Paper No. T11-3.1, pp. 1-4


PSU-UNS International Conference on Engineering and Environment - ICEE-2005, Novi Sad 19-21 May, 2005
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences
Trg D. Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia & Montenegro

Juntima Chungsiriporn*, Charun Bunyakan, Romporn Nikom
Prince of Songkla University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 THAILAND. E-mail :

Abstract: Toluene, a high volatility organic solvent, is generated from painting, coating, and printing industries. The toluene emitted results in air emissions that can cause air pollution, flammability problem and effect on human health. Toluene removal by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were studied in spray wet scrubber. The removal efficiency was studied for the influence of scrubbing variables such as toluene concentration, air flow rate and NaOCl solution flow rate, NaOCl concentration, and oxidant drop size. The study reveals that the wet scrubber with oxidation reaction is necessary for high toluene removal efficiency. The increase of NaClO solution concentration and flow rate, and toluene concentration with the decrease of air flow rate and drop size in the spray scrubber operation can increase the toluene removal efficiency. The optimum concentration of NaOCl was derived to suggest for the useless of NaOCl excess and unnecessary cost. The highest of the toluene treatment in this study is 85%. Key Words: VOCs /Toluene /Sodium hypochlorite / Wet scrubber 1. INTRODUCTION Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the primary air pollution emitted from many kinds of industry. In order to limit VOCs emission, two possible actions of VOCs destruction and VOCs recovery are foreseen today. Treatment of the air emission by destruction can be done through many kinds of technologies such as oxidation and biological treatment [1]. Wet scrubber VOCs recovery add-on control device, is normally used to remove particulate matter and soluble gases from gas stream by counter current flow of waste air and solution [2]. Absorption occurs in the wet scrubber by contacting the contaminated air with a liquid solvent. The air stream is scrubbed by transferring of soluble VOCs to the liquid phase. Many kinds of wet scrubber, for example, venture scrubber, pecked-bed wet scrubber, spray scrubber have been used for VOCs removal in rendering industry. For poorly, water soluble VOCs, mass transfer from the gas phase must be coupled with rapid reaction in the liquid phase for high removal efficiencies in wet scrubbers [3]. Then adding a strong oxidizing reagent in the scrubbing liquid to act as both conveyors and oxidation performs the treatment for this kind of VOCs. Wet scrubbers with 1

oxidation reaction remove air pollutants by impaction, reaction with a sorbent or reagent, or diffusion into the interior liquid. The oxidizing chemicals, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), chlorine (Cl2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) are normally utilized to treat VOCs in wet scrubbers. Sodium hypochlorite one of the most strongly oxidative and fast-acting disinfectants against [4] is suitable for toluene treatment [5]. Yielding of the oxidation reaction are oxidation products (salt) and chloride ions. Toluene, a high volatility organic solvent, is generated from painting, coating, and printing industries [7]. The toluene emitted results in air emissions that can cause air pollution, flammability problem and effect on human health. Toluene treatment using spray scrubber with NaOCl oxidation was studied in this work. Knowledge of the kinetics of toluene oxidation reaction in batch kinetic analysis [5] and the design of experiment were used. Response surface methodology (RSM) a mathematical and statistical technique is an attractive tool to determine the optimal values of variables without the necessity of testing all possible combinations [6]. An important aspect of RSM is the design of experiment (DOE) to select for the points where the response should be evaluated and to develop for model fitting. Central composite designs (CCD) containing fractional factorial design with center and axial points are efficiently DOE for the construction of the quadratic model. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of scurbbing parameters on the toluene treatment by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in the spray scrubber. The result obtained from this work can be used as guidance for improvement efficiency of toluene treatment using spray scrubber with oxidation. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Experimental for this study can be separated to two parts of experimental design and experimental set up as the following detail: 2.1 Experimental Design RSM was used as a tool for design of experiment. In this work, the 4 interesting parameters consisting of toluene concentration, air flow rate and NaOCl solution flow rate, and NaOCl concentration were designed as shown in table 1. Essential regression statistical package

1 Schematic diagram of wet scrubber for treating toluene in waste air The spray scrubber was equipped with air blower.5 mm) to investigate the effect of spraying drop size in treatment capability. This curve clearly show that the removal efficiency is decreased when the air feed rate is increased from 100 to 250 m3/h. After completed of all experiment as designed. was designed and constructed to study for the efficiency of toluene removal using NaOCl as oxidizing reagent. × 100 inlet conc. the increasing in air flow rate results the lower retention time. The toluene concentrations in inlet and Rotameter outlet air were measured and calculated for toluene removal efficiency using Eq. The toluene generator was designed to create air emission stream using compressed air to carry out the toluene from storage tank. 3. The samples of air stream were collected from the inlet and outlet point of the spray chamber to measure the toluene concentration. Interested range of experimental parameter Toluene Air flow NaOCl NaOCl concentration rate solution concentration (ppm) (m3/h) flow rate (mol/l) (m3/h) 150-1500 100-300 0. The percentage of decreasing in toluene concentration in outlet air comparing to inlet air reflects the efficiency of the toluene removal by wet scrubber performance. The experiments performed with this system to study the effect of Clean concentration of toluene and NaOCl.4 sec. Volume of the scrubbing chamber is 0. a type of wet scrubber.3 . The inlet air emission stream is passed to contact with NaOCl solution in the spray chamber. Air flow rate actually relates to retention time that is the time of toluene presents in the spray chamber as explained in Eq.2. moisture collector. % eff. The effect of drop size was extensively designed for a later set of experiment. As the samples were taken every 1 hr for totally operating time of 6 hrs. and drop size. Compressed A ir VOC tank (2) The effects of all parameters on the toluene removal efficiency were studied as detailed below: Circulating pump Oxidant solution tank 3. − outlet conc. Totally 26 experimental runs were designed. The NaOCl solution is introduced to the .3.). flow rate of air and air NaOCl solution.2. and agitated storage tank.8 0-0. V (3) Rt = Q where Rt is retention time (hrs. the results were averaged and reported.1 M oisture collector scrubbing chamber by recirculation system that consists of circulating pump. The tests were run according to design of experiment as previously set. spray chamber. The NaOCl solution flow rate was adjusted to the predetermined flow rate. Spray chamber consists of empty cylindrical chambers in which the gas stream is countercurrent contacted with liquid droplets generated by spray nozzles. Table 1. nozzle was changed (from 1 mm to 0.4 m3 then the calculated retention time for this experiment is in the range of 1. rotameter for flow measurement. Results of the experiments are used to describe the effect of all parameters in the removal efficiency. and NaOCl solution recirculation system. The toluene feed was adjusted to the predetermined toluene concentration and kept the constant controlled condition throughout the test.1 Effect of air flow rate The effect of air feed flow rate on toluene removal efficiency was tested and the results are presented in Fig. The coded form of +1 and -1 resulting of design condition for each parameter was transformed to the parameter of experiment. V is chamber volume (m3) and Q is feed flow rate (m3/h). RESULT AND DISCUSSION A ir Spray Chamber Experiments of toluene removal in spray scrubber were carried out coincide with the oxidation reaction using NaOCl oxidative reagent.5-0. As volume of the chamber in this experiment is constant. The emission air flow rate was measured using digital flow meter and controlled by the opening of blower. = inlet conc.03 2. The oxidation reaction of toluene and oxidizing reagent occur with the removing of toluene from the air Microsoft Excel was used as a tool to design for experimental run using CCD method. Retention time play an 2 Fig. NaOCl aqueous solution was initially prepared as designed concentration and periodically added up to control at constant figure.2 Experimental set up and procedure Spray scrubber. Interested parameters were controlled according to the design of experiment. The operating time of each designed condition was 6 hrs and the gas samples of both entry and outlet points were taken every 1 hr to measure the toluene concentration and calculate for the toluene removal efficiency. VOCs generator. Schematic diagram of wet scrubber for toluene removal is shown in Fig.

Effect of NaOCl solution flow rate on toluene treatment in wet scrubber using NaOCl. It was found that at the concentration of 0 mg/l.1 0. 3.5 0.4. Effect of NaOCl concentration on toluene removal in wet scrubber using NaOCl reagent.9 Flow oxidant (m /h) Fig. Then the removal efficiency is low and slightly increased with the increasing of the concentration.1.015 0. Effect of toluene concentration on toluene removal in wet scrubber using NaOCl oxidative reagent.4 Effect of NaOCl concentration The experiments were carried out at five different NaOCl concentrations in the range of 0 to 0. The experiments performed to study the effect of NaOCl concentration on toluene removal efficiency.3. In this concentration range the toluene removal efficiency is low with a value of 57%.8 0. % Tolu ene rem oval 65 60 55 50 45 50 100 150 200 3 3.03 0. which is reflected by the toluene removing efficiency.02 mg/l. Then the reaction rate will significantly high at higher toluene concentration and the oxidation reaction will dominate over the impaction and absorption characteristic.3 Effect of NaOCl solution flow rate The set of experiments was performed to study the effect of NaOCl solution flow rate on toluene removal efficiency by oxidation reaction.2. The higher NaOCl concentration (> 0.035 Toluene concentration (ppm) O xidant concentration (mol/l) Fig. Effect of air feed flow rate on toluene removal in wet scrubber using NaOCl oxidative reagent.02 0.4 0. The order of reaction with respect to toluene is 1. Thus the toluene removal efficiency was significantly increased with increasing toluene concentration. It is evident that the trend could be separately considered to 2 regions. If a drop of NaOCl solution is considered as one of oxidation reactor.5.03 mg/l.005 0. The first one is lower toluene concentration (150 – 750 ppm). The results are shown in Fig.025 0.4. most likely due to the useless of excess NaClO. 3 . 3. These can be explained by the rate law of toluene oxidation by NaOCl [5] as Eq. (4) 65 % To luene rem o v ed % Toluene removal 90 88 86 84 82 80 63 61 59 57 55 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0 0. It advises that the optimum NaOCl concentration for the scrubbing system is 0. 80 % Toluene removal 250 300 350 Air flow rate (m /h) 70 60 50 40 0.006 to 0.03 mg/l is present in Fig. It is because a higher in solution feed flow rate can increase the number of NaOCl solution droplets. 20%. the toluene removal efficiency is approx. the higher number of reactor should remove more toluene from the air stream.006-0.1 − rtoluene = kC toluene C NaOCl 0.6 0. This curve shows that increasing the NaOCl concentration in the range of 0.2 Effect of toluene concentration The effect of toluene concentration on toluene removal efficiency was tested and the results are presented in Fig.important role in impaction and absorption time between gas stream and NaOCl solution. 1. For the requirement of toluene removal at a high flow rate the higher volume of spray chamber should be designed.4.7 3 Fig.3. For the second region with higher toluene concentration (750-1500 ppm) the toluene removal efficiency is significantly increased with the increasing of toluene concentration.02 mg/l) had tend to less effect on toluene removing. The curve indicates that the NaOCl solution flow rate has significant enhanced the toluene removal efficiency over the investigated flow rate range.5. The result of experiment for the concentration range of 0.02 mg/l significantly improved the toluene removal efficiency.01 0. Fig. At this low toluene concentration the impaction and absorption of toluene in the solution dominate over the oxidation reaction.

Ndife.13. Sumnu. 2. Fisenko. “Optimization of microwave baking of model layer cakes” Eur. and NaOCl concentration are factors of interest. Ghoshal. Vol. “Analysis of organic halides in hospital waste sludge disinfected using sodium hypochlorite” Wat. [3] Modeling reaction kinetics of chlorine dioxide and volatile organic compounds with artificial neural networks Available online: http://www.I. [2] S. Food Technol. M.1 73. Table 2.3. “Simulation and experiments on the formation of ammonium chloride particle in wet scrubbers” Chemical Engineering and Processing. pp.. “Oxidation of Toluene by Sodium Hypochlorite: Kinetics Study and Application for Wet Scrubber”. Conservation and Recycling. Tsai.117-128.5 Effect of drop size The effect of NaOCl solution drop size on the toluene removal was studied by changing the opening of spray nozzle. Khan and A. 5. Then the diffusion. budget year 2004.211. T. 2003. 2000. Kuo.5 0. toluene concentration of 350 ppm. 2000. C.K. Lee.T.6 The controlled conditions were air flow rate of 175 m3/h.527-545.5 47. The preparation of NaOCl solution should not higher than the optimum value because the NaOCl excess is useless and unnecessary cost. and F.8 0. pp. Vol. Chungsiriporn. B.5 0. It is because the decreasing in drop size results the increasing in both number and surface area of NaOCl drop. 4. Prince of Songkla University.. The second set of experiments was later designed and tested as shown the result in Table 2. In conclusion. The effects of interested parameters of toluene treatment in wet scrubber by oxidation reaction can be obtained from this study. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Prince of Songkla University provided the funding for this research. Faculty of Engineering. 2000. Bayindirli.8 3. Lin. Kr. Aguru and J. The highest of the toluene treatment in this study is 85%. Wu.T. NaOCl oxidizing agent is effectively used to treat the toluene contaminated in air. poorly water soluble compound. Chang. REFERENCE [1] F. 8-9 December 2004. 6.5 0. 4 . Shabunya. Wende. it was found that. Having high NaOCl solution flow rate. pp. The suggestions to improve figure are using the spray nozzle that can produce NaOCl solution in the form of mist.3.Jeng “Assessment of the strategies for reducing volatile organic compound emissions in the automotive industry in Taiwan” Resources. NaOCl concentration. pp. The Third PSU Engineering Conference. toluene feed concentration and low air flow rate and drop size can improve the toluene removal efficiency.789-800.3 54. CONCLUSION Wet scrubber and oxidation reaction are required for a high removal efficiency of toluene. Air feed rate. increase the capacity of the solution recirculation and volume of the spray chamber. The data shows that the decrease of drop size contributes to the increase of the toluene removal efficiency. [6] G.8 85. Res. S.778-784. and K.34. Vol. [5] C. Y. impaction and reaction with oxidant increased because of the increasing in contacted opportunity and surface reaction of toluene with the NaOCl droplet. and NaOCl concentration of 0. The authors thank the Graduate school for partially support to student and grateful to other support from the Department of Chemical Engineering.p. C. The study of the scrubbing parameters can then be used to suggest the operation of the wet scrubber for high efficiency and less production cost. pp.T.42. chamber volume.33. Toluene removal efficiency at difference size of spray mol/l. Vol. Bunyakan. No. Vol. and L. NaOCl solution Diameter Flow rate % Toluene 3 (mm) (m /h) removed 1 1 0. 0. Schaber. 1999. [7] C. K. NaOCl solution feed rate. and S. “Removal of volatile organic compounds from polluted air” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process 1.169174.pdf [4] C.

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