblances to celestial and terrestrial things. customs. There I saw Moses. Alongside the dignity of such is placed. seen. SUN. But on the exterior all the inventors in science. Mercury. On the fourth interior wall all the different kinds of birds are painted. and living. Lycurgus. . and their uses to man. serpents. Further. uses. are so given that I was astonished when I saw a fish which was like a bishop. dragons insects. Pythagoras. in their different states. They even have Mahomet. for on the exterior wall also a great many of immense size are also the earth. with their natures. the purposes for which they exist in the world. with very many others. one like a chain. Charondas. To be is sure. venoms and of. a fifth like a star. the flies. and whatever the watery world possesses worthy of being known is there fully. a fourth like a nail. &c. and their several inventors are named. and the only real phoenix is possessed manner by the inhabitants of this city. and ways of breeding. beetles. colours. 223 and their habits and values.

agriculture. that they bring forth the best offspring.2 24 THE CITY OF THE nevertheless they hate as a false dignified position I SUN. whom In the most saw a representation of Jesus Christ and of the twelve Apostles. under the galleries. rule and histories of the These they apply all to their nations. Indeed. the sowing and collecting of fruits of the earth and of trees. own republic. bad and good alike. nounce the meaning of the pictures. the cooking arrangements. to food. I perceived Csesar.but neglect the breeding of ""education of the children is human beings. they laugh at who exhibit a studious care for our breed of horses and dogs. And when I asked with astonishment whence they had obtained our history. pasturage. Thus also is the the under his rule. Alexander. without toil and as if for pleasure they told me languages. Of the representations of men. is ruler. and sordid legislator. who anbefore we knew of them. and whatever has any reference sexes. and the intercourse of the arts. all business is discharged by the four together. in the highest place and other very renowned heroes in peace and war. Love is foremost in attending to the charge of the race. but in the way of history only until they are ten years old. were painted in lower positions. and boys are accustomed to learn all the sciences. whom they consider very worthy and hold to be great. the preparations for the months. that among them there was a knowledge of all and that by perseverance they continually send explorers and ambassadors over the whole earth. Love himself but there are many male and female magistrates dedicated to these Metaphysic then with these three rulers manage all the above-named matters. So medicine that is sold. He us sees that men and women are so joined together. and even by himself alone nothing is done. and with this they are well pleased. .. who learn thoroughly the customs. clothing. especially Roman heroes. Pyrrhus and Hannibal . forces. I learnt that cannon and typography were invented by the Chinese There are magistrates.

or an aristocracy. of the magistratesj their services and mode of living. This race of men came there from India. we become either ready if to grasp at the property of the state. and leave an heir to much wealth.^and their by the authority of the magistrates. please. } Although ~ community of wives manner. strength. who fell willingly for their country. self-love. andthey determined to lead a life philosophic in fellowship with is one another. flying and duties. But remains only love when we have taken away for the state. Capt. there such circumstances no one will be willing he expects others to work. or avaricious. that all private property is acquired and im- for the reason that each one of us by himself has own home and wife and children. little crafty. in any case fear should be removed from the power which belongs to riches and rank. 225 but in whatever Metaphysic inclines to the rest are sure to G. a race of pliinderers and tyrants laid waste their country. a republic. as Aristotle argues against Plato. while M. as I could scarcely and ind«|ed with longed to the much more than the histories tell us beRomans. agree. of the education J who the from the sword of the Magi. of slender purse.THE CITY OF THE SUN. whether the government is a monarchy. M. have believed possible but I declare to you that they burn with so great a love for their fatherland. and hypocritical. Under Capt. I do not know how to deal with that argument. Tell me. this among the other among them it is in use after things are common with them. (AH dispensation is They say proved his springs. G. and are held in such a manner that no one can appropriate anything to himself. on the fruit of whose labours he can live. not instituted inhabitants of their province. Arts and honours and pleasures are common. to labour. if any one is and mean ancestry. From this self-love For when we raise a son to riches and dignities. inasmuch as they have to a greater extent surrendered H .

Wherefore among them neither robbery nor clever murdersj . one another Sometimes they improve themselvesmutually with praises. private -fitoveffy. risfe they were not weakened love for their 'kindred and friends. since they likve not the chance of conferring mutual benefits on one another. They are elected t6 duties of that kind.. but I say that among race of men. tod cases. a sixth Comfort. Nay. I tMr by think truly that the if friars afid monks. They call all over twenty-two years f)f who are less than twenty-two are named well. Moreover. they receive from the community. fathers . now in a great many G. and the magistrate takes care that he deserves. so sons. a thirteenth 'SoJDriety. an eighth Kind- ness. of by the ambition to to higher digiiitifes.hiS M. a fourth Liberality.2 26 THE CITY OF THE SUN. &c. each. the magistrates govern that nb one in the fraternity can do injury to another' M. Capt. in the art contests. would be less fond of property. an eleventh Cheerfulness. a tenth Gratitude. those iage. a seventh Truth. St. friendship worth nothing it is . another Fortitude. As many names of so many magistrates there G: magistrate " " virtues as there are ambrfgst "usj who is are among them. Augustine may is say that. a Criminal and Civil Justice. it Whatever is necessary they have. more imbued ' with a spirit of charity towards is as it Was in the time of the Apostles. one to that duty for excellence in which he is known from boyhood to be most suitable. with actions and out of the things they need.and clergy of our country.. Friendship is no one receives more than Yet nothing necessary is denied to any onei recognized among them in war. All those of the same age 'call one another brothers. And how? Capt. 1.For that no one can receive wortli the trouble to see giifts from another. arid all. with conversation. a twelfth Exercise. in infirmity. indeed. There is a named Magnanimity.' a fifth third Chastity. by which means they aid mutually by teaching.

Caft.themselves Leaving: these studies -all -aj-e public services or functions. of slander. four leaders. the men approved beyond some time they exercise themselves with gymnastics. the arts together. of sadness. You would not rightly understand first Icaint their manner of living. can be found. of anger. incest.' they thoroughly ment G. but the men above. aud other games. and these are After all others.THE CITY OF THE SUN. men and women wear the same kind of garment.other-srapply-themselves. quoits. The women wear the toga below the knee. the boys learn the language and the alphabet on the walls by walking round them. painting. running. the first to direct them. they take them there are four lectures' each grading.. Tell M. which curseful thing hate. and four elders. in until the judge thinks that they agree with their correction. which ring. In order to find out the bent of the genius of each one. suited for war. nor lewdness. And both sexes are instructed in all When this has been done as a start. cooking. all their muscles are strengthened alike. unless you That you may know then. ' rwitb For some lake -physical exercise or -busy. of ingratitude and -malignity satisfaction to another. &c. are deprived of the Accused persons undergoing punishcommon table. and They have before their third year. this. by means of second to teach them. metal-working. adultery. when any one denies a lawful of indolence. Their feet are always bare. deyoted. and other honours. and in -the course of four hours the four - in their order explain everything. and so are their heads as far as the seventh Afterwards they lead them to the offices of the trades. and of lying. when they have already gone through the mathematics on the to the readings of all the. crimes of which we They accuse themselves of scurrility. after their seventh year. carpentry.to-tha^tBore H 2 .to-reading. or other 227. accuse one another. me the manner which the magistrates are chosen. such as shoemaking.sciences at : walls.

Sin and Mor. whether a republic or a monarchy. for And rule. for every one follows the opinion of his leader field. speaks in favour of them. And they consider him the fmore noble and renowned who has dedicated himself to the study of the most arts and knows how to practise them wisely. (Nearly every two days they to overwork teach our mechanical They dre not allowed Not too much care is themselves.228 THE CITY OF THE SUN. but frequent practice and the paintings render learning easy to them. But no one attains to the dignity of Hoh except him who knows the histories of the nations. and to other There is continual debate and studied argument sciences. and by the teachers (rf that art over which they are fit to preside. and thus as it were from a school of vices so many idle and wicked fellows go pursuit . and their customs and sacrifices and laws. but live in ease. and after a time they become magistrates of those sciences or mechanical arts in which they are the most proficient . and mathematics. art. and he opposes who knows anything against those brought forward for election. to their own pleasure and lasciviousness forth for the ruin of the state. given to the . these teachers know well who is most suited Certain men are proposed by the magistrates in council. They think and the laws and the history of the earth and the it also necessary that he should all understand astrology the mechanical arts. \ i i ignoble. to medicine. The chiefs. amongst them. they themselves not seeking to become candidates. and goes out to the plains to the works of the and for the purpose of becoming acquainted with the pasturage of the dumb animals. and judge. or if iiot. Wherefore they laugh at us in that we consider our workmen and hold those to be noble who have mastered no and are so many slaves given over . Pon. the physical sciences. are chosen by tlie four Hoh. however. He must also know the names of the lawgivers and the inventors in science. to mathematics. and their form of government. abstrase subjects. rest of the officials. heavenly bodies.

them and they replied more certain that such a very learned man has the knowledge of governing. everything relating to the heavens. moreover. dignity unless he has attained his thirty-fifth year. is for all that never cruel nor wicked. Who indeed can be so wise ? If even any one has a knowledge of the sciences it seems that he must be unskilled in ruling. and the love of things and of God . nor a tyrant. But our Hoh. foundations arts know thoroughly all and demonstrations of the and sciences . And thus they know long beforehand who will be Hoh. For such knowledge as this of yours much servile labour and memory work is required. or logic. when you consider that man the most learned who knows most of grammar. is not unknown to you. Capt.THE CITY OF THE SUN. than you who place ignorant persons in authority. since he has contem- plated nothing but the words of books and has given his mind with useless result to the consideration of the dead . office is perpetual. indeed. And this because it is not known who may be too wise for it or who too skilled in ruling. the earth and the sea and the ideas of God. G. are ] so that a man is rendered unskilful . that he should the derivations. a man really the most capable to rule. This. fate. . as much as mortal man can know of Him. This very question I asked : thus " We. inasmuch as he possesses so much wisdom. or of Aristotle or any other author. that the same argument cannot apply among you. the stages of life and its symbols. He is not chosen to so great a .) have a goodly number of But beyond everything else - it is necessary that Hoh should understand metaphysics and theology . the likeness aiid difference of things necessity. and consider them suitable merely because they have sprung from rulers or have been chosen by a powerful faction. as they interpreters 229 who are grammarians in the state. cultivation of languages. wisdom. and the harmonies of the universe power. M. He must also be well read in the Prophets and in astrology.

Indeed necessary that three of them should be skilled in our tongue. I pray you. about and hurling^ arrows and lances. case with intellects prompt and expert in every branch of knowledge and suitable for the consideration of natural for only books. what way God rules the universe. Make trial. or even fifteen. They do not consider it necessary that the three rulers assisting Hoh should know other than the arts having reference to their rule. have seen) by which more scholars are turned out by us in one year than by you in ten. and agriculture and pasturage . in well. Hence he knows not in signs of things. sometimes the band of boys does one thing. and three in each of the other languages." . three in Arabic. For that they go out to the plain for the sake of running. But their which certainly one is dedicated is more than another. Besides in our state the sciences are taught with a facility (as you. marshalling the army. that one science and has gathered his knowledge from But this is not the unlearned and unskilled. In this matter I was struck with trial astonishment at their truthful discourse and at the their of boys. and for the sake of hunting the wild animals and getting a knowledge of plants and stones. three in Polish. and no recreation is allowed them unless they become more learned. For one cannot know so many arts and sciences thoroughly. does not really know either that or the others. in marking out of . Thus Power equestrian the most learned in the. and of firing harquebuses. is objects. who is not esteemed for skilled ingenuity. very apt at all This also is things. to which are common to all.230 THE CITY OF THE SUN. it is who did not understand my language well. plain to us that he who knows only one science. and so they have only a historical knowledge of the arts own they know art. and he who is suited the nations. sometimes another. and therefore at ruUng especially. as it is necessary that our Hoh should be. of these boys. nor the ways and customs of Nature and Wherefore he is not equal to our Hon.

in planning: stratagems. that •public duties. of •warlike machines. cutting the tiaifi shaving. common to both men and womeUj with this difference. spinning. sewing. their and would distinguish between .. mechanical and theoretical. that the occupations whiclj require more hard work.M. and walking a long. dispensing medicines. and some in the second and these apartments are marked by means of the alphabet on the lintel.^iid... dormitofies. and couches and other necessaries.them. (they consider •itiieeessary thattliese chiefs historians. and making If a all kinds of garments. however.THE CITY OF THE SUN. and perchance at . are practised by men. working at the threshing-floor. common. 231 campsj in the unantifacture of -every kind cf 2wp?pon. . They have dwellings in common and. two triumvirs. In manner. some in another . ConceEaing:ihe other physicists. Some shall sleep in this ring. And for and these reasons. gathering the fruits. is fit to paint. There are occupations. Capt. in They are. she not prevented from doing so nevertheless. those. excluded from working of arms. the vintage. wood and 'the manufacture is woman . and of a truth to boys also.. G. politicians. I have made about Power. and ^Iso you would tell clearly how they are all taught. distance.the. such as ploughing.end of every six months they are separated by the masters. ' •. music is given -over to the women alone. sowing. such as weaving. some in the first apartment.. .. 'fact. But it is customary to choose women like for rmilking the cows. because they please the more. -and in every afifair of'a military nature. In they go to the gardens near to the outskirts of the city 'both for collecting the plants and for cultivating them. But the - women have not the practice of the drum and the horn. and for making cheese. should have been philosophers. understand remarks similar to. wish that you would xecount aH. all sedentary and stationary pursuits are practised by the women. in I really . But at .

and the powgr of ing. is given a napkin. and to see at the same time so many friends. and often the magistrates question them upon the more important parts of the reading. and in the evening when they go to sleep the master and mistress command that those should be sent to work in the morning. On one side sit the women. however. and over every department an at man and an old woman preside. who excels in his or her duties. upon whom in succession the duty falls. brothers. what for the young.. fish. be chastised. there is no noise. While they are eating a young man reads a book from a platform. barns. fathers and mothers all in their turn living together ! > with so much honesty. propriety and love. It is the peculiar ' And girls they prepare their feasts and arrange the tables in the following manner. These two have the command of those who serve. work of the boys and In every ring under twenty to wait at the tables. those who are negligent or and they also examine and mark each one. sons. a plate. And truly it is pleasant to observe in what manner these young people^ so beautiful and clothed in garments so suitable. one or two to separate apartments. and on both sides there are seats. attend to them.232 THE CITY OF THE SUN. and what food for the old.. wait upon one another. The young people. All the young people wait upon the older ones who have passed the age of forty. on the other the men . both male and female. and as in the refectories of the monks. there are the suitable kitchens. or causing to once chastis- disobedient . and a dish of It is the officers to tell the cooks what repastsbe prepared on each day. The magistrates- duty of the medical shall receive the full-grown and fatter portion. and what for the sick. They have first and second tables. and they from at the their share always distribute something to the boys table who have shown themselves more studious in the . So each one food. intoning distinctly and sonorously. for eating and stores of utensilso'Jd • and drinking. and that alas with some unwillingness.

_gjx_days they ordain to sing with music at table. the the pantries. the barns. the armories. and it is marvellous that they have at the same time as many garments as there is need for. the store-houses. as I and have already said. The old men placed at the head of the cooking business and of the refectories of the servants praise the cleanliness of the streets. refectories and the Moreover. workshops and the warehouses. that destroyed. and this is washed in each' month with lye stances or soap. to which adheres a once coat and legging. some heavy and some slight. when the toga is body are straightThey change their is for different ones four times in the year. baths. and the . no -clothes part being concealed. as are also the workshops of the lower trades. . over which they wear a half-boot. Then they cover the feet with large socks. the houses. according to the weather. And when all alike In service join their hands. the clothes are washed at the pillars of the peristyles. or as it were half-buskins fastened by buckles. besides. and according to the circum- and necessity as decided by the officer of health.^. And so aptly fitting are the garments. They all use white clothing.THE CITY OF THE SUN. the vessels. And this is held to be one of the most distin- guished h6iiatn*-_3. The keepers of clothes for the different rings are wont to distribute them. extended round and caught up here and there by chains. that when the sun enters respectively the constellations Aries. the different parts of the whole way discerned. Libra and Capricorn.1=^^ „^ there is one voice accompanying the lute and one for each othennsmpment. wrinkles. morning at the lectures 233 and debates concerning wisdom ji--i^T. The coverings of the legs descend to the shoes and are continued even to the heels. nothing is found to be wanting. the They wear white undergarments covering. Cancer. without which is at The borders of the fastenings are furnished with globular buttons.rrris. they are clothed with a toga. the garments.. Only a fe^TBbwerc^. the kitchens.

whither the rain-water collected from the roofs of the houses is brought through pipes full of sand. and to the masters.234 water is THE CITY OF THE SUN: brought down by means In every of canals which. tinued as sewers. and hence arises state. and hands by which the hours and seasons are marked off.-lu^s. if it is a male. When their women have brought forth children. and then the mechanical sciences. wli. And those of the same age and born under the lation are same constel- appearance.are conof the differe"!. They more as the physician orders. intellect are sent to farms. and in the knowledge of the pictures. Tell me about their children. All the mechanical arts are practised under the- but the speculative are carried on above in the the walking galleries and ramparts where are the more splendid paintings. and in languages . set they suckle and rear them in temples apart for all. The men who are weak in and when they have become more proficient some of them especially like are received into the state. cisterns. according as the doctor and master command. and they give milk for two years or . Capt. and in running.cai»als-rtlie'w-ater being drawn up from nearly thfe bottom of the mountain by the sole movement of a cleverly There is' water in fountains and in contrived handle. one another in strength and in much lasting concord in the these men honouring one another with mutual love . After that time the weaned child is given into the charge of the mistresses. After their sixth year they are taught natural science. And then with other young children they are pleasantly instructed in the alphabet. In the halls and wings of the rings there are solar time-pieces and bells. peristyles. if it is a female. G. walking and wrestling also in the historical drawings. but more sacred ones are taught in the temple. street there are suitable fountains. M. They wash their bodies often.'^h^s==^-^55rtffTfieir water by means of. - are adorned with a suitable garment of different colours.

one has overcome. Certainly not. and that not by chance but designedly. Asiaticus. or very great conqueror — for the preservation of the species and not for individual pleasure. and the__ magistrates must be obeyed.. one has overcome Manfred or Tortelius.THE CITY OF THE SUN. Crooked {Torvus). the golden one {Aureus). Names are given to them by Metaphysicus. as was the custom among the ancie/it Romans. or the sXtoug . But when they have become very skilled in their professions and done any great deed in war or in time of peace. he is called Macer Manfred or Tortelius. another . 235 and help. another the Fat-legged SCranipes). and so on. a cognomen from art is given to them. the excellent one (Excellens). or if any. one's peculiarity. or ' . Thomas also asserts. -that it is natural to man to recognize his offspring and to educate them. All these cognomens are added by the higher magistrates.{Strenuus) . or the cunning. such as Naso the Brave (Nason Fortis). Africanus. Therefore the breed- ing of children has reference to the commonwealth and not . Tell me. the great painter {Pulcher. another Lean {Macer)r and so on. or from their deeds. I pray you. -vailue among them except as material for their vessels and ornaments. Wherefore one is called Beautiful (Pulcher). the great. the commonwealth and not of private individuals. the Big-nosed another {Naso). G. M. or to any other dignity to which he aspires ? For no one wants either necessaries Capt. and to use his wife and house and— For they say that children are bred -children as his own. such as Beautiful. Etruscus. and very often with a crown suitable to the deed or art. which are common to all.. They deny what we hold viz. as St. is there no jealousy among them or disappointment to that one who has not been elected to a magistracy. the race is managed for the good of or luxuries. or from the enemy any . and according to each. Pictor Magnus). Moreover. and with the For gold and silver is reckoned of little flourish of music.

sloth of this For reason they are without proper complexions. so that heeled boots so that she trains to cover her may become beautiful. they commit the education of the children. not necessary are among the inhabitants of the City of the is Sun. she is condemned to capital if punishment. For who indeed would give them that this facility ? Further. who as it were are the element .. and become feeble and small. of the republic. since individuals for the most part bring forth children wrongly and educate them wrongly. lest some men seeing . should anger and hatred against the magistrates further that those up with and he thinks who do not deserve cohabitation with' the more all lot. For with them deformity exercised strong of limb. This shrewdness. Plato thinks that this distribution ought to be made by lot. facility for doing these things. to individuals. is beautiful are being led out of the city women. but from slothful tenderness.236 THE CITY OF THE And SUN. consists in tallness and it strength. use high sandals. When the women become dyes her they get a clear complexion. and most sacred fear. so that at are suitable should fall times the women who to their not those whom they desire. however. and become beautiful not from strength. they therefore. or garments with wooden shoes. should be deceived whilst the lots by the magistrates. they assert and among us abuses of this kind arise from the leisure women. with consider that they remove destruction from the state. and and agile. And thus they distribute male and female breeders of the best natures according to philosophical rules. And thus they ruin their own. tall unknown. or uses highmay appear tall. and with them beauty if any woman face. By these means they lose their colour and have pale complexions. they have no But the women should even desire them. for this reason. except in so far as they are constituents of the commonwealth. to the care of magistrates the for the safety of community is not that of a few. that they are rise kept away from the beautiful women. Therefore. .

if af any time a man is taken captive woman. usury vices. and they are always lean from overwork and are custom to keep slaves. Every man who. ill-health. In the daytime all use white garments within the city. when he is told off to work. is in it need is To the heroes and heroines of the customary to give the pleasing gifts of honour. become a prey to and other and contaminate and corrupt very many families by weaker every day. and out of these scarcely ten or fifteen thousand do any work. arid to make verses.THE CITY OF THE SUN. who are fond of black. and one who acts proudly is chastised with the most ruthless correction. ! getting" idleness. does his honourable to go on foot. and thus they say that it is do any act of nature. beautiful wreaths. but at night or outside the city silk. avarice. they distinguish philosophically between tears and spittle. is further union between them Moreover. and partnerships of. and when there is need. fields. excepting the sign of honour. and more than enough. the two are allowed to converse and joke together. alas it is not so. for themselves. lasciviousness. to see with the eye. Pride they consider the most execrable vice. Wherefore no one thinks it lowering to wait at table or to work in the kitchen or All work they call discipline. rest The . and to speak with the tongue. and consequently those of their offspring. and therefore they dislike the Japanese. because. is considered very honourable. sweet food or splendid clothes. But with us. Furthermore. But if the race is with^ardent love for a certain endangered. known among them Domestic affairs only that born of friendship. are of little . In Naples there exists seventy thousand souls. to duty. 237 tempers and natures. they use red garments either of wool or They hate _ black as they do dung. and to give one another garlands of flowers or leaves. It is not the For they are enough. each one receives what he republic. the love born of eager desire is not . while they are feasting. account. by no means permitted.

day. nity of G. the few wlio. slanderers. This seems excellent and sacred. in the field. assumers of what they know not. and with play.238 THErcrrrm^^THE'sim. grinding poverty renders thievish. first And Tertullian agrees had everything But this with the Glossary. recommend life the religion of the Christians. in military service and in arts. by. except wives I These things know little of. &c. witnesses. neither the single •die nor dice. with wrest- with hurling at tha stake. proud. with the hoop. but the commuwomen is a thing too difficult to attain. I saw . in exercising the mind and body. The holy Roman Clement says that wives ought to be common in accordance with the apostolic institution. moreover. But in the City of the Sun. false and makes them insolent. cunning. They say. AI. . while duty and work is distributed among all. insidious. nor others like these. The remaining hours are spent in learning joyously. wanf ing in affection. and praises Plato and Socrates. in walking. keepinor holding them in servitude for their and by imparting to them their own vices. They are rich that wealth poor because they possess nothing. own use. in debating. that sulky. it only falls to each one to work for about four hours every them in poverty and slavishness. and of the Apostles. except those which are debasing. And on this point they strongly especially the because they want nothing. But they play with the ling. liars. . deceivers. in reciting. are notxultivated. in writing. in reading. ball. with the sack. nor chess. boasters. . who thus community with regard in teach. They allow no game which is played while sitting. that the Christians common Capt. mea worthless. ignorant. but the Glossary interprets this to obedience. traitors. &c. and consequently they are not slaves to circumstances. do practise them doing so with much aversion. Therefore public slavery ruins them useful works. but circumstances serve them. vagabonds. But with them all the rich and poor together make up the community.

other Practice dut'ies. down from the hairs. however. The reasoning of our Cajetan does not convince me. and least of all that of Aristotle. Power is at the head of all the professors of gymnastics. explain their ways of life and sciences. watching with the eyes which they possess. incapable of being serviceable except the decrepitude- of old age. all lastly their religion. who teach military exercise. separating the stuff the The blind card wool with their hands. I pray you. and the masters and many of the magistrates. Then you may and Capt. and\ihe -best of these they and makes the women suitable for war Thus they agree with Plato. of architects. of their military arts. cripples are well treated. they send abroad to discover the customs of nations. with which latter they couches and sofas . existing among them is excellent and worthy of imitation viz. he uses it in the farms. since they are by no means learned in philosophy. — man tion. of Cato. of artillery. and if one.by the opinion of Socrates. telling the they have heard. but. officers of the state what G. Nevertheless. affairs. and who are prudent of each art . has under him the magis- trates of arms. The triumvir. And these and some become spies. of cavalry. Power. those who are without the use of eyes and hands give the use of their ears or their voice for the convenience of the state. of Plato. and of St. as 239 the City of the Sun that they did And they defend themselves. And to their want of education.THE CITY OF THE SUN. of foot-soldiers. Moreover. among the inhabitants of not make this exception. Tell me now. has only one sense. in whom I have read these same things. M. and of strategists. that no physical defect renders a always adopt.'since even the deformed are useful for consulta- The lame serve as guards. they misunderstand the opinions of these^ the inhabitants of the solar city ascribe this thinkers. the the most excellent workmen obey men paying allegiance to their respective chiefs.. Clement you say. This thing.

to conquer. and other great soldiers should be read. and that one severely is punished most who shows any inhabitants all fear. of Joshua. of Alexander. The women know and how to make them wine unmixed altogether. to help a comrade in arms . and that when it has left the body it is associated with other wicked or good. And . because they immortal. and every day there is practice is of arms. abstain from injuring an They do not and of enemy of the republic religion. so that they may be able if to render assistance to the males in battles near the city. to advance and to remain in order of battle . of Scipio. Nor They take care that the accounts of Moses. they do not believe in the transmigration of spirits. of Caesar. . are they ever without lectures on the science of war. except in some cases. to handle the spear^ the sword. year. by a distinct decree of God. They are taught to watch the fortifications lest at some time respect a hasty attack should suddenly be made. at horses and elephants. to manage the horse . after . souls. The women be also are taught these arts under their own need magistrates and mistresses. During the second reviewed. The of the City of the Sun believe that the soul do not is fear death. advanced twelfth By these the boys are trained their Before this age. THE CITY OF THE SUN. according to the merits of this present life. to anticipate the enemy by cunning and . running. But at twelve they are taught how to strike at the enemy. . well also In this from lead the how to let fly fiery balls. under inferior masters. throwing the Weight and other minor exercises.240 generals. they have been accustomed to wrestling. of David. either in the cavalry plain or within the walls. they praise the Spartans and Amazons. in age. how to throw stones from pinnacles and to go in way of an attack. of Judas Maccabeus. the arrow and the sling to retreat . They are accustomed also to give up . however. Although they are partly followers of Bramah and Pythagoras. of Hannibal. who is month the army unworthy of pity.

or a people have been tyrant of the state (for they are always oppresseci by a the advocates of liberty). ftight never occur. ill. since they have not an object of worship and the City of the Sun. After they have knelt' in the presence of God that He might inspire their consultation. since they are so prosperous ? Capt Wars they should gency. do the Tapro- banese. to and do not observe mins. rise the religion of other nations or of the Brah- And other nations of India. when their allies have been harassed. asks that the allies should be freed from oppression. G. these the teacher answers and then and says who are right. for this reason that the people desire to live after the manner of the inhabitants of be under their rule rather than that of their own kings.however. . or that the tyrant should be deposed. and for what reasons.. . they proceed. is sent away. being neighbours. then eacn one gives his generals acted' well or 241 own opinion as to whether. subject.as also first. to which formerly they were up as it were in rebellion. If they deny these things war is declared by invoking the vengeance of God —the God of Sabaoth — for destruction of those if who if maintain an unjust cause. the priest gives him the space of one hour for his answer. With whom do they wage war. are always the victors. Immediately after a priest. whom they wanted to join them at The warriors of the City of the Sun. whom they call Forensic. . lest perchance become effeminate and unprepared for any emer- Besides there are four kingdoms in the island. He demands from the enemy the restitution of the plundef. usefully or honourably.THE CITY OF THE SUN. But the enemy refuse to reply.to examine the merits of the business. M. As or soon as they suffered from insult or disgrace or plunder. nevertheless they are exercised in military tactics and in hunting. they go immediately to the council for deliberation. and thus war is decided ~ on. Wherefore the state often makes war upon these because. they are usurpers and live impiously. which are very envious of their prosperity.

They pitch their tents and fortify with wall and ditch with wonderful quickness. and wills everything. And war under-' taken against the insolent enemies of natural. and the preparing to flee. arises Hoh however. Their camp is fortified after the manner of the Romans. the deputy of Power performs everything. engines of war. chariots. Before this. It is their . but Power. When war has been declared. wheeling into wings and columns on each side.eapons stand in the armories. and command their bands after consultation. and^ ordering the artillery to discharge their bullets they resume the fight against a disorganized host. declared by a herald in the All from twenty years and upwards are ad- mitted to this council.. standards. of engines and hurling machines. so th^at-hurtfiil tat diness may be avoided. ' many the soldiers understand the use of the spade and the axe. and they have other' engines for hurling which are called cannons.242 lie is THE CITY OF THE SUN. When they have arrived in an open plain they enclose in the middle the provisions. The masters of works. Five. is of making an -expedition great council. and which they take into battle upon mules and asses and carriages. eight.are full The exterior walls of each ring of gims prepared by their labours. and thesefights. and ruses of this kind.rights and Of religion. Then each one returns to the enemy thinking that" they are givingand are deceived and relax their order then : - the warriors of the City of the Sun. upon. regain their breath and strength. and thus the necessaries are agreed. a king. they use often in sham . he consults ^ And when anything of great moment and Wisdom arid Love. ladders and machines and all fight courageously. so that they cannot in this-manner is Escape giving a tesponse. All kinds of w. plans. or ten leaders learned in the order of battle andin strategy consult together concerning the business of war.'like the Roman dictator. the occasion of war and the justice. And they observe They overcome all mortals with their stratagems and engines. but fhMe if it is a republic. stand ready.

How wonderful a help is this ! For the soldiers. hanging from his saddle. and in order that. and so love _ makes them conquerors. he his who affords who kills a dedicates his arms in the temple and receives from Hoh the cognomen of deed. so that they may learn to fight. rangement for swift movement of the stirrups have an ar- bridle. Further. carry For if the foe cannot pierce their metal for and cannot make swords. along with many armed women. so that they . they may be able to use the club more easily. they do not hold the reins with their hands. as crown of aid to tyrant a token of honour. 245 Tvont to take out with them a body of boys. but use them by means of the feet. they attack him with clubs. shatter and overthrow him. and when these aimed at the enemy they surround his neck and drag him to the ground .pierce the metal narrow which they intend to convert into -arms. and wait upon them and encourage them with embraces and pleasant words. Two chains of six spans length hang from the club. the ends are fastened to the stirrups with And the buckles and not to the feet. in order that they may acquit themselves as sturdy men in the eyes of their wives and offspring.THE CITY OF THE SUN. Every horse-soldier carries a spear and two strongly tempered pistols. every cavalry soldier has a sword and a dagger. And these in time of danger betake themselves to a place of safety. who form the light-armed troops. that one a civic crown of oak-leaves. a metal cudgel. narrow at the mouth. But the rest. and other warriors obtain other kinds of crowns. And to get the barrels of their pistols they. just as the whelps of lions and wolves are accustomed to blood. pistols If perchance the reins are interchanged above the trappings of the saddle. and at the presentation the women and an ally gets boys applaud loudly. After the battle the women and boys soothe and relieve the pain of the warriors. and at the end of these are iron balls. armed and on horses. He who in the fight first scales the enemy's walls receives after the battle a grass. endure hardships.

After the battle they celebrate the mihtary triumphs after manner of the Romans. crowns the general with laurel are for and honours to all the valorous free from public duties. some rushing forward in their turn and others receding. But this exemption from work is by no means pleasing to them. They have a band of lancers strengthening the line of battle. and who are accustomed to one another as the threads of cloth. in an enclosure. granted. And and the greatest chief. self a part of their punishment. to engage in then the men forming the phalanx with their spears. and then the general presents himself in the temple. there are But this indulgence is rarely it. since they know not what it is to be at leisure.244 ^^^ ^^^^ OF THE SUN in or let out the rein with marvellous celerity. and each one takes upon himhelp their companions. and even in a more magnificent Prayers by the way of thank-offerings are made to God. left is draw the right foot they turn the horse to the left to With and with the the right. not known to the Tartars. unless when the whole army asks their lives. The light-armed cavalry with them battle. who according to custom was with the expedition. and they who were the first to take to flight are in no way worthy to escape death. This secret. historian. who some days On the other hand. moreover. feet. Hoh. and so they distributes little gifts soldiers. and the deeds. are blamed . to be devoured. then the archers for whose paid. except when good reasons favouring But he who did not bear help to an ally or friend is beaten with rods. and a staff is put . are related by the poet or way. services a great price is fight in lines crossing but they the make trial of the swords only at the end. they who have been conquered through their own fault. good and bad. or have lost the victory. obey orders is given -to the beasts. although they govern the reins with their they are ignorant nevertheless of turning them and drawing them in and letting them out by means of the block of the are the first stirrups. For. That one who did not.

which you can of yourself It their master. forthwith have things in common.THE CITY OF THE SUN. willingly delivered The conquered states or those all up to them. in his 245 hand. and in case of a surprise. because naturally. imagine. if it has been decreed that they should destroy the walls of All these things are the enemy's city and take their lives. and after the victories they are kind to them. and freely they pardon the offences and faults of the enemy. in tiie night by men. The same things I may say concerning strategy and the other functions. both within and without the state. Cavalry and infantry the arm'ed guards are distributed. and practise games and hold festivities in the plains. as is the custom with our soldiers. they change them every three hours. These places are guarded in the day by women. would be too great trouble to tell you about the spies and and about the guards and laws and ceremonies. Then the music strikes up. are accustomed to the their sons to which they even send be taught without contributing anything for the mistress of to expense. make use of hunting as the symbol of war. and outside the walls ring. by degrees they all. therefore each one working according to his natural pro- pensity does his duty well and pleasantly. for they say . above the breastworks and towers and inside mounds. and ways of receive a garrison and magistrates from the City of the Sun. done on the same day as the victory. and they are placed at the four gates. And lest the guard should become weary of watching. he is re- ceived into favour again. and if bears that are there. when the drum and symphonia sound. There are guards of the seventh in the city by day and by night. At sunset. and tlie city. and afterwards they never cease to load the conquered with favours. which he should conquer the lions and the is almost impossible. Since from childhood they are chosen according to their inclination and the star under which they were born.

and how they honour with the first grade of nobility whoever is considered to have a knowledge of these. and he who professes to be the better man shows this in public fight. they must give vent to their anger against the enemy. and the other Nevertheless. for by means of these a tyrant often arises.. G. If they wait until the time of the battle for the verbal decision. No one declines to go to these mihtary life. This is worth while. and he who in battle shows the most daring deeds is considered to have defended the better and truer cause in the struggle. -of the distribution and among them. since right and because the unjust cause is often apparent when the more just succumbs. and they set that one apart for teaching the art in which he is most The occupations which require the most labour. therewith.' not when they kill them. occupations. no one does work harmful to . on account of labour. are the most praiseworthy amongst them. no fighting. as the examples of Rome and Athens show. Caft.ivil wars might not occur. for the reason that from the beginning their propensities are well known. M. Now.. if he has done harm in deeds after he has been first angry. except when the cohup the conquered. They who are skilful in more arts than these they consider still nobler. I believe that you have already heard about their" affairs and about their agi-icultural and pastoral and in what way these are common to them. such as working in metals and building. I pray you.246 THE CITY OF THE SUN. tell me of their works and matter connected maintained by the tribunal.skilful. the chief . they yields. a dispute among them concerning injury or any scarcely ever contend that there ought to be ijuerors give If there is other matter (for they themselves except in matters of honour).and his magistrates chastise the accused one secretly. and so that <. so that factions should not be cherished for the harm of the fatherland. and they are punished justly. are is not allowed to come to single combat.

and they honour them with a seat at the council and public table. him. Therefore they do business at the' gates. and for another month in the city. swim. from the the They receive merchants into their states different countries of the world. tions entailing less labour belong to the thein are expected to know how to. and they count for the use of their ambas- sadors and explorers. many things in exchange. women. so that goods might easily be carried over them and foreigners might not meet with difficulty on their way. and sell those whom they have taken in war or keep them for digging ditches and other hard work without the city.THE CITY OF THE SUN. city. after they have first washed their feet. The old men. but in importing they iaccept in exchange those things of which they are in Tieed. superfluous goods of the The people and these buy the of the City of Sun refuse to take money. but only that which is 24^ The occupaAll for necessary. they try them first for a month on a farm. and with them there are the that the state should be corrupted slaves labourers. and there are men whose duty it is to take care of But if strangers should wish to and guard the guests. and of this- reason ponds are dug outside the walls of the city and within them near to the fountains. however. To strangers they are kind and polite . become citizens of their state. and and the young people in the City of the Sun are much amused when they see that for sometimes Ihey buy with money a small price they receive so . but they know the value of money. for him. do not laugh. and for this reason they always send four bands of soldiers to take care of the fields. They go out of the four gates from which roads with walls on both sides of them lead to the sea. Commerce is of little use to them. then . they keep them for three days at the public expense . they show them their city and its customs. so that with it they may have the means of living. They are unwilling by the vicious customs of and foreigners.

and fruit trumpets sounding.248 THE CITY OF THE SUN. Agriculture is much followed among them . fields. and they observe the winds and propitious stars. and grapes work in a very 'Tew hours and with much care. and the rest used for the pasturage of cattle. as women who are and from want of exercise bring forth Wherefore they do not as it were paint feeble offspring. They use waggons fitted / with sails which are borne along by the wind even when it is contrary. ' thej^ decide concerning them. dogs and animals. but at the proper time they bring them . gathering and they set in order everything. in the meantime. . and when eaten and poor subsistence. and other animals are placed before them. The excellent occupation of breeding all and rearing as it horses. that they And the animals are led so to pair may be able to breed well. of the land The guardians move about turn. horses. They do not turn out horses with mares to feed. and with fields. sheep. and is not destroyed. so that fruit is borne quickly and multiplies. to the the purposes of ploughing. digging. there is not a span of earth without cultivation. reaping. the earth. there is no wind a beast draws along a huge- which is a grand sight. sheep. With the exception of a few left in the city all go out armed. oxen. And when cart. is kinds of domestic and tame in the highest esteem among them was in the time of Abraham. As much is of the land as is necessary is cultivated. by the marvellous contrivance of wheels within sowing. but dig it up well and use secret remedies. which they call the gives a short beautiful with rouge Georgics. for flags and drums. They have a book for this work. armed and always in their proper dung and filth for manuring the fruit contracts They do not u^e thinking that the something of their rottenness. hoeing. and do their wheels. Fine pictures of oxen. and admit them with certain ceremonies and oaths.

They keep groves and woods for wild animals.THE CITY OF THE this is is SUN. They have an abundance They are docile. go to battle unless when provoked. and milk-food. and they do not put up with injury. butter. and consequently they always find out nations . but by although he their father a marvellous contrivance.. 249 together in an enclosure of the stables in their And Archer done when they observe that the constellation in favourable conjunction with Mars and Jupiter. They also keep capons. Bucolics. and they possess rafts and triremes. and they never nobody. he is for' all that and brother. The women There are only do this when is a pleasure to them. and keep a drove of hens driven out by the art. They navigate for the sake of becoming acquainted with They injure and different countries and things. for the sheep the so on in accordance with For Ram. and of the ebb and flow of the tide. They assert that the whole earth will in time come to live in accordance with their customs. also places enclosed. since every one likes to be industrious. of all things. who it head of the rest in duties of this is kind they It is For they say that this see the proper name of the leaders. regard him with loathing as do. which go over the waters without rowers or the force of the wind. wonderful to how men and women march we together collectively. the oxen they observe the Bull. fields. and does not belong to ignorant persons. And other vessels they have They have a correct which are moved by the winds. which are women it to feed near the ciiy. and always in obedience to the voice of the king. and for all these matters there is a book which they call the . and they often hunt. is and that one among them call king. The science of navigation is considered very dignified by them. where they make cheese. Under the Pleiades they and ducks and geese. fruit and other things. knowledge of the stars. for they Nor do they know that is greater than themselves. their labours being slight and profitable.

then fish. Therefore they. such as oxen and horses.. both insular and many as other and continental.. but •thinking afterwards -that it was also cruel to destroy herbs which have a share of sensitive feeling.there THE CITY OF THE SUN. But the general community eat itwice. They always change their First they eat flesh. and so do the .it unless the demands it. cheese. nature is never incommoded or weakened. Their food consists of flesh. Tinwilling at garden herbs. butter. but often they reach two hundred. be a nation whose manner o£ than . go back to flesh. Now for -. and vegetables of various kinds.^50 iwhether.. animals.that they might satisfy nature. state of their health . living '. harmful foo^s. which they are only just able to explore. Th& old people use the more digestible kind of food. and the boys four times.they are extremely-modefat^ Wine never given to young people until they are ^terTy ears old. and so now they all Nevertheless. Calicut.. The length of their lives is generally one hundred years. . strategic secrets. They were first to slay animals. After their tenth year they take diluted with water. and. . how long they live.. and take three meals a day. . would be very pleasant to learn with what foods and -drinks they are nourished.are nearly always "victorious. As is regards drinking. There are treaties between them and the Chinese. Tiey observe the difference between useful and. they saw that they Twould perish from hunger unless they did an unjustifiable -action for the sake of justifiable ones. Ca^t. life in and look for a.. such Siam and Furtherland.is.^ They admire^ the 'Christian institutions apostolic. and in what way and it M. nations. they do not kill willingly useful eat meat.. then afterwards they food. eating only a little.. because it seemed cruel . realisation.pf^thie vogue among themselves and in us. better and more i^approved the rest. more. they have artificial fires^ battles on sea and and many G. and for this they employ the science of medicine. honey.

say that this sloth. which they relieve with plenty Of good and juicy food. by and by frugality and exercise they remove every humour and spasm. Then they chew thyme or rock parsley or fennel. Wherefore it is unseemly in the extreme to be seen vomiting or spitting. or rub their hands with these plants. and they also make use of scents to a great degree. . They suffer rather from swellings or from the dry spasm. habitation in the country They heal fevers with cleasanfr and with a and by gradual exercise. according to the - time of year. nor sciatica. After this they go to wait upon the old men. then for bodily- exercise. but the old water. The old men make incense. 251 men They tlie eat the of fifty and upwards use little or no_ most healthy things. nor. Uoeiean disfeasfes cannot be prevalent with them becausethey of tea fileSii their bodies by bathing" in wine. and with their faces to the east repeat the short prayer which Jesus Christ taught us. In the morning.. sjnce they are given by God to remove melancholy and sadness . because they are moist and juicy and cool. For these diseases are caused.. They think nothing harmful which is brought forth by GodJ^" except when there has been abuse by taking too much.THE CITY OF THE SUN. and counteract the heat and dryness.. indigestion and flatulency. And therefore in the summer they feed on fruits. some go to the dance. at length they' go to dinner. Among them no there is never gout in the hands or catarrh. pleasant baths. and others to the duties of the state. then in the temple. is a sign either of little exercise or of ignoble or of drunkenness or gluttony.and with milk-food. In the winter they feed on dry articles. Then for a little while they sit down to rest. and in the autumn they eat grapes.grievous colics. and saothe'=them mih. w&meii. since they nor hard breathing. nor flatulency. when they have all risen they comb their hair and wash their faces and hands with cold water. and feet. Later on they meet at the early lectures.

similar by rhubarb in the or by a it is drawing remedy. with purgative and sharp-tasting qualities. -with fat cheese-bread sprinkled with the flour of They are very skilled in making dishes. you whenever heavy humours are wanting.[K it signjthis disease is /of wonderful cleverness.- exercise they diffuse the poisonous vapour which corrupts the blood and the marrow. with music or 'dancing. and by prayers to God. But rarely that they take purgative medicines. butter and many highly strengthening spices. with . because they cannot perspire at the breast. and moreover they have warm ones according to the Roman custom. They cure hot fevers with cold potations of water. for the humid nature of which a heavy man is required. effects opposite to the producing and by means of herbs humours of this fever. and wheaten corn. They do suffer a little from consumption.. They suffered. from Hercules. they are often troubled. Fevers occurring every fourth day are cured easily by suddenly startling the unprepared patients. but slight ones with sweet smells. eighth or more days. They use baths.252 aromatic oil. by acids. means of prayers to heaven. and in them they put spice. but they never have asthma. for Callimachus. and they strive to counteract these by the observation of stars and of plants. G. TH£ CITY OF THE and by the sweat of SUN. which they more. so that they never . with cheese-bread or sleep. too. -and they temper their richness with acids. in other And which ways they labour to cure the epilepsy. and Mahomet have Capt. by by planned gymnastics. Socrates. sixth. or by water soaked roots of plants. They have found out. and they make use also of olive oil. Tertiary fevers are cured by bleeding. They take more fear diligent pains to cure the lasting fevers. AH these secrets they told me in opposition to their own wishes. honey. Scotus. M. Jiever find ftfth. cure by •strengthening the head. a great many secret Fevers recurring every cures for the preservation of cleanliness and health.

and this they do by a pleasing and indeed wonderful art. after eight days all the magistrates assemble. Wisdom and Love. confirm and execute the matters passing to them. Then first. vomit. In this and his three princes. Wisdom and Love are changed according to the. . and each one from twenty asked separately I ' say what is wanting in the magistrates have discharged their duties rightly and which of the and which wrongly. and for ridding it of affliction. for they are not without aid- against the humours of the body. and with basil. all the bands. Hoh and they correct. Both when it is new moon and full moon sacrifice. M. Capt. summer or in time of special life after They know also a secret for renovating about the seventieth year. on account of the help they garlic. They do not use lots unless when they are altogether doubtful how to decide. with wild thyme. They argue about those things which are for the welfare of the state.THE CITY OF THE SUN. manner they assemble daily. with get from the natural heat of the water with crushed mint. sciences far you have said nothing concerning their and magistrates. as decisions in the elections Other necessary questions they provide of themselves. in the heaviness. . education and breeding. and they consider the affairs of the arts pertaining to each one of them Power. of the sciences Love. of food. Undoubtedly I have. The eight magistrates under Hoh. and they choose the magistrates from among those who have already been named in the great council. Each one of the three last has three magistrates under him. the women first and then the men. Thus I they call a council after a to To state. But since you are so curious will add more. as the Chinese do. Hoh The masters of of fifties.wish of the . of war . to wit. G. and with him Power. clothing. of hundreds. Power. . Wisdom. making in all thirteen. also assemble. 253 artificial They do not drink ice-cold drinks nor hot drinks. who are captains of tens. this all is years upwards are admitted. but they strengthen it with vinegar.

give up the dignity of one to. Logic. however. And then they are obedient and honourable. the council decides. rarely happens. . Agriculture.. taking counsel with themselves. the triumvir Grammar. Coining. with deprivation of the table. Clothing. but the four are never changed. Music. Perspective. thing. Cosmography. and he is immediately acquitted or con^mned be referred .judge and Power . not on account of justice but of mercy. Rhetoric. Sculpture. and more nearly perfect. unless they. If the offence is wilful When there is is strife . with exclusion common company from the church and is of women. another. Physics.even to may Hoh. which we commonly call a lawsuit. They punish with frona the exile.. the accused. They have no prisons. except Metaphysics. and so on. Under Love are Breeding. This. from. not it by the judge but by the triumvirate.makes his' defenee. Arithmetic. M. Hoh Under ashamed to be igriorant of is any possible Wisdom therefore Astrology. Poetry. are Wisdom. Astronomy. This the point I was just thinking of explaining. G. and it takes place undesignedly. Pasturage. first Everyone all tlie judged by the master of his trade. more renowned. it is punished with death.the presence of the.whom. Painting. with blame. the sentence mitigated nevertheless. Geometry. Medicine. since they yield willingly to the wiser.man and are taught by him. who is^ Hoh is and over is as it were the architect of attached to all science. But the accusation and witnesses are produced ia. and thus head artificers are judges. What about is is their judges ? Capt. Education. Medicine. having rule all. with flogging.^54 THE CITY OF THE SUN. and they repay an eye with an eye. first people. for Hoh is able to pardon. except one tower for shutting up rebellious enemies. When there a case in which great injury has been done. a nose for a nose. according to the law of retaliation.person. himself. whoin among them they know to be wiser. The principals of the sciences. a tooth for a tooth. and -there^is no written statement of a case.

afid if . the witnesses beginning first. or against the supreme magistrates. little who enclose the remains in bags and burn them by the application Nevertheless.d to his . or against God. and appeases the' state by means of prayers and sacrifices and takes of the magistrates. it were.is immediate censure without These only are punished with death. it should seem right he must say why the accused And if by .THE CITY OF THE SUN. there . •t>ythe judge. of arguments until he himself acquiesces in the sentence of death passed upon him. but they warn them. Certain officers talk to and convince the accused man by means die. and also the sins of the who ought to die instead of him. people and with religious scrupulousness the reasons for others which he does not deserve death.and. . lest is -and the state should sink into ruin. laments and beseeches God being in grief that it should as His anger may be appeased. and with . with the medicine of his complaint. good -the life ensuing.unless by the hands of the people. or else he does not But if a crime has been committed against the liberty of the republic. and further the misIf. moreover. No one is killed or stoned .ones are deserving of less punishment than he.255 he appeals to the trmmViratpj. The chpige of death lifeless given to the rest of the people. is reconciled to his accuser an. as is.dvising concerning a good death. A^ is day he accused person witnesses.on the following day he is Acquitted or condemned. the accuser . or receives the inviolable rigour of his s^tence. while exhorters are present for the purpose of a. the whole natioii that it of fire. that with embracing and kissing. Gn the third dismissed through the mercy and.. clemency of •Hoh. were have to cut off a rotten member of the state. He who is about to die is compelled to state in the presence of the pity. Sin^ of frailty ignorance are punished only with blaming. to the person thus asserting. :his arguments he gains the victory he is sent into exile. They do not torture those named by and com- accused person. For they have no executioners lictors.

accusing himself and seeking to make amends. or of another virtue. that And on is between the columns. where the judges of the virtues have that The definition of a certain' virtue. all The and definitions of all the virtues are also delineatedhere.2:56 THE CITY OF THE SUN. all done with great wisdom. that if a transgressor. of _ man. and one of another. seem to be in very truth members of the same body. after having threatened him. taliation. goes of his own accord before a magistrate.. short and plain. They have but few laws. columns can be seen the essences of things described in the very terse style of Metaphysics viz. his punishment is changed into another. as the case may be. They take special ckre that no one should invent slander. the single — essences of God. of virtue. without waiting to be accused. of the angels. pulsory continuation as learners under the law and discipline of those sciences or arts against which they have sinned. is written under column where the judges for the aforesaid virtue sit. O son. This further I would have you know. and if this should happen they meet the offence with the punishment of reSince they always walk about and work in crowds. since they five witnesses are required for the conviction of a transis gressor. time. that one is liberated from the punishment of a secret crime. thou hast sinned against this sacred definition of beneficence. And all these things they have mutually among themselves. of the stars. his increased Or if he is accused a second or third rests punishment on the testimony of three or two witnesses. If the case is otherwise. and hanging to the doors of the temple. and these and written upon a flat table. And after discussion the judge legally conis demns him to the punishment for the crime of which he . or of magnanimity. and since he has not been accused of such a crime. of the world. the tribunal. and when a judge gives judgment he sits and speaks thus their seat. he released after he has sworn an oath as the warrant of good conduct. of here is fate.

G. who at once purge their souls and teach those that are inimical to the people. He is . Sacrifice conducted after the following manner : Hoh then asks the people which one as a sacrifice to among them wishes to give himself God for the sake. &c. no transgressor is spoken of by his name. Then he offers sacrifices and succours with timely and prayers to God. of its and Once in every year the chief priests of each separate subordinate state confess their sins in the Thus he is not ignorant of the wrongdoings of the provinces. that sins. tell me about their priests. And before this he confesses the sins of the whole people. for injury for despondency.. savouring more of clemency than of actual punishment. God. Afterwards he offers sacrifice to it God.THE CITY OF THE accused SUN. Ca-pt. of all the superior magistrates to pardon sins. Nevertheless.correctives. their religion. Hoh. and is their belief. and publicly in the temple. 257 — viz. to the magistrates. as often as advising them that they should beware of sins of the afore- said kind. though no special one fess especially state. and it is the duty which we also use. But the sentences are certain and true.to the the triumvirs confess their sinfulness to At length himself. Hoh that who forthwith recognizes the kinds of sins are harmful to the state. their sacrifices. state Therefore the whole tell their sins by secret confession. of his fellows. for pride. and forthwith he removes them presence of Hoh. for in- gratitude. remedies. Now you ought The chief priest to. for sloth.. and they conthe heavier faults and those harmful. with all human and heavenly is remedies. In this manner he absolves the people by in the presence of the altar. M. He to should pardon the state and absolve teach and defend it. Then the sacred own sinfulness to the one another. magistrates themselves confess their three supreme chiefs. above it had been necessary that the fault should be corrected. and together they confess the faults of is named.

Thus they know in what part of the earth any change has been or will be. but of a human drawn and the sacrifice is pulled up above to the centre of the small dome. It is also their work to observe the stars with the astrolabe their motions and influences and to note upon human things. and at' what time tions. the anger of God being appeased. from their places This they do in the middle of the in the evenisg. ence to predict may be able from experimost correctly. until it has atoned for the sins of the state. The priests. above twenty-four years of age in the top of the temple. though rarely. determine the houKs for breeding and the days for sowing. But God does not require death. and to find out their powers. the matter be as they have They make a note of predic- and false. returns below by means of the outer way for the priests. and there it dedicates itself with the most fervent supplications. so that they vintage. night. and gathering the and are as it were the ambassadors and intercessors and connection between God . treated with great benevolence Ever after this man is and much honour. at noon. being. but it is allowed a very little to There with eat. Food is given to it through a window by the priests. reaping. God of heaven that He And after twenty or thirty the sacrifice becomes days. to wit. who live around the dome. with ceremonies and the oflfering up of prayers the table is hung up in a wonderful manner by- means of four ropes passing through firm pulley-blocks in the small four cords attached to dome of the temple. sometimes. true it has taken place. to the God of mercy. for the reason that he offered himself unto death for the sake of his country. offer praises The priests. moreover. or its willing offering. and they send to find whether it. This done they cry offering.2S8 THE CITY OF THE SUN. that He may accept the not of a beast as among the heathen. in the morning and four times a day they sing their chants in the presence of God. Then Hoh orders the ropes to be prayer and fasting he cries to the might accept a priest. : placed upon the fourth table.

do they have converse with women. The men. have one curl only and the rest of their hair around together and collected into one knot the head is shaven this off. return thanks to God. however. the magistrates use to his trade or occupation. and this they do under the direction of the ruler of each virtue. unless for their dinner and supper. Each one takes the woman he loves most. no one is envious of another. and of those of all other nations. a round hat a fields larger than the size of In the they use caps. Further. They sing a hymn to Love. and this is very delightful to them. red. and one each to all the other virtues. and search 559 And They it is from among them mostly that Hoh is elected. On certain days Hoh goes up to them and deliberates with them concerning the matters which he has lately investigated for the benefit of the State and the nations of the world. Below they never descend. and at the end of every hour another succeeds him. that when he I enters 2 . and that as a cure for the ills of solitude. grander and more imposing-looking coverings for the head^ They hold great festivities when the sun enters the four is. all In the temple beneath one priest aljvays stands near the altar praying for the people. Forsooth. just as we are accustomed in solemn prayer to change every fourth hour. cardinal points of the heavens. one to Wisdom. Christian. or another colour according Moreover. but in rolling it they leave one curl. And this method of supplication they call perpetual prayer. little and above their head. so that the essence of their heads do not descend to the stomachs and liver. After a meal they Then they sing the deeds of the and Gentile heroes. 'CITY OF THE SUM. The women wear their long hair all twisted on the crown of the head. Jewish. and they dance for exercise with propriety and stateliness under the peristyles.THE and man. Only very seldom. but at home each one wears a biretto white. write very learned treatises into the sciences. they wear a slight covering. .

God only . under the image of the Sun. life. whose instruments we are. heat. the air is an impure part of the heavens . and Therefore we live within we do not belong but to it as worms live within us. who are. little For in all They differ from us as are to places of reward and punishment. His face and living image. and the Earth the mother . and the making of all things good and bad proceeds. and receive Him. seek only to amplify themselves. that they may not come into the power of a tyrant and fall into misery by They undergoing punishment by creatures of revenge. Therefore they have built an altar like to the Sun as it in shape.by chance . and of His glory in the Sun.262 give to THE CITY OF THE God alone. all fire The sea is the sweat of earth. and contemplate and know God they call it the sign of God. God in the sun and in the stars. SUA'. by means of which light. and thus they serve Him. They say rise of there is but one heaven. and the priests praise altars. and fused within its bowels but is the bond of union between air and earth. their strong For God long since set sighs of their beauty in heaven. and for a high end. and that the planets move and themselves it. is namely. is derived from the sun. or with bad angels. that the Sun the father. we all are formed by prescience and are design. s'un. to the system of stars. They hold as beyond question the immortality of souls. They doubt . we are born them which and live. so to speak. as the blood The world is a great is of the spirit and flesh of animals. for in respect to and earth. and they pray to and in the heavens. bound to no Father but God. good angels. and that these associate with good angels after death. but in respect to God. animal. were . wJien they approach the sun or are in conjunction with They assert two principles of the physics of things below. this life to either. the intercessors living in the stars. as it were His His temple abodes. or the fluid of earth combusted. according as they Therefore things from we have likened themselves in things seek their like.

and how it all comes of Mercury. when discoverer. well astrologize too much. as great theologians teach and hope. 263 and account is it madness to say there ciples is nothing. will be the future mistress of the world. if you knew what our astrologers say of the coming age. and the Scorpion God gives all in His good time. that has in it more history within a hundred years than all the world had in four battle to great issues. wisdom or Sin they place in who knows and has bound also to have the will. defect to nothingness its cause hot efficient. . and the use of the magnet. burn up the guides the ! earth. Therefore Spain found the New World (though its first law. to Him the glory G. Deficiency they say. Ah. greatest of heroes. but God knows. but they do nbt distinguish persons by name. which is both Power and Wisdom . whether there are other worlds beyond ours. and from these comes Love. not to produce plants and men. whose The sun instrurpents They sought new regions for lust of gold and riches. This religion. whence proceeds the highest 'Wisdom. Nonentity incompatible prin- with the infinite entity of God. Columbus. They Capt. M. Oh. They worship God in Trinity. the Moon. that nations should be gathered under one law. for will arises out of them. Mars. of power. entity the highest God. because he the power to do good is which has not been revealed to them. will. thousand years printing before ! Of the wonderful invention of and guns. Evil the sin and nothingness which is the and sin come of the propensity having is. not what we do. all was a Genoese). We know we are. but God His the praise. of They which lay is down two of entity. saying God is the supreme Power. its abuses have been removed.THE CITY OF THE SUN. and of our age. which is the same with God. as in our Christian the last of these three. metaphysics. but strives to God works to a higher end. ! ! . but in deficiency.

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A FRAGMENT OF JOSEPH HALL'S MUNDUS ALTER ET IDEM (the other-and-samb world) translated by Dr. . WILLAM king.

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became successively Bishop of Exeter and of Norwich . in the year 1607. His early work. at Bristow Park. the year 1574. " Virgidemiarum. the age of thirty-two. who had no relish for Nine years later. Terra Sancta. ideal world divided into regions answering to man's chief He gave with it a map its Latronia. Hall published the satire now to be described." These satires. and in 1598 three more books. with a neighbouring land in which there are no signs of settlement. &c. who rose to honour in the Church.INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. even yet unknown. at that kind of writing. with others published about the same time by Marlowe and Marston. In 1597 he published three books. . as Bishop of Norwich was in consuffered troversy with John Milton on Church Discipline patiently imprisonment and persecution from the Puritans and closed an honourable life of more than fourscore years He has been called by some the Christian in 1656.. Seneca. of Satii'os. ignota etiam adhuc. the " Mundus Alter an weaknesses or vices. fully peopled. were burnt by order of Whitgift. in by Ashby-de-laand educated at Emmanuel College. et Idem. Cambridge. Archbishop of Canterbury." represents of Crapulia. the Holy Land. . . Joseph Hall was born Zouch. Six Bookes. He was a witty and an earnest man.

This valley yields to the dine. Ucalegon. reached in two years the Fortunate Isles. sailed away. quitted harbour. and begun the seventh. Pamphagonia and Yvronia. chiefly One. to which they march forth armed with spits and two-pronged forks. partly translated and heavy monks. himself the maker of the lands he travels He chose his day. people of Ucalegon everything except what they don't care for. is There way up. to sup. but by a rope and basket. The citizens make to themselves also beds only one of the soft feathers of these birds. sleep. In their free city. came in Crapulia. and went aboard the good ship Phantasy. also figured as an Austral tell They is are good travellers. King: Crapulia. and by the loads of fish they bring into their nests to feed their young. but he is a better who only travels but through. consists husbandmen wait on the rich. leaving the shores of Africa behind him. sight of the black headland of Here Introduction ends and Travel begins with the part by Dr. lie They down. birilt near the borders of Moronia. provinces of Omnivorous Gluttony and Drunkenness. and that is not by zigzag steps. therefore. King has translated six chapters. he says. who what not they have seen in known lands. and.268 INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. their rocks for the inhabitants. with a gentle touch. and its two provinces. Birds wholly peculiar to the place supply food by being themselves eatable. which is upon the wars of the Pamphagonians. are free. as among the old Egyptians. is the Land of Inebriate Excess. for the Husbandry. rise. ribs of beef. mean by their names the Dr. and through a hollow in the rocks with softest pace creeps the river Oysivius (the Idle). the citizens live happy as They are so well shut in by high rocks that they can laugh at enemies. named from Crapula. opens the richer man's eyes when he . is Joseph Hall's new world Continent. and in feeding pigs. and by the great multitude of their eggs.

These are among the laws of Crapulia drink alone. starlings are The next chapter is on the Religion of the Crapulians. Victor. but they make two one fieldfare. the other province of Crapulia. -They hate Jove because his thunder turns the wine sour and he spoils ripe fruit by raining on it. which liave like privileges. is current in Crapulia. who eats everything. shall pass by fasting. No coin of metal in kind. enough to answer questions by holding What cook soever shall treat food so that it is cannot be eaten. When the mouth is full out a finger. I hasten. two fieldfares one hen. my subject who will. These are among the laws of Yvronia : —A cup must be . my enemy who dares. two geese one lamb. says the traveller. Farewell and Fatten. and so forth. " I Omasius. Prince and God lie here. or salute No me sober. the traveller passes from Pamphagonia to Yvronia. whither I was happily led by my genius. two goats one cow. Livona and Roncara (Snort and Snore). each as big as a man's head. Lord. to the palace of the But Grand first Duke. payment Thus two sparrows are one starling. 269 another fans him with a flapper while he eats it another puts bits into his mouth when cities opens. wakes two ." After a description of the Island of Hunger. man shall say I starved. The Duke must have been as large as the man two of whose teeth were dug up at Cambridge. There are under Ucalegon. and shall remain so tied will eat that meat. On his tomb is an inscription.INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. two lambs one kid. Let him be my heir who can. Duke of Fagonia. two hens one goose. : — It is a crime to fasting four Whoever has defrauded Nature by it hours after sleep shall be compelled to sup. two kids one goat. and fatten wonderfully. except that here the in- habitants are almost always asleep. shall be tied to a stake beside which is hung meat half raw or half until somebody comes who burnt. Their God is Time.

its As to democracy. He who wine be degraded to the table of the dogs. none Hstened at once to his shall wife's maid. To walk from supper adds water to in a right line shall be criminal. any man become master sit in his own The women beat thfem. in the nobler sex . men can . miswritten provinces is New Guinea. as. the shall traveller in this Other-and-Same World passes on tp Viraginia. looked at. while the i:p. the state seemed to be a all governed and none obeyed. The chief of is many Lingua- docia. he shall die by thirst. A husband who survives his wife. in . or goes into bondage to the nearest mother of a family. shall be cut from wine for ever: he a drunkard. The men in Viraginia are subject to the women. because it is not permitted that house. They which all spoke and and they had a perpetual Parliament. men serve. sleep when the men are roused to get scold is That day them when they complain.zro INTROD UCTOR V SKETCH. This its is the land of the Viragoes. she places the care of her husband under any other woman of the household until she returns. is married settled affairs at public meetings. When a wife leaves her house for any reason. and worthy to be marked with a say good-bye with a whol^ white stone to which skin. In Viraginia the traveller was at once made prisoner. Gynia Nova. That . in which form of government. but per- mitted to see the land after he had subscribed to certain word or deed he would work no ill to That he would never interpose a word when a woman was speakings That wherever he might be he would concede domestic rule to the woman That he would never deny to a wife any ornament of dress she articles. Yvronia having been described in seven chapters. in which Garrula one of the famous cities. ofif The sober man who if hurts a drunkard. Whoever takes or returns a cup half shall either full or empty. empty kill be guilty of Use societe.

proIn midwinter they go minent lips. with palish hair. so that they can beautiful use of teeth. to shut these To the is Mobilis. that the warmth may enter the more readily. or because the hair comes between the brain and heaven. and to the west Moronia Pia. where everything is washed. north out the heat. broken by the toils of so great a journey. nails. with their chests open. towns and people of Moronia having been and fully described. require much attention. and very thick ears. and the rest of the body lightly clothed. cooked and cared for by the men. quondam Academicus. and the cold go out of them . the most uncultivated and the most populous of all east is Variana or Moronia Moronia Aspera. in going Provinces. The people are. at last." Hall. A nobler and more cleanly polished place is not to be seen than Viraginia. And at the end of all. either because they allay the heat remember that they were born bald. the traveller through this Otherand-Same World then proceeds to describe Lavemia. " cities I have seen.INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. who obtain great part of In this land the Larcinians their plunder from Moronia. The next land to be countries. these have marvelled at. and there the is nothing unbecoming but the garments of men themselves. to the south Moronia Fehx. and Peregrinus. and checks the freedom of the mind heavenward. to the vastest. these manners. and heels. They shave their heads. women in Viraginia Some of them also make practise with profit the gymnastic art. nearly all of them. have laughed at. or to of the brain. the 271 cut their hair and let their nails grow. Foolsland. have returned to my own land. the Land of Thieves and Cheats. but in summer they put on thick overcoats and cloaks. tall and fat. adds Joseph visited These men. . and all the clothes they have. the visited was Moronia. Contrary to the custom with us.

occasioned principally some letters to Dr. took his in 1688. who had not increased his credit for a love of work. returned to London about that time. and was admitted an Advocate at Doctor's Commons. at Westminster School early inherited a fair estate. Oxford. . to he came across Joseph Hall's satire. and Christ Church. in which office he was succeeded in 1708 by Joseph Addison. and Keeper of Dr. He Master of Arts degree attacks Varillas. King went to Ireland as judge of Admiralty. Vicar-General to the Lord Primate. In or 1702 Dr." by M.D. at times He kept a light heart and a lighter purse than his fraternity. publishing playful satires. William King was Ezekiel King. and following his own way of mirth began publishing " Useful Transactions in Philosophy and other sorts of learning. " The Art of Cookery.S72 INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. Horace's Art of Poetry lished with others. King. in 1692 gra- duated as LL. being the works of Apicius Coelius concerning the Soups and Sauces of the Ancients. and began his career as writer with a refutation of upon Wiclif in the " History of Heresy. a gentleman of London. he found his mind that he began to translate as follows it : so h"." When much M. beseemed one of soon after the year showing an earnest mind under his mirth.. son of He was educated Dr. the Records in Birmingham's Tower. He then chose liw for a profession.'' his playful In 1709 he published the best of poems. born in the year 1663. sole Commissioner of the of the High Court Prizes. Lister and by the Title of a Book pub- by the Doctor. in imitation of .

and westward with the Tryphonian Fens. when I considtred they were bilessings so It lies in seventy-four deserved by the inhabitants. • and differ very little in their habit or their manners. I. that for its prey will bear off an elephant in talons . It lies in that north part of the universe where is bred the monstrous bird called its Rue. opposite to the whole coast of Africa. on the south by Moronia Felix. same laws. Pamphagonia and Ivronia. as It is comwere. the other is equal to the High and Low Dutch Lands. that I have looked and the heavens too serene . so upon them with a silent envy. and is described by the modern geographers. the Country. are governed by the and sixty degrees of latitude.C RAPU L CHAPTER The Situation of I A. Both obey the same prince. it monly divided into two provinces. the former of which is of the same length and breadth as Great Britain (which I hope will not be taken as any reflection). degrees and eleven and lies. Crapulia is a very fair and large territory. of longitude. on the east with Laconia and Viraginia. soil is The too fruitful. not withlittle out pity. . which on the is bounded with the 4ithiopic Ocean. of degrees distant from the Cape Good Hope .

limes. as soon as the hook is cast in. ' Glutton^ s Paradise. or the is of a triangular figure.274 CRAPULIA. fat they tarry but three months. They hate plains. plums. but the beccaficos of the Italians. apples. grow so very and weighty. The sea-ports. as there useful but their shade. that in the north-east parts of the world lambs grow upon all stalks like cabbages and eat up the grass sort of provisipns in around about them. with which this country abounds more their than any other. and yielding nothing the hedge-rows. pears. and believe the testirnony of one of our ambassadors. or presage to themselves the honour of so magnificent a sepulchre as was given to Nero's turbot). which they have : for superfluous wool and hides nor may the inhabitants export anything that has the l6ast relation to the palate. are of no other use than to receive and take in such things as are edible. upon that coast are in such plenty. as fruit-trees. to find the same Besides. and are as delicious as the ortolan or And it is no wonder to thern who know fallen that geese in Scotland are generated from leaves into the water. that they cannot fly back again over the mountains. or. PaMphagonia Egypt. they to the genius it press to as the ghosts in Lucian did to Charon's boat. the fish this country. and is in all Ivronia . and so voracious (whether they conform themselves of the place and people. is if It is mountainous. and cling to the iron as miners do to a rope that is let down when the light of their candle forbodes some malig- nant exhalation. hills : Greek A. inclosed with very high that birds which its soil of the richest. and being idle and barren. suffer themselves to be taken up in the hand. You see nothing there but willows. so come thither to feed. II. CHAPTER Pamphagonia. like that of ancient letter delta. from . in There are hops. that.

by the common lies onsent of geographers. and In very promontory. whence the Lombards. but /ather nearer than they have placed the city Lucina. perhaps. In ancient this Land of . a very smoky region. they have obtained. that. is hand of it. from the universality of their food. where it remains to this day by the name of Cochin-China. the title of Pamphagones.CRAPULIA. all this in Saturn's time. on the right it). but apt to be smoky and offensive from whence a colony went. from the frequent vapours of the place. is rather of the hottest to produce those who are pro- good trencher-men. their country diet. its provinces and histories tell us. The and dusky complexions. in their own country language. lofty. this its we shall call the black one from partly its . which colour (for it is regard more the delicacy than the largeness and number of their dishes. Frugality. the Frugonian princes gave laws to their palace there \ and had and that was called Fagonia. took in country as one of part of the world. CHAPTER Friviandy. (that we may take the provinces were it not for a temperament peculiar to the place. and some counties times. But that yoke has been long ago shaken off . . III. whose buildings are to the smell . is of the same latitude as the most southerly parts of Castile. and. Frugonia. which other geographers call the Promontory of the Terra Australis. which. and perlycalled is inhabitants have curled hair about forty-two degrees distant from the equator. or Tight-bittia in their order). Itsutmost point. partly from vicinity to the Terra del Fogo. their manners are wholly changed. from the simplicity of their which consisted only in beech-mast. or the 27s in the west of England. have learned their improvements. as far as the Indies. The First Brovince of Pamphagonia.

cease and their : are several smaller towns. gives the signal of war to the : adjoining countries hill we by beacons lighted upon a discover the danger of an approaching enemy. as On the left some subservient petty hamlets. and pistaches j through which run the smoothest of streams. to this is the Golosinian district. that of Marmitta is Assadora. lofty as the for. as hand of man can erect it. both considerable. Marmitta. what is seldom seen elsewhere. though of less note. a narrow town. when the perpetual vapour ceases to roll forth in thick and dark clouds of smoke. amongst watered by the river Livenza which. -and as many which are constantly is employed inferior to in the Rucal Festivals. these. with noble turrets . citrons. covered with olives. rising high. and are Batillu. boils over twice in four-and-twenty hours. CHAPTER Next part IV. The Second Provincd of Pamphagonia. high This. the dates. CuUiera. a broad one. a vast pile. lies all under ground. Charbona is the largest village. that this lie under the dominion of supreme city.276 CRAP VLIA. which. called Favillia. sand hearths. pomegranates. and. oranges. Here is the beautiful city of Marzapane. as Tower. In the midst a high pyramid. as useful for the reception of strangers. as is said of a fountain in the Peak of Derby. little It is called the Cheminean those of Memphis. figs. is Here the famous temple of the great deity It is Omasius Gorgut. it is a token that the Hambrians are drawing nearer. of Pamphagonia. do the same by letting their smoke fires go out for. so on the contrary. most pleasant almonds. than whom There there can be no enemy more terrible to this nation. After these lies Tenaille. or Gorbelly. Upon its barren soil arises another. called the Oglium. and contains a thoualtars.

which admits of no tradesmen but perfumers. their looking-glass with who use to change them for oils and pastils. that fall which Anathumiasis be essentially the same as that aerial honey which oaks. You shall find few people here. especially in the spring. for the whole track of land. Province of Pamphagonia. and have stinking breaths. where the chief is we meet streams with is Cibinium. who are grown up. not very upon the shell of beautiful. that this famous epicure. Near to this is the little city Seplasium. washed with the the forum. and rebound in falling. I take to at certain seasons. or acid of the river is In market-place. the of some letters by the footsteps now remaining) of Apicius. especially the Locanians. after having sought for larger shell-fish than the coast of Gallia . Over it hang the Zucker hills. the little globules are hardened by the intense cold of the middle region. . degree. we often find upon our and that it differs only in thickness for whereas that honey is sprinkled in drops. 277 but lying too open to the enemy. glittering with gold. like hail-stones : covered with aromatic comfits. which Assagion. but antique. white. and the bounty of the heavens. but sweet as that moisture which the ancients gathered out of the reeds which grew in Arabia and the Indies. out of whose bowels they draw something that is hard. we come into the plains of Lecania. notwith- standing what Seneca says. It is engraved a sea-crab and it might happen. is favourable to their art is . It is a town of great commerce with the people of Viraginia. but what have lost their teeth.CRAPULIA. and sparkling. that famous tomb (as I conjecture Roman. . into the very heart of Pamphagonia. CHAPTER Of the Third In the and so city fifty-fifth V. The agreeableness of the place.

and Mantica. could not abstain from so Artopolis boasted of its antiquity. that in ancient times there were two famous cities. The report goes. could supply him with. which they are large and populous is called Artocreopolis. which. and then going in vain to Africa to make But a farther inquiry.278 CRAPULIA. that increase in had many and long happens to places. and that it had flou- . the manners of the people. a boggy place near the confines of Ivronia. which : contests about the superiority for so as well as~ men. that the country towns are devoured are not so many in of which the mother number as and governess by the cities. Artopolis and Creatium. had it not befen for the saltworks which often approach too near it. VI. There in are but very few villages in this country. will show as much as if I were to descend to particulars. There is an offensive stinking town called Formagium. my education). whether you respect the uniformity of the building. had wonderfully delighted me. this coast. alias Butterboxia. as well as traveller some others. from whence a may conjecture. or their way of living. their rules for behaviour. CHAPTER Of the Metropolis of Pamphagonia. steer his course thither. and there die of a this I leave to the critics. not- withstanding they -are ungrateful a contention. The deHcious situation of Mortadella. their law and justice. power . the and Customs of the Inhabitants. for though I am more peculiarly obliged to one of them sisters. the pleasantest of places. might hear some rumour concerning surfeit. fertile the most fields Here I shall only mention of Lardana and Ossulia. insomuch as the it two most flourishing Universities which I bear the relation of a in the world (to both of son. I hasten to the metropolis of the whole region.

The other city is now so far neglected. that though the head be covered hairs. This ditch is called Gruessa. the lesser for the superstructure. nothing is allowed to the reverence of when encountered by a proud and upstart novelty. stories. the larger serving for the foundations. they have drunk heartily) as much as for the danger of getting all down again. nor is there of other room for a Seneca or Juvenal to complain of the multistairs tude of their and number of their . rished in the Saturnian age. as ing the most elegantly set forth by our noble poet Spenser in his verses on that subject j the latter usurp- name title of the other. wherein are a thousand several ponds for fish all sorts of water-fowl. as they often do. At last. whilst the smallest in the fill up what is wanting middle . which has been wisely imitated by the people of Augsburg. whose materials were furnished by the flesh-market . any more is than of Verulam. Their houses are covered with large blade-bones. . for they are made of bones. and the streets. Creatium got the . geese. by a wonderful nor built high is artifice. yet with grey antiquity. . 279 it when had as yet no rival. as was done at Rome .CRAPULIA. very neatly joined together. a council being called. pleasantness. for such is the iniquity of the times. partly from the trouble of getting (especially when. : now the double The city is than beautiful it is fortified with a large all j more extensive and deep ditch of upon which swim running water. The houses are not very beautiful. with the whites of eggs. preference by the universal votes of the assembly . being all cemented. Creatium set forth its own splendour. as well as the other has of Artocreopolis. There are two walls. and power. There are no free citizens admitted. cities so that there after the manner no need of an Augustus to restrain the buildings to the height of seventy feet. They have no up them regard for staircases for indeed none of the citizens care for them. which washes almost ducks. that the ruins or its footsteps of magnificence are scarce remaining. swans.

Husbandmen. as in other places. . from the meanest and most contemptible village. together with the bulk of their carcass. been promoted to a more famous town. so that I have seen some who. smiths. which they must come up to yearly if they will pretend to bear any As any one grows in dimensions. beard . bakers. and when they have a belly are promoted to be burgesses . At the sit four gates of the city. those that in their turns as go out. nor even in a coach. they have grown leaner than they are allowed to be by Their streets were paved with polished in- the statutes. which degree none were anciently admitted but cooks. he rises in honour. for their merits. but for their measure. who. These carefully examine all who come in and go out. and the gravest who are chosen here. ture. when by some disease (as it often happens). and at last office in the public. both because the or on horseback. of an unwieldy bulk. or . have. circular. curious. who are called Buscadores. and there might be danger in.28o CRAPULIA. victuallers. its being slippery. marble . that they might not be forced to hft their feet higher than ordinary by the inequality of the pavement. butchers. snoring in great easy elbow-chairs. but such whose employment has more immediately some relation to the table. or length of for their prudence. lest they should presume by chance to do it fasting. or by age. to the exchange. not riches. in the same posand flabbering till they are wheeled home whose form is again. which seemed strange amongst a people so workmanship was troublesome. for they never go on foot. their public feasts. with four wheels and continue sitting so fixed. have lost their honour. to senators. millers. because of their weight but they are moved about to them. But the true reason of it was. there many senators. and likewise that the chairs of the senators might the more easily be pushed forward . live in their colonies. obtained the senatorial dignity in this most celebrated city and yet.

which they can easily judge of by the extent of those that return . Every rno. nor regularity of walk. neither order. but not like those of is Adonis or Alcinoiis for nothing delightful to be expected in them. to see what they bring with them upon theii must neither depart with empty stomachs. be as easy as after if he were fasting. seasoned dainties incline them to cacies are served Their greatest . as I remember to Petronius Arbiter. .nth. that after dinner (for no person can give his vote before he has dinedj they may deliberate concerning the for they nor come back with empty hands. he is trusted to go out at another door but if . They are fineable who rise . The name of their common-hall is Pythanos- come. at which all the senators are obliged to be present. They have gardens of many .CRAPULIA. which the largest guests pass this it is wide enough for : man . and : the matter being proved. goats. have read in commonly we do. and his conveniences repose upon when the heat of their wine and his it. for the same reason as the famous Epicure of old wished that neck were as long as a They measure : the seasonable time for their departure after this method they have a door to their town-house. They eat and drink so crane's. to enter when he is fasting through this the and when any one would depart. as whole to table. deliit : up at the first course for they think foolish not to eat the best things with the greatest appetite nor do they cut their boars. and lambs into joints or quarters. acres extent. leisurely. if he stops in passage. which they unwillingly transgress. public affairs. Willfrid's Castle was a pleasant trial of Roman Catholic sanctity. the master of the ceretill monies makes him tarry magnitute : he comes to be of a statutable needle in Belvior which example. but convey them by the help of machines. according to the laws. nor grass-plots. before they have set six hours for then the edge of their stomach his is blunted. 281 their bellies. sheep. Every one knows and a couch to own seat. there are stated feasts. they are fined in a double supper come in.

or asthma. for they are provided for in the island of Sorbonia. nor will any one salute another whose chin does not come to the midst of his breast. The magistrates and persons of better figure have gowns made of the skins of such beasts as they have eaten at one meal. and carving over which. but yet understand such arts as they have oc- Their schools are public-houses. to cultivate their gardens. They go almost naked. and his paunch falls to his knees. and in shape resemble the Italians. and musk-melbns. : nor variety of flowers in the borders but you will find all planted with cabbages. which were carried hence to ficient to feast Italy. in the nature of vassals. instead of a napkin. was then . They casion are of a very slow apprehension. . with a large spoon. who have bulkiness. and to wipe them upon occasion . All the richer sort have several servants. whither they got the dropsy. Before their breasts they falls wear a smooth skin. drinking. is hard to for determine. garlick. and no way fit any science for. All wear a knife. or hospital. and there they are nourished at the public such as have lost their teeth by their or broken them by eating too greedily or incautiously. their liberty when they can arrive at such a If is any of the grandees of the country die of a he given. and are in quantity suf- an hundred Pythagoreans. hanging upon their right arm. The women are not unlike them. dainties. and be employed in inferior offices. having no regard to their garments. surfeit. luxury. where they are educated in the sciences of eating.282 CRAPULIA. to receive what out of their mouths. and have breasts like the Hottentots. are! There sent ing is a public college. who have As by their eat- and drinking expense. turnips. an exquisite Epicure. one Arcbisilenius. to be eaten up by be his servants and this they do are that nothing should lost that is so delicate. which whether it be more black or greasy. as being all made up of the most exquisite . . gout. The men thick and fat to a miracle.

cats. whether it is for the likeness of its manners. which they devour with mustard and sugar. Venison is that which . the elder have greater. are presently banished into the Fancetic Islands . the other a gallon : this porker: has a hen. that eats flesh. bones. Cups and dishes are instead of books. yet parsimony by nets appears in the midst of their profuseness ill : but then crusts. it is very placed. they radish. and generally overflow at the beginning of January. an odd sort of custom. that a goose. When make any one him eat is sick. Instead of a library. a third a lamb or a nor have they any liberty. whole is finished and if by a seven years' stuffing they are no proficients in fatness. Hither likewise cians who prescribe a course of diet to any person. provost. or else from its growing fat on the sudden with the worst of nutriment. there is a public repository of drinking-vessels. which. who. will and drink warm water . one has a quart. They look upon the swine as the most profitable and best of all animals . and meat They do he is not so paled much as keep any dogs. which ebb and flow according to their digestion. they most delight in but they never take it in hunting. The country abounds with rivers. derived from the Dutch. It may not seem credible. or aiiything to stink. and is do mischief to the neighbouring country. till the . according to purge and vomit him. Celsus. read 283 some fragments of Apicius. or recess. instead of grammar. nor are they suffered long to stay there idle are sent all physi- and without improvement. hawks.CRAPULIA. the other a pottle. but and gins. without recourse to ^sculapius. in which cups of all orders and sizes are disposed into certain classes. The younger scholars have less. for it is in crumbs. as being good for nothing but the table. and towards the end of February. . j If any person suffer im- but venison and rabbits are to have the haut-gout and then their cheese is kept till it is overrun with little This animals.

^ ^ ^ t< THE END. The Pamphagones have or the Fancetic Islands. ^ ^ Ccetera desunt. FRINTED BY DALLANTYNE. CHAPTER Of the VII. HANSON AND LONDON AND EDINBURGH CO. . perpetual wars with the Hambrians. Wars of the Pamphagonians.284 CRAPULIA. and the Frugonians.

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