ARTICLES

Where is the Polynesia? How large is the area it includes? How were the ancient Polynesians able to navigate the large distances between the islands?

The Polynesians

The people of Oceania were an extremely adventurous group. As a distinct population with common origins, The Polynesians were the most widely spread people on the earth before 1500 A.D. few other groups in history have traveled so much while taking so few material possessions with them. The Polynesians settle the islands of the vast triangle formed by the Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island, and New Zealand. With sides approximately 6,500 kilometers in length, this triangle covers almost twice the area of the United States. The Polynesians began their expansion through the South pacific around 2000 B.C., and by the time of Marco Polo’s visit to China, they had settled all of its major islands

ARTICLES
An article is an element, which precedes a noun. It has no lexical meaning; but is necessary because it contributes to imply the definite or non-definite status of the noun it determines.

KINDS OF ARTICLES
I. – Non-definite A/an A/an is pronounced [a] before consonant sounds and [an] before vowel sounds. The non-definite article “a/an” is used:  Before a singular count noun which is countable (i.e., of which there is more than one), when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing. Examples: A dog is an animal. There is a man asking for work.

With a noun complement. This includes names of professions. Examples: He is a doctor. He became a great man. She will be a dancer.

In certain expressions of quantity: a lot of, a couple, a great many of, a dozen, a great deal of. Examples: A dozen of apples. A lot of cars.

II – Definite Article: “the” The definite article “the” is pronounced /δœ / before vowel sounds and /δa/ before consonant sounds If we want to draw attention to the noun that follows, we pronounce the definite article as /δi/. The definite article is used:  Before nouns of which there is only one. Examples: The Earth The North Pole The Sea The Sun.

Before singular nouns used to represent a class or objects. Example: The monkey is lazy.

Before an adjective used to represent a class of persons. Example: together. The old and the young should be able to live

Before musical instruments. Example: I learned to play the violin.

EXERCISES I. - Try to imagine what the first voyage to Hawaii was like. Complete the following passage by using a, an, the or X (to indicate that no article is necessary).
For _______ centuries, the people of ________ Marquesas Islands had noticed that _________ birds flew north from the islands in _______ and returned in ________ spring. The islanders knew that _______ birds must be flying to ________ piece of land where they spent ________ the winter.

Finally, in about 500 A.D., _________ young chief decided to search for _________ land to the north. He recruited both _________ men and _________ for __________ journey. He also recruited _______ experienced navigator who knew how to follow _________ steady course even though the Polynesians didn’t have __________ compasses or ________ other equipment. For __________ centuries, __________ Polynesians navigators had been using _________ birds, _______ cloud formations, _________ stars, _________wave patterns, and _________ sun to guide them in their voyages. As the explorers made ________ preparations for this voyage northward, ________ food and _______ water were the major problems. They knew that they would be able to catch ________ fish along ________ way. But they would need _________ fresh water supply that would last throughout ________ trip. In addition, they prepared _________ dried bananas, _________ coconut, ________ fish, ________ large bag of taro root, and _______ cooked breadfruit for each canoe.

Finally, dozens of ______double canoes were packed and ready to begin this voyage. After at least _______ month on the open ocean, these explorers spotted _____land birds, ______signal to any navigator that _____island or other land mass was near. They had completed ______voyage of over fifteen hundred miles and had discovered the Hawaiian Islands.

II. – Read the conversations. Complete it with the appropriate article.

A: _________ car just pulled up. Are you expecting someone? B: No, I’m not. I wonder who it is.

A: Do you see the video store? I was sure it was on Main Street. B: I think it’s on ________ side street, but I’m not sure which one. A: There it is.

B: Good, you can park right across _______ street from the store.

A: Can we use _______ car? B: OK, but bring it back by 11:00 o’clock.

A: Let’s turn off _______ game system before we leave. B: We don’t have. We can just leave it on Pause.

A: Do you have _________ game system? B: Yes, I do. I just bought a Nintendo Cube.

A: Excuse me; do you have any new games? B: _________ newest games are in the front of the store.

A: We’d better go. We’ve been here for ________ hour. B: That was ________ fastest hour I’ve ever spent.

III. –Fill in the blanks with a, an, the, or X.
San Francisco is in ______West, in _____California. This lovely city is located on ______ Pacific Coast, on _____ beautiful bay. _____famous Golden Gate Bridge crosses this bay. Seven highways and two railroad bridges cross San Francisco Bay. ______San Francisco is also _____main seaport. Because of its location, there are some wonderful views from _____city. _____scenery is truly magnificent. In addition, _____city has some good climate. There is ______ little rain most of the year. San Francisco is _____city of many hills. Some of the world’s steepest streets go up these hills. In _____center of _____city are some tall office buildings. Other important landmarks include _____University of San Francisco and _____Palace of Fine Arts.

IV. - Circle the correct articles to complete this paragraph.

Board games are popular all over (a / the) world. Mah Jong is (an / the) example of (a / an) very old one. I had (a / an) uncle who had (an / the) old set from Singapore. He kept (a / the) set in (the / a) beautiful box in (a / the) living room. He used to open (the / a) box and tell me about (the / a) pieces. They were made of bamboo, and each one had (a / the) Chinese character on it. To me, they were (the / a) most fascinating things in (a / the) world.

THE VERB “BE”
USEFUL WORDS
professor _______________ instructor _______________ _______________ student _________________ classmate _______________ _________________ blackboard ______________seats ___________________ notebook _____________ department _____________ assignment ______________ ______________ test ___________________ ______________ tutor ___________________ advisor __________________ __________________ ink quiz ____________________ notes ________________ schedule economics ______________ midterm test _____________ textbook class teacher

Read the following conversation. Then answer true or false to the statements about the conversation.

CARLOS: HIROSHI: CARLOS: HIROSHI: CARLOS: classes? HIROSHI: CARLOS: HIROSHI: CARLOS: HIROSHI: CARLOS:

Hi! I’m Carlos Torres. I’m glad to meet you, Carlos. My name is Hiroshi Watanabe. Nice to meet you, Hiroshi! Are you a visa student? Yes, I am. I’m from Japan. How about you? I’m from Mexico, but I’m a permanent resident. How are your Great! How about your classes? They’re not too bad. The economics department is pretty good. Yes. I am. I’m a sophomore. And you? I’m in my junior year. Is economics your major? Yes, it is. I’m interested in business. I am too. Oh, here’s the professor. Let’s talk later.

Are you an undergraduate?

1. The last names of the people in the dialogue are Carlos and Hiroshi. _________ 2. The instructor isn’t in the class at the beginning of the conversation. _________ 3. Carlos and Hiroshi are citizens of the United States. _________ 4. They’re graduate students. _________ 5. Carlos is Japanese and Hiroshi is Mexican. _________

EXERCISES 1. - Circle the correct words or word phrase.
DAVE: MARY: DAVE: MARY: Hi. I (am / is) Dave. Hello. We (is / are) Mary and Helen Johnson. Oh, you (are / is) twins! No we (aren’t / isn’t) twins. But we (am / are) sisters.

DAVE: ELLEN: DAVE: DAVE: MARY: HELEN: CARLOS:

But you (is / are) exactly alike! No, I (am / is) nineteen years old, but Mary Oh. Well, I (am / are) glad to meet you! Mary and Helen, this (is / He’s) Carlos. Hi, Carlos. Hello, Carlos. Hello. (to Dave) They (am / are) twins!

(isn’t / aren’t) even eighteen yet.

2. - Complete the sentences with affirmative or negative forms of the verb be. Use contractions when possible.
TONY: MING: TONY: MING: TONY: MING: Ming. TONY: MING: TONY: MING: TONY: Well, OK . . . um . . . ________ this your first day here? Yes, it _______. ________you from China? No, I ________. I ______ from Vietnam. Wow! Look at that No, she __________ a student. She __________ the professor! Hi. ________ you a new student? Yes, I _______. My name ______ Liu Ming Ren. I ________ sorry. Please say that again. Is your name Lou or Ron? (speaks slowly) It ______ Liu Ming Ren. Oh. Um . . . _______ Lou your first name? No, it _________. My first name ______ Ming Ren. Just call me

beautiful woman over here! ________ she a student in this class?

3. - Arrange the words into sentences or questions.
1. / my girlfriend / Helen / not / is / ____________________________________________________ 2. / ? / from / Peter / Mexico / Is / ____________________________________________________ 3. / now / in the classroom / are / not / we / ____________________________________________________

4. / Cathy / from / is / Where / ? / ____________________________________________________ 5. / the dogs / black / Are / ? / ____________________________________________________

4. - Insert Am – Is – Are, in the sentences.
She _________ happy about her birthday. I ________ Henry and, He _______ William. My hair _______ black. _______ you Arnold? No, I ________ not. I ________ John. She ________ a good friend, but Peter and Clark _______ not.

    

5. - Answer the following questions.
• • • • •
Where are you from? ________________________________________________ What is your age? ________________________________________________ Are you from the U.S.A? ________________________________________________ When is your birthday? ________________________________________________ Is your English teacher funny? ________________________________________________

6. - Change these sentences into negative and Interrogative.
• She is a wonderful woman. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

They are in my house now. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

You are an old man. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

I am the new student. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

REVIEW EXERCISES I. - Complete the conversation with statements and yes/no questions with be. Use words in parentheses. Complete the short answers.
TONY: . Ming, this (this / Hiroshi) Hiroshi,Ming. __________________________________________________. (Ming / a new student in our history class) HIROSHI: ______________________________________________________________. (I / glad to meet you) is Hiroshi

MING: Happy to meet you, too, Hiroshi.____________________________________? (you / from / Japan) HIROSHI: Yes, ___________________________________________________________? (your family / here) MING: HIROSHI: MING: No, ___________________________________________________________. (I / alone) _______________________________________________________________? (your classes / good) Yes, ___________________________________________________________. (they / fantastic)

________________________________________________________________.

(Our history teacher / beautiful) HIROSHI: TONY: HIROSHI: Ms. Stein? Yeah, I think __________________________________________________. (I / in love) Forget it, Tony. _______________________________________________. (She / married)

II. – Complete the conversation with the verb be in present. You can use contractions.
ANDRE: One. ELLA: ANDRE: Hi, Andre. I ___________ Ella Dodge. It ________ nice to meet you, Ella. Where ____________ you from? Welcome to the show, People and Places. My name _________ I __________ your host today. Meet Player

Andre Perout, and

ELLA:I ____________ from the United States, Andre. But my family _________not. ANDRE: ANDRE: KIM: ANDRE: KIM: Where ____________ they from? How interesting! And Kim Lui ___________not you from the Yes, I _________, Andre. And your family? Where ____________ they from? Japan. ELLA:Oh, they _________ from Peru. United States?

III. - Look at the picture. Read the answers. Write the questions.

1. Is she a bus driver? Yes, she is. Yes, they are. 2. ________________ No, they’re not. isn’t. 3. ________________ No, he’s not. is.

4. _______________ 5. _______________ No, she 6. _______________ Yes, he

IV. - Complete the conversation with the words from the box.

ANTONIO: HI! My name is Antonio What’s your _______________? OLGA: OLGA: OLGA: _________________ name is Olga? Nice to meet ___________ too, Antonio. I’m _________ New York. Where ________ you from? ANTONIO: ____________ from Brazil. ANTONIO: Nice to __________ you, Olga. ANTONIO: ___________ are you from?

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