Ch. 8-9: Bonding AP Review Questions **Read attached notes on isomers and coordination compounds.

** 1) A chemist analyzed the carbon-carbon bond in C2H6 and found that it had a bond energy of 350 kJ/mol and a bond length of 1.5 angstroms. If the chemist performed the same analysis on the carbon-carbon bond in C2H2, how would the results compare? a) The bond energies and lengths for C2H2 would be the same as those of C2H6. b) The bond energy for C2H2 would be smaller and the bond length would be shorter. c) The bond energy for C2H2 would be greater and the bond length would be longer. d) The bond energy for C2H2 would be smaller and the bond length would be longer. e) The bond energy for C2H2 would be greater and the bond length would be shorter.

3) Which of the following does not follow the octet rule? a) PCl3 b) NO2 c) CO2 d) CO32- e) HCO31-

2) 2 HI(g) → H2(g) + I2(g) For the reaction given above, ∆Ho is –50 kJ. Based on the information given in the table below, what is the average bond energy of the H-I bond? Bond Average Bond Energy (kJ/mol) H—H 440 I—I 150 a) 270 kJ/mol b) 540 kJ/mol c) 590 kJ/mol d) 640 kJ/mol e) 1180 kJ/mol

4) Which of the following violates the octet rule? a) NF3 b) IF3 c) PF3 d) SbF3 e) AsF3

**Exceptions to Octet Rule: See #4 above: it does not follow the octet rule (too many e-). It is stable, because it uses the empty "d" orbitals for hybrid orbitals. See #30: the NO does not follow the octet rule, since it has an unpaired electron. But it becomes stable by forming a dimer. Then all parts have 8 electrons!

which one of the following would be the most useful in determining whether the molecule was bent or linear? a) ionization energies b) electron affinities c) dipole moments d) electronegativities e) bond energies 6) The most polar of the following molecules is a) NH4+ b) SO42.c) CF4 d) CH3CH2OH e) CH3CH2CHO 7) The most polar covalent bond is found between which two elements based on the electronegativity of the elements? a) C—N b) P—F c) S—O d) Si—C e) O—P 10) Of the following molecules. AB. which of the following gases is expected to deviate the most from ideal gas behavior? a) oxygen b) nitrogen c) methane d) carbon dioxide e) water .5) Which of the following is expected to have the largest dipole moment? a) CH4 b) CO2 c) SF6 d) HCN e) Cl- 9) A linear molecule can have the general formulas AA. which has the largest dipole moment? a) CO b) CO2 c) O2 d) HF e) F2 8) Under identical conditions. Given a molecule with the general formula AB2. or AB2.

b) CO2 c) NO2 d) SO2 e) SO3 14) Which of the following is used to describe the interaction of orbitals to form pi bonds? . (b).11) Which of the following contains nine sigma bonds and two pi bonds? a) CCl2F2 b) HCN c) HCHO d) CH3COOH e) CH2CHCHCH2 15) Which of the following contains exactly 18 valence electrons? a) CO32.c) SO3 d) HClO4 e) CO2 17) Which of the following has no resonance structures? a) CO32. and (c) e) (a) only 16) Which of the following has three resonance structures? a) H2SO4 b) NO2.b) CO2 c) NO2 d) SO2 e) SO3 12) Which of the following molecules has more than one pi bond? a) CO2 b) SO2 c) NH3 d) C3H6 e) CH2O 13) The Lewis-Dot structure of an oxygen molecule has a) one sigma bond b) one pi bond c) four nonbonded pairs d) (a).

include which of the following? I. sp3 a) I only b) III only c) I and II only d) II and III only e) I. the repulsion between four regions of high electron density on a central atom are at a minimum when they a) point to the four corners of a square b) point to the four corners of a rectangle c) have a tetrahedral geometry d) are arranged at 90 degrees to each other e) have bi-pyramidal geometry 25) What is the percentage of s-character in sp3 hybrid orbitals? a) 25 b) 33 c) 50 d) 66 e) 75 22) The geometry of the nitrate ion. sp II.18) The shape of CH4 is explained using a) VSEPR theory b) Hund’s Rule c) transition state theory d) quantum numbers e) Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 23) How many of the following molecules have all of their atoms in the same plane? CH2CH2 F2O H2CO NH3 CO2 BeCl2 H2O2 a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6 e) 7 19) The bond angles about the carbon atom in the formaldehyde molecule. CH3CHCH2. and III 21) According to VSEPR. H2C=O. NO3-. are approximately a) 180 degrees b) 120 degrees c) 90 degrees d) 60 degrees e) 109 degrees 20) Which of the following is predicted to have a square planar molecular structure? a) TeBr4 b) BrF3 c) IF5 d) XeF4 e) SCl2 24) Types of hybridization exhibited by the C atoms in propene. sp2 III. is best described as a a) tetrahedron b) trigonal bipyramid c) linear structure d) triangular planar structure e) square pyramid . II.

sp II. sp3 III. II. and III Questions 30-34 a) SO2 b) SiH4 c) CO2 d) Be2 e) NO 30) In which of the choices is there polar double bonding in a nonpolar molecule? 31) In which molecule(s) does resonance occur? 32) In which molecule is the bond order 2 ½? 33) Which of the molecules has four sp3 hybrid bonds? 34) Which molecule would you expect to be unstable on the basis of molecular orbital theory? 27) Which of the following does not form sp3 hybrid orbitals? a) carbon b) nitrogen c) hydrogen d) oxygen e) sulfur 28) Which of the following contains an atom with sp3 hybrid orbitals? a) CH4 b) HCN c) H2 d) BH3 e) CO2 29) Which of the following has d2sp3 hybridization with no unshared pairs on the central atom? a) H2O b) NH3 c) CH4 d) SF6 e) XeF4 . dsp3 a) I only b) II only c) I and II only d) I and III only e) I.26) A molecule whose atoms are arranged linearly could have a central atom with which of the following hybridizations? I.

38) This molecule contains one unpaired electron. Mg2+ has a greater positive charge than K+ II. S2. 36) The melting point of MgS is higher than that of KCl. and III .35) An unknown substance is placed into a hot flame. II.has a smaller radius than Cla) III only b) II and III only c) I and III only d) I and II only e) I. Which of the following substances is most likely to be the unknown? a) Cu(NO3)2 b) NaCl c) KCl d) LiCl e) Ba(NO3)2 Questions 37-40 a) CO2 b) H2O c) SO2 d) NO2 e) O2 37) In this molecule. 40) This molecule is the main product of photosynthesis. The color of the flame is a bright red. Which of the following observations can explain this? I.has a greater negative charge than ClIII. S2. 39) This molecule contains no pi (π) bonds. oxygen forms sp3 hybrid orbitals.

Questions 41-43 a) Heisenberg uncertainty principle b) Shrodinger equation c) Hund’s Rule d) X-ray diffraction e) Photoelectric effect 41) Can be used to predict the paramagnetism of certain elements. 43) Predicts the locations and orientations of atomic orbitals. 42) Predicts that it is impossible to simultaneously know both the location and momentum of an electron. 44) Dimethylether (CH3 O CH3) and ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH) are examples of a) position isomerism b) structural isomerism c) stereo isomerism d) (a) and (b) e) optical isomerism 45) What is the proper name of [Co(NH3)5Br]Cl2? a) Cobaltpentaamine bromodichloride b) Pentaaminecobalt(III) bromodichloride c) Dichlorocobalt(V) bromodichloride d) Dichloropentaaminecobalt(III) bromide e) Pentaaminebromocobalt(III) chloride .

46) Which formula correctly represents the diamminediaquadibromochromium(III) ion? a) [Cr(H2O)2(NH3)2Br2]+ b) [(NH3)2(H2O)Br2Cr]3+ c) [Cr(H2O)2(NH3)2Br2]3+ d) [(NH3)2(H2O)2Br2+Cr]+ e) [Cr(H2O)2(NH3)Br2]2+ 48) Which of the following is not a complex ion? a) Cr2O72b) Ag(NH3)2+ c) FeCl63d) Cd(CN)422e) HgI4 47) Which of the following cannot be a complex ion? a) Fe(CN)63b) Cu(NH4)42+ 4c) Co(Cl)6 d) AlF63e) AgCl2 .

Indicate the number of valence electrons on the central atom. Sketch and indicate the geometry of each of the following species. Show unshared electron pairs only when they appear on the central atom.Written Questions: 1) Give the total number of valence electrons in species. a) BeF2 b) NO21c) Br31d) XeF4 . Give the approximate bond angles.

and as ozone. is less than 109.5o. O2. the bond between the two carbons in C2H2 is significantly shorter than the bond between the two carbons in C2H6. CO32-. However. H3O+. a) Draw the Lewis structures for both molecules. . c) The lengths of the bonds between the carbon and the oxygens in the carbonate ion. b) The bond angle in the hydronium ion. a) C2H2 and C2H6 both contain two carbon atoms. O3. the angle of a tetrahedron. d) Explain why the two bonds in O3 are the same length and are longer than the bond length of the bond in diatomic oxygen. d) The CNO. are all equal and are longer than one might expect to find in the carbon monoxide molecule. b) Use the principles of bonding and molecular structure to account for the fact that ozone has a higher boiling point than diatomic oxygen.2) Oxygen is found in the atmosphere as a diatomic gas. c) Use the principles of bonding and molecular structure to account for the fact that ozone is more soluble than diatomic oxygen in water. CO.ion is linear. 3) Interpret each of the following four examples using modern bonding principles.

(i) NF5 (ii) AsF5 .4) Consider the molecules PF3 and PF5. or is it nonpolar? Explain. predict whether each of the following compounds exists. explain your prediction. a) Draw the Lewis electron-dot structures for PF3 and PF5 and predict the molecular geometry of each. b) Is the PF3 molecule polar. In each case. c) On the basis of bonding principles.

d) For sulfur. b) Molecules of AsF3 are polar. whereas HCl (normal boiling point = -114 oC) is a gas. . whereas they are unequal in HNO2.ion are equal in length. HF (normal boiling point = 20 oC) is a liquid. c) The N—O bonds in the NO2. and SF6 are known to exist. the fluorides SF2.5) Explain each of the following observations in terms of the electronic structure and/or bonding of the compounds involved. a) At ordinary conditions. whereas for oxygen only OF2 is known to exist. SF4. whereas molecules of AsF5 are nonpolar.

873 atm in a 10.00g of a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen is burned in an insufficient amount of oxygen to convert all the carbon to CO2. The only other substance left after the reaction is complete is CO.0 L container.25 g of CO2. What is the molar mass of the compound? What is the molecular formula of the compound? d) Draw the Lewis structure for this compound and describe its geometry in words. 12.6) 10. . a) What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? b) How many grams of CO are formed? c) At 25 oC the 10.00 g sample of the hydrocarbon alone had a pressure of 0.86 g of water is formed along with 22.

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