SECOND-LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS Principles & Procedures Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.

San Diego State University
Below is a description of the basic principles and procedures of the most recognized methods for teaching a second or foreign language. For a survey of the history of second or foreign language teaching click here. Click here for L2 teaching methods described below: Grammar-Translation Approach Direct Approach Reading Approach Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning The Silent Way Communicative Approach--Functional-Notional Total Physical Response

The Grammar-Translation Approach
This approach was historically used in teaching Greek and Latin. The approach was generalized to teaching modern languages. Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists. Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together; instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises in translating

disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. For a review of elements of grammar teaching click here.

The Direct Approach
This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammartranslation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction. Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures. The mother tongue is NEVER, NEVER used. There is no translation. The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in the target language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative. Questions are answered in the target language. Grammar is taught inductively--rules are generalized from the practice and experience with the target language. Verbs are used first and systematically conjugated only much later after some oral mastery of the target language. Advanced students read literature for comprehension and pleasure. Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically. The culture associated with the target language is also taught inductively. Culture is considered an important aspect of learning the language.

The Reading Approach
This approach is selected for practical and academic reasons. For specific uses of the language in graduate or scientific studies. The approach is for people who do not travel abroad for whom reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language. The priority in studying the target language is first, reading ability and second, current and/or historical knowledge of the country where the target language is spoken. Only the grammar necessary for reading comprehension and fluency is taught. Minimal attention is paid to pronunciation or gaining conversational skills in the target language. From the beginning, a great amount of reading is done in L2, both in

and out of class. The vocabulary of the early reading passages and texts is strictly controlled for difficulty. Vocabulary is expanded as quickly as possible, since the acquisition of vocabulary is considered more important that grammatical skill. Translation reappears in this approach as a respectable classroom procedure related to comprehension of the written text.

The Audiolingual Method
This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle that language learning is habit formation, the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and overlearning. Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills. Little or no grammatical explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively. Skills are sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in order. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. Teaching points are determined by contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. There is abundant use of language laboratories, tapes and visual aids. There is an extended pre-reading period at the beginning of the course. Great importance is given to precise native-like pronunciation. Use of the mother tongue by the teacher is permitted, but discouraged among and by the students. Successful responses are reinforced; great care is taken to prevent learner errors. There is a tendency to focus on manipulation of the target language and to disregard content and meaning. Hints for Using Audio-lingual Drills in L2 Teaching 1. The teacher must be careful to insure that all of the utterances which students will make are actually within the practiced pattern. For example, the use of the AUX verb have should not suddenly switch to have as a main verb. 2. Drills should be conducted as rapidly as possibly so as to insure automaticity and to establish a system.

Use normal English stress. 4. Ignore all but gross errors of pronunciation when drilling for grammar practice. 11. Intersperse short periods of drill (about 10 minutes) with very brief alternative activities to avoid fatigue and boredom.3. to cue response. Explain (if a simple grammatical explanation is needed) d. teach their meanings. Drill 9. 5. Drill material should always be meaningful. You are a choir director. Introduce the drill in this way: a. 7. If the content words are not known. intonation. 10. Use of shortcuts to keep the pace o drills at a maximum. 8. Use the "backward buildup" technique for long and/or difficult patterns. notes. Use hand motions. --tomorrow --in the cafeteria tomorrow --will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow --Those boys will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow. Exemplify (by speaking model sentences) c. 6. Arrange to present drills in the order of increasing complexity of student response. and juncture patterns conscientiously. for example) b. etc. signal cards. move about the room standing next to as many different students as possible to spot check their production. Don’t stand in one place. The question is: How much internal organization or decision making must the student do in order to make a response in . Focus (by writing on the board. Thus you will know who to give more practice to during individual drilling.

Community Language Learning Curran. The counselor then reflects these ideas back to the client in the foreign language in a warm. accepting tone. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages. Consequently. The native instructors of the language are not considered teachers but. 2. The language-counseling relationship begins with the client's linguistic confusion and conflict. then free response last. Apple River. Then slowly the teacher-counselor strives to enable him to arrive at his own increasingly independent language adequacy. he expresses only to the counselor and in English what he wishes to say to the group. the learner is not thought of as a student but as a client. Illinois: Apple River Press. understanding. rather are trained in counseling skills adapted to their roles as language counselors. single-slot substitution next. This methodology is not based on the usual methods by which languages are taught. The process involves five stages of adaptation: STAGE 1 The client is completely dependent on the language counselor.this drill. thus becoming an "other-language self" for the client. 1976. in simple language in phrases of five or six words. Each group member overhears this English exchange but no other members of the group are involved in the interaction. . The aim of the language counselor's skill is first to communicate an empathy for the client's threatened inadequate state and to aid him linguistically. Thus: imitation first. 1. and accepting relationship. Rather the approach is patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign languages. First. This process is furthered by the language counselor's ability to establish a warm. Charles A.

This is the client's maximum security stage. STAGE 2 1. and 3. 2. and ideas. or where aid in complex expression is needed. and proportionate insight into the relationship of phrases. He has the counselor's aid if he mispronounces or hesitates on a word or phrase. The counselor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add idioms and more elegant constructions. This presumes that the group has now acquired the ability to understand his simple phrases. The client is sufficiently secure to take correction. STAGE 5 1. Translation is given only when a group member desires it. . Same as above. STAGE 4 1. 2. 3. The client is now speaking freely and complexly in the foreign language. This presumes the client's greater confidence. grammar. 3. 2. The counselor directly intervenes in grammatical error. The counselor aids only as the client hesitates or turns for help.3. STAGE 3 1. The client turns and begins to speak the foreign language directly to the group. These small independent steps are signs of positive confidence and hope. At this stage the client can become counselor to the group in stages 1. independence. mispronunciation. Same as 3 above. 2. Same as stage 4. 2. The client turns to the group and presents his ideas in the foreign language. Presumes group's understanding. The client speaks directly to the group in the foreign language.

The Silent Way Caleb Gattegno. thus bring in the arsenal of the usual criteria of experience already developed and automatic in one's use of the mother tongue. timbre and intensity that will constantly reduce the impact of one voice and hence reduce imitation and encourage personal production of one's own brand of the sounds. as required. New York City: Educational Solutions. To let the teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they are saying it. Procedures This method begins by using a set of colored rods and verbal commands in order to achieve the following: To avoid the use of the vernacular. a pointer for use with the charts in Visual Dictation A color coded phonic chart(s) Tapes or discs. drawing their attention to the differences in pronunciation and the flow of words. and a set of . Materials The complete set of materials utilized as the language learning progresses include: A set of colored wooden rods A set of wall charts containing words of a "functional" vocabulary and some additional ones. 1972. Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. To generate a serious game-like situation in which the rules are implicitly agreed upon by giving meaning to the gestures of the teacher and his mime. To permit almost from the start a switch from the lone voice of the teacher using the foreign language to a number of voices using it. To provide a duration of spontaneous speech upon which the teacher and the students can work to obtain a similarity of melody to the one heard. To provide the support of perception and action to the intellectual guess of what the noises mean. thus providing melodic integrative schemata from the start. To create simple linguistic situations that remain under the complete control of the teacher To pass on to the learners the responsibility for the utterances of the descriptions of the objects shown or the actions performed. This introduces components of pitch. films Drawings and pictures.

A situation may affect variations of language such as the use of dialects. The place where the conversation occurs C. pronouns. The method stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus. The time the speech act is taking place D. Situation includes the following elements: A. worksheets Functional-notional Approach Finocchiaro. adjectives or adverbs. three texts. Code-switching is a change or switch in code during the speech act. the situation and the topic. the elements in the situation. The persons taking part in the speech act B. This method of language teaching is categorized along with others under the rubric of a communicative approach. New York. prepositions. The Functional-Notional Approach. a Book of Stories. and c. Notions are meaning elements that may be expressed through nouns. which many theorists believe is purposeful behavior to convey .accompanying worksheets Transparencies. & Brumfit. verbs. C. conjunctions. the topic being discussed. (1983). the functions b. NY: Oxford University Press. The use of particular notions depends on three major factors: a. The emphasis is on breaking down the global concept of language into units of analysis in terms of communicative situations in which they are used. the formality or informality of the language and the mode of expression. M. The topic or activity that is being discussed Exponents are the language utterances or statements that stem from the function. Code is the shared language of a community of speakers.

anger. moral. fear. desires. p. satisfaction. or warmth Interpersonal = Enabling us to establish and maintain desirable social and working relationships: Enabling us to establish and maintain desirable social and working relationships: greetings and leave takings • introducing people to others • identifying oneself to others • expressing joy at another’s success • expressing concern for other people’s welfare • extending and accepting invitations • refusing invitations politely or making alternative arrangements • making appointments for meetings • breaking appointments politely and arranging another mutually convenient time • apologizing • excusing oneself and accepting excuses for not meeting commitments • indicating agreement or disagreement • interrupting another speaker politely • changing an embarrassing subject • receiving visitors and paying visits to others • offering food or drinks and accepting or declining politely • sharing wishes. sleepiness. cold. intellectual and social concerns. dislikes. distress. referential. disappointment. and the everyday feelings of hunger. sorrow. anxiety. expressing one’s thoughts or feelings: love. directive. language prestige or other elements of interpersonal relations between the speakers. pain. annoyance at missed opportunities. interpersonal. fatigue. anguish. 65-66) has placed the functional categories under five headings as noted below: personal. likes. hopes. Functional Categories of Language Mary Finocchiaro (1983. frustration. problems • making promises and committing oneself to some action • complimenting someone • making excuses • . pleasure. happiness. thirst. surprise. Personal = Clarifying or arranging one’s ideas. and imaginative. joy.bonding.

actions. probabilities. events. talking about language (what is termed the metalinguistic function: = talking or reporting about things. issuing a command • giving and responding to instructions • warning someone • discouraging someone from pursuing a course of action • establishing guidelines and deadlines for the completion of actions • asking for directions or instructions • Referential = talking or reporting about things. summarizing. or capabilities of doing something • requesting or reporting facts about events or actions • evaluating the results of an action or event • . the community • asking for a description of someone or something • defining something or a language item or asking for a definition • paraphrasing. accepting or refusing direction: making suggestions in which the speaker is included • making requests. making suggestions • refusing to accept a suggestion or a request but offering an alternative • persuading someone to change his point of view • requesting and granting permission • asking for help and responding to a plea for help • forbidding someone to do something.• expressing and acknowledging gratitude Directive = Attempting to influence the actions of others. the school the home. talking about language (what is termed the metalinguistic function: identifying items or people in the classroom. or people in the environment in the past or in the future. events. actions. or people in the environment in the past or in the future. or translating (L1 to L2 or vice versa) • explaining or asking for explanations of how something works • comparing or contrasting things • discussing possibilities.

The student is not forced to speak. TECHNIQUE Step I The teacher says the commands as he himself performs the action. As a result. a piece of music. . Asher. a play. a painting. but is allowed an individual readiness period and allowed to spontaneously begin to speak when the student feels comfortable and confident in understanding and producing the utterances. this success leads to a high degree of motivation. California: AccuPrint.Imaginative = Discussions involving elements of creativity and artistic expression discussing a poem. stories or plays • recombining familiar dialogs or passages creatively • suggesting original beginnings or endings to dialogs or stories • solving problems or mysteries • Total Physical Response James J. The basic tenets are: Understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of speaking. Step 2 The teacher says the command as both the teacher and the students then perform the action. Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or communicate information. etc. Learning Another Language Through Actions. • expanding ideas suggested by other or by a piece of literature or reading material • creating rhymes. This combination of skills allows the student to assimilate information and skills at a rapid rate. a TV program. James J. Asher defines the Total Physical Response (TPR) method as one that combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system. San Jose. a story. poetry. 1979. a film.

Biliteracy teachers know how to integrate the Thematic Planning for ELLs Thematic Planning Guidelines. policy and demographic factors Doesn't Work) for that pose challenges to literacy. Education Biliteracy teachers understand the theoretical Curriculum principles of bilingual education and secondFramework for language acquisition to implement effective L2 Biliteracy program models. biliteracy and ELL second-language acquisition. Knowledge Base and Teaching Strategies of Effective Biliteracy Teachers Purpose and Objectives for Biliteracy Instruction Curriculum Design for Primary-language (l1) and Second-language (L2) Literacy Development MoraModules Online Resources Curriculum Development Theoretical Foundations of Bilingual/L2 Education Biliteracy teachers are familiar with the curriculum for Language Arts/Reading (LAR) and how dual language instruction is related to LAR standards.Step 3 The teacher says the command but only students perform the action Step 4 The teacher tells one student at a time to do commands Step 5 The roles of teacher and student are reversed. Students give commands to teacher and to other students. as well as content standards at a Models of Bilingual particular grade level. Models & Resources A Model 4X4 . Thematic Unit Planning for ELD Biliteracy teachers plan instruction around themes to maximize opportunities for students to acquire language and concepts. Development Biliteracy teachers are knowledgeable about the What Works (and socio-cultural. Step 6 The teacher and student allow for command expansion or produces new sentences.

Thematic Unit 4X4 Activities by Levels & Skills Outline of the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners Characteristics of Effective Secondlanguage Learning Classrooms Organizing the Biliteracy teachers organize literacy instruction B/CLAD Classroom based on a logical progression from structured teacher-guided activities toward increasing levels Literacy Framework: of independent reading and writing activities. Classroom Organization and Management for Effective English Language and Literacy Development Biliteracy teachers coordinate the complex elements of ELD instruction to organize a classroom through multiple teaching strategies and grouping patterns. Theoretical Basis for the Natural Approach Lesson Planning for ELLs A Model 5-Step Lesson Plan for ELD Principles & Procedures of L2 Teaching Methods L2 Methods Guided Story Construction Guided Writing in the L2 Classroom . literacy development and contentarea knowledge. cognitive and social/affective strategies and processes that learners employ to enhance their linguistic and content-area knowledge. Instructional Procedures Lesson Planning for Dual Language Instruction Biliteracy teachers select appropriate methods of instruction to enhance second-language acquisition. Biliteracy teachers base their instruction on a thorough understanding of learning theory. Biliteracy teachers provide ample guided and shared reading and writing activities for students to formulate their thoughts and ideas into stories and narratives. Biliteracy teachers structure step-by-step lessons to include presentations of concepts and vocabulary and ample opportunities for guided and independent practice. reading and writing. including metacognitive. speaking.language arts: Listening. Biliteracy teachers plan for high levels of student involvement focused on both process and product of learning.

Definitions of Literacy A Smooth Road to Biliteracy Spanish Reading Cross-linguistic Transfer in Biliteracy: Research and Instructional Practices Biliteracy teachers are knowledgeable about Spanish reading methods and Spanish phonetics Metalinguistic and orthography to maximize students' abilities Transfer in to read in their primary language. Components of Metalinguistic Knowledge Word Study in Biliteracy Classrooms Rules for Written Accents in Spanish Metalinguistic Knowledge Development Continuum K-3 Spanish Word Study & Grammar Teaching Points Evaluation and Selection of Appropriate Instructional Materials and Activities Model of Natural Approach Lesson Activities for Biliteracy teachers select activities to meet the ELD goals and objectives for each student based ELD/SDAIE Teaching on formal and informal assessments of L2 Teaching Vocabulary learners' levels of linguistic and cognitive . teachers are familiar with how Spanish language arts and reading and ELD are interrelated and coordinated.Maximizing Cross-linguistic Transfer in Biliteracy and ELD Instruction In a bilingual classroom. Biliteracy teachers understand how metalinguistic awareness. Biliteracy teachers are familiar with principles of cross-linguistic transfer and points of interaction between Spanish and English. Spanish/English Biliteracy Biliteracy teachers know how to create conditions for supporting and promoting transfer Research on of learning in biliteracy development and the Metalinguistic components of language and literacy skills that Transfer are transferable. Biliteracy teachers are able to structure and implement effective word study and grammar/syntax study activities to maximize students' implicit knowledge of how their L1 works (form and function) and how this compares and contrasts with their L2. knowledge and skills develops across grade levels and students' levels of L2 proficiency.

Biliteracy teachers analyze and select literacy texts for instruction and independent reading based on learners' ability to handle the challenges of the text. & Concepts Activities for Vocabulary Development Sentence Transformation Activities L2 Reading L2 Writing A Phonics Sequence for L2 Readers Text Analysis for L2 Readers Making the Language-concept Connection Content-area Reading for L2 Learners Using Study Guides to Enhance Contentarea Reading Points of challenge and instructional interventions in L2 reading Biliteracy teachers understand the dynamics and complexities of reading in a second language. Biliteracy teachers design structured learning activities to enhance content-area reading by guiding students in their abilities to analyze and reflect on content area text structures and patterns of exposition. Biliteracy teachers plan carefully for students' concept development and critical thinking skills using a variety of interactive and independent teaching formats.development. Evaluation and Assessment Language Assessment Biliteracy teachers conduct on-going assessment L2 Writing Rubrics to monitor English language and literacy development ELL Program Implementation Biliteracy teachers collaborate with administrators to ensure that the program for L2 Checklist is congruent with sound pedagogical principles Accountability FOR . Content-area Teaching Biliteracy teachers relate content-area knowledge and L2 language and literacy development. Biliteracy teachers plan to integrate content and concept development into primary language and ELD instruction and learning activities.

Bilingual Readers Biliteracy teachers are informed about controversial issues surrounding their profession and education reform in order to be proactive participants in the formulation of pedagogically sound and coherent laws and policies regarding Bibliography on Biliteracy and L2 Reading Bibliography on . economic and political and demographic changes and dynamics that effect Advocacy for their programs and their classroom instruction. Biliteracy teachers articulate a philosophy of bilingual and second-language education based on a knowledge base that is congruent with their values and beliefs and connected to their personal and professional experiences. Bilingual Education broader social. and TO Language Minority Students The Truth About the CELDT Multicultural Education Biliteracy teachers continually refine their knowledge of linguistic and cultural factors that promote L2 acquisition and the overall development and well-being of diverse learners Biliteracy teachers use multicultural literature to enhance and refine L2 learners' enjoyment and appreciation of their own and each other's diversity. Language Minority Students Knowledge Base and Teaching Philosophy Biliteracy teachers continually grow professionally by reflecting on their practices and engaging with current research in L2 language and literacy development and teaching. Formulating a Philosophy of B/CLAD Teaching The Why's and How's of CLAD Teaching CLAD Teaching is Good Teaching Plus Teachers' Beliefs About Biliteracy Instruction Biliteracy teachers access research and scholarly writing about policies and practices that A Heuristic Analysis of the Performance of increase their effectiveness with language minority students and second language learners.and well-supported through appropriate material and personnel resources for effective implementation. Cultural Diversity in B/CLAD Classrooms Understanding Cultural Values Using Multicultural Literature to Teach Reading Processes Philosophical Assumptions of Biliteracy teachers understand the implications of English-only vs.

In T. Click here for a definition of terms and an overview of different programs of instruction for second-language learners. The 4X4 Thematic Unit is based on the K-12 Content Standards. (2006).). These include English immersion programs in elementary schools.A. where level 4 proficiency learning and teaching are addressed through instruction in the ELLs' first language. The 4X4 planning model provides a framework that accommodates the needs and abilities of students with various levels of language proficiency. L. Young & N. Newark. This unit can be included in your professional presentation portfolio to demonstrate your skills as a credentialed teacher with expertise in adapting language arts and content for limited English proficient students . usually Spanish. J. The 4X4 Thematic Unit is applicable in any of the different programs that serve ELL. and English as a second language (ESL) or English Language Development courses.the effective schooling for language minority students. Hadaway (Eds. The 4X4 Thematic Unit Purpose of the Assignment The purpose of the 4X4 thematic planning assignment is to guide preservice and inservice teachers of English Language Learners (ELL) through the steps and procedures for designing and teaching an integrated thematic unit using differentiated instruction. sheltered content classes and mainstream content classes in secondary schools. DE: International Reading Association. Supporting the Literacy Development of English Learners: Increasing Success in All Classrooms. The 4X4 model is also applicable for teaching in bilingual classrooms. The model provides a systematic way of planning for English Language Development (ELD) or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) for English language learners. Differentiating instruction for English Learners: The Four-by-Four Model.K. see this chapter: Mora. pp. 24-40. Effective Schooling Practices for Language Minority Students A Road Map to the Bilingual Education Debate For a complete description of the Four by Four Lesson Planning Model.

Click here . this unit design model will familiarize you more in depth with the curriculum used in your school and classroom setting and strategies for adapting language arts and content-area performance standards for different levels of learners within your classroom. Click here for the scoring rubric for the 4X4 Thematic Unit. reading and writing. By completing this thematic unit you will learn to integrate content-area standards with English Language Development (ELD) standards and English language arts instruction through effective planning. If you are currently in a teaching assignment. The teacher will include activities to focus on each one of the four skills of language: listening. You may select a textbook or reader from this section to develop your unit. bilingual or mainstream classroom. These guidelines for lesson planning are provided to prepare you for submitting Embedded Signature Assignment tasks in PLC 915A and PLC 915B Multiple Subjects and Single Subject Credential Program courses. There is a section of public school textbooks on the fourth floor of the SDSU Love Library. S/he will plan learning activities and use instructional strategies adjusted for each of four levels of language proficiency. This form of planning allows the teacher candidate to address the developmental needs of a diverse group of students within a structured English immersion. Click here for a link to the Teacher Performance Expectations (TPE#7) that describe the teacher competencies needed for effective instruction of ELL. speaking. This focus will shift for each level. Teacher credential candidates completing the 4X4 to earn the Multiple Subjects or Single Subject credential will use a content-area textbook currently in use in California schools or a children’s literature book as the basis for the theme.in interviews for teaching positions. TO TOP OF PAGE Conceptualizing the Structure of the 4X4 Thematic Unit This table provides a visual representation of the concept of the 4X4 Thematic Unit. classroom organization and instruction for sheltered immersion classrooms. Click here for a complete list of teaching strategies and activities for each level of language proficiency. Click on the cells of the 4X4 grid below for teaching strategies and activities for each level and skill.

Section 3: Samples of handouts.Rationale: A 3-5 page narrative description of the unit that explains the goals and objectives under the Content Standards that you address in your unit. including URLs for Internet sources and materials. Overview of the 4X4 Unit Your completed 4X4 thematic unit will contain the following elements: Section 1. . speaking. 3 and SDAIE) and the four skills (listening. The description also provides a narrative description of the important points you considered in planning. visuals. 2. Section 2: Daily lesson plans for the four levels (1. reading and writing) using the Five Step Lesson Plan Model.for a description of the focus of 4X4 thematic instruction according to students' English proficiency levels. click here to view Ocean Movements by Shauna Howard. and motivations for learning the content. The 4X4 Thematic Planning Model Level 1 Listening Level 1 Speaking Level 1 Reading Level 1 Writing Level 2 Listening Level 2 Speaking Level 2 Reading Level 2 Writing Level 3 Listening Level 3 Speaking Level 3 Reading Level 3 Writing Level 4 Listening Level 4 Speaking Level 4 Reading Level 4 Writing For a model of a thematic unit designed using the 4X4 model. and worksheets. such as students' levels of language proficiency. prior knowledge of the subject matter. Include enough examples to give an idea of your development and use of instructional materials Section 4: A list of resources and references used in the unit.

What are the "Big Ideas" or "Essential Questions" students will address through your unit? How have you selected or distilled a "subset" of the concepts and relationships contained in the Content Standards you address in your unit and in each lesson? How will you structure your classroom to carry out the activities planned in the unit? . Do not attempt to address all of the questions. Introduction Questions: What are the characteristics of the students for whom your unit is designed in terms of native language(s). language objectives and critical thinking objectives. English language proficiency levels and cultural characteristics? Why did you choose this theme? Of what relevance or importance is it to your students? How does the theme connect with state and/or school district Content Standards for language arts and your specific content area? Have you referenced the ELD Standards in your planning? What are the overall goals and objectives of your unit? Include content objectives.In designing the 4X4 ELD/SDAIE or sheltered instruction unit. guidelines and structure presented below. These questions will serve to stimulate your thinking about how to plan a thematic unit and each lesson within the unit. follow the questions. Focus on the important features of your own thematic unit and specific subject matter. TO TOP OF PAGE Components of the 4X4 Thematic Unit: Guide Questions Section 1 Rationale Section 1 of the 4X4 unit will be divided into the following six subtopics: 1.

or other visual displays. Vocabulary Questions: How will I have students at different levels of language proficiency practice using this vocabulary with the appropriate oral or written focus in a meaningful way? What level of linguistic and conceptual complexity can my students handle successfully. Select or design an activity to help you visualize a framework or schema to address the questions above. Look for the essential questions or big ideas behind the content. Examples are KWL procedures. a film and discussion. with a challenge but without becoming frustrated? . or how the economics of a region shape history. graphic organizers. Staging the concepts Questions: How will the students’ interest and motivation to learn the topic be awakened? What do the students already know about the topic? What are the students interested in learning about the topic? How does what the students know and want to learn match with what is covered in the textbook or storybook? What kind of graphic organizers. in history you may wish to address the lesson to promote critical thinking about these issues: How development occurs. films or visuals will I use to discover what students know and want to learn? What key concepts and vocabulary words and terms do I as a teacher believe are the most useful and important for students to learn from this unit of the text or literature book. 3. For Section 1 you will write a one or two paragraph discussion of the procedures and materials you will use. how society changes. State these in terms of: a) their ability to continue on in the text or language arts sequence with a good foundation? b) their general knowledge of the content area? For example. You can refer to your contentarea Framework published by the California Department of Education for a description of the global concepts addressed at your grade level.2.

Click here for an example of a paraphrased text or summary written to be accessible for ELL. The complete Word Bank for all four levels will go in Section 3 of your unit. Be sure to include different parts of speech: nouns. 4. cooperative groups with comprehension questions. Describe what level(s) of L2 students will be able to read your paraphrased passage and how you will guide students at the lower levels to understand the text. Write a one to two paragraph description for Section 1 explaining why you selected the words in your Word Bank and how you will teach the vocabulary for Section 1.What vocabulary will I teach because it is most important to understanding the content and/or useful for enriching students’ conceptual level? How do I teach this vocabulary in context without merely assigning students dictionary work or activities to define vocabulary words through isolated definitions? Devise a Word Bank for your unit consisting of a) vocabulary words and b) cognates or words that have similar spelling and meaning in English and Spanish. The cognates will facilitate understanding in L2 and enrich vocabulary in L1. verbs. Write one or two paragraphs for Section 1 describing why you selected a certain passage or paragraph to paraphrase and how you paraphrased the text for your students. Guided Practice . semantic mapping. (For example. fill-in-the-blank with context clues or cloze procedure).) Select and paraphrase a paragraph of the text or storybook for Section 3. 5. adjectives and adverbs or adverbial phrases. The Reading Selection Questions: What elements of the content-area or literature text will be easy for my limited English proficient students to understand? What elements will be difficult? Have I conducted a thorough text analysis? How can I make a grade-level textbook accessible to ELL through structured and guided reading and use of the textbook? What paragraph from the content-area lessons in the textbook or from the storybook can I select to simplify by paraphrasing to focus on vocabulary and concept learning without "overloading" my students with difficulty in reading? What types of reading activities will I use to reduce the difficulty of the reading text and ensure comprehension of the language and content? (For example.

with each other. For Section 1. a paragraph to begin a report. 6. and/or on their own? What product can the students produce through the guided practice process? For example. pre. etc. the beginning of a timeline or graphic organizer.Questions: How will I organize the new concepts I have selected to teach and guide students step by step through this organizational schema? What configuration of individual or group activities will I use to have them practice the concepts and manipulate the language of the lesson? What reading and writing activities will the students participate in.) How will I reward or recognize students’ efforts to learn and their progress in the unit in a way that will build their confidence and selfesteem? TO TOP OF PAGE . This will be an overview of the four levels of lessons you have included in your plan. or a language experience story or guided story can be developed under the teacher's guidance. Evaluation Questions: What product or display will demonstrate to me that students have learned the concepts and vocabulary to the best of their ability? How will I determine what I need to re-teach or review with some students and which students can go on to more complex levels of understanding of the concepts or vocabulary? (Examples: tests. Include samples of graphic organizers or worksheets in Section 3. a fact sheet. write a paragraph describing what guided practice activities you will use to teach the important vocabulary and concepts. a news story or short narrative about the topic.writing samples. with the teacher. telling how you focused guided practice for each level of language proficiency distinctly. Explain briefly your rationale for choosing the class product or project using the activities you selected. reports.and post.

This model provides a format to describe the objectives and sequence of teaching strategies and activities you will use to accomplish the purpose of the lesson. Questions: What will the teacher do and what will the students do during each day of the time span allotted to cover the theme in a logically related sequence of lessons? Have I utilized a variety of L2 teaching strategies (audiolingual method. reading and writing). Communicative Approach) to ensure mastery of linguistic structures and vocabulary? How have the students used academic language during the lesson? For what function or purpose? Is their academic language use integrated into critical thinking and problem-solving activities? What pace of presentation. . reading and writing and how you adjusted the focus of each lesson for to achieve comprehensible input. you will also provide a short rationale. activities and concept development is reasonable to expect from L2 students? Have I avoided "leaps of logic" that will confuse students because I moved too quickly from concrete and semi-concrete concepts into complex and abstract concepts? How can I best organize a logical. In each of the lessons for the four levels. speaking.Section 2: Lesson Plans You will include four lesson plans. one for each of the four levels (1. 3 and SDAIE) describing activities for each of the four skills (listening. speaking. culminating in students' being prepared for the next stage of learning of the theme and the text or book I have selected? Have I included activities that address all the diversity of learning styles and cultures in my classroom through different sensory modalities? The lesson plans will be prepared using the Five Step Lesson Plan Model (Hunter. Do not be concerned about the time frame of the lesson. coherent and motivating sequence of content and activities. 2. TPR. These four lesson plans will cover a day or more of instruction and activities. This rationale will explain briefly how you integrated the four skills of listening. 1982). Focus rather on covering each of the components of the lesson as shown in the model provided.

Give credit to your sources of ideas and materials. etc. Click on the highlighted text for The Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly Lesson Plan. that will earn the best grade. and not the length of the project. TO TOP OF PAGE Section 3: Samples of materials This section will include the following components: The complete Word Bank (Vocabulary List) for your thematic unit The paraphrased selection from your textbook or literature book Samples of worksheets.A format for the Five Step Lesson Plan Model and a sample language arts lesson are provided on-line. If you include commercial materials. . handouts. Click here for a model lesson plan for secondary math. Remember: It is the quality of the content and the thoughtfulness that goes into the assignment. visuals. These can be either your originally designed materials or commercially developed materials. Use the citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA). TO TOP OF PAGE Section 4: List of references & resources As professionals. we must always acknowledge others who have given us ideas for our work. be sure to cite the original source.

Additional time outside of class with your group members is optional. However. I also invite you to send me the URL of any useful websites you may discover as you search the Internet. During the time provided in class. You will also share ideas for activities and lesson plans for the four levels of proficiency and four skills. There will be no group grade. Mora from here or off my Home Page if you have any questions. Use Section D of the course reader as a guide. A Model Integrated Thematic Unit for English Language Learners Science/Language Arts Ocean Movements by Shauna Howard . you will select your topic and determine the main concepts. all grading of the 4X4 Thematic Unit is individual.TO TOP OF PAGE Course Activities and Requirements for 4X4 Unit Development Cooperative Group Work There will be three working sessions during class time for your groups to accomplish its tasks. principles and content that will be your focus. Questions or Comments? E-mail Dr.

this unit is more elaborated than the units my PLC 914 students are required to submit. author of this excellent thematic unit for science/language arts based on the 4X4 thematic planning model.PLC 914 Teaching in the Content Areas: ELD/SDAIE Spring Semester 1999 Presented to Dr. I am proud to be a part of that process. A note to my PLC 914 students: I have added discussion of the theoretical basis for ELD/SDAIE and description of planning principles and explanations of Shauna's teaching strategies within her narrative about instruction and guided practice. So. I have linked the content of the thematic unit to instructional modules (MoraModules) that explain the principles of sound curriculum design and lesson planning for English language learners that are applied here. Jill Kerper Mora . As your professor. I will add commentary about the features of the unit to assist other educators in improving instruction in CLAD classrooms. Jill Kerper Mora CLAD Credential Program San Diego State University Dear Website Visitor: Congratulations go to Shauna Howard. I send a sincere thank you to Shauna Howard and to all the teacher candidates who work very hard to prepare themselves for the challenges of cultural and linguistic diversity in our public schools. don't panic! Use this unit as a model to guide your thinking process and as a source of examples of what can be included in your unit. Shauna gave me permission to post this unit as a model for my PLC 914 students and for all of the visitors to my CLAD website. Consequently. As time allows.

the Pre-Production Stage of English. "The students can identify geographical features in San Diego county area. understanding oceans is part of Grade 3 Science: Performance Standard 3. The state science standard for physical science Grade 3-1. This theme was chosen for two reasons. 1. the Early Production Stage of English. I consulted the performance standards required by the school district and found that in the San Diego City Schools adopted third grade standards. SDAIE. Of these twenty Mexican American students. While this classroom is conducted in only English.d and for earth science Grade 3-3.Table of Contents 4X4 Unit Rationale Unit Goals Staging the Concept Vocabulary Reading Passage Guided Practice Level 1 Lesson Evaluation Level 2 Lesson Plan Plan Level 3 Lesson Level 4 Lesson Word Bank Plan Plan Paraphrased Text Sample News Story Graphic Organizer 1 Graphic Organizer References On-line Resourses 2 Thematic Unit Rationale The demographics of my third grade sheltered classroom are eleven females and nine males. my students are at various levels of English and therefore need different levels of support to guide their learning. Three students are at Level 1. 1.Click here to link to the California Department of Education Website for the grade level Language Arts Standards. Five students are at Level 3. with an Intermediate Fluency Stage of English. One. Secondly." In planning this unit I also consulted the district standards and state standards for cross-referencing for Science and Reading/Language Arts. Click here for a link to the CDE Science Standards. their primary language is Spanish and they are all learning English as their second language. the Speech Emergence Stage of English. Six students are at Level 4. Since the students here . I thought that oceans are important for students in San Diego to learn about since San Diego is located on the Pacific Ocean. Six students are at Level 2. The overall theme of this unit is oceans. for example oceans. b & c were related to concepts of ocean movements.

Level three learners are capable of reading simplified text and extracting meaning when prepared for the task in pre-reading activities. and what effects they have on our beaches. the critical thinking tasks become progressively more complex and demanding. the ocean floor. In order to accomplish these goals.are so close. the goal is to increase their speaking abilities by forming sentences to express their ideas. At each level. such as the waves and tides in this unit. our land forms. students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see how oceans effect our environment. Since I am teaching this unit to a "sheltered" class of English language learners. The goals for this section of the unit is for the students to learn about the two forms of ocean movements. our sea life. Consequently. the students will specifically learn about ocean movements. synthesize. so that students are challenged to grow in their ability to comprehend. speaking. the goal is to deepen their level of understanding of the notion of ocean movements and take it one step further by learning about the effects that oceans movements have on other aspects of life. waves and tides. using increasingly complex syntax and grammar. I chose to do grouping by levels of language proficiency because the tasks at the teacher and writing center need to be done with peers in the same grouping level. water transportation as well as a number of other things. the food chain. I had to strategically set up the classroom to fit my students needs. For the students in levels three and four. the focus is on developing listening skills to identify words and associate these with visual images and concepts. and applying these skills in meaningful reading and writing tasks. analyze. I continued to use centers for this unit. the students can be grouped heterogeneously . For level one. reading and writing. Students will develop their language skills by expanding their vocabulary. These goals include learning about the ocean movements. I also included specific language learning goals in planning for each level of English proficiency. In my section of the unit following this rationale. make evaluative judgments and to transform and apply the content in new and creative ways. Level four learners are "reading to learn" and are expanding their content area vocabulary and comprehension of more abstract concepts. I have integrated the four language arts: listening. Since my students are very familiar with centers. For my level two learners. but still need structure and "scaffolding" in order to handle the linguistic demands of the textbook. In this way I am also focusing on students' second-language learning as well as on academic content. while teaching each of my four level groups with varying degrees of complexity from easy (level one) to most difficult --level four). Goals of the Unit There are five overall goals for the entire unit on oceans. this unit opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which they can go see most of what they learn about. The students rotated in the centers in their level groups. Alternatively. sea life. In addition. and pollution that occurs in the ocean and its detrimental effects on our quality of life. the food chain within the ocean. I incorporated five centers that rotated in a clockwise manner around the classroom. how they occur. in particular whales. such as sea life.

which was left open during the first rotation. each group only went to one of these centers a day. This was especially important since not all of my students had seen an ocean before. After the KWL is completed. starting with level one. builds off one another and progresses according to my students varying level of English language proficiency. is the easiest and least abstract. Level four began at the art center were they begun painting the mural. What We Want to Learn. They were given specific internet sites to took up and research to help them gain some background information about ocean movements.across levels for some projects that are less language-dependent. The vocabulary came specifically from the paraphrased paragraph . I divided them among the four levels based on level of difficulty of the concept and level of abstraction of each word or term. In the interest of time. and What We Have Learned. Therefore the vocabulary chosen for this level is less difficult and more concrete. we discussed what we know and wanted to learn and recorded all of the information on the chart. I introduced the theme of ocean movements to the students by showing them a short video of the ocean. Level one began the rotation grouped with me for instruction and guided practice at the rug. Among this list of words placed in the word bank. I took one day at the beginning of the unit to do a KWL with the students. we were going to make our own ocean in the classroom through a mural and then take a field trip to visit the ocean. Vocabulary Selection and Development For this unit. No group was at the writing center for the first rotation because none of the groups had met with the teacher yet. the group that just left the teacher would always move to the writing center where they would complete their independent practice. I chose to run a video without the audio the first time since I did not want any of my students to get lost with the vocabulary in the video. the purpose of the video was to introduce ocean movements and show the students what the ocean looked like. I chose specific vocabulary and concepts. Besides. I then hung the poster in the classroom. Then I headed the three columns on the chart to state. A variety of grouping patterns are used throughout the unit. and left it there until the unit was complete. Each level. The fifth center was the writing center. Throughout the video as I pointed out scenes of the ocean. "What We Know." Then. On a large chart I wrote Ocean Movements. with all twenty of the students. For example. in level one the concept being taught. Level two was at the library looking at and reading assigned level books about waves and tides. The rotation was set up so that in the second rotation. waves. where it was visible to all of the students. Staging the Concept In an effort to stage the concept of ocean movements and assess my student's prior knowledge. Level three started at the computers. therefore taking five days for the students to get through all five of the centers. I was able to capture my students interest and then further engage them by telling them that after we learned all about the ocean movements.

Pictures are used to give students a visual representation of the words they are leaning. The vocabulary for this lesson also comes from the paraphrased paragraphs that I extracted from a science textbook. by Blecha. but also the paragraph on tides. In level two. and Green. However. These vocabulary words are listed in the Word Bank. but in a meaningful context that they will understand. specific manner. For example. the students are slightly more challenged. I chose to paraphrase this particular section from this textbook because I felt that it presented the information is an extremely clear manner. I only wanted to include what I through was essential for their understanding. the paraphrased paragraphs are used which uses the information the students are learning in a meaningful context. In these early levels one and two. I could not just use the word energy without stating that it gives the waves more power. and by writing independently using frameworks for narratives and news stories. the concept grows in difficulty and abstraction. a more abstract and complex concept. A graphic organizer is created with the students so that they can organize this new information in a clear. The final step . As a result these lessons were designed to give the students some basic understanding of the most concrete and widely used terms regarding ocean movements. but rather the students learn progressively more difficult words and concepts through the context of the narratives in level three and the news stories in level four. The student's new vocabulary builds on the concept of waves to include words about tides. The reason is because the students at these stages have limited vocabulary and need to be taught the key terms and vocabulary in order to understand the content of the lesson. Similar to levels one and two. the students all practice these new concepts and vocabulary orally with the teacher by discussing the context of the text. there is more of a focus on learning new vocabulary. Reading Selection The reading selection about waves and tides that I chose to paraphrase for my students came from a third grade science textbook titled The New Exploring Science Textbook. Some strategies that are used in these lessons include science experiments so that the students can actually see waves and the difference between a high and low tide. In levels three and four.about waves that I read to the students. I then needed to spend time on lowering the level of language used in the paragraphs so that I did not overload the students with unnecessary difficult vocabulary. The third task was making sure that I clearly defined all new vocabulary and concepts through the context of the text. I include not only the paragraph on waves. And finally. There is no direct vocabulary instruction of isolated words. as I did not want to overload them with unnecessary information and language that was too complex for their level of comprehension. Gega. In my process of modifying the information and language of the text. I had to first decide what I wanted my students to learn from the paraphrased passage.

I have determined their independent. was what the students did on their own in the independent practice. Evaluation . This strategy is referred to as scaffolding. In the instruction. I used repetition of words and phases with the words in large print to read along. I guided and facilitated my students into learning the skills that they need to apply to the independent practice and ultimately use to learn the new concepts and vocabulary. using more complex sentence formation. For the levels. I made sure that when I was teaching I altered my language based on the i+1 concept. instructional and frustration levels for matching their reading skills with the demands of the text. I made sure that the library center and computer center. Through the guided practice. that they are sitting at a center with the other members of their groups. I used a variety of reading strategies. Using an informal reading inventory and running records of students' reading performance. The purpose of this was to provide these students with reading material at their level that that they could read and comprehend. I helped them elaborate.of the paraphrasing process was to re-read and edit it a number of times to make sure that it was clear for my students. In my effort to do this effectively. In addition to the paraphrased paragraphs on waves and tides. Finally. I allowed them to work with partners or in cooperative groups so that they could help one another. I encouraged them to use complete sentences. I made sure that what I instructed them with and what I guided them through. in which the students would work at with their groups. while also challenging them to perform at a higher level. For example. if students were using one or two words to respond. but was also high interest material that would teach the concepts and content selected. I used small groups with teacher directed activities to make sure that all four levels of students were receiving the attention and instruction appropriate for their needs. This is so that they can assist each other if there are questions or problems. If they could form rudimentary sentences. yet I still want to know they are listening. I made sure that when the students do go to work on their independent work to apply and practice the concepts that they learned. I read the paragraph first so that the students heard it once through before reading it themselves. I used kinesthetic activities and TPR (Total Physical Response) to help my level one and two students who may not be ready to do a lot of speaking. one and two. I used echo and choral reading to help the students read the passages. In some instances when the students were working on their independent work. Principles of Guided Practice To help guide all four levels of my students through the various readings. I also made up my own modified narratives and news stories to used with the level three and four students. in which the language used with the students was only slightly harder that the students' level of proficiency. was structured to reinforce the concepts and vocabulary that they were learning with me during direct instruction.

the students will be evaluated as individuals and as a class to see what they have learned and on the products they have produced. Lesson Plans by Levels Level 1 Ocean Movements: Understanding Waves Lesson Rationale--Level 1 Students who are learning English as a second language need development of key terms and vocabulary in order to understand the content of the lesson. This lesson is designed to give the students some basic understanding of the most concrete and widely used terms regarding ocean movements. For example. I will reward and recognize my students efforts to learn by taking them to the beach where they can see all of the things that they learned about. The students will also be individually assessed on their individual contribution to the class mural. level three students will also be assessed on their letter that they had to write to the other classrooms inviting them to come and see our mural on ocean movements. We will then turn this experience into an introduction for the next phase of our study of the oceans. which was the overall objective for each lesson. In this way. I will be able to determine if there is anything that I need to reteach or review with my students and if any of my students are ready to go on to even more complex levels of understanding. For example. Finally the whole class will be assessed as a group based on the overall presentation of the mural and how they talk about it to the other classes who come to view it. I make connections between the important concepts and skills my students are learning at each point in the curriculum as I follow the school districts performance and content standards. The whole class assessment will be conducted through the completion of the KWL that the students will do at the end of the unit. The instruction of this new vocabulary will be accomplished through a science experiment as . This KWL will informally reveal to me how much the class learned about ocean movements as compared to how much they started out knowing. After the students work together to complete the class mural and then show the mural to other classrooms who come to view the mural and learn about ocean movements. after they worked with me for the instruction and guided practice.At the conclusion of the unit. The students will be formally assessed individually based on their independent work that they did at the writing center. Based on these four evaluation areas. the level three students will be looked at whether they met the objectives and were able to write an ending to a narrative.

the students will be able to recognize and/or sight read the words related to ocean movements from their word bank individually. the students will individually be able to complete a handout in which they write a short descriptive sentence using the correct key terms related to ocean movements next to a picture. did they see the water moving? Have they seen surfers riding the waves in the water? Have they seen a boat that bounces up and down in the water? Ask them if they know why these things occur. Anticipatory Set--Level 1 To motivate the students about ocean movements and especially waves. are important for students in San Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. In addition. After practicing reading the key terms and vocabulary words orally. such as the waves in this lesson. and ultimately how our environment impacts our sea life. the students will be able to use the terms by filling in the missing word in a definition sentence.well as a variety of listening and speaking strategies in which the students will be engaged into. students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment. Objectives--Level 1 I. Ask the students if they have ever been to the beach and seen the ocean. After learning the key terms and vocabulary. the students will be able to use the graphic organizer and what they learned about ocean movement to write three short sentences in narrative form to explain the ocean movements of waves. If they went. it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which they can go see most of what they learn about. 2. further motivate the students by reminding them that when the unit is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they are going to be learning about. will aid these second language learners in the transition from a pre-production stage of English to the point where they can speak and/or understand some of the English involved in this unit of ocean movements. 5. 4. and in particular ocean movements. . Then explain to the students that today they will be learning the words that will teach them why the water/ocean moves. After listening and practicing speaking with the teacher as she models the new key terms and their definitions on waves. Also. Oceans. After practicing matching the key terms and vocabulary to the pictures with the entire class. A beginning knowledge and understanding of these terms. the students will be able to listen and signify recognition of vocabulary words related to ocean movements by raising their hand when they hear the words read. Overall. Since students are so close. engage them in a discussion about the water at the beach. 3.

Use a large rectangular aluminum foil backing tin. Tell the students to listen carefully for the key words that they just discussed. Then show the students how the word "wave" looks and how it is spelled by using sentence strips. tall). Continue this process of teaching these key terms and vocabulary for the rest of the words related to waves (ocean. 8. 3 . continue the instruction by showing students a large picture of waves in the ocean. To reinforce what the students just saw and to develop their vocabulary of the key terms and concepts just introduced." 5. Build on the students listening skills and vocabulary by reading the short paraphrased paragraph on waves to the students. allow the students to use their prior knowledge of oceans and the experiment that they just saw to guess what the picture is. Remind the students that if they need help remembering the key words. Have the students repeat after you "wave" three times so that they get some listening and speaking practice of the word. big.Instruction/Presentation--Level 1 1. rise and fall. As the card is held up. do an experiment demonstrating waves. explain to the students that waves are the movement they see in the ocean water. Then ask the students. Then gently hit the top of the water at the end of the pan with a spoon until the waves are made. Guided Practice--Level 1 1. 4. . "Waves are the rise and fall of the water. water." 2. Place the picture of the waves beside the word in the pocket chart in front of the classroom. To begin to introduce the students to the important terms regarding waves. energy. When they hear one of the key words have them raise their hand to signal that the word was heard. "What do they see happening with the cork? It is rising and falling? What do they see happening with the water? It is also rising and falling? Explain that the movement in the water/ocean is waves. Place a cork in the water in the center of the pan and wait till the water is still. but in the real ocean the waves by made by the wind blowing on the water. We made the waves in the pan by hitting the pan with a spoon. 9. Since it is a picture of waves. 7. Pull the words off the pocket chart and place them on the table. Remove and scramble up the pictures and then place them back on the pocket chart. Also show waves with your hands and arms and say that "waves go up and down or rise and fall. Tell the students to pretend that the water in the tin is the ocean. Then describe what the picture shows to the students. wind. 6. they can look on the pocket chart.

using the graphic organizer that the students made together on the board and their new knowledge of these important terms have the students write three sentences on sentence strips that explain waves. allow them to come up and place the word in the appropriate place. and matching them to the correct picture by placing the word next to the correct picture on the pocket chart." Then have the students repeat back the sentence with the word in it. "Yes. them continue to model and have them repeat after you.2. Have them chorally sight read it aloud. "Who can come up to the pocket chart and place the word wave next to the correct picture?" Calling on individual students. Informally assess the students during this entire process. 3. Independent Practice--Level 1 1. Graphic Organizer Level 1 OCEANS Movement Waves Cause Wind Effects "What we Rise and fall of the waves see" More wind produces more energy to Changes make waves bigger 6. Have the students draw lines to connect the correct picture to the word. Continue holding up terms. then they need more instruction about what the words means and give them more practice matching the right pictures and words. Finally. with the pictures of the vocabulary they just learned and with the word bank filled with these words. I don't continue on to independent practice until I am confident that the students are successful with the language and processes covered in the guided practice. which the students will then use these to make sentences. 2. If they are having trouble remembering what picture matches what word and placing them in the graphic organizer. Pass out to students the handout. If they are not pronouncing and reading the words correctly. saying them. Provide the students with a sentence that gives the meaning of the word in context. the word is wave. Further work to reinforce the definitions of these words by placing them in a graphic organizer. 4. 5. Allow them to shout out the word and then again model the correct pronunciation by repeating the word after them by saying. Then ask the students. Have the students do this by eliciting the words through context questions. Hold up the first word on the sentence strip and ask the students to try and recognize the word. They should use .

Using this new vocabulary. it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which they can go see most of what they learn about. are important for students in San Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. The students all do this by building on the terms related to waves from the level one lesson to more difficult words regarding tides in this lesson. water. these two assignments should demonstrate the student's new understanding of waves. Oceans. (ocean. wind. they should also have been able to write three short sentences in narrative form. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by asking them what they will look for next time they visit the beach. and energy. The instruction of this new vocabulary will be accomplished through a science experiment as well as a variety of listening and speaking strategies in which the students will be engaged into. rise and fall. Allow each student each an opportunity to read aloud the narrative that them made. such as the waves and . these second language learners will be able to make the transition from limited speaking control to the point where they have enough for communicating about ocean movements. If the students were successful and they met your goal then they should have been able to read all of the new words given to them in the word bank and then write all 9 of those words in their science journal under the appropriate cut out picture. tall. waves. Bring the lesson to a close by allowing the students a chance to share what they have learned. big) These sentence strips are going to be place on the final mural to explain waves. Since students are so close. By gaining more control of the vocabulary used in discussing ocean movements. and in particular ocean movements.seven of the nine words. look at whether or not they were able to meet the reading and writing objectives. Level 2 Ocean Movements: Understanding Waves and Tides Lesson Rationale--Level 2 Students who are learning English as a second language need development of key terms and vocabulary in order to understand the content of the lesson. Together. This lesson is designed to build upon the basic understanding of some of the most concrete and widely used terms regarding ocean movements. Students at this stage still have a restricted vocabulary. Closure/Evaluation--Level 1 As a final assessment of the students. so developing a more concrete understanding of the previous lessons terms as well as some added new terms in this lesson is necessary in order to help them speak and construct sentences.

the students will be able to recognize and/or sight read chorally at least 75% of these same words. the students will individually be able to correctly sight word spell at least 12 of the 18 of the key terms given and place them with the correct definition in a modified cloze activity.tides in this lesson. 2. Mark the front and the back of the two tins so that one is the beach side and one is the ocean. do an experiment demonstrating tides. remind them that when the unit is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they are going to be learning about in this lesson. the students will be able to use a graphic organizer (organized by ocean movement. After practicing sight-reading definitions of the key words regarding both waves and tides. To begin to introduce the students to the important terms regarding tides. Anticipatory Set--Level 2 To motivate the students about ocean movement and especially tides. In addition. 3. the students will be able to listen and recognize at least 12 of the 18 definition sentences related to ocean movements by raising their hand when they hear the words read. Instruction/Presentation--Level 2 1. Have the students observe the water in one pan when it is lying flat. 4. to further motivate the students. Ask the students if they have ever been to the beach and seen the ocean water extremely far away from the end of the beach? Have they ever seen the ocean water up so high on the beach that it is covering most of the sand? Ask them if they know why or how the ocean does this? Then explain to the students that today they will be learning the words that will teach them why the water/ocean moves in this manner. also have the students . After listening to the teacher modeling and using the key terms in definition sentences and practice saying the key words. Also. to explain the ocean movements of waves and tides. Objectives--Level 2 1. 5. the students will be able to restate all of the definition sentences with the key words given. engage them in another discussion about the water at the beach. With the second pan slightly tipped back. After learning the key terms and vocabulary. cause. Use two large rectangular aluminum foilbaking tins. After the whole class chorally practices sight-reading the key terms in the context of definition sentences related to waves and tides. Overall. and ultimately how our environment impacts our sea life. effect and changes) and what they learned about ocean movement to write five sentences in a short narrative form. Tell the students to pretend that the water in the tins is the ocean. students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment. which include at least 12 of the 18 key words.

5. (Note that the pictures and words about waves from the prior day are on the top half of the pocket chart and today the new words will be added to the bottom half of the chart." . to develop their vocabulary of the key terms and concepts just introduced. 7. 2. continue the instruction by reading the paraphrased paragraphs on waves and tides. Since it is a picture of a high tide. gravity)." Then show picture 2 of the low tide and make that same the same connection. is like picture 1. To reinforce what the students just saw and to further develop their vocabulary of the key terms and concepts introduced in lesson I and in the lesson today. tell the students that now they are going to retell. in their own words. Tell the students that you want them to be listening carefully for key words defined through the context of the paragraph and for them to raise their hand when they hear one. explain to the students that when the water level is high along the beach then it is called a high tide. and to help them make the connection of the word discussed to the written word. Place the picture of the high tide beside the word in the pocket chart in front of the classroom. 2. moon. low tide. "Waves are caused by wind. "when the water goes up the beach and cover most of the sand. Continue this process of teaching these key terms and vocabulary through pictures. the key words and their meaning through the context in which they just heard it. Connect this experiment with a short language experience discussion in which the students talk about their experiences seeing tides or movements in the ocean water at the beach. Then show the students how the word "high tide" looks and how it is spelled by using sentence strips. After reading the two short paragraphs through one at a time. Then connect this experiment to the pictures of the high and low tides. "what is different about the water in the in the two pans?" Have them notice that in the first pan the water covers the whole pan up to the beach. Ask the students.observe the water. For example. To reinforce what the students just saw.) 6. Tell them that. discussion and sentence strips for the rest of the words related to tides (high tide. earth. Have the students repeat after you "high tide" three times so that they get some listening and speaking practice of the new word. 3. Guided Practice--Level 2 1. in which the water goes all the way up the beach. 4. continue the instruction by showing the students the picture of the high tide. 3. Explain that the first pan. but in the second pan the water does not come all the way up on to the beach. we call that high tide.

them continue to model and have them repeat the word and the definition sentences after you. To meet the assessment goal. point to the key words one at a time and have the students orally decode them.4. As the students are practicing speaking by retelling the key word through their meaning. 7. Informally assess the students during this entire process. 9. Level 2 Graphic Organizer Movement Tides gravity from the moon Cause wind pulling on the ocean water rise and fall of the water Effect (What rise and fall of the onto or away from the we see) waves beach High tide is when the moon More wind is facing the ocean. Then as a quick sight word reading assessment. If they are not pronouncing and reading the key words correctly 75% of the time. they should be able to decode at least 75% of the key words. 6. then they need more speaking practice with the ocean movement vocabulary. which the students will then use to guide them in making sentences in the form of a narrative. If they are having trouble restating all of the definition sentences after listening to them. write their sentences that they say on sentence strips. With the sentences in the pocket chart have the students practice decoding/reading the short sentence and in particular the key words in that sentence. 8. Guide the students into reading all of the sentences. provide the students with a modified cloze activity in which they . Place them one at a time in the pocket chart. 5. Reinforce the definitions of these words by placing them in a graphic organizer. Low produces more Changes tide is when the moon is energy to make facing away from the bigger waves oeacn. To individually practice and to gain better control of the vocabulary discussed in the lesson. Waves Independent Practice--Level 2 1.

The final draft should be written nicely on lined paper since it is going to be placed on the final mural to explain waves and tides. but they still have difficulty with everyday class work in English. corrected. Level 3 Ocean Movements: Beyond Waves and Tides Lesson Rationale--Level 3 Students who are learning English as a second language at Level 3 still need a lot of sheltering and modification to understand abstract concepts. Allow the students an opportunity to read aloud their sentences in the form of a narrative. modified narratives on ocean movements and then working with meaning by learning to write the main idea and as well as new endings for these narratives.will practice sight word spelling the key words in the pharaphsed paragraph that they heard and retold during the guided practice. they should think about what is causing what they are seeing. but the focus will be mainly on improving their reading and writing. Finally. look at whether or not they were able to meet the writing objectives. Closure/Evaluation--Level 2 As a final assessment of the students. 2. have the students write five sentences in a short narrative form. and then rewritten. They should also have been able to write three short sentences on tides and waves using at least six of the key words. They should include at least 12 of the I 8 key words to explain the ocean movements of waves and tides. they are limited with their reading and writing abilities. These short narratives should be written. using the graphic organizer that the class made together on the board and their new knowledge of the important terms. At this stage. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by asking them what they will look for next time they visit the beach. When they respond with ocean movements or waves and tides. they speak and understand enough English for communication. . the students will build on their English listening and speaking skills. They will be engaged in reading short. Bring the lesson to a close by giving the students a chance to share what they learned. tell them that when they see these different ocean movements at the beach. In this lesson. In particular. If the students were successful and they met your goal then they should have been able to sight word spell at least 7 of the 10 key words and place them in the correct cloze definition sentence.

are important for students in San Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. Since students are so close. The concept of paragraph structure will also be reinforced to help them with these narratives. 3. With continuous sheltering and practice of these skills. such as the waves and tides in this lesson. Overall.Each narrative that the students will work with will help to deepen their level of understanding of ocean movements as they each describe higher levels of content such as how ocean movements affect sea life. Finally. In addition. 4. the students will be engaged in a short mini-lesson on finding the main idea. and their knowledge of paragraphs and the letter format. tide pools. Prior to the start of the lesson. and in particular ocean movements. the students will be about to write an ending to a narrative that includes at least eight sentences. 6. or pollution. and ultimately how our environment impacts our sea life. to write a letter of at least eight sentences to other classrooms in the school explaining why they should come to see our class mural on ocean movements and what they will learn by coming. it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which they can go see most of what they learn about. 2. After reviewing and discussing the meaning of several different narratives as examples. Oceans. After practicing echo reading of short narratives about ocean movements. these second language learners will eventually be able to make the transition from enough English so they can communicate to the point where they attain full native-like fluency. and their prior knowledge of a letter format to complete their final writing task. Objectives--Level 3 1. After listening to modified narratives on ocean movements. To accomplish this task. the students will be able to orally explain at least two reasons why they have chosen a particular main idea or possible ending for the narratives. Anticipatory Set--Level 3 . the students will be able to read the final passage independently for comprehension with 75% accuracy. the students will be able to apply what they learned about ocean movement through the narratives. the students will be able to work on their speaking skills by orally sharing at least one thing about their experiences with the ocean. 5. they will put to use all of their new knowledge on ocean movements. the students will be show that they have listened for meaning by orally describing at least one main idea or a possible ending that would make sense. a letter to other students in the school inviting them to see their mural. paragraph writing. After listening to modified narratives on ocean movements. students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment.

remind them that when the unit is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they are going to be learning about. Use modified narratives about ocean movements to teach the students how to listen for the main idea. I structure the conversation so that I am guiding them to talk about the ocean movements. 3. Instruction/Presentation--Level 3 I . explain to the students that today they will be learning more about the ocean movements and why the ocean water moves. After all of the students have had an opportunity to share their experiences. 3. . Explain why that ending would make sense. Use prompting questing to guide them thought the thought process.Before the lesson begins. Then model for the students how to create an ending for the narrative. 2. have the students echo read the same narrative. Model for the students how to find the main idea of the narrative. First read the passage to the students and have them listen for the main idea. I motivate the students to be interested in learning about ocean movement by engaging them in a conversation in which they all have the opportunity to share about their experiences at the beach and with the ocean. Once the passage is read once by the teacher. Guided Practice--Level 3 I . 5. Then echo read the same narrative by giving each student a copy of the narrative to read from. Teach the students the critical thinking skill of finding the main idea or what the narrative is about. 2. The students' responses also allow me to assess their level of prior knowledge and experiences. Use the narrative from above that the students are now familiar with. to describe the paragraph structure and illustrate that the main idea is what the paragraph is about. and their facility with vocabulary related to the topic. Provide the students with a different ending that would not make sense and explain why. Finally. Lead the students in a discussion of the paragraph structure. Some questions may include: Have you ever seen the ocean water extremely far away from the end of the beach? Have you seen the ocean water up so high on the beach that it is covering most of the sand? Why or how does the ocean do this? These questions begin the critical thinking process that I continue throughout the lesson. to further motivate the students. 4. in particular the waves and the tides. Let the students now that now it is their turn to find the main idea of the narrative and to create an ending.

Engage in a discussion of the main idea. then the students may distribute them to the other classrooms. To finally close the lesson. Again the students must explain why that ending could make sense. Give the students the independent narrative about how ocean movements affect sea life to read on their own. 6. Also. Can they find evidence from the narrative that supports their main idea? 5. . as well as how it affects our sea life. Once the letters are written. Are they reading for meaning? Are they able to express the main idea and possible endings? Do they understand the information about the ocean movements that the narrative is providing in the context of a story? If so.) Tell the students that the letter should include at least eight sentences to explain why other classrooms should come and what they will learn. edited and rewritten. Independent Practice--Level 3 1. have the students write a letter to the other classrooms in the school inviting them to come to our classroom to see our mural on ocean movements. read and help the students edit their letters to the other classrooms. Continue on by discussing possible endings for the narrative. Have the students explain why it is the main idea. If not. These narratives will be posted around the class mural. evaluate the students understanding of ocean movements by looking at their narrative and their creative ending that they had to make up. (Make sure to point out the letter format poster hanging on the wall.4. After they read the narrative. guide the students with finding the main idea and possible ending through another narrative. What the students understand about ocean movements will be revealed from the letter where they write why the other classrooms should come and what they will learn by coming. they are to use the blank lines that fill the rest of the paper to write at least eight sentences to finish the narrative. Informally assess the students understanding of the narrative up to this point. Closure/Evaluation--Level 3 As a final evaluation of the students understanding of ocean movements. Using the letter format that they have learned recently. 2. then they can move on to independent practice where they will be given another narrative on ocean movements to do on there own. Bring the lesson to a full circle by having them describe the ocean movements in their narratives. allow the students an opportunity to share their possible endings to the narrative to the rest of the class. Quickly have the students reread the learning poster that they made while learning the letter writing format.

They include scaffolded texts. with Level 4 language abilities. However. note taking. will eventually be able to make the transition from enough specialized instruction to mainstream English instruction. outlining and writing new stories about various things that have occurred as a result of the ocean movements. Each news story that the students will work with will help to deepen their level of understanding of ocean movements as they each describe higher levels of content such as how ocean movements affects sea life or water transportation. graphic organizers. "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today.Level 4 Ocean Movements: Beyond Waves and Tides Lesson Rationale--Level 4 Students who are learning English as a second language. but the focus will be mainly on improving their reading and writing. these second language learners. the students will be show that they have listened for meaning by orally contributing at least three main ideas to the group's notes and graphic organizer. and ultimately how our environment impacts our sea life. 2. In addition. After listening to pretend modified new stories on ocean movements. In addition." With continuous support and use of SDAIE strategies to complete these tasks. Objectives--Level 4 1. and large visuals through chart paper. within a few years. These goals will be accomplished by engaging the students in reading. This allows them to develop academic concepts and vocabulary in the content areas. they are not completely ready for full instruction in an English mainstream classroom where all students are taught assuming that they are fully proficient in English (Level 5 FSI). After discussing the important information from the modified new stories on ocean movements. they will continue practicing their listening and speaking skills. it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which they can go see most of what they learn about. . the students will orally present to the class their own creative news story. These students need specialized strategies of SDAIE as well as some support in their LI. In this lesson on ocean movements. are at an intermediate fluency level in English. these Level 4 students will learn with the support of some of these SDAIE strategies. such as the waves and tides in this lesson. In addition. the final activity will end with the students writing their own news story in which they have to synthesis what they learned to write about the news headline. students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment. Since students are so close.

Anticipatory Set--Level 4 Before the lesson begins. have you ever seen the ocean water extremely far away from the end of the beach? Have you seen the ocean water up so high on the beach that it is covering most of the sand? Why or how does the ocean do this? After all of the students have had an opportunity to share their experiences. Finally. to further motivate the students. Have the students listen to a short. Structure the conversation so that you are guiding them to talk about the ocean movements. 4. After modeling how to rewrite news stories. On large chart paper. Some questions may include. 5. the students will be able to rewrite in at least ten sentences their own news story. Go through each part of the news story and model for the students how to pull out the important information. ocean life. Overall. Use prompting questing to guide them thought the thought process. Guided Practice--Level 4 . 2. in particular the waves and the tides.3. "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today" to describe the effects that an nonmoving ocean would have on our beaches. While the teacher is reading. 3. Instruction/Presentation--Level 4 I . have the students listen for the main points in the story. reread the passage again. After practicing echo reading the news stories about ocean movements. 4. Once all of the important information is pulled from the story. model for the students how to take notes. remind them that when the unit is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they are going to be learning about. their own creative news story with the headline. teach the students how they can further organize the information by placing it into a graphic organizer. motivate the students about ocean movement by engaging them in a conversation in which they all have the opportunity to share about their experiences at the beach and with the ocean. modified news story about ocean movements and how they affect sea life. this time echo reading with the students. the students will be to use what they learned about ocean movement through the new stories to write. the students will be able to read and outline. Once the passage is read once by the teacher. with 75% accuracy. explain to the students that today they will be learning more about the ocean movements and why the ocean water moves. and transportation. with at least ten sentences. the final news story with their partner.

Informally assess the students understanding of the reading. Reread through each section of the news story. Once all of the notes are taken. Each student should be orally contributing at least three ideas to notes and the organizer. This news story has to be at least ten sentences. The news story has to answer this news headline. Using the same outlining and organizing strategies that they just did with the whole group. If not.I . allow the students to work with partners to do the same with this new news story. As the students are dictating. guide the students in reading and organizing another news story. 4. Create this new graphic organizer on chart paper. guide the students into rewriting this news story in their own words. 6. writing and understanding of news stories. As the final project that will be posted up around the mural. Stop and allow the students to pull out all of the important points to write in their notes. If so. have them describe the effects that a nonmoving ocean would have on our beaches. Closure/Evaluation--Level 4 . Then independently. allow the students an opportunity to organize the information into a graphic organizer. 3. ocean life. Have the students explain what the main idea of the news story is. 3 . and transportation. engage in a discussion of how they are to organize their notes. 7. Use the same information from the notes and the graphic organizer. First read the news story to the students and have them listen for the main points. then they can move on to independent practice where they will be writing their own new story related to ocean movements. teacher models writing the story on the large chart paper. 5. Then echo read the same news story by giving each student a copy of the new story to read from. Guide the students into reading and organizing another sample news story about how ocean movements affect our water transportation and trading. have the students rewrite that same news story using their notes and graphic organizer. Do they understand the content of ocean movements that is taught through the context of the new story? Are they able to express the main ideas in the notes and graphic organizer? As a group are they able to write their own news story using this information. Independent Practice--Level 4 I . Give the students another news story to read on their own. On chart paper. "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today. 2." In their story. As a group. 2. have the students write a news story of their own. This writing can be modeled directly after the news story that they did as a group.

All students should present their stories as a way to practice their speaking skills. Word Bank *Students are expected to master the concepts and vocabulary for their level as well as the easier levels. Were they able to pull out all of the important information from the news story and then rewrite the story in a way that makes sense? Were they able to create a news story on their own. to trade facing (away goods from) mess to contaminate Paraphrased Text . in which they explained what the affects would be if the ocean stopped moving? What the students understand about ocean movements will be revealed through these new stories. Level 1 waves ocean water to rise to fall energy big tall surfers Level 2 tides high tide low tide Earth moon force gravity sand beach Level 3 sea life tide pools pollution oil spill recreation disaster harm Level 4 shore ashore Blue Whale rescue wash up onto transportation trading.As a final evaluation of the students understanding of ocean movements. To finally close the lesson. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by having the students tell how essential the ocean movements are. allow the students an opportunity to orally share their creative news stories with the class. read their notes and new stories given to them during independent practice.

" The animal rescue team is now waiting for the low tides to come. The moon causes the tides. This morning lifeguards on the beach found the blue whale. This force pulls on the Earth. One lifeguard told reporters. it is called a high tide. The moon has a force called gravity. Its pulls on the ocean because the ocean is a very large body of water. The wind causes waves. They need wind to make tall waves to surf on. look at the sand on the beach. It is a high tide when there is almost no sand on the beach. Then they can drive the rescue trucks on the sand to take away the whale. It was dead on the sand. and Green. When there is no wind. Two main types of ocean water movement are waves and tides. there is no gravity pulling the water.The focus is on the paragraph on waves • Level 2 . only water. it can bring dead sea life onto the beach. This gives more power to make the waves taller. Gega. Sample News Story For use with Level 4 Blue Whale Found on La Jolla Beach Last night a large blue whale was washed ashore on the beach in La Jolla. When the moon is not facing the ocean. They are caused by the wind. the moon pulls on the ocean water. When you go to the beach. The more wind produces more energy. Waves are the rise and fall of the ocean water. When the ocean is facing the moon. • Level I . This pull is strong enough to make the water rise. You may be wondering what makes the water move. The waves are bigger when there is more wind. Unfortunately. They need the low tides because when the tides are low. It is easy to tell if it is a high or low tide. . "When the tides are high. Waves are one movement of the ocean water.The focus is on the paragraph on tides The water in the ocean is always moving. It is a low tide when there is a big beach with a lot of sand. the ocean's tides brought in a large mess to pick up. the water falls far back off the sand. there are no waves for the surfers to ride. This is called a low tide. Lifeguards think that the water from the high tides carried the whale on to the shore.Paraphrased Paragraph on Ocean Water Movement: Waves and Tides Adapted from The New Exploring Science Green Book by Blecha. The water that had risen before now falls. Surfers ride the waves in the ocean. When the water rises.

Paraphrasing Warmer
Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to develop students' paraphrasing skills students Reading and Writing, Parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 whole class none

1. Begin by asking students how they can describe something when they don't know the exact word. Introduce or practise the following structures: • • • • • It's made of… It's used for… It's the same as… It's the opposite of... It's big, small, round, soft etc.

2. Ask for a volunteer to sit in a chair facing the rest of the class, with their back to the board. 3. On the board write a word that the whole class knows e.g. restaurant. 4. The class has to help the volunteer guess the word by explaining it to them, saying things like 'you go there to eat', 'there is a good one next to the school', 'Italian ones are my favourite'. 5. Repeat with a different volunteer and a new word. To make it more difficult, the student has to spell the word when they have guessed it.

Missing Word Jigsaw Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to develop students' paraphrasing/defining skills students Reading and Writing, Parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 pairs worksheets given here, or your own

1. Play Paraphrasing Warmer first, to teach students the principle behind this activity.
2. Then put students in pairs, facing each other. Ask students in each pair to decide who is A and who is B. 3. Give the As the A handout and the Bs the B handout. Tell them not to look at each others' paper.

4. Explain that where they see a gap, their partner will help them fill it by explaining the missing word to them. Their partner will not say the exact word. Underlined words in the text show where their partner has a gap, and they must explain these words to their partner in the same way. 5. Go round listening and helping as necessary. 6. During feedback, discuss which words were difficult to explain and why. Alternative Procedure

Divide students into two groups, A on one side of the room and B on the other. Give out the handouts. Explain the task as in point 4. Then ask each group to work out the paraphrases together, orally. When they are ready, ask each A to find a B and then do the activity. Missing Word Jigsaw A
Read this article about a doctor. When you see a gap, your partner will help you find the right word. Your partner will not say the exact word! When you see a word in bold, explain it to your partner so that your partner can guess what it is. Do not say the exact word! At school, I.....................science more than English or maths and I passed the exams easily. Even before I started school, I wanted to be a doctor, so I decided to study medicine at Oxford University. For the next two years, I studied hard and went to..................... For the next three, I also helped doctors at the John Radcliffe Hospital four days a week. The days there seemed very long and sometimes the work was....................., but it was easy and I learnt more there than in the classroom. My last year of studying was at Harvard Medical School in the United States. Now I live in London and work at a hospital in the.....................of the city. My working hours are Monday to Friday, 8am to 5.30pm, and every fourth day I have to work at the hospital all night and the next day too. I also work every fourth ..................... and that's when I feel very tired! I earn £20,000 a.....................- not much if you think about the hours! I'll earn more later, so I don't mind. Life in a big hospital can be difficult, but I love working with people and I feel happiest when I can help them.

Missing Word Jigsaw B
Read this article about a doctor. When you see a gap, your partner will help you find the right word. Your partner will not say the exact word! When you see a word in bold, explain it to your partner so that your partner can guess what it is. Do not say the exact word! At school, I liked science more than English or maths and I passed the exams easily. Even before I started school, I wanted to be a doctor, so I decided to study medicine at Oxford University. For the next two years, I.....................hard and went to classes. For the next three, I also helped doctors at the John Radcliffe Hospital four days a.....................The days there seemed very long and sometimes the work was boring, but it was.....................and I learnt more there than in the classroom. My last year of studying was at Harvard Medical School in the United States. Now I live in London and work at a .....................in the south of the city. My working hours are Monday to Friday, 8am to 5.30pm, and every fourth day I

have to work at the hospital all night and the next day too. I also work every fourth weekend and that's when I feel very.....................! I earn £20,000 a year - not much if you think about the hours! I'll earn more later, so I don't mind. Life in a big hospital can be ....................., but I love working with people and I feel happiest when I can help them.

Reading and Writing Skills and Strategies in KET
Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to establish what reading and writing skills students need for the KET exam teachers all parts of the Reading and Writing paper small groups or pairs 1 copy of worksheet per small group / pair; 1 copy of Reading and Writing Skills and Strategies in KET for each participant

1. Establish the idea of what is meant by text types by eliciting briefly from the group some different text types that they read and write in their everyday lives. 2. From the list they give you, discuss whether one or two of them are the type of text they would expect their KET-level students to be able to read or to write. 3. Divide the group into small groups or pairs and give out the skills worksheet. Allow some time for them to discuss whether they think these are reasonable expectations for KET-level students, or if any of these text types would need to be simplified. 4. Discuss the group's answers and ideas for how and where teachers can find these types of text in your country/region. Answers Read... a novel a newspaper article a street sign some information in a tourist office labels on clothes/food instructions on medicine bottles information in a junior encyclopaedia Write... a report a composition a story No No No No, unless it was a simplified reader Yes, if it was simplified Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, especially if it was simplified

a postcard a formal letter a note to a friend or acquaintance Yes No Yes Skills and Strategies Which of the following could we reasonably expect a student at KET level to be able to do? Read. 3. Ask students to think of two or three more jobs and try to write their own definitions with gaps.. where they have to find the answer to the definition. a novel a newspaper article a street sign some information in a tourist office labels on clothes/food instructions on medicine bottles information in a junior encyclopaedia Write. These can then be passed around for the rest of the class to try. Explain that they are going to do an adapted Part 6. 2... Remind students about the content of Part 6 of the exam. Part 6 pairs worksheets 1. Gappy Definitions Worksheet 1 . but to make it more difficult they also have to fill a gap in the definition.. a report a composition a story a postcard a formal letter a note to a friend or acquaintance Gappy Definitions Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to give practice with definitions students Reading and Writing. Give out the handout and let students work out the answers in pairs. 4.

mechanic (your) 4. I show customers the _________ and bring them their food. Gordon and Marie. They should work in pairs to write the missing half of the dialogue only on a separate sheet of paper. To avoid 'cheating' later. 5. meet in a street. _________ letters and making appointments. 5. 2. Set the scene by telling students they are going to work on a dialogue where two friends. each student should have a sheet of paper with half a dialogue on it. or your own along the same lines 1. If you ______ to change the colour of your room I will do it for you. w_____ c_ _ _ _ _ _ m_______ p_ _ _ _ _ _ s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1. Divide the class in half. ask students to hand in the original halves of . secretary (writing) Split Dialogue Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to help students' awareness of appropriate responses in spoken English students Reading and Writing. Ask for some ideas on what they might talk about. one side A the other side B 4. I will repair your car ______ you. 2. When everyone has finished. Which word is missing in each definition? 1. Part 3 pairs worksheets A and B. chemist (come) 3. 3. People _________to my shop to buy medicine. painter (want) 5. and 'B's can see what Marie says. Explain the task carefully as it is complicated! 'A's can see what Gordon says. waiter (menu) 2. I help my boss by answering the phone. 3. 4.Can you find the word for each definition? They are all jobs.

Split Dialogue A What does Marie say? Gordon: Hi. How are you? Gordon: Marie: I didn't. This is usually a funny activity as the two halves rarely match perfectly.dialogue that you gave them. 7. During feedback. When students have finished. Marie. I must go and have a look. Marie: Gordon: Do you know where he bought it? Marie: Gordon: Is that the shop next to the pizza restaurant? Marie: Gordon: Do they sell sweaters for men? Marie: Gordon: Good. Split Dialogue B What does Gordon say? Gordon: Marie: I'm fine. Gordon. 6. How are you? Marie: Gordon: I'm fine. Gordon: . go over why certain things did not match and explain the importance of looking at what comes after as well as before the gap. Now match up each 'A' student with a 'B' student. That's a lovely sweater you're wearing. They should read out their dialogue and see how well it matches. thanks. hand back their copies so they can sit down with their new partner and compare their dialogue with the original. My brother gave it to me for my birthday. Where did you buy it? Marie: Gordon: It looks very expensive.

Gordon: Written Conversations Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to practise making appropriate responses in spoken English students Reading and Writing. When everyone has finished. mix up the dialogues for everyone to read. Ask students to correct any errors they find. but he often buys things from New Look. it's on the other side of the road. 3. as if they were speaking. The conversation can continue like this as long as students have ideas about what to write. Variations Give students a different person to write to: • • a famous person a school friend . pens 1. They have clothes for everyone. Gordon: Marie: No. Gordon: Marie: Oh. 5. ask them to pass their papers to the person on their left. 6. Gordon: Marie: No. 4. The teacher can monitor and help at this stage. Make sure each student has a blank sheet of paper in front of them. The best dialogues can be read out for everyone to hear. I'm sure they do. and to write their reply down. When everyone has finished. (usually 4-6 exchanges).Marie: Yes. he always buys me nice things. Part 3 pairs blank paper. Ask students to read what is on the page in front of them. What would they say? They should write down exactly what they would say on their piece of paper. They then pass the paper back to the person on their right who gave it to them. 2. 7. He didn't tell me. Tell students they have just bumped into an old friend in the street. I don't.

• your old teacher For strong students. Explain if necessary. See if students can tell you what suggesting. inviting. 'I'd love to'. try giving more challenging situations: • • • you have just spilt your drink on someone's new shoes your team mate just missed an easy goal your parents don't want you to go out tonight Expressing Functions Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to revise ways of expressing certain functions students Reading and Writing. 'yes. 'it's big and yellow'. describing mean. 'what about'. or your own along the same lines. 5. Go through the answers.. 1. e. please'. . 4. Expressing Functions Sentences Can you put these sentences into the right boxes on your handout? It's black and it's made of leather. accepting. 6. Ask them to decide what the function of each sentence on the first sheet (Functions Sentences) is and to put them in the right box on the second sheet (Functions Table). Part 9 (Part 3 also) pairs worksheets. Get students to give you some examples of each. These can then be swapped around the class for other students to answer (and correct). And finish with From. The chart could easily be put on the board for students to copy. Follow up by asking students to write some notes to each other. Love and their name. 'shall we'. 3. 2. Give students the worksheets.. 'would you like'.g. Give them some suggestions to start off if necessary. Here are a few ideas for notes: • • • • Invite a friend to lunch Thank a friend for a present Write to say why you can't play football today Describe something you have lost Remind students to begin with Dear. using some of the functions they have just seen.

Can you give it to me tonight at the disco? I'm not busy on Friday afternoon. I'd love to come to your house tomorrow. The last time I saw it was in your house. It's small and round and made of gold. I'll wait for you by the entrance. I think I put it down in the bathroom. She's got long blonde hair and green eyes. Let's go swimming.Can you bring it to school tomorrow? I'll see you outside the cinema on Green Street. Shall we go shopping on Saturday morning? I'm free on Tuesday. He's tall and thin and wears glasses. Expressing Functions Table Describing something you lost • • Saying where you lost it • • Saying how to return it to you • • Saying what day you can meet someone • • .

using one of the situations and one of the words on the right hand side of the board. An invitation. on the bus etc. in a museum. in the street. ask them to perform their dialogues for the rest of the class. shop. at work. Part 3 pairs and whole class paper and pens 1.Saying where you will meet someone • • Describing someone • • Suggesting what to do • • Accepting an invitation • Guess the Situation Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to help students' awareness of appropriate responses in spoken English students Reading and Writing. railway station. Invent two characters and put their names on the board. Ask students to choose a situation and one of your three words. Go round and help as necessary. On the other side of the board. 5. The class has to guess the situation and the word the pair chose. When you feel students have had enough practice. Ask students to come up with a list of possible situations where dialogues might take place and write them on one side of the board (in a bank. airport. Cut Up Story . 4. at home. Together.). put them in pairs to write their own dialogue. When students have finished. A present. 3. 2. in a restaurant. A problem. practising as you go and getting different students to take part each time. at school. Give feedback to the whole class on any strong or weak points that came out. 6. put the following words. build up a dialogue on the board.

are the happiest couple in the world. This is good for paraphrasing and pronunciation. Ask students to work with their partner to put the strips into the right order. Use the one provided. 6. Go round the class helping and encouraging. 1. 3. (But don't give too much away!) 2. Variations • If you have the right number of students. who live in Sweden. They were sure the ring was lost forever. cut up into strips. Tell students they are going to read a story called 'The Ring and the Fish'. until last week. Mix the pairs up and ask them to check each other's work. (A good activity for a strong class. Put students into pairs and give each pair one story. Ask if they can predict what the story will be about. He wanted to put the ring on Inger's finger. They should then try to put themselves in the right order by saying their sentences aloud to each other. • The Ring and the Fish Thomas and Inger. Thomas asked Inger to marry him and he gave her a gold ring. Discuss with students how they decided on the right order and go through any difficulties they had. when Mr Carlsson visited them. or make your own. Two years ago. Read the whole text to them so that they can check their order. That is. 4. He has a fish shop and he found the ring in a large fish which he was cutting up for one of his customers. cut up into strips. Parts 4 and 5 pairs a story.) After working on the story.Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to develop students' awareness of coherence and cohesion in texts students Reading and Writing. You could follow this activity up by giving students the questions that go with the text. but he dropped it and it fell into the sea. 5. get students to practice retelling it from memory. get each student to memorise a different sentence. they were on a boat a few kilometres from the beach. The fish thought the ring was something to eat! .

who live in Sweden. Are sentences 21-27 'Right' (A) or 'Wrong' (B)? If there is not enough information to answer 'Right' (A) or 'Wrong' (B). A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 25 Mr Carlsson caught the fish. but he dropped it and it fell into the sea. They were.' And so Mr Carlsson gave the ring back to them. All my love. Thomas bought Inger another one. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 22 Thomas put the gold ring on Inger's finger. Example: 0 Thomas and Inger's home is in Sweden. But they think the one the fish ate is the best one. Thomas. . They were sure the ring was lost for ever. Thomas asked Inger to marry him and he gave her a gold ring. He wanted to put the ring on Inger's finger. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 27 Thomas and Inger prefer the first ring. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say The Ring and the Fish Answers Thomas and Inger.Mr Carlsson knew that the ring belonged to Thomas and Inger because inside the ring there were some words. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 24 Mr Carlsson often visited Thomas and Inger. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 23 They returned from their boat trip without the ring. The Ring and the Fish Task Read the article about a young man and woman who lost a ring. Two years ago. they were on a boat a few kilometres from the beach. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 26 Mr Carlsson found the ring when he ate the fish. A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say 21 Thomas asked Inger to marry him when they were on a boat. choose 'Doesn't say' (C). When they lost the first one. Inger now has two rings. are the happiest couple in the world. 'To Inger.

If they don't. B 27.. A 24. red.. tin opener. soft. One thinks of an object and tries to define it for his/her partner.g. square. how could they explain what they mean? 3. blue etc. Then number them and get students to write definitions in pairs. Thomas bought Inger another one. paper and pens 1. They can then give the crossword to another class in school to see if they can complete it. You use it to.g. etc. It's made of. Hand them round the class. They were. binoculars) into the classroom. Inger now has two rings. He has a fish shop and he found the ring in a large fish which he was cutting up for one of his customers. But they think the one the fish ate is the best one. until last week. All my love. 4. It's green. Build up a grid of words. stapler. The fish thought the ring was something to eat! Mr Carlsson knew that the ring belonged to Thomas and Inger because inside the ring there were some words. Then ask a student to add a word vertically. A 22.. 2. Take a bag full of everyday objects (e. Build up the different ways on the board. 21. C 26. It's hard. Put students in pairs to play a quick game. A Definitions Aim: Target Audience: Relevance to KET: Organisation: Materials needed: to practise the language of definitions students Reading and Writing. Put a word on the board yourself. using one of the letters in international. The partner can guess the object in their own language. e. B 23.. Ask students if they know the names of the objects in English. cork screw.That is. Begin by making sure students are familiar with crosswords and how they work. When they lost the first one. Part 6 whole class and pairs some objects. Extension Build up a crossword on the board. when Mr Carlsson visited them. e. camera. And so Mr Carlsson gave the ring back to them. tape measure.. C 25. Focus on Part 9 Assessment . 'To Inger. INTERNATIONAL. round.g. Thomas'.

All three parts of message attempted. Candidates at this level are not expected to produce faultless English. or totally incomprehensible response. but I think it's so nice! The nicest part of Marina is the seaside front. Mark scheme for Part 9 Mark 5 4 3 Criteria All three parts of message clearly communicated.How is Part 9 assessed? There are 5 marks for Part 9. It isn't very big. Only minor spelling errors or occasional grammatical errors. What mark. 1 0 Assessment Activity Assessing candidates performance Look at this sample Part 9 task (PDF) Here are four sample answers to the question. It is a seaside resort near Pisa. What is the main focus of assessment? The main focus for assessment is how successfully the three points have been communicated. . do you think each answer achieved and why? Now look at the examiners' comments. a candidate should write a cohesive message which successfully communicates all three parts of the message. from 0-5. All three parts of message communicated. The errors in expression may require patience and interpretation by the reader. Expression may require interpretation by the reader. with only minor grammatical and spelling errors. grammar and/or punctuation. but it is secondary. Here is my town. Only minor spelling errors or occasional grammatical errors. Some errors in spelling. A great variety of fully acceptable answers is possible. to achieve 5 marks. The accuracy of the language is important and will be rewarded. Do you agree? Focus on Assessment Sample Answers Sample 1 Dear Sam. Only one part of the message communicated. Some errors in spelling and grammar. Two parts of message are clearly communicated. but. Marina de Pisa. 2 Only two parts of message communicated. Question unattempted.

It is acceptable that 'the people' should be the nicest part of the candidate's town. By the way I'm not went out in evenings. All three parts of the message are clearly communicated with only minor errors. People lived in my town are friendly and nice. I go always there! Francesca Sample 2 Dear Sam. Bye David Focus on Assessment Examiners' Comments Sample 1 This answer scored 5 marks. Here is post cart shows you my tawn. Information about the size of the town is not given.On summer holiday. Sample 3 This answer scored 3 marks. I hope you can come here. although it was small but lovely. The nicest part of my town is the park and every evening my friends and I go to the park. Here is a postcard of my town. It looks like Huesca. Only two parts of the message are communicated. it in south. In evening I go to jungle with my friend. Sample 2 This answer scored 4 marks. I lived in a small town. The nicest part is mountains. All three parts of the message are communicated but there are frequent errors with tenses. I think that's the nicest part of my town. Love Ruby Sample 3 Dear Sam. Gloria Sample 4 Dear Sam. Sample 4 . they always help each other. in the evening.

What skill is being tested? Understanding the main message of the text. You need to understand every word of the notice to be able to get the right answer. Sample Part 1 Task (PDF) Answers Things to Consider Think about how you approached the task and then say whether the following statements are true or false. schools. KET Reading and Writing Part 1 Task Description In this task. look at this sample Part 1 from a KET Reading and Writing paper. 2. What sort of text do candidates have to read? The kind of signs. One way to get the right answer is to look for the same word in the notice and the sentence (word-spotting). shops etc. the street. Understanding the Task To understand better how students need to approach this task. railway stations. notices and labels that we see around us in daily life. offices. You may need to change your mind about an answer as you go through the task. Only two parts of the message are communicated and there are errors in spelling and grammar which require patience on the part of the reader. airports. . 3. 4. candidates have to match a sign or notice with a simple paraphrase of its meaning.This answer scored 2 marks. 1. Where do the texts come from? From roads. The two extra notices should make the candidate think hard. Complete the task and then consider the questions below.