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Background (Case Study embodied) On 18 March. IMO’s vision is to reduce to the possible minimum all adverse environmental impacts from ships. legislators and public generally to the growing and vital problem of marine pollution. assumed responsibility for pollution issues and has adopted a wide range of policies to prevent and control marine 2 . However.SOLAS convention. The oil leaked from the ship (31. Accidents of oil tankers starting to occur from 1967 changed the inactive attitude of international governors and focused they attention to the urgent need for relevant policies. The disaster led to many changes in international regulations.Introduction Importance of international maritime policy has been increasing in the following decades and in the century we are witnessing it became vitally alerted. the incident was followed by other cases such as Amico Cadiz off Brittany I 1978. carrying 120. These and many other instances have over the past three decades alerted policy-makers. the Titanic disaster of 1912 gave rise to the first international safety of life at sea .000. IMO’s 169 Members are responsible for implementing and enforcing the regulations. (UN agency) develops and adopts global regulations on safety. and blighting the region for many years thereafter. The Organization. then. back to that times world had witnessed disastrous results: some 50 miles of French and 120 miles of Cornish coast were contaminated. International Maritime Organization. Exxon Valdez in Alaska in 1989 and Sea Empires off south-west Wales in 1966. killing most of the marine life it touched along the whole of the south coast of Britain and the Normandy shores of France. 1967 the “Torrey Canyon” (first of the big supertankers.000 sea birds were killed. all of which ran around spilling thousands of tons of oil into the sea. The “Torrey Canyon” was the first major oil spill.000 gallons) and spread along the sea between England and France. The first maritime treaties date back to the 19th century. soon after it began functioning in 1959. However before 1960 there was little concern with regards of pollution of the sea.000 tons of oil) struck Pollard's Rock in the Seven Stones reef between the Sicily Isles and Land's End. there also emerged need for specialized agency which would specifically deal with such matters. Policy Regulatory Organizations As the need for establishing maritime policy as distinguished branch of regulatory law has emerged. along with huge numbers of marine organisms. England. as emerged challenges and incidents have proven that existing policies are either inefficient or they need more effective implementation. security and the prevention and control of marine pollution. Around 15.
Current State The latest incidents (which tended to increase in number over the past 50 years). International Tribunal for The Law of The Sea. Enumerated conventions above are probably most important ones of numerous existing treaties regulating marine pollution and related policies. was one of the first global conventions to protect the marine environment from human activities and has been in force since 1975. In 1996. notably with European Maritime Safety 3 . IMO. Spain and even France. IMO adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. 2002. Relevant Conventions There are several most important conventions relating to and regulating marine pollution policies. leaving the topic open for discussion. the "London Protocol" modernized and replaced the Convention (entered into forceMarch2006. alerted the need to improve existing policies regarding marine pollution. polluting at first the Galician coastline. Its objective is to promote the effective control of all sources of marine pollution and to take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes. MARPOL has greatly contributed to a significant decrease in pollution from international shipping and applies to99% otherworld’s merchant tonnage. Currently. It broke apart and sank 270 km off the Spanish coast.pollution. and consequently shores of Austria. Case Study However. the prestige owned by a Liberian company and carrying 77 00 tones of heavy fuel oil. On November 13. 37 Parties). Along with international and regional organizations such as European Maritime Safety Agency. Thousands of tones of heavy fuel oil spilled into the sea. criticism and development. 86 States are Parties to this Convention. From 51 treaties that IMO has introduced. incident of Prestige occurring in 2002 has once more alerted the issue of maritime pollution and existing relevant policies. which has been amended several times. The results of oil spoil were disastrous. The MARPOL Convention addresses different types of marine pollution. sprang a leak off the coast of Galicia. In 1973. Another important treaty series is so called “London Convention”. governments strive to adopt their legislations in order to ensure the least extent of marine pollution. IMO in cooperation with different international and regional organizations. 21 are directly related to environment. Cantabria. Maritime and Coastguard Agency and others. now known universally as MARPOL.(Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972).
However. To illustrate the case more clearly. there are policies which are prioritized and agreed upon by all states no matter the region they are located in.html 4 . as well as means of their effective accomplishment. along with partner organizations ensures to establish common ground for states to identify timely emerging or possible challenges. cooperation with oil industry companies has been prioritized. Once again. To ensure that existing policies meet newly emerged challenges or needs. such policies are embodied in international or regional conventions. opportunities and establish relevant policies.lboro. Policies related to marine environment protection are regulated in accordance with conventions.org/ International Maritime Organization http://www. priorities and policies. IMO. has outlined main challenges and future prospects for developing maritime pollution policies. Reference List http://www. bilateral or multilateral treaties and international agreements.uk/departments/hu/ergsinhu/aboutergs/torrey. as far as there exist different needs and challenges regionally. conventions are amended.imo.ac. Highlights of current policies regarding combating marine pollution include: Strengthening port State control Improving the enforcement of EU maritime safety rules Establishing of an information system to improve the monitoring of traffic Improve compensation for victims of oil spoils Establishing “black list” of ships which would have been banned (single-hull tankers most importantly) Assessing and auditing classification societies *Notably. EU region has its priorities which might be in some respect different from needs and priorities of US marine region. However it’s difficult to identify internationally agreed marine environment protection policy. Currently we witness important shift of challenges. Final Judgment General regulations concerning marine environment protection are embodied in central conventions (such as MARPOL.Agency. although priorities tend to shift from time to time. London Convention etc).
UK http://www. Terranova interpretación y Gestión Ambiental S.org. 1968. (New York: David Mackay Co. Churchill and A. Petrow.interspill. R.L.uk/schools/gmi/studying_at_gmi/ma_maritime_policy Greenwich Maritime Institute The Law of the Sea (third edition).ac. http://www. V.) http://www.com/PDFs/UK/2006/wildlife_response_doc.pdf Expert Antonio Sandoval Rey.intermaripolicy. Juris Publishing 5 .gre.php International Maritime Policy.R. Inc. Lowe.uk/cms/index. R. In the wake of the Torrey Canyon.