A presentation by

Ossai, r.m. (CEnv)
National president

Waste management society of Nigeria

6st national council on environment meeting held at Katsina state secretariat katsina

13th 17th November, 2006


CWMgr.WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY FOR 21ST CENTURY NIGERIAN (Concept. waste management infrastructure is capital intensive. Consequently. In the today’s world of private sector driven economy. environmental degradation. Nigerian waste management industry is faced with the problem of: • • Commercialization of waste management services and cost recovery Availability of investment capital and infrastructural development. the national aspiration of Nigeria for waste management is achievable with appropriate and well-targeted and integrated policy instruments that will be driven by strong political will. 2 . MNIA) ISWA Certified Int’l Waste Manager National President: Waste Management Society of Nigeria Managing Director: The Initiates Ltd. Content and Constraint) Potentially. It therefore follows naturally that it lacks the qualities of perfect-market goods. CEnv. waste management services are generally considered non-productive. absence of waste management services account for unsanitary condition. Ossai R. often times not accepted by public and highly exposed to risk of uncertainty. MNES. rmossai@initiatesgroup. MCIWM. high risk of exposure to incidence and spread of diseases and. technological innovation and business initiatives. It is practically impossible for a noncommercial activity to attract private fund. (MSc. Vertical and horizontal partnership amongst governments and the private sector in the industry is necessary to ensure that the reform agenda of the Government bring a sustainable change to the industry. Additionally. Nonetheless. waste is hazardous and consists of rejects.M.

are highly dominated by economic objectives so.4 to 0. These services when delivered provide a multiplicity of consumption units that are identical and would not be efficient to exclude any member of the community from enjoying them thus. This amounts to over 50milion tons per annum average waste burden on the nation with less than 10% waste management capacity. Waste complexity is also increasing with biodegradable waste currently accounting for over 50%. Thus waste does not possess perfect-market goods quality. Nigerian development policies have been poorly coordinated and. bulk of available fund is in government possession resulting in 3 . Hence the benefit of waste management goes to all. with current figures ranging from 0. waste management service is an impure public good that nations aspire to achieve to be in tune with growth.8 Ton /capita /annum. This capacity is generally provided and delivered by public sector. infrastructural capacity and manpower. Primarily. environmental protection is low ranked. Furthermore. It is a potential hazard by virtue of its nature and composition and so its management is a hazardous activity.7% per annum. It is a service that is equally available to all members of community. Commercialization of this sector has remained a task with poor or no success story throughout Nigeria due to poor national policy framework. Nigerian waste generation is on the increase at an estimated rate of about 0. the objectives of waste management are urban hygiene and environmental protection.5 – 0.A) NIGERIAN PROFILE Waste as it is construed in today Nigeria is anything that lacks utility or object or substance that the owner either voluntarily or involuntarily relinquishes ownership of.

private sector controlled economy and environmental awareness. housing etc. increased urbanization. more public demand for protection from environmental affront and consequently more integrated development policies with increased control of waste management.high rate of corruption and low private sector participation. The 21st Century Nigeria is expected to witness technological growth. These changes shall be accompanied by increased waste yield and complexity. This is far less than the recommended standard of three to five percent (3-5%) of national GDP. private sector is very weak and unable to deliver basic services like waste management. B) NATIONAL ASPIRATION The United Nation Conference on Environment and Development of 1972 (otherwise known as Stockholm’s Conference) and the resulting resolution heralded the new global environmental revolution. Consequently. This revolution was declared significant to all facets of human life during the Rio Earth Summit 4 . respectively on waste collection and disposal. Currently less than one percent (1%) of Nigerian GDP is spent annually on waste management and water supply with Lagos and Rivers States leading with a monthly expenditure of about 300 and 100milion naira. Nigeria has over thirty five percent (35%) of her population living in the cities with a growing urbanization rate of about 7% per annum and less than ten percent (10%) of the city populations enjoying marginal waste management services. urban cleansing.

economic and regulatory mechanisms.of 1992. achieving adequate waste management services for the urban population by 2025 including full services coverage and. national. • Attaining necessary technical. this means paying for the use of environmental resources. it is expected that rural areas should have and adequately maintain sanitation coverage. These targets include: • Securing by the year 2000. financial and human resources capacity for waste collection commensurate with need by 2000 and. Agenda 21 as ratified by Nigeria is a contract between government. • Development of programmes and plans by industrialized economies by the year 2000 to stabilize and reduce generation of ultimate waste. The targets of this noble goal are born out of the global objectives of decoupling economic growth from ultimate waste yield. Sustainable Waste Management forms a central part of the revolution. prevention and minimization of hazardous wastes generation using information. regional and international capacity to access. • By 2025. businesses and the NGOs to introduce major economic reforms to create enabling environment aimed at progressively internalizing environmental cost of goods and services. process and monitor waste information. both as source of raw materials and as sink for 5 . recovery of materials and sustainable patterns of production and consumption of goods and services. Generally. The goals as enshrined in Agenda 21 seek the achievement of environmentally sound management through increased safe disposal.

6 . waters and the atmosphere. This requires proper pricing and charging of both producers and consumers of goods and services to instil sensible use of environmental resources. The contract is to accelerate a unique partnership for change. this is trivialised by 4th Schedule of the same Constitution. remediation of contaminated sites to propagate environmental improvement. In this spirit.wastes generated. A reflection of this proclamation on waste management implies: • responsible waste disposal targeted at protection of our environment • maximization of reuse and recycling potential of waste to enhance environmental resources conservation. are residual by virtue of it not appearing in any of the lists in 2nd Schedule of the Constitution. However. • Establishment and upgrading of waste management facilities and. Section 20 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution proclaimed the national environmental aspiration as the protection and improvement of our environment including the land. It is also important to state that Sub-Section ‘h’ of Section 1 of this Schedule merely referred to refuse disposal not waste in its entirety or its management. which casually ascribed the responsibility to Local Government. Waste matters outside incidentals.

In obedience to this. it is obviously not regulated in most developing economics including Nigeria leading to serious health and longterm environmental liabilities on the nation. It clearly proclaims prompt domestication of international legal instruments that Nigeria ratifies. Nigeria today has no comprehensive policy framework on waste management and so has no nationally acceptable definition of waste. international and political arena. waste management industry has become one of the most controlled in the developed economies. Policy instruments could be principally classed into informative.The Waste management objectives of 1989 National Environmental Policy are protection of public health and environmental pollution control. regulatory and economic. The policy stipulates national methods for waste and pollution information development and also prescribes environmental protection as a constitutional duty of all tiers of governments. C) POLICY INSTRUMENT Environmental revolution has critically made the trend of control very complex by extending waste management issues beyond public health protection and national boundaries. the discussion on policy instruments as basic tool. It now extends into private and futuristic interests. Instruments for provision and delivery of knowledge or awareness in the form of information to make actors more rational in the material flow cycle are informative. Sadly. Regulatory 7 . This paper recognizes this gap and the relationship between control instruments and policy direction hence. Nevertheless.

These policy instruments maybe directed at products. enforcement capacity. It is important to note that these instruments are not used independent of the other for effectiveness. but pressures generated in this sector are special and includes service. These pressures are dependent on the adjustment mechanisms of technical capacity. protection and control. energy and procurement policies. water resources. process or actors to stimulate necessary mechanisms for adjusting social pressures. 8 . public enlightenment and information disclosure demand. product or actions with a view to redirecting either positive or negative incentives are economic instruments. Mainstreaming of waste policy into every sectors and also into the up and downstream of material cycle are basic requirements for departure from the present situation. Nigeria should be desirous of policies that are more responsive to product-related waste problems than process-related. stipulate how certain activities should be conducted or used to distribute responsibility within the chain of material flow. waste accountability and cost recovery are the challenges of Nigeria Waste Management industry. compliance capacity. raw material. the policies should be highly related to physical development.maybe administrative or directive-base instrument used to proscribe or allow certain actions. Nonetheless. As consumer nation. willingness-to-pay. Policy instruments are not limited to waste management. The targets of waste management policies in Nigeria should be different from those of the developed countries as control. while those that create financial burdens or relief for certain process.

• Technically adopting a stepwise approach that recognizes all technological options in lieu of Waste hierarchy (integrated waste management). 9 . This framework shall address the following: • Imposing of physical. thus structuring responsibilities and jurisdiction in similar manner to minimise friction and improve business environment. investment capital subsidy and tax holidays. • Encourage development of National professional organization in waste management for establishment of code of conduct and best practices in the industry. • Imposing of secondary raw material content in goods and subsidizing cost of energy generation from waste. • Transfer service delivery to private sector who will gradually assume the responsibility of cost recovery. informative and financial duties on waste generator and importers or producers of special products. • Increase financial incentives to waste manager in terms of duty exemption. This shall ensure that environmental objectives are always balanced and also give room for transitional technology • Develop the concept of provision of service that will gradually shift from Government to waste generator.A conceptual framework of an enduring policy instrument likely to sustain Nigerian aspiration in waste management shall recognize the socioeconomic structure of Nigeria.

brave political decisions are required in order to implement policy instruments. Critical to development of a supportive Waste Management Industry for the 21st Century Nigerian economy is waste accountability through informative policy instrument. will stimulate private investment and encourage sustainable production and consumption. This will in no small measure engender the internalization of cost of waste management into goods and services and. financial and informative. technological innovations and business initiatives contributes in accelerating performance of industry policies. the Nigerian Waste Management industry has failed to attract commensurate private fund. despite proclaimed national aspiration. Waste generator shall be physically responsible as the owner of wastes generated. These explain why. waste generator shares in the economic burden of managing the waste (from collection to disposal). Imperative therefore are political and economic will. Waste accountability includes three responsibilities physical. In this light. The industry requires more of mandatory rather than voluntary policies. treatment and responsible disposal. It is important to note that policy instruments have limited application in Nigerian economic system because of its consumer nature. Financially. Waste 10 . This entails duty to ensure good storage. However.POLICY DRIVER Waste Management is generally considered as a non-productive process with non-commercial objectives and so requires more than market forces to stimulate private investments in the industry. relevance of Waste Management and above all several governments’ interventions.

Therefore innovation likely to address public needs in terms of material recovery or energy need or that likely to link Waste Management to other sectors. impact on Waste Management policy instruments potency. information provision. Invariably.generator by this instrument shall be required to render and account of its waste yield to regulators either personally or through the waste managers. 11 . This informative instrument shall encourage planning and improve certainties in the industry thereby minimizing investment risks. as waste is increasingly becoming more complex and ecological capital is correspondingly shrinking. Core to business concerns are setting of standards establishment of codes of conducts. • assign provision of collection services responsibility to the lowest level of authority (Local Council) • • organise large-scale disposal by State Government increase assessment and monitoring capability and accountability by allocating the responsibility across board. lobbying and networking. voluntary agreements and social reporting. The aim therefore. these aid governments in moderating commercial objectives for achievement of the primary goals of waste management and further help to secure internal benefits to the public and financial gains to businesses. of the 21st Century policy drivers should be to. Business initiative contributes in awareness raising. • • develop skill and ensure capacity building at all levels implement best (affordable) user’s charge system. Key to Waste Management development also are technological innovations.

progressive and long-term costrecovery programme. a shift from process to product. The implications of this in the waste management industry are competitiveness. shared risks. Sequel to this. This is not only in the productive sectors but includes the waste management industry. These strategic requirements of the industry are meant to create a shift from no control to controlled situation. This means government implicit participation in the industry (either in moderation of cost recovery mechanism. the economy of the 21st century Nigeria shall be based on open-market driven cost recovery system. it must be understood that waste management services is the forth public utilities because of the latent ‘public goods” content and is incapable of absolute alienation from government. accountability. Also Horizontal partnership between public and private sector (for easy public acceptance of facilities. and commercial drive and for efficiency) is a necessary requirement for speedy industry growth.CONCLUSION The reforms of the present government and the dictates of the global business environment secure the economy of the 21st century Nigeria in the hands of private sector. implementing public enlightenment. strategic planning. a shift from public conception of service as public goods to private goods and 12 . In developing strategies to engender the above industry qualities. cost effectiveness and efficient service delivery. and separation of service provision and delivery. enforcing and developing standards) is fundamental. Vertical partnership (amongst all tiers of governments) for political commitment. coherent framework and shotcircuiting of unpopular political decisions is an ingredient of this participation.

above all development of technical capacity and integration of waste management into national development plan. Practically. this can be initiated by the National Assembly with a Bill of the following content: • Provision of a more functional. including occupational safety and. States and Local governments including streamlining of the multiple Agencies charged with the responsibilities of Waste Management) • Establishment of instruments for waste information system management and coordination • Institutionalizing best practices and high environmental standards. transparent and effective institutional arrangement (defining roles of Federal. • To put measures in place for continuous performance improvement in waste management through the culture of professionalism 13 .

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