LTE Base Station Testing Basics

Emilio Franchy Senior Product Manager March 31st, 2010

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Agenda
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LTE Technology Overview LTE Terms LTE vs. 3G Comparison LTE RF Measurements LTE Modulation Measurements LTE Over-the-Air (OTA) Measurements Question & Answer

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LTE Basic Technologies – OFDMA
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In the downlink, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDMA) is selected as the air-interface for LTE. OFDMA communication systems do not rely on increased symbol rates in order to achieve higher data rates. Transmission by means of OFDM is a particular form of multi-carrier modulation (MCM) i.e. a parallel transmission method which divides an RF channel into several narrower bandwidth subcarriers. Sub-carrier typically 15 kHz
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Standard allows for other values

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PUCCH   Allows many users to be supported         At variable bit rate Scheduling many users With different quality of service Complex Time System Overhead 4 of 30 . 16 QAM.What is OFDMA? Different users   “Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access” Assigns different subcarriers & symbols to each user   Subcarrier   Can dynamically change   Each subcarrier is modulated with QAM or PSK     LTE uses QPSK. and 64 QAM BPSK for some control signals   PHICH.

11 Subcarrier varies with MIMO transmitter & Cell ID Primary & Secondary Synchronizing Signals Contains cell ID Physical Control Format Indicator Channel How many symbols are used for PDCCH Shared   P-SS. S-SS     Subcarrier   PCFICH       PBCH   Shared Physical Broadcast Channel   PHICH (not shown)       Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel Sends Acknowledgements or Not Acknowledgements Part of Error Protection system for the uplink Physical Downlink Control Channel Who’s assigned to what resources? Physical Downlink Shared Channel Where all the user data goes Shared   PDCCH       PDSCH     Time 5 of 30 .LTE Physical Channel Names (Downlink)   RS       Reference Signal Similar to Pilots in 802.

LTE Frame Structure (FDD)   Frame     Slot         10 ms 1 ms 10 per frame   Subframe     500 us 2 per subframe. 20 per frame 7 or 6 symbols (normal or extended CP) Limited usefulness. as scheduling limited to subframes Subframe Frame 10 ms 6 of 30 .

5 ms 2 slots/subframe 10 subframes/frame 1 frame = 10 ms Subcarrier Subframe 7 of 30 .Resource Blocks   Resource Block (RB)   12 subcarriers * 1 slot         1 slot = 0.

Compatible Bandwidths Time 1.4 MHz BW 3 MHz BW Control Channels in center of channel BW 5 MHz BW 10 MHz BW 15 MHz BW 20 MHz BW Frequency 8 of 30 .

Multiple Output MIMO (Transmit Diversity)   Multi-beam antenna’s       Dual 2X2 (eNodeB Tx) 4X2 (UE Rx) Quad 4X4 All signal paths MIMO Tx Diversity   Data stream repeated     Increase coverage   MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing)       Different data streams Higher data rate Relies on Multi-path MIMO Spatial Multiplexing 9 of 30 .MIMO (2X2 examples)     MIMO = Multiple Input.

LTE terms similarity to 3G terms LTE           CDMA Pilot Sync NA NA Paging NA Paging Traffic Rho Freq Accy W-CDMA CPICH P-SCH S-SCH NA BCCH NA P/S-CCPCH & PICH Traffic EVM Freq Accy RS (Reference Signal) P-SS (Primary Synchronizing Signals) S-SS (Secondary Synchronizing Signals) PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel) PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel) PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel ) PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel) EVM (Signal Quality) Frequency Accuracy           10 of 30 .

W-CDMA Measurements   RF         RF         Channel Spectrum Power vs. Time Spurious Emission ACLR   Modulation Quality         Demodulator   Resource Element Power Control & Traffic Channel Power Spectral Flatness Constellation   CDP (Code Domain Power)   Control & Traffic Channel Power   Constellation OTA       OTA     Sync Signal Scan Channel Power Monitor Pilot Scan Multipath 11 of 30 .LTE Measurements   vs. Time Spectral Emission Mask ACLR   Channel Spectrum Power vs.

Time Spurious Emission ACPR   Modulation Quality         Demodulator     Resource Element Power Control & Traffic Channel Power Spectral Flatness Constellation   CDP (CDP MAC/Data.   CDMA Measurements RF         RF         Channel Spectrum Power vs. Graph/Table) Control Channels   OTA     OTA     Sync Signal Scan Channel Power Monitor Pilot Scan Multipath 12 of 30 . Time Operating Band Unwanted Emissions (Spectrum Emission Mask) ACLR   Channel Spectrum Power vs.LTE Measurements   vs.

eNodeB : Traditional install Air Interface Interference GPS Antenna Antennas   Traditional configuration   2x2 MIMO   2 Radios per sector       Extreme weather Key HW in shelter Traditional Testing Transmitter Antenna & jumper cables LTE signal quality   Coaxial/Waveguide RF Cable Jumper if close to antenna   Test Needs     Traditional TMA’s Coaxial Feedline to TMA   Direct Connect       Fiber Optic Baseband Cable with DC Power – short run Backhaul GigE   Tx1 / Rx1   Use Test Port Interference Coverage Backhaul Fiber Directional Coupler / Test Port Channel Cards Power Supply Radio Server Tx2 / Rx2 Remote Radio Heads located close to Base Band Radio 13 of 30 .

& SEM EVM (pk) EVM Freq Error Rx Noise Floor OTA EVM Call/Session Blocking Power shortage Resource Block shortage UL Interference Call/Session Drop Radio Link Timeout UL Interference DL Interference x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx xx xx x = probable. ACLR. LTE Field Measurement Key Performance Indicators vs. Test
 Sync Power RS Power Occupied BW. xx = most probable 14 of 30 .Key Performance Indicators vs.

LTE Field Measurement vs. eNodeB Field Replaceable Units Test vs. BTS Field Replaceable Units Sync Power RS Power Occupied BW Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) Spectral Emission Mask (SEM) Error Vector Magnitude Peak (EVM pk) Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Frequency Error OTA EVM xx x x x x x Freq Ref Signal Generation x x x x x x x MCPA xx xx xx x x xx x x x xx xx xx x x Filters Antenna x x Antenna Down Tilt x = probable. xx = most probable 15 of 30 .

10. 20 MHz   Consequences   Leads to interference with neighboring carriers Dropped calls/data sessions Low capacity       Common Faults   Tx filter MCPA Channel cards Antennas   Occupied Bandwidth           A measurement of the spectrum used by the carrier The occupied bandwidth contains 99% of the signal’s RF power 16 of 30 . 5.0. 15.0.4.LTE (RF) Occupied Bandwidth   Guideline – Direct Connect   Per defined LTE bandwidth   1. 3.

LTE Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR)   Guideline – Direct Connect     -45 dBc for the adjacent channels -45 dBc for the alternate channels   Consequences   Leads to interference with neighboring carriers Low capacity Blocked calls/data sessions       Common Faults   Tx filter MCPA Channel cards Cable connectors   ACLR (single-carrier displayed)           Measures how much of the carrier gets into neighboring RF channels Checks the closest (adjacent) and the next closest (alternate) 17 of 30 .

LTE Spectral Emission Mask (SEM)   Guideline – Direct Connect     Must be below mask Received power levels matter so be sure to use the right external attenuation value   Consequences       Interference with neighboring carriers Legal liability Low signal quality     Common Faults       Spectral Emission Mask   Check amplifier output filtering Look for intermodulation distortion Look for spectral re-growth   SEM checks closer to the signal than ACLR does Regulators may require regular measurements of spectral emissions 18 of 30 .

17.5% 64 QAM – 8% dropped calls/data sessions low data rate low sector capacity blocked calls/data sessions distortion in the channel cards Power amplifier filter antenna system   Consequences           Common Faults       EVM         The ratio of errors.LTE Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)   Guidelines – Direct Connect       QPSK . compared to a perfect signal EVM applies to the entire signal 19 of 30 . or distortions.5% 16 QAM – 12. in the actual signal.

LTE Control Channels   Guideline   Per RF Engineering ± 0.5 dB If power set too low     Consequences   Blocked calls/data sessions   Initiating calls/data sessions   Dropped calls/data sessions     During handoffs If power set too high     Possible interference Lower Throughput     Common Faults   Control Channels   Improper settings in the eNodeB     Verifies Control Channel power is set correctly Signal processing Control section 20 of 30 .

05 ppm (wide area BS) ± 0. or out of the cell Reference frequency Frequency distribution system GPS.1 (local area BS) ± 0.LTE Frequency Error   Guideline – OTA with GPS       ± 0.25 (home BS) Calls will drop when mobiles travel at higher speed In some cases. if used Backhaul   Consequences       Common Faults         Frequency Error       Checks to see that the carrier frequency is precisely correct Regulatory requirement in many countries 21 of 30 . cell phones cannot hand off into.

eNode-B . Tx1 / Rx1 Channel Cards Power Supply Interference Coverage Backhaul Fiber Tx2 / Rx2 Radio Server 22 of 30 Company Confidential . Remote Radio Unit Air Interface Interference GPS Antenna Antennas   Single Sector   2x2 MIMO   RF Cable Jumper if close to antenna   2 Radios per sector   Tx1 has Sync Signal   Tx2 may have Sync Signal Test Needs       Remote Radio Heads Ideally located close to antenna Fiber Optic Baseband Cable with DC Power Transmitter Antenna & jumper cables LTE signal quality   Directional Coupler / Test Port OTA if No Access to RRU         Backhaul GigE ….

LTE Synchronization Signal Scanner   Guideline – Direct Connect       3 or fewer codes Within 10 dB of dominant code Over 95% of the coverage area   Consequences       Low data rate Low capacity Excessive soft handoffs   Common faults   Antenna down tilt Scrambling code power Illegal repeaters Downlink Coverage Quality       Synchronization Signal Power     Indicates which sectors are present at the current location Too many strong sectors creates pilot pollution 23 of 30 .

LTE OTA Modulation Quality Testing   OTA Modulation Quality Testing       Valid signal quality measurements can be made OTA Guidelines are established from a known good base station Must be taken in valid location OTA Scanner validates location     Valid OTA Location   Dominance >10 dB   If Pass – becomes sweet spot     OTA Modulation Quality     Note GPS location Becomes location for future OTA Modulation Quality Testing Record and create OTA Pass/Fail limits MIMO presents a challenge to measure EVM   Need to measure PBCH which has Transmit Diversity   Measures both Tx1 & Tx2   Valid EVM OTA measurement 24 of 30 .

Downlink Coverage Mapping       OTA Scanner has Auto-Save Need GPS Receiver and Antenna Collects data ≈ every 5-10 s   Time depends on number of Sync codes and whether Modulation is turned on   Master Software Tools can export data to a KML file     Import into Google Maps/Earth Mouse over point to see Scanner results Downlink Coverage Quality 25 of 30 .

One quick test – OTA Pass/Fail – checks health of cell site Start   Found Valid OTA spot? Y Run OTA or Direct Connect Pass/Fail Test Start Direct Connect Transmitter Test Find valid Over-the-Air (OTA) location   If not. if OTA Checks RF Quality Checks Modulation Quality Use PC data card DONE Feed lines and antenna system Base station field replaceable units Downlink Coverage issues Interference problems Backhaul bit-error-rates N   Run one-step Pass/Fail Test         Troubleshoot Feed Lines Base Station Coverage Interference Test data throughput   Pass? N Y Run PC-based Throughput Test   If everything passes     If not troubleshoot     Good Throughput? Y Done N Troubleshoot Backhaul       26 of 30 . direct connect Checks Feed Line Quality.

Troubleshooting Guide and Coverage Mapping App Note 27 of 30 .

Includes extensive labs. 3GPP Transmitter performance specs. Constellation. Digital Modulation Theory – PSK and QAM. EVM. C/I vs.us. CINR. and modulation quality.anritsu.Learn what is critical and what is acceptable. MIMO. OTA measurements such as Multiple-signal inventory. co-channel reuse.LTE Measurements Training Course     LTE Theory and Measurements Using the BTS & Spectrum Masters An intense two-day instructor led training course that focuses on LTE Base Station measurements. LTE Pass/Fail Measurements . Orthogonal FDM theory RF Propagation & LTE Air Interface theory– time and frequency structure. Who Should Attend           Cell Technicians System Performance Engineers/Field Engineers Base Station OEMs Site Managers BTS Installers         How You Will Benefit Spectrum Analysis Basics . helping you reduce operating expenses by enhancing the skill set of your employees. dominance. Occupied Bandwidth.how to use a spectrum analyzer.com/training/ for more info.       See http://www. ACLR and Channel Power. Includes extensive labs. air interface. LTE Downlink Quality Measurement – Channel Power. Frequency error. 28 of 30 . frequency reuse. physical channels description. Bit error rate vs. EVM. diversity. common measurements such as Occupied Bandwidth. Available at your site or at a nearby Anritsu facility. Spectral Emission mask. Includes extensive labs. identifying signal types.

Question & Answers   Thank you for your participation   More information available at www.us.com 29 of 30 .anritsu.

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