SURFACES
VORTEX LATTICE MODULE
User Manual
August 2009
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SURFACES
VortexLattice Module
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SURFACES – VortexLattice Module
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 5
"Vortex Lattice Methods" Why Should You Care? ..................................................... 6
Current Status ............................................................................................................... 7
1. Orientation of Forces and Moments ........................................................................ 9
2. Force and Moment Nomenclature .......................................................................... 10
3. Project Task List ...................................................................................................... 11
4. Creating a Simple Model with SURFACES ............................................................ 14
5. Accomplishing Special Projects with SURFACES ............................................... 44
5.1 Tailoring Wings to Improve Stall Characteristics ........................................................................ 44
5.2 Determine Shear, Moment, and Torsion ....................................................................................... 45
5.3 How to Manage Airfoils in SURFACES.......................................................................................... 45
6. Transformation of Load Vectors from a Global to a Local Coordinate System . 52
6.1 Establishment of a Local Coordinate System .............................................................................. 52
6.2 Transformation of Force Vector in Coordinate System AB
N
C ................................................. 54
6.3 Determination of Moment Vector in Coordinate System AB
N
C ................................................ 55
6.4 Determination of Shear and Moment Distribution ....................................................................... 57
6.5 Presentation of Data in SURFACES .............................................................................................. 61
7. Using the Virtual Wind Tunnel ............................................................................... 64
8. Determination of a Trimmed Flight Condition ...................................................... 65
9. Determination of Drag in SURFACES .................................................................... 67
9.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 67
9.2 Basic Drag Coefficient, C
Do
............................................................................................................ 73
9.3 Skin Friction Drag Coefficient, C
Df
................................................................................................. 75
9.4 Induced Drag Coefficient, C
Di
......................................................................................................... 84
9.5 Total Drag Coefficient, C
D
............................................................................................................... 85
9.6 Compressibility Modeling ............................................................................................................... 86
9.8 How SURFACES Calculates Do, Df, Di, and D. ............................................................................. 87
9.9 Limitations of Drag Estimation Methodologies ............................................................................ 87
9.10 Setting up Drag Modeling on Example Aircraft .......................................................................... 88
9.11 Summary of SURFACES Drag Analysis Methodology ............................................................ 101
10. Validation Samples ............................................................................................. 102
Validation 1: 2D Flat Plate Airfoil ............................................................................ 103
V1.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 103
V1.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 103
V1.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 104
Validation 2: 3D Properties of Two Wings ............................................................. 106
V2.1 Models .......................................................................................................................................... 106
V2.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 106
V2.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 107
Validation 3: Warren 12 Wing ................................................................................... 109
V3.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 109
V3.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 110
V3.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 110
Validation 4 : BertinSmith 2D Wing ....................................................................... 111
V4.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 111
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V4.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 111
V4.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 112
Validation 5: Cessna 172 .......................................................................................... 113
V5.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 113
V5.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 113
V5.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 115
V5.4 Comparison of Codes ................................................................................................................. 117
Validation 6: 2D C
L
, C
D
, C
M
for NACA 23012 .......................................................... 119
V6.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 119
V6.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 119
V6.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 120
Validation 7: F104 Starfighter ................................................................................. 122
V7.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 122
V7.2 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 122
Validation 8: Ryan Navion ........................................................................................ 124
V8.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 124
V8.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 125
V8.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 127
Validation 9: Comparison to NACA R1208 ............................................................. 130
V9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 130
V9.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 131
V9.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 131
Validation 10: Comparison to NACA TN1422 ........................................................ 133
V10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 133
V10.2 Results from SURFACES ......................................................................................................... 133
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INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing SURFACES.
We are certain you will find SURFACES priceless for your aircraft design projects. SURFACES was
developed in real aircraft design environment and is loaded with highly developed tools that give you
answers quickly. We consider the program analogous to an extremely sophisticated airplane calculator.
Create a model of your aircraft and then use SURFACES to extract hardtoget information about it.
Stability derivatives, loads, performance parameters are just the beginning of your discoveries. You can
extract in a matter of seconds some super complicated parameters that would take a trained aerospace
engineer weeks to calculate using classical methods. Use the extra time to study variations of your design
to make it even better for its intended mission. Whatever the design task, SURFACES will save you
weeks if not months of work.
SURFACES is the ultimate tool for anyone designing subsonic aircraft, whether it be a professional
aerospace engineer or the designer of homebuilt aircraft. SURFACES is not just user friendly, it provides
you with very powerful features to help design your aircraft.
SURFACES uses a ThreeDimensional Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) to solve the airflow around an
aircraft and extract an incredible amount of information from the solution. Plot the flow solution to better
understand how the flow behaves around the airplane.
SURFACES is the perfect solution in any preliminary design environment, or to reverse engineer existing
airplanes. It allows you to quickly extract loads and stability and control data.
SURFACES allows you to swiftly model any aircraft. Do you have a threeview drawing of your favorite
aircraft? Simply import it in to the environment and scale it up. No pencils, rulers, or calculators are
needed for scaling up the model. You do it all from within SURFACES. It’s as easy as clicking a mouse
button.
SURFACES determines most stability derivatives and, when used with the builtin Aircraft Datasheet
feature, allows you to perform very sophisticated dynamic stability analyses. Import stability derivatives
directly from your VortexLattice analyses into an Aircraft Datasheet and plot the aircraft’s Short Period,
Phugoid, Spiral Stability, Rolling Convergence, and Dutch Roll modes. You can even simulate the
dynamic response of the aircraft in real time!
SURFACES allows you to incorporate all the details of your design, such as airfoil properties, wing twist,
dihedral, multiple lifting surfaces, asymmetric geometries, winglets, deflection of control surfaces and high
lift devices. SURFACES even allows you to account for engine forces as functions of angleofattack,
airspeed and altitude, whose properties are taken into account when determining trim or stability
derivatives.
SURFACES allows you to extract surface pressures, forces and moments, force and moment
coefficients, distributed loads, section lift coefficients, and create shear, moment and torsion diagrams on
the model.
SURFACES comes with video tutorials. You will be working on your own airplane in 30 minutes or less.
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"Vortex Lattice Methods" Why Should You Care?
By Mike Garton
Some of the latest glider designs are advertised as having computer optimized wings. For instance ads for the
Saphire, Psyko, Laser, and Edge all list it as a design feature. NSP's ad mentions the "LinAir" program, which uses a
form of computational fluid dynamics that we aerospace engineers call "vortex lattice methods" or "simple panel
codes". There is not space here to discuss how these codes work (and perhaps not interest either) but I will briefly
describe what can be done with these programs and what it means for the pilot. If I lose you in technical jargon, just
skip to the last two paragraphs.
A vortex lattice program takes a wing planform, wingtwist, and angle of attack as inputs. Using this information it
calculates the induced velocity field surrounding the wing including the effect of tip vortices. It is somewhat non
intuitive, but the angle of attack of a wing is not simply the angle between your root chord and your tailboom. The
wing "induces" some vertical components of velocity that change the "effective" angle of attack. Generally the
induced angle is smaller at the root of the wing and larger at the wing tips. A tip vortex will add a downward
component to the air above the wing tip. This causes the "effective angle of attack" of most wing tips to be reduced.
This is one form of aerodynamic wash out. A vortex lattice program allows a designer to quantify these effects, before
the plane is built and without the need for a wind tunnel. The use of this tool does not guarantee a good wing. Like
any tool, it still takes wisdom and proper application to get good results. This particular tool is usually reserved for
graduate degreed aerospace engineers with specialization in computational fluid dynamics.
Some of the things a glider designer can do with this program are to: 1. Minimize induced drag (drag do to tip
vortices), 2. Manage which part of the wing will stall first, 3. Given a planform, refine its twist distribution, and 4.
Calculate the local flow direction on the stab including downwash from the wing. In general, the refined wings have
nearly elliptical chord distributions with finite tip chords (no big surprise here). Aerospace Engineers will assert that
elliptical lift distributions DO result in the minimum possible induced drag for low speed wings. At our low Reynold's
numbers, a truly elliptical chord distribution does NOT result in an elliptical lift distribution. At low speeds on a truly
elliptical winged model, the air flow will separate near the wing tip, leading to too little lift in that region and tip stall.
This is why the refined sailplanes tend to have finite tip chords. The nearly elliptical wing has another beneficial
quality. The downwash angle is relatively constant along the span. This means the whole wing is flying at the same
"effective" angle of attack. A constant angle of attack is good because no part of the wing will stall early and the wing
can achieve a high average lift coefficient. When any section of the wing stalls, it will usually propagate sideways and
stall the entire wing. As an example, a straight taper wing with its uneven effective angle of attack will stall at an
average lift coefficient roughly 20% lower than the computer refined four taper wing. I am assuming that the designer
of the four taper wing used the vortex lattice code properly.
So what might a pilot notice in flight when flying one of these planes refined with a vortex lattice code? Most pilots
won't notice the differences. After trimming the plane, an expert pilot should notice that the launch is steeper because
the wing can pull a higher lift coefficient before stalling. The sink rate and glide ratio should be a tweak better as well.
We are only talking a couple percent decrease in drag over the "eye balled" planforms, but every little bit helps. The
plane should be able to fly slower than other planes with the same airfoil and wing loading, again because of the
higher available lift coefficient.
Will the computer refined planes always win? In general, no. In most weather conditions a thermal duration contest is
still 90% pilot 10% airplane. The contest placings usually sort the pilots by skill regardless of what they are flying. If
anyone wants to play with a vortex lattice program, contact me and I can email you directions on how to obtain a
public domain program.
Reprinted from: http://eiss.cnde.iastate.edu/articles/VortexLattice.htm
NOTE: This article available online from the above link and is therefore assumed public (in the public domain). It was not written with
SURFACES specifically in mind, but is reprinted here as the editor of this manual considered it well written and pertinent to anyone
using CFD methods. Great OWL Publishing reprints it here for your convenience, but assumes no responsibilities for it.
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Current Status
Currently, the latest version of SURFACES is 2.8.10.
The following changes have been made to the program since Version 2.86 (or 2.8.6):
REPAIR LOG
ID Date Version Description Status
1 6/29/09 2.8.7 Selected surfaces deselected when VLM console icon on MDIForm clicked. Fixed
2 6/29/09 2.8.7
Pitch/Yaw coupled surfaces (e.g. Vtail) reset elevator deflection in the VWT.
Subroutine DOC_Surface_ModifyDeflection not originally designed to handle
coupled surfaces. Revised it to handle such surfaces correctly.
Fixed
3 6/29/09 2.8.7
Controllers tab on VLM console: Pressing the Reset button would not change numbers
in the textboxes. This has been changed.
Fixed
4 6/29/09 2.8.7
Controllers tab on VLM console: Subroutine DOC_Surface_ModifyDeflection is used
when the user presses the Set buttons. The modification in ID2 now allows the user to
enter a elevator+rudder deflection for Vtails
Fixed
5 6/29/09 2.8.7
New functions added: [SDfwd(i)] and [SDaft(i)], which retrieve forward and aft
deflection angles of the selected surface i.
Added
6 7/2/09 2.8.8
Bug in subroutine VLM_PlotStreamlines which would cause a crash if number of
streamlines was 1.
Fixed
7 7/2/09 2.8.8
Improved user information for usage of control deflections in form FormVLM17 (stab
ders).
Added
8 7/3/09 2.8.8 Overflow message generated when zoom in too far Fixed
9 7/3/09 2.8.8 Recent projects list added Added
10 7/4/09 2.8.8
Data Analyzer multivariable regression states the following in the text output “Analysis
assumes X is in Col. 1” and it should say “last column” to match equation template.
Fixed
11 7/4/09 2.8.8 VLM Solution Seeker tool repaired and made visible to user. Fixed
12 7/5/09 2.8.8
Math object list is now synchronized with the list that appears when the user presses
the “Press to Select Objects for Legend…” button.
Fixed
13 7/5/09 2.8.8
Rotate about vector operations use a lefthand coordinate system (should be right
hand)
Fixed
14 7/5/09 2.8.8 Math object list does not recalculate upon opening file Fixed
15 7/13/09 2.8.9
Pressing Browse… in VWT form and navigating the directory form could crash the
program if the selected drive was inop.
Fixed
16 7/20/09 2.8.9
Drag calculations have been completely scrubbed. Now the user can associated skin
friction drag with both surfaces and vectors (airfoils). Usage of drag has been
improved, simplified and made far more user friendly, but yet more powerful. Function
[CDf], [CDi], [CD], and [CL] were added to allow user to directly extract drag and lift
coefficients from the model and VL solution. User can specify CDf directly for surfaces
or specify transition location on airfoils for mixed laminarturbulent boundary layers.
Four new features have been added to the VLM Console. These help the user to view
the extent of the prescribed laminar flow on surfaces and the magnitude of skin friction
drag on each surface.
Added
17 7/20/09 2.8.9 A large section on Drag Analysis has been added to VLM.PDF. This is Section 9. Added
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18 7/27/09 2.8.10
Panel orientation has been made independent of orientation as the program will now
reassign panel corner IDs based on a special algorithm. This means that the user can
use Curves A1 and A2 for surfaces that are no longer parallel to the Xaxis. The panels
still have to be aligned to the Xaxis, as this is a requirement of the VL method.
However, the user can model circular shapes like an engine nacelle or round fuselage
more easily.
Added
19 7/31/09 2.8.10
User can press F2 to copy viewport info (such as state of zoom) and paste into another
viewport using F3.
Added
20 7/31/09 2.8.10
User can investigate panel orientation in addition to surface A1/B1 curve orientation
(by pressing Ctrl+T).
Added
21 7/31/09 2.8.10 A bug that allowed any number of categories in the Project Properties form was fixed. Fixed
22 7/31/09 2.8.10 Function [Swet(surf1, surf2, …)] added to extract wetted area. Added
23 7/31/09 2.8.10
Expanded geometry recognition when user selects a math object referring to the
geometry,
Fixed
24 8/15/09 2.8.10
User can turn AutoCalc on or off by doubleclicking a panel on the status bar. This is
handy for slower computers, as it will prevent math objects from being solved after
each change, which is what happens when AutoCalc is on. It is intended to allow the
user to temporarily turn the feature off, but user must know that while off, the math
objects will not update correctly.
Added
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1. Orientation of Forces and Moments
NEUTRAL MZ STABLE MY STABLE MX
+o
o Positive MX
Positive F
Z
Z
X
Y
Positive M
Y
+M
X
+o
o
M
X
+M
Y
+o
o
M
Y
+M
Z
+o
o
M
Z
STABLE M
Z
NEUTRAL M
Y
STABLE M
X

+
Positive MX
Positive FY
Z
X
Y
Positive MZ
+MX
+

M
X
+MY
+

M
Y
+MZ
+

M
Z
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2. Force and Moment Nomenclature
Name SURFACES Symbol Other names
Axial force (along Xaxis) FX X
Side force (along Yaxis) FY Y
Normal force (along Zaxis) FZ Z
Rolling moment (about Xaxis) MX L
Pitching moment (about Yaxis) MY M
Yawing moment (about Zaxis) MZ N
Coefficient of axial force (along Xaxis) Cx C
x
Coefficient of side force (along Yaxis) Cy C
y
Coefficient of normal force (along Zaxis) Cz C
z
Coefficient of rolling moment (about Xaxis) Cl C
l
Coefficient of pitching moment (about Yaxis) Cm C
m
Coefficient of yawing moment (about Zaxis) Cn C
n
x
z
y
x
z
y
Standard righthanded Aerodynamic
Coordinate System (ACS).
Typical righthanded Stability
Coordinate System (SCS).
Note 1: Positive rotation about an axis is always in the direction of the thumb of the right hand, as can be
seen in the above figure.
Note 2: SURFACES uses a standard right handed Aerodynamic Coordinate System (ACS), which is
conventionally used for other aspects of aircraft aerodynamic analyses. In this coordinate system,
the sign of the lift is positive, when pointing upwards (i.e. towards positive Z), and the sign of the
drag is positive, when pointing backwards (i.e. towards positive X). The user must be cognizant of
the orientation of the axes when interpreting results.
Note 3: SURFACES comes with a routine that will convert stability derivatives to a standard body axes
Stability Coordinate System (SCS). This is typically the default for stability and control related
tools.
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3. Project Task List
A typical project in SURFACES is conducted per the following list:
Model Creation
Task Description Remark
1 Define Points
Drop points as required to represent the extremes of the
aircraft.
2 Define Vectors
Draw vectors, parametric curves, or Bezier curves as
needed, using the points. Use parametric or Bezier
curves to represent cambered airfoils.
3 Create Surfaces
Define surfaces by selecting the opposite curves A1 and
A2, and B1 and B2. Only use curves A1 and A2 for
curved surfaces.
Model Preparation
Task Description Remark
4
Determine the Trapezoidal Mean
Aerodynamic Chord
Select Tools>Trapezoidal Mean Aerodynamic
Chord… from the VLM Console.
This tool will determine several important geometric
reference parameters to use with your model, including
the MAC, its location, the wing area, and wing span. It
also allows you to specify the CG location in terms of
%MAC. You must use the Transfer tab on the form to
transfer the calculated values to your model. While not
necessary, it’s recommended you copy the analysis
report and paste as a Remark with your model. Do this
by selecting Edit>Remark… from the Surfaces
Worksheet window.
5
Determine the Horizontal and Vertical
Tail Volumes
Select Tools>Horizontal/Vertical Tail Volume… from
the VLM Console.
Although not necessary for analysis, it is a good idea to
tail volume and compare to other airplanes. Copy and
paste the analysis report into the remark.
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6 Other model properties
Select Edit>Model Properties… from the VLM
Console.
Try to fill in as many properties as possible. All entries
marked with an asterisk (*) are required for any Vortex
Lattice analyses.
Once your model runs, you can initiate a large number of specific investigations.
Basic Investigations
Task Description Remark
7 Determine Neutral Point
Select Tools>Determine Neutral Point… from the
VLM Console.
This is a necessary step as it will determine your aft CG
limit. Always consult the CG location of your design with
a qualified Aerospace Engineer. The CG is typically at
least 810% MAC forward of the neutral point.
8 Trim Analysis
Select Tools>Determine Neutral Point… from the
VLM Console.
This tool is helpful to determine required surface
deflections for given weights, airspeed, and yaw angles.
Note that before you can use this tool, you must define
control surfaces using edge deflections and proper
references under the Edit Surface dialogbox (Edge
Deflections and Reference tabs).
9 Panel Results
Select the Panel Results tab on the VLM Console.
Here you can extract various information pertaining to
panels, such as areas, normals, vortex strengths,
velocity over a panel, force generated by a panel,
pressure coefficients, panel lift coefficients, as well as
the center of pressure.
10 Body Results
Select the Body Results tab on the VLM Console.
Here you can extract information about forces and
moments acting on your model.
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11 Stip Results
Select the Panel Results tab on the VLM Console.
Here you can extract a number of information about
strips of panels (chordwise), for instance, forces,
moments and coefficients. Display strip CL (section lift
coefficients) to help you design for delayed tip stall.
You can conduct even more sophisticated analysis per the following task list.
Advanced Investigations
Task Description Remark
12 Determine Stability Derivatives
Select Tools>Determine Stability Derivatives… from
the VLM Console.
13 Determine Control Response
Select Tools>Determine Control Response… from
the VLM Console.
14 Determine Loads
Select Results>Force Integrator… from the VLM
Console.
15 Determine Specific Conditions
Select Tools>Goal Seek… from the VLM Console.
With this tool you can calculate AOA, AOY, or Vinf
required to generate a specific load, lift, or even lift
coefficient. Note the result don’t necessarily result in an
aerodynamically balanced model (i.e. MX, MY, or MZ
will be nonzero).
16
Modify Geometry to Satisfy Specific
Conditions
Select Tools>Geometric Goal Seek… from the VLM
Console.
This tool can be used to move points so that specific
conditions are satisfied. The best example of its use is to
move the leading points on a stabilator in the Z
directions at a specific flight condition so the MY is zero.
In other word, determine an ideal angle of incidence of a
stabilator.
17 Virtual Wind Tunnel
Select Virtual WT>Setup and Execute WT Run…
from the VLM Console.
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4. Creating a Simple Model with SURFACES
The following model is designed to allow the novice user to quickly become familiar with SURFACES.
Pay close attention to which options and checks are made in each form below before proceeding to the
next step.
STEP 1: Start a new project by selecting File>New Project…
This will open a small form on which you need to specify the type of project to create. Press the button
labeled ‘Surfaces Worksheet’ to open a blank worksheet. Maximize the window for added convenience.
The move on to create surfaces to represent the wing.
STEP 2: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface…
STEP 3: Create the WING using the numbers in the dialog in Figure 41a
through 41d.
Figure 41a: Creating the wing – Entering geometry (Step 3).
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Figure 41b: Creating the wing – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas.
Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 3).
The purpose of the options in Figure 41b is to automatically create formulation that calculates wing span,
aspect ratio, wing area, taper ratio, and other for your convenience. There are other ways to create such
formulas, but you will learn these at later time.
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Figure 41c: Creating the wing – Setting panel density and picking airfoils for root and tip. Note
that pressing the [Pick Root Airfoil…] or [Pick Tip Airfoil…] buttons will open the Camber Creator
form in Figure 41d (Step 3).
You must press each of the buttons in Figure 41c to create your airfoils. If an airfoil is not recognized, a
flat plat is assumed. You can also create your own airfoils, but these are stored as text files that are called
shape files. They have the extension .SHP. You can navigate to the /Surfaces/Shape Files folder and
doubleclick on one such file to open it in Windows Notepad and investigate how simple they are.
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Figure 41d: Creating the wing – Picking airfoil. Here select NACA 4416 for the root airfoil and
NACA 4410 for the tip (Step 3).
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Figure 42: If you followed Steps 1 through 3 correctly, the wing will appear as shown, containing
the selected airfoils, twist, and dihedral (Step 3).
NOTE:
This list contains the Math
Objects, which are algebraic
expressions used for
everything in SURFACES.
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STEP 4: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface… to create the HORIZONTAL TAIL
(HT). Fill in the form using the numbers in the dialog in Figures 3a through
3c.
Figure 43a: Creating the HT – Entering geometry (Step 4).
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Figure 43b: Creating the HT – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas.
Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 4).
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Figure 43c: Creating the HT – Setting panel density. Note that no airfoils are picked here, so the
resulting airfoil is a flat plate (symmetrical airfoil) (Step 4).
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Figure 44: If you followed Step 4 correctly, the wing and HT will appear as shown (Step 4).
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STEP 5: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface… one more time and create the
VERTICAL TAIL (VT) by filling the form using the numbers in the dialog in
Figures 5a through 5c.
Figure 45a: Creating the VT – Entering geometry. Note the option selected in the “Create Surface
in Plane” frame is now the XZ plane, rather than the XY plane used for the wing and HT (Step 5).
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Figure 45b: Creating the VT – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas.
Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 5).
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Figure 45c: Creating the VT – Setting panel density. Note that no airfoils are picked here, so the
resulting airfoil is a flat plate (symmetrical airfoil) (Step 5).
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Figure 46: If you followed Step 5 correctly, the wing, HT, and VT will appear as shown in the
completed basic model (Step 5).
When complete your model should look like the one in Figure 46; a Ttail design with a straight tapered
wing. You should be aware of that you can also create the surfaces directly by dropping points, stretching
vectors, and inserting surfaces. However, in the interest of time and simplicity, the user can create
trapezoidal surfaces more easily using this tool.
Note that you can hide points, vectors, and surfaces. While this is not necessary, it may clean up the
view. Here let’s hide the points. Do this by clicking somewhere on the black background. This ensures the
workspace (image) has the focus. Then, simultaneously press Shift and P (for Points). This selects all the
points. Then simultaneously press Ctrl and H (for Hide). The resulting image appears in Figure 47.
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Figure 47: The basic model after the points have been hidden.
As you can see identified by the red box in Figure 46, the wing span (Bw) is 18 ft and wing area (Sw) is
45 ft². Similarly, you can see identified by red boxes in Figure 47 the horizontal and vertical tail volumes
should be 0.8496 and 0.0826, respectively. Now let’s add weight to the model using the specialized tools
in SURFACES.
STEP 6: Select Edit>Select Surfaces... Press the [Select All] button and
then the [OK] button (see Figure 48).
Figure 48: Selecting all surfaces simultaneously (Step 6).
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STEP 7: Select Tools>Distribute Weight on Selected Surfaces and Nodes...
Enter 400 in the entry box and press the [OK] button (see Figure 49).
Figure 49: Enter weight of the selected surfaces, here as 400 lbs (Step 7).
This will distribute a total weight of 400 lbs onto the model based on the area. That is, SURFACES
calculates the total area of the selected surfaces and then computes weight per total area. The weight
property of each surface will then be assigned a number, which is calculated as (weight per total area of
the selected surfaces) x (the area of the surface). As a consequence, the total weight of the wings turns
out to be 293.3 lbs, the HT weighs 58.2 lbs, and the VT weighs 48.5 lbs. Clearly, this adds up to 400 lbs.
You can check weight by selecting surfaces and pressing the F6 button (or by selecting Tools
>Properties of Selected Surfaces). The results will be displayed on the Status bar on the bottom of the
main window.
STEP 8: Make sure the CG is visible. Select Tools>Options... Check the ‘Show
CG, Neutral Point, Aerodynamic Center’ checkbox and press the [OK] button
(see Figure 410).
Figure 410: Confirm the CG checkbox is marked so you can see the CG in the workspace (Step 8).
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Figure 411: We can see the CG location (blackwhite circle) is too far aft.
When completed, your model should look like the one in Figure 411. It is immediately evident that the
CG is too far aft. To fix this and to allow us to control the location of the CG, let’s create a ballast point.
STEP 9: Press the XY tab on the bottom of the workspace. This
will display the model projected onto the XY plane.
STEP 10: Press the sketchmode icon to display the sketch
toolbar.
STEP 11: Press the Insert a point icon and drop a point
somewhere in front of the wing, near the Xaxis, similar to
what is shown in Figure 412.
STEP 12: Select the point by clicking on it and press the
Insert a node point icon to convert it to a node. This will
open a dialog box to allow user to enter additional data.
Enter the information shown in Figure 413. Once completed,
press the [OK] button.
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Figure 412: Drop the point (to be converted to a node) in a location similar as shown (Step 11).
Figure 413: Information entered with Step 12.
Return to the 3D view by pressing the XYZ tab (see the bottom of Figure 412). When completed your
model should look like the one in Figure 414. To see what the true location of the CG is at this point,
locate the math objects Pmac and Xcg in the object list on the left hand side (Pmac is highlighted in
This point will
be converted to
a Node.
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Figure 414). The variable Pmac stores the CG location as a percentage of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord
(Cref, found under the REFERENCE PARAMETERS block in the Math Object list). We see the CG is
located at 13.967% MAC or at 0.47 ft. Often it is necessary to specify directly the location of the CG.
SURFACES comes with a tool to help you accomplish that. The following steps show how to move the
CG to 25% MAC.
Figure 414: The model with ballast point defined.
STEP 13: Click once on the Ballast node to select it. We will move it with a
special tool. Note that SURFACES will only move the selected node or nodes,
when adjusting the CG location. If none are selected a warning message
appears.
STEP 14: Select Tools>Specify a CG Location… Select the option and enter the
value shown in Figure 415.
STEP 15: Press the [Adjust] button. Respond to the warning that appears by
pressing [Yes]. Then, press [Close] button to exit the form.
When completed, your node will appear closer to the wing than before, or but SURFACES has
automatically changed its X location from 4 to 3.347556 ft, moving the CG in the process (i.e. to the
25% MAC). Now let’s learn some more details about the model. Let’s determine the neutral point per the
following steps.
Pmac variable
Wref variable
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STEP 16: Press the VLM Console icon. This will open the
VortexLattice Method Console shown in Figure 416.
Figure 415: Specifying a CG location (Step 14).
Figure 416: The VLM Console (Step 16).
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Note that when you create a new project, SURFACES has preset values for a multitude of variables.
Among those are the airspeed variables (Vcas, Vtas, Vinf), altitude (Href), and angleofattack (AOA).
Naturally, you can change these with ease, but currently Vcas=100 knots, Href=0 ft, and AOA=2°. In
interest of saving time for this demo, let’s assume these will suffice for our analysis.
STEP 17: Select Tasks>Determine Neutral Point… Press the [Analyze] button to
begin, and after a few seconds, once done, review the results in Figure 417.
Figure 417: Determining neutral point (Step 17).
The full report is displayed below. Note that SURFACES uses two methods to compute the neutral point.
Generally you should pick the neutral point with the lower value of Xneu, here this implies Method 2. Let’s
transfer the resulting value to the variable Xneu in the model, which currently has the initial value 0.
==========================================================================================
NEUTRAL POINT ANALYSIS
==========================================================================================
Filename ........ : SimplePlane(03162009).SRF
Date ............ : 03162009
Time ............ : 21:17:00
ANALYSIS VALUES:

ID XCG AOA CL CMY

1 7.5032e01 2.0000° 3.8059e01 1.1761e01
2 1.7503e+00 2.0000° 3.8059e01 3.2670e02
3 7.5032e01 3.0000° 4.6946e01 1.5413e01
4 1.7503e+00 3.0000° 4.6946e01 3.1248e02


METHOD 1

Calculates Xneu from the expression:
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Xneu = Xcg  Cref·dCm/dCL
= 0.75032  (2.534505)·(0.036512)/(0.088875)
= 1.791557 (66.08247% MAC)

METHOD 2

Calculates Xneu by evaluating changes of CG and AOA on Cm:
Function 1 (degrees): 0.036512·AOA  0.044590
Function 1 (radians): 2.091979·AOA  0.044590
Function 2 (degrees): 0.001422·AOA  0.154126
Function 2 (radians): 0.081474·AOA  0.154126
Xneu = 1.790844 (66.05433% MAC)
Total time:0h:00m:05s
STEP 18: Press the [Transfer] button and select the option ‘Neutral point
using Method 2’. This displays a notification. Press the [OK] button to close
it. Press the [Close] button on the form to close it as well.
Note the [Copy Report] button in the form in Figure 417. It allows you to copy the entire text in the form to
the clipboard. We consider it a good practice to copy and paste it as a comment under Edit>Remark…
in the main worksheet for future reference.
Now let’s trim the aircraft for a level flight. First we must define which surfaces serve as the elevators. To
do that, return back to the worksheet where the model is.
STEP 19: Doubleclick on one of the two surfaces that serve as the horizontal
tail. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 418. Select the ‘Edge
Deflections’ tab. Set number of chordwise panels on the aft edge to deflect
to 2.
STEP 20: In the same dialog select the ‘Reference’ tab. Check the ‘Surface is
used for Pitch Control’. Press the [OK] button. If a warning appears stating
there’s already a VLM solution in memory, just press the [Yes] button.
STEP 21: Repeat Steps 19 and 20 for the other horizontal surface.
Also, by now, it would be a good idea to save the work. Here, we select File>Save As… and call it
SIMPLE DEMO.SRF. You should do the same.
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Figure 418: Setting up elevator functionality (Steps 1921).
You have now given SURFACES information it can use to automatically deflect the elevators to trim the
model for level flight. You can try the functionality out by displaying the VLM Console and select the
‘Controllers’ tab. For instance, enter 20 in the Pitch control textbox and press the [Set] button to see the
model regenerate with that deflection, as shown in Figure 419. Once done, press the [Reset] button to
return the elevators to a neutral deflection (0°) and get ready to trim the model.
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Figure 419: Demonstrating elevator functionality.
STEP 22: Select Tasks>Trimmed Level Flight... to display the Trim wizard.
Follow the steps shown in the subsequent list of images.
Notice
deflected
elevators
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STEP 22a:
Press the [Next >>] button.
STEP 22b:
Ensure the selection shown.
Press the [Next >>] button.
We will just trim to a single airspeed, but
multiple airspeeds can also be analyzed.
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STEP 22c:
Ensure the selection shown.
Press the [Next >>] button.
Once complete, the lift generated will be
700 lbs at the airspeed specified in Step
22b.
STEP 22d:
Ensure the selection shown.
Press the [Next >>] button.
Here we allow 30 iterations before a
solution will be declared as unachievable.
If solution is found, the resulting lift will be
700 ±1 lb
f
and the moment 0 ±1 ft·lb
f
. As a
rule of thumb, acceptable accuracy is
provided by specifying 1% of the weight.
Here, the accuracy is closer to 0.14%.
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STEP 22e:
Ensure the selection shown.
Press the [Next >>] button.
Note that solution files can be created and
saved using the file name entered as a
seed.
STEP 22f:
Press the [Trim!] button.
Once SURFACES begins to trim, you can follow the progress on the ‘Progress Table’ or ‘Progress Plot’
tabs (see Figure 420). The time to trim largely depends on the number of panels in the model and
accuracy desired. The model presented here took 16 iterations and 31 seconds to trim. Press ‘Summary’
tab to read the results for each completed trim speed. In this case, the model will fly level at an AOA of
3.3449°and will require an elevator deflection of 4.3966°(trailing edge up) to balance. The lift generated
is 699.587 lbf and moment about the yaxis (located at the CG) is 0.287698 ft·lbf. The model is
automatically set to the resulting AOA and elevator deflection. Press the [Close] button to exit the form.
Next let’s determine stability derivatives for the model in this particular configuration.
STEP 23: Select Tasks>Determine Stability Derivatives... to display the
Stability Derivatives form. Check and uncheck the boxes shown in Figure 421
and press the [Analyze] button.
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Figure 420: Trim progress is displayed on the ‘Progress Plot’ tab.
Upon completion you will see the results as shown in Figure 422. Without going into too many details, we
can see from values for Cma (2.119), Clb (0.105), and Cnb (0.172) that our airplane is statically stable
about all three axes. What we don’t know at this time are its dynamic stability properties. And this is what
we intend to investigate next. First, however, we must transfer these results to the airplane model.
STEP 24: Select the ‘Transfer’ tab. Follow the remaining steps closely.
STEP 25: Press the [Select All] button to select all the derivatives in the
list.
STEP 26: Press the [Deselect Nonrequested] button to deselect the derivatives
that were not calculated.
STEP 27: In addition, uncheck the following variables: CL, CDi, CD, CDa, hcg,
and hn (see Figure 423). This will prevent them from being overwritten, but
they already contain algebraic expressions that we don’t want to be deleted.
STEP 28: Press the [Transfer] button. Press [Yes] (in this example) if
prompted to overwrite formulas. Press the [OK] button on the form that
appears to notify you of a successful transfer. Then press the [Close] button
to close the Stability Derivatives form.
Now let’s proceed to the dynamic stability analysis.
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Figure 421: Preparing to determine stability derivatives (Step 23).
Figure 422: Stability derivatives for the model (Step 23).
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Figure 423: Stability derivatives for the model (Steps 2428).
STEP 28: Press the STAB Console icon. This will open the
Stability Analysis Console shown in Figure 429.
It is left as an exercise for the user to press the various icons to experience functionality. The simulation
icons will display the motion of the aircraft in real time.
Spiral
convergence, Roll
convergence, and
Dutch roll modes
(plots)
Root locus
analysis tool
Lateral/directional
stability analysis
(report)
Longitudinal stability
analysis (report)
Short period and
Phugoid mode
(plots)
Spiral
convergence, Roll
convergence, and
Dutch roll modes
(simulation)
Short period and
Phugoid mode
(simulation)
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Figure 424: Stability analysis module (Step 29.
You can get a report detailing the properties of the response by selecting View>Show Comparison
Table. The resulting table is shown below. This is but one of many ways to extract information from the
STAB module. Also try Analysis>Create Analysis Report… to get a more detailed dynamic stability
report.
Description Symbol Unit SIMPLE DEMO.SRF
Airspeed Vtas KTAS 100
Altitude Href ft 0
Period of oscillation T sec/cycle 2.450
Damping coefficient n 1/sec 0.0612
Natural frequency Wn cycles/sec 2.5648
Damped frequency Wd cycles/sec 2.5641
Damping Ratio Zeta 0.0238
Time to 0.5 Amplitude t½ sec 11.3324
Cycles to 0.5 Amplitude N½ cycles 4.6246
Time to 0.1 Amplitude t0.1 sec 37.6454
Cycles to 0.1 Amplitude N0.1 cycles 15.3626
This concludes the introductory example. This model is also used for a skin friction drag demo in Section
9, so it will be convenient to save it.
Press this icon to
display the dutch
roll response.
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5. Accomplishing Special Projects with SURFACES
5.1 Tailoring Wings to Improve Stall Characteristics
Figure 51: A model whose section lift coefficients near the tip are very high (“tiploaded).
Figure 51 shows how SURFACES can be used to help optimize stall characteristics. The yellow line
represents section lift coefficients at stall. These are entered as reference values for curves A1 and A2 for
each surface. The red lines represent section lift coefficients at the flight condition. The image shows the
wing tip stalls long before the inboard part of the wing. Not only would this cause the airplane to a roll at
stall (as one wing tip is prone to stalling before the other one), but more seriously, would result in an
uncontrollable nose pitchup moment. This situation can be remedied by modifying the wing geometry, for
instance by adding wing washout, increase tip chord, reduce sweep, or using airfoils with a higher max lift
coefficient.
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5.2 Determine Shear, Moment, and Torsion
Figure 52: Obtaining shear and moment distribution for a lifting surface.
SURFACES comes equipped with a tool that allows you to analyze cantilevered shear and moment
acting on any surface. Figure 52 shows the Force Integrator tool as applied to the right wing on the Ryan
Navion model. The bending moments along the right wing are plotted. Note the wing curvature represents
the camber line of the aircraft’s airfoils.
5.3 How to Manage Airfoils in SURFACES
SURFACES allows the user to study the influence of airfoils on flight characteristics. This is done by
specifying the camber line of the airfoil. The program comes with a tool that helps the user to do this more
easily (see Figure 41d). The user can define camber lines using four different curves; a parametric, a 4
point Bezier curve, a list of points, or a Bspline. In order to do this effectively, the user must keep the
some rules in mind when manipulating or managing curves. The following example, in which a parametric
curve is created, gives an insight into how this is done.
STEP 1: Start a new project. Select File>New…
STEP 2: Go into sketch mode by pressing the icon.
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STEP 3: Select the point icon and drop two points. One at 1,3 (point
A) and the other at 9,3 (point B. See Figure 53).
Figure 53: Defining start and end points for a vector in the XY plane.
STEP 4: Select the parametric curve icon and stretch a curve from
point A to point B. Right click to stop (see Figure 54).
If you select the XYZ view, you can see that SURFACES has created a third point (see Figure 55). This
point is called an alignment point. If you select the vector you’ll see that SURFACES highlights the
vector, but also a line extending from the start point to this third point (see Figure 56).
The purpose of this point is to allow you to orient the parametric curve in 3D space. Let us create a simple
parametric curve to demonstrate this better.
STEP 5: Doubleclick the parametric curve to open the Edit Parametric Curve.
Ignore the form that pops up first by pressing the OK button. See Figure 57.
Point A
(1,3)
Point B
(9,3)
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Figure 54: Creating a parametric curve.
Pay attention to the data in the form in Figure 57. You can see that the start point ID is 1 (point A), the
end point ID is 2 (point B), and the alignment point ID is 3 (point C).
STEP 6: In the textbox under the “Parametric Functions” frame labeled P(t),
enter the function: tt*t. Note you must use the variable ‘t’. This is the
parametric function SURFACES will use to compute the shape of the parametric
curve. See Figure 57.
Press the Preview button to see what the curve looks like in 2dimensions (see Figure 57). Note that the
curve should consist of 30 points.
STEP 7: Press the OK button.
If you did everything correctly, you should see a curve identical to the one of Figure 58. Note how the
curve has been drawn, aligned to a plane formed by two vectors; one extending from point A to B and the
other from point A to C.
Parametric curve
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Figure 55: Points A, B, and C define the parametric curve.
Figure 56: Selecting the parametric curve displays how SURFACES uses points to define a plane.
Point C:
This point was created
by SURFACES when
the parametric curve
was created.
Point A
Point B
Point A
Point B
Point C
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Figure 57: Creating a parametric curve.
STEP 8: Doubleclick on point C and change its Zvalue from 0 to 6. Press the
Apply button. The resulting orientation can be seen in Figure 58.
Reorient the image (CTRL+ mouse center button) to see how the airfoil is still being drawn in the plane
formed by the three points. Now, let us align the curve so it is parallel to the XZ plane. This is done in
Step 9:
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Figure 58: The parametric curve tt² shown as originally created in the XY plane.
Figure 59: The parametric curve tt² shown at an angle.
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STEP 9: Doubleclick on point C and change its Yvalue to 3. Press the Apply
button. The resulting orientation can be seen in Figure 59.
Figure 510: The parametric curve tt² shown parallel to the XZ plane.
Note how the curve is always drawn, as if on an imaginary 2D plane that is oriented in 3D space.
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6. Transformation of Load Vectors from a Global to a
Local Coordinate System
The following derives mathematical formulation to determine shear forces and moments about an
arbitrary axis. The goal is to provide SURFACES with a tool that helps the structural analyst retrieve
aerodynamic loads. However, the formulation is in fact applicable to any load analysis involving a discrete
distribution of elemental loads.
Consider a lifting surface in a 3D coordinate system (from now on referred to as the global coordinate
system). For structural purposes it is desired to determine the shear and moments about an axis, called
the quarter chord. SURFACES allows this to be done quickly and effectively. The analysis requires a
coordinate system to be constructed, which from now on referred to as the local coordinate system.
A more descriptive example of this is shown with the typical VortexLattice model in Figure 1. A vector on
the leading edge and along the fuselage have been highlighted (in red). Additionally, the right wing has
been highlighted. With this information, it is now possible to determine the 3D shear and moment
distribution along either vector, due to the discrete elemental forces generated by the right wing. The two
vectors are necessary to create the local coordinate system about which the shear and moments are
resolved. Consequently, they are referred to as the basis of the local coordinate system. This way, one
can analyze loads along vectors of arbitrary orientation.
Figure 1: A typical VortexLattice model.
6.1 Establishment of a Local Coordinate System
Consider the force F generated by an arbitrary panel in the global coordinate system XYZ as shown in
Figure 2.
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X
Y
Z
F
F
Z
F
X
F
Y
Figure 2: A force in the global coordinate system.
Consider a local coordinate system, identified by the selection of two vectors, A and B, such that A is not
parallel to B (see Figure 3). These vectors uniquely define a plane (and are thus the basis of the
coordinate system), whose normal is given by the vector C, such that:
B A C × = (1)
X
Y
Z
F
F
Z
F
X
F
Y
2
1
3
A
B
C
B
N
Figure 3: Defining the local coordinate system.
We can now create a local coordinate system, denoted by the vectors A, B
N
, and C, where B
N
is given by
C A B
N
× = (2)
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Note that the three vectors form a mutually perpendicular coordinate system. The determination of B
N
is
necessary as B may or may not be perpendicular to the vector A.
Also note that according to convention, the vector A represents the Xaxis of the local coordinate system,
here denoted by the lower case letters xyz. The vectors B
N
and C correspond to the Y and Z axes,
respectively.
Finally, note that the unit vectors for the local coordinate system are denoted as follows:
Unit vector for A:  
AZ AY AX
u u u
Unit vector for B:  
BZ BY BX
u u u
Unit vector for C:  
CZ CY CX
u u u
6.2 Transformation of Force Vector in Coordinate System AB
N
C
The force vector, F, represented as {F
X
, F
Y
, F
Z
} or k j i · + · + ·
Z Y X
F F F in the global coordinate system
can now be represented as a force in the local one as {F
x
, F
y
, F
z
} (see Figure 4). This is accomplished
with a simple transformation of the vector F onto the three vectors A, B
N
, and C using the matrix notation
of Equation (3).
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Z
Y
X
AZ CY CX
AZ BY BX
AZ AY AX
z
y
x
F
F
F
u u u
u u u
u u u
F
F
F
(3)
X
Y
Z
F
F
Z
F
X
F
Y
x
1
A
C
B
N
y
z
F
z
F
x
F
y
Figure 4: Transformation of vector F.
Example:
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The force vector k j i k j i · + · · = · + · + · = 0 1 5  0 1 F F F
z y x
F is given in a global coordinate system.
Two vectors A and B are given as the basis for our local coordinate system as follows:
k j i
k j i
5 . 0  5 . 0

+ =
+ ÷ =
B
A
Determine the components of F in the local coordinate system created by the vectors A and B.
Solution:
Step 1: Determine the vector C from B A C × = .
k j i
k j i
5 . 1 5 . 0
5 . 0 1 5 . 0
1 1 1 + + =
÷
÷ ÷ = × = B A C
Step 2: Determine the vector B
N
from C A B
N
× = .
k j i
k j i
5 . 0 2 5 . 2
5 . 1 1 5 . 0
1 1 1 ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = × = C A B
N
Step 3: Determine force component per Equation (5). Start by determining the unit vectors and assemble
into the transformation matrix:
=
0.80178 0.53452 0.26726
0.15430  0.61721 0.77152 
0.57735 0.57735  0.57735 
AZ CY CX
AZ BY BX
AZ AY AX
u u u
u u u
u u u
This yields the following force components using Equation (3):
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
0178 . 8
3443 . 12
8868 . 2
10
5
10
0.80178 0.53452 0.26726
0.15430  0.61721 0.77152 
0.57735 0.57735  0.57735 
z
y
x
F
F
F
6.3 Determination of Moment Vector in Coordinate System AB
N
C
As stated in the introduction, ultimately, the goal of the analysis presented herein is the determination of
shear forces and moments about an axis due to the cumulative effects of multiple discrete forces. It was
demonstrated in Section 2 how shear forces are transformed to a local coordinate system. The same
methodology can be applied to the generation of moments, but it involves a tranformation about a point,
P, through which the vector A goes. This point will be called the projection point from now on. It is the
projection of the point (x
F
, y
F
, z
F
) on to the vector A (see Figure 6). It is denoted by the point (x
P
, y
P
, z
P
).
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X
Y
Z
F
F
Z
F
X
F
Y
x
1
A
C
B
N
y
z
F
z
F
x
F
y
R
x
F
, y
F
, z
F
x
P
, y
P
, z
P
r
x
1
, y
1
, z
1
Q
Figure 6: Determination of moment vector M.
The location of this point is obtained using standard vector algebra. The reader is referred to the one
presented on page 31 in Introduction to Vector Analysis, by Davis and Snyder. The method can be
explained using Figure 7, which defines the arbitrary vectors V and W.
V
W
W
W
±
Figure 7: Projection of vector W onto vector V.
Then, the parallel projection of W onto V is given by:
V
V V
W V
W

.

\

·
·
=

(4)
The perpendicular projection is simply found from:

W W W ÷ =
±
(5)
Using this, we first determine the vector R from the start point of the vector A to the force point, i.e.:
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¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
÷
÷
=
1
1
1
z z
y y
x x
F
F
F
R (6)
The location is then found by referencing Figure 7 and Equation (4) and by writing:
A
A A
R A

.

\

·
·
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
z
y
x
z
y
x
P
P
P
(7)
The length of the parallel projection (the rightmost term of Equation (7)) is denoted by the letter r. It will be
used in Section 4 to sort the discrete loads and moments along the vector A. Now, one must determine
the vector from the projection point to the force point, denoted by Q. This vector is given by Equation (8):
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
÷
÷
=
p F
p F
p F
z z
y y
x x
Q (8)
Then, calculate the disrete moment about the projection point from
z y x
z y x
Q Q Q
F F F
k j i
= × = Q F M (9)
The moment vector, M, represented as {M
X
, M
Y
, M
Z
} is still in the global coordinate system. It can now be
treated as the force in the local one, i.e. as {M
x
, M
y
, M
z
} using the same transformation as for the force
vector.
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Z
Y
X
AZ CY CX
AZ BY BX
AZ AY AX
z
y
x
M
M
M
u u u
u u u
u u u
M
M
M
(10)
6.4 Determination of Shear and Moment Distribution
Figure 7 shows several loads whose components have been transformed to the local coordinate system
specified by A, B
N
, and C. Each has associated force and moment components and the parameter r,
which is simply the distance of the projection point from the starting point of vector A (point 1). The
purpose of the parameter r is to allow sorting to take place (say from start towards the end of the vector
A). The sorted components are then used to construct shear and moment diagrams in a standard fashion.
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x
y
z
F
i
F
zi
F
xi
F
yi
c
1
v
.
F
.i
F
ci
F
vi
ri
F
2
F
1
Figure 7: Methodology for construction shear and moment diagrams.
y
z
Fi
FN
FN1
FN2
y
i
y
N2
y
N1
y
N
Figure 8: Creation of shear and moment diagrams from discrete forces.
6.4.1 Approximation for Shear in the Zdirection Along the Yaxis Vector
Approximating shear forces is simple, just apply Equation (11),
¯
=
~
N
j i
zi zi
F V (11)
6.4.2 Approximation for Moment about Xaxis Along the Yaxis Vector
The approximation for the moments is implemented as follows. The moment at N1 is due to the force F
zN
acting at a distance y
N
– y
N1
. Similarly, the moment at N2 is due to the force F
zN
acting at a distance y
N
–
y
N2
and the force F
zN1
acting at a distance y
N1
– y
N2
. Writing this in a general form leads to:
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
¯
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
÷ · =
÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ · + + ÷ · ~
N
i j
i j zj
i N zN i N zN i N zN i i zi xi
y y F
y y F y y F y y F y y F M
1
1 1 2 2 1 1
...
(12)
6.4.3 Approximation for Torsion About the Yaxis Vector
The approximation for the torsion is implemented as follows. The torsion at N1 is due to the force F
N
acting at an offset distance of x
N
– x
pN
, where x
p
denotes the x value of the projection point. Similarly, the
moment at point N1 is due to the force F
zN
acting at a distance x
N
– x
pN
and the force F
zN1
acting at a
distance x
N1
– x
pN1
. Writing this in a general form leads to:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
¯
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ · =
÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ · + + ÷ · ~
N
i j
pj j zj
pN N zN pN N zN pN N zN pi i zi yi
x x F
x x F x x F x x F x x F M
1 1 1 2 2 2
...
(13)
Example:
A lifting surface is 10 ft long (span) and 2 ft wide (chord). It carries a uniform pressure load of 1 lb
f
/ft².
Determine the shear in the zdirection, moment about the xaxis, and torsion about the yaxis at y=0.5 ft,
assuming the span to be partitioned into 10, 1 ft wide strips. Note that each strip will carry 2 lb
f
of load.
y
z
10 ft
x
2 ft
Figure 9: Lifting surface with a uniform pressure distribution.
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y
z
2 lbf
9.5 ft
2 lbf 2 lbf 2 lbf
8.5 ft
7.5 ft
6.5 ft
2 lbf
Vz
Mx
0.5 ft
Figure 10: Discrete forces replace the uniform distribution. Reaction forces are shown in green.
Solution:
Shear is determined from Equation (11):
f
N
i
i i
lb F V 20 2 ... 2 2
1
= + + + = ~
¯
=
Moment is determined from Equation (12):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f
x
lb ft
y y F y y F y y F y y F M
· =
· + · + · + + · =
÷ · + + ÷ · + ÷ · + + ÷ · ~
90
9 2 8 2 7 2 ... 1 2
...
1 10 10 1 9 9 1 8 8 1 2 2
Torsion is determined from Equation (13):
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f
p p p p y
lb ft
x x F x x F x x F x x F M
· =
· + · + · + + · =
÷ · + + ÷ · + ÷ · + + ÷ · ~
20
1 2 1 2 1 2 ... 1 2
...
10 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 1 1 1
The exact value for the shear is determined from V = w·A = (1 lb
f
/ft²)·(10 ft x 2 ft) = 20 lb
f
.
Similarly (noticing that the centroid of the force V is at y=5 ft), the moment about a point y = 0.5 ft
(necessitated by the discreteness of the strip solution) is M
x
= V·Ay = (20 lb
f
)·(5 ft – 0.5 ft) = 90 ft·lb
f
.
Finally, noticing the the centroid of the force V is at x=1 ft, we find that M
y
= V·Ax = (20 lb
f
)·(1 ft) = 20 ft·lb
f
.
6.5 Presentation of Data in SURFACES
The user selects Results>Force Integrator… from the VLM Console in SURFACES as shown in Figure
11 below.
Figure 11: Selecting the Force Integrator tool.
Once the pertinent surfaces and vectors (corresponding to vectors A and B) have been selected, the user
can press the Integrate button as shown in Figure 12. Selecting the Results tab will display a table with
analysis results. Table 2 details the heading names.
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Figure 12: Force Integrator tool.
Table 2: Heading Names
Heading Description
XF, YF, ZF X, Y, and Zcoordinates of the panel force, which is its centroid.
XP, YP, ZP X, Y, and Zcoordinates of the panel force panel force projection onto vector A.
r Distance from Point 1 of vector A to XP,YP,ZP.
Rx, Ry, Rz Components of the vector R, from Point 1 of vector A.
R The length of vector R.
Qx, Qy, Qz Components of the vector Q, from XP, YP, ZP to XF, YF, ZF.
Q The length of vector Q.
'Panel force (body system) in global coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fbx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fby"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fbz"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fb"
'Panel force (airspeed system) in global coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fy"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fz"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "F"
'Panel moment in global coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "My"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mz"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "M"
'Panel force in global coordinate system
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i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ftx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Fty"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ftz"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ft"
'Panel moment in global coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mtx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mty"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mtz"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mt"
'Panel force in local coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Vx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Vy"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Vz"
'Panel moment in local coordinate system
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Tx"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ty"
i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Tz"
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7. Using the Virtual Wind Tunnel
The Virtual Wind Tunnel (VWT) allows you to analyze you model exactly as if you were to run it in a real
wind tunnel. You can vary several parameters from an initial value to a final value in prescribed steps. For
instance, you can perform an alpha or a betasweep, exactly as you would do it in a real tunnel, but
without the hassle. Before you use the tunnel, you must understand its limitations.
Any good airplane design operates most of its lifetime at airspeeds at which the airflow is relatively
smooth and at a low anglesofattack (AOA) and yaw (AOY). The lifting surfaces are always sized such
that this is achievable. The primary advantage is that drag is minimum at such conditions and, therefore,
the airplane is the most efficient. Under these circumstances, forces and moments change linearly with
these angles. However, when the airplane slows down before it lands, or for some other extreme
maneuvering, it begins to operate at larger AOAs and AOYs, causing the flow to separate. This will
introduce a nonlinearity into forces and moments. Linear codes, including SURFACES, do not account for
this phenomena.
At this point you may be asking yourself, why then resort to linear analysis if it has this shortcoming? The
answer is as simple as it is resounding. Speed! Accuracy is an additional benefit if your model is well
created. But the primary reason is speed. Linear analysis is extremely fast when compared to nonlinear
analysis. At the time of this writing, using SURFACES one can create and analyze an aircraft in the linear
range with an incredible accuracy in a matter of minutes. The same model may take 46 weeks to prepare
for a nonlinear NavierStokes solver, and would give one (yes one) AOA, say every 24 hours, if one’s
computer network holds up. And, you should ask the question; But isn’t the NavierStokes (NS) method
more accurate? The answer is yes and no. In fact, in the linear range, it will give a similar answer as the
VortexLattice Method (VLM), it will just take much, much longer to get those answers. The person writing
these words has experienced many times that the VLM has been closer to actual wind tunnel data than
NS. The strength of NS solvers is separated flow, but at this time, such tools are better at giving the
aerodynamicist an idea of what the flow field looks like than trustworthy coefficients.
Naturally, it must be emphasized that SURFACES is performing a mathematical simulation when you use
its wind tunnel test tool. The same rule applied to all computer codes that emulate wind tunnels; a real
wind tunnel test always overrides any such calculations (assuming the data was obtained by reliable
means). However, assuming you are using SURFACES to create a mathematical model of your design,
the VWT is a great tool to help you understand the following issues:
(1) The AOA and AOY, the airspeeds, and the rotation rates (P, Q, R) where your math model
breaks down. You will want to know at which AOA the linear assumption breaks down.
(2) Features of your model that, well, still need to be improved before an accurate comparison can
be made of existing wind tunnel. The concept of tuning is well known in the world of finite
elements, flutter, and linear modeling and the like. Tuning is done by making minor changes to
the model un
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8. Determination of a Trimmed Flight Condition
The following derivation details the requirements for a trimmed flight condition. A trimmed flight is defined
as a flight in which the moment about all three axes is zero. For instance, when determining longitudinal
trim (assuming a solution can be found) the following must hold:
e m m m m
e L L L L
e
e
C C C C
C C C C
o · + o · + =
o · + o · + =
o o
o o
0
0
(1)
Where; C
L
= lift coefficient
C
L0
= lift coefficient for zero angleofattack and zero elevator deflection
C
L0oe
= lift coefficient for zero angleofattack
C
Ltarget
= lift coefficient obtained from the lift equation
C
Lo
= lift coefficient change with angleofattack
C
Loe
= lift coefficient change with elevator deflection
C
m
= pitching moment coefficient
C
m0
= pitching moment coefficient for zero angleofattack and zero elevator deflection
C
m0oe
= pitching coefficient for zero angleofattack
C
mo
= pitching moment change with angleofattack
C
moe
= pitching moment change with elevator deflection
o = angleofattack
o
CURR
= current angleofattack
Ao = deviation from current angleofattack
o
e
= elevator deflection
Ao
e
= deviation elevator deflection
If the coefficient are known, we can write Equation (1) as follows:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
o
o
·
÷ = o · + o ·
÷ = o · + o ·
o o
o o
o o
o o
0
0
0
0
m m
L L
e m m
L L
m m e m m
L L e L L
C C
C C
C C
C C
C C C C
C C C C
e
e
e
e
(2)
The solution protocol is a follows:
STEP 1: Compute:
S V
W
2 Ltarget
2
C
p
=
STEP 2: Establish a value for Ao and Ao
e
. Set o = o
CURR
÷ Ao and o
e
= 0, to determine C
L1
and C
m1
.
STEP 3: Set o = o
CURR
+ Ao and o
e
= 0, to determine C
L2
and C
m2
.
STEP 4: Compute C
Lo
and C
mo
from:
2 2 0
1 2
1 2
2 0 2
1 0 1
o · ÷ =
o ÷ o
÷
= ¬
)
`
¹
o · + =
o · + =
o o
o
o
L L L
L L
L
L L L
L L L
C C C and
C C
C
C C C
C C C
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and
2 2 0
1 2
1 2
2 0 2
1 0 1
o · ÷ =
o ÷ o
÷
= ¬
)
`
¹
o · + =
o · + =
o o
o
o
m m m
m m
m
m m m
m m m
C C C and
C C
C
C C C
C C C
STEP 5: Compute:
o
÷
= o
L
L L
C
C C
0 target
target
STEP 6: Set o = o
target
and o
e
= o
e CURR
 Ao
e
, to determine C
L3
and C
m3
.
STEP 7: Set o = o
target
and o
e
= o
e CURR
+ Ao
e
, to determine C
L4
and C
m4
.
STEP 8: Compute C
Loe
and C
moe
from:
e
L L
L
C C
C
e
o
÷
=
o
0 3
and
e
m m
m
C C
C
e
o
÷
=
o
0 3
STEP 9: Compute the required C
L
to support the desired lift and knowing that C
m
=0 for a balanced
condition we populate the matrix of Equation (2) as follows:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
o
o
o o
o o
0
0
m
L L
e m m
L L
C
C C
C C
C C
e
e
(3)
And solve for the o and o
e
, which define the trimmed condition.
SURFACES solves this using an iterative algorithm and can do so about each of the airplane’s three
axes. This is necessary because the deflection of a control surface modifies the geometry which, in turn,
requires a new flow solution. The program comes with an easy to use Trim Wizard that makes this a
breeze. Additionally, you can trim for multiple airspeeds, creating an individual flow solution for each
trimmed condition. This is handy when you want multiple solutions for the same CG location. You can
leave your computer overnight running the trim solutions, and study the solution files the next day.
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IMPORTANT!
SURFACES is a symbolic vortexlattice
solver. It allows the user to create
mathematical expressions, called Math
Objects or Variables (which are used inter
changeably), that allow the designer to
define own parameters that may be of
importance to the airplane involved. This
adds an incredible power to the analysis
work. The math objects can use information
directly from the geometry of your model.
For instance, to calculate wing area you
could enter a constant or you could use a
function like [Saxy(surf1, surf2, …)]. So if
you modify your wing area for some reason,
the program will automatically update this
value.
9. Determination of Drag in SURFACES
9.1 Introduction
One of the primary advantages of using the VortexLattice Method is speed and accuracy in the
estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments. A prominent of those is drag. Since so many other
factors rely on drag (performance, engine requirements, etc) any tool that allows for a quick and reliable
estimation is priceless. Unfortunately, drag estimation is wrought with challenges.
There are several things that make drag remarkable as an aerodynamic force. Among those is how hard
it is to accurately estimate its magnitude. Drag is a rapidly changing variable, making its estimation harder
and harder as the angleofattack increases and air begins to separate and form “separation bubbles”.
Another challenge is the fact that when airspeed increases, compressibility effects contribute more and
more to the total drag.
The shape of a properly designed airplane flying at a low angleofattack (high speed) is such that air
flows over it smoothly and its drag is relatively low when compared to other flight conditions. Reducing the
airspeed requires an increase in angleofattack, which eventually causes airflow to separate in various
areas (e.g. along trailing edge of wings, fuselage wing juncture, etc.), increasing its drag. Such flow adds
a considerable complexity to analysis work. In fact, it is so complex in nature that even state of the art
NavierStokes solvers have a hard time predicting it accurately. Extracting drag from wind tunnel testing
presents challenges as well and requires great expertise,
especially for scaled wind tunnel models. This is so, because the
angleofattack at which flow separation begins differs from that of
the full scale airplane. These difficulties must always kept in mind
when predicting drag using any computer code. The calculation of
drag is estimation only, and, as such, must be taken with a grain
of salt. It is the purpose of this section to explain how
SURFACES computes drag and, that way, help you make drag
predictions that are as useful as possible .
As is revealed in the famous NavierStokes equations, drag really
has only two causes; pressure and friction, although the multitude
of specialty drags that abound in aerospace engineering literature
imply otherwise. The SURFACES development team uses these
two drag sources to simplify drag estimation in the program. Drag
estimation involves several parameters; the geometry of the
exposed area (known as the wetted area), aircraft orientation
(e.g. angleofattack and angleofyaw), and flow physics (density,
airspeed, Reynolds Number and Mach Number). Mathematically, this is represented in the formula:
) Re, , , , , , ( M V geometry f D
·
p  o = (1)
Where: geometry refers to reference and wetted area
1
.
M = Mach Number. Stored in the variable MN.
Re = Reynolds Number. Stored in the variable Re.
V
·
= Farfield airspeed. Stored in the variable Vinf.
o = Angleofattack. Stored in the variable AOA.
1
In SURFACES geometry terms are stored in variables such as ARref, Eref, Sref, and Swet.
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 = Angleofyaw. Stored in the variable AOY.
p = Air density. Stored in the variable rho.
The word geometry is somewhat nebulous here, but it is so on purpose; the user may use geometry in
own drag estimation beyond the variables cited. Also, while most texts on the subject tend to neglect the
contribution of the angleofyaw, , this is not done here for two reasons: First, the user must be made
aware of the impact asymmetric flight has on aircraft performance, especially when designing multi
engine aircraft for engineout situations. Second, by using SURFACES this is simply no more complicated
than accounting for angleofattack.
So, let’s begin by writing a standard definition of the total drag force:
D ref
C S V D
2
2
1
·
p = (2)
Where: C
D
= Total drag coefficient, dimensionless. Stored in the variable CD.
D = Drag force in lb
f
(UK system) or N (SI system).
S
ref
= Reference area, typically in ft² or m².
V
·
= Farfield airspeed, typically in ft/s or m/s.
p = Air density, typically in slugs/ft
3
or kg/m
3
. Stored in the variable rho.
Equation (2) explicitly contains three of the variables mentioned for Equation (1), namely; geometry, p,
and V
·
. Dependency on o, , M, and Re is usually handled in the expression for drag coefficient, C
D
. In
aircraft design, aerodynamicists typically regard the drag coefficient as a function of the lift coefficient, C
L
and plot the two on a graph called the drag polar. A typical representation of airfoil data is shown in
Figure 9.11
2
. This shows a lift curve, drag polar, and pitching moment curves for several 2D airfoils and
shows two graphs. The left graph shows how the lift coefficient varies with angleofattack. The right one
shows how the drag coefficient varies with the lift coefficient. Note that the pitching moment coefficients
are not important in this discussion.
The shape of the drag polar depends on several factors. The first is lift, which depends on the angleof
attack (and yaw) of the geometry. It is also evident that the C
D
is always larger than zero, achieving a
certain minimum value at relatively low values of C
L
. It follows it makes sense to consider the drag as the
sum of some minimum drag, call it C
Dmin
, and additional drag, caused in part by the change in C
L
. This
additional drag is caused by an increase in flow separation, which increases the pressure drag.
The dip in the drag polar around a C
L
of 0.2 to 0.5 is referred to as a drag bucket and is typically
associated with laminar flow airfoils. For instance, note how all but two of the airfoils in Figure 9.11 (64
2

415 and 23012) display this phenomenon. Exceeding this band of lift coefficients on either side, will result
in a notable change in airflow behavior. First, the location where laminar boundary layer transitions into a
turbulent one on the upper surface moves closer to the leading edge of the airfoil. Second, as the angle
ofattack increases more, flow begins to separate near the trailing edges of the wing. This change affects
the distribution of pressure around the airfoil and, therefore, causes a rise in the pressure drag. By the
same token, the transition point on the lower surface will move closer to the trailing edge. This changes
the extent of laminar versus turbulent boundary layer and, therefore, changes the skin friction drag. This
is the second factor to be considered.
The third factor is compressibility effects. This is a high speed phenomenon, but a simple explanation is
that compressibility causes streamlines to align closer together and farther into the flow field than they do
in an incompressible flow. This results in a higher speed over the airfoil than indicated by
incompressibility, which increases the lowpressure on the airfoil and, thus, the rate at which both lift and
2
Reproduced from NACA R824.
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drag change with angleofattack. Compressibility drag is exclusively a pressure drag effect
3
and
eventually, if the airspeed increases further, a shockwave will form. SURFACES does not predict
shockwave formation, so results in which shock would have formed in real flow are unreliable. Typically,
shockwaves begin to form when airplanes fly at airspeeds faster than Mach 0.85, but may happen at a far
lower airspeed, for instance if the airplane has thick wings. The theory of compressible flow is beyond the
scope of this discussion, but the interested reader can refer to engineering texts such as References 2, 3,
and 6 for further information. The user must be cognizant of such high speed effects. SURFACES has
been designed to automatically include compressibility corrections if the user chooses to apply them. In
SURFACES, you should apply compressibility corrections for cases when the airspeed exceeds Mach
numbers of the order of 0.3 to 0.5.
SURFACES provides four different methods to model compressibility effects and, if selected,
automatically computes their effects for the user. This will be talked about in greater detail shortly.
Figure 9.11: Drag polar for several 2D airfoils.
From this discussion it makes sense to define the drag coefficient as follows:
3
For instance, see discussion in Aircraft Performance and Design, John D. Anderson, pages 115116.
Lift Curve (C
L
versus o)
Drag Polar (C
D
versus C
L
)
Pitching Moment (C
M
)
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IMPORTANT!
When you start a new project in
SURFACES (by selecting File>New… and
then Surfaces Worksheet), the program will
load a standard list of math objects, so that
you won’t have to create commonly used
variables each time. The program loads
this from a template file called
OBJECTTEMPLATE.INI, which is stored in
the /SURFACES/TEMP/ folder. If you
suspect this template file is corrupt or
accidentally delete it, you can download a
new one from:
www.greatowlpublishing.com.
Di Df Do D
C C C C + + = (3)
Where: C
D
= Total drag coefficient, dimensionless. Stored in the variable CD.
C
Do
= Basic drag coefficient, dimensionless. Stored in the variable CDo.
C
Df
= Skin friction drag coefficient, dimensionless. Stored in the variable CDf.
C
Di
= Induced drag coefficient, dimensionless. Stored in the variable CDi.
Note 1: The form of Equation (3) preserves the idea expressed in most texts on aircraft design.
Note 2: Since SURFACES is symbolic code, the user can enter complicated expressions for each
component. However, SURFACES also provides the user with several tools to help and these will be
discussed in greater detail in this section.
Note 3: Although many aerodynamic texts treat C
Do
and C
Df
as if they were constant with respect to o and
 there is no guarantee this is true in reality. For instance, a change in o will move the laminar to turbulent
flow transition point and reshape flow separation regions. Additionally, compressible skin friction
coefficient reduces slightly with Mach Number, whereas the basic drag coefficient increases.
Note 4: Sometimes the basic drag coefficient is lumped together with the skin friction coefficient and
called profile drag. This will not be done here for the simple reason that it adds complexity to keep track of
yet another drag coefficient and hides the contribution of wetted area on the overall airplane drag.
Note 5: The effect of compressibility is accounted for by modifying C
Do
and C
Di
using corrections that
pertain to pressure drag only, and using a correction only applicable to skin friction for C
Df
.
Note 6: SURFACES has internal functions that calculate most of
these coefficients for the user. The user must supply C
Do
only,
but the other coefficients can be calculated internally if the user
so wishes. All can be displayed as math objects, using the
functions [CDf] for skin friction, [CDi] for induced drag, [CD]
for total drag (calculated per Equation (3)), and [CL] for lift
coefficient. This is already set up in this fashion in the standard
Math Object template . So, when a new project is created, the
formulation is already correctly set up by default. Note that if
these builtin functions are used, a C
Di
and C
L
of 0 will be
reported when there is no VortexLattice solution in memory, or if
the user resets the solution (clears it out of memory). Also, a CDf
of 0 will be reported until skin friction coefficient has been
assigned to any of the surfaces.
Note 7: As said earlier, actual change in AOA or AOY will
change C
Do
, but this change is not to be confused with the
change in induced drag, C
Di
, whose magnitude depends on the lift coefficient, C
L
. The change in C
Do
is
solely due to a change in pressure over the airplane, which is not used directly for lift generation
(although those lines are blurred at times). It depends on the attitude of the airplane (i.e. angular
orientation) in the air
4
, but this affects the shape and size of flow separation regions. The C
Di
, on the other
hand, depends on the C
L
. Induced drag can be defined as the drag created by a wing in excess of what it
would create in an inviscid flow at the same C
L
. One way the aerodynamicist can estimate a variation in
C
Do
with AOA and AOY is to wind tunnel test an aircraft with the lifting surfaces removed. See Note 9 for
additional information.
4
For instance, see page 186 of Reference 5.
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Note 8: Figure 9.12 shows a schematic of how SURFACES handles drag calculations. First,
incompressible drag coefficients are computed. Second, if compressibility correction is to be included the
coefficients are modified. Third, the coefficients are added to return the total drag coefficient.
Figure 9.12: A schematic showing how SURFACES determines drag coefficients.
C
D
CD
Total drag coefficient
Incompressible
Compressibility?
Yes No
Compressibility?
Yes No
Compressibility?
Yes No
C
Do
CDo
Compressible
basic drag
coefficient
METHODS:
1. PrandtlGlauert
2. User defined
C
Df
CDf
Compressible
skin friction drag
coefficient
METHOD:
FranklVoishel
C
Di
CDi
Compressible
induced drag
coefficient
METHODS:
1. PrandtlGlauert
2. KarmanTsien
3. Laitone
4. User defined
C
Do
CDo
Basic drag coefficient
C
Df
CDf
Skin friction drag coefficient
C
Di
CDi
Induced drag coefficient
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Note 9: Consider Figure 9.13, which shows a simplified example of how C
Do
, C
Df
, and C
Di
might vary with
angle of attack only (constant airspeed and altitude). In reality, C
Do
might show a larger increase with
AOA than displayed, especially at very low and very high AOA, and C
Df
will likely change as well as the
laminar and turbulent flow regions change, but one should be careful in assuming C
Do
and C
Df
remain
constant. Figure 9.14 show how the same coefficients build up to form C
D
.
Note 10: Aerospace engineering literature introduces the casual reader to an assortment of drag types.
There is transonic drag, nacelle drag, external store drag, protuberance drag, interference drag, parasitic
drag, leakage drag, just to name a few. At times it’s not clear whether one is reading about aerospace or
medical science. With that in mind, there are two points that must be emphasized: (A) Textbook authors
are prolific inventors of terms for things that either increase pressure drag or skin friction drag, or a
combination thereof. This leaves the impression that there exist imaginary drag types that only affect
certain airplane features. Only airplanes with nacelles get nacelle drag, only airplanes with protuberances
suffer from protuberance drag, and so on, when in fact these features are simply changing the pressure
field or modifying the boundary layer. While there are probably many who consider this advantageous,
this can also confuse the issue. The confusion does not stem from the names these specialty drags
receive, but a difference in definition between authors, when one author creates a name for a specialty
drag another author doesn’t even mention. (B) SURFACES handles this assortment of drag types in a
simple manner; it ignores them. It only uses the three terms in Equation (3) and leaves it to the user’s to
define as many drag terms as desired, naturally limited by computer resources only.
Figure 9.13: Basic drag coefficient plotted for AOA and AOY.
[NOTE THAT THIS APPLIES TO QUADRATIC DRAG MODEL ONLY]
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IMPORTANT!
Entry is accomplished through the math
object editor, shown in Figure 9.21. This is
opened by doubleclicking on the variable
in the math object list, in the pane on the
left hand side of the worksheet. Remember
that you can enter an algebraic expression
to account for changes with respect to any
other variable in the program.
Figure 9.14: Basic drag coefficient plotted for AOA and AOY.
Now let’s look at the three constituent drag coefficients in greater detail.
9.2 Basic Drag Coefficient, C
Do
Basic drag is caused by pressure differences integrated over the
entire external surface of the aircraft and always results in a force
that impedes its motion. It includes the effects of interference of
major parts, such as fuselage and wing. It gets larger with
increase in flow separation and, therefore, generally should not
be considered constant, although many do so in interest of
convenience, especially during early concept studies of new
aircraft. SURFACES assumes this coefficient is supplied by the
user and, therefore, the default value for every new project is 0.
The coefficient is stored in the math object CDo. Table 9.21
shows some examples of possible user entries for C
Do
. If
compressibility modeling has been selected, the returned value is
the compressible basic drag coefficient.
Table 9.21: Examples of User Entries for CDo.
Example Formula (entered in the Formula box of Figure 2) Comment
1 0.001
A constant value, which might be the result of a
prior drag breakdown analysis for an single
engine piston aircraft.
2 0.001+0.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2
An example of how one could account for
changes in the pressure drag with angleof
attack.
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3
0.001+0.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0.02*(AOY*Pi
/180)^2
An example of how one could account for
changes in the pressure drag with angleof
attack and angleofyaw. This is the formula of a
surface and is plotted in Figure 9.22 for AOA
ranging from 2°to 12°and AOY ranging from 
15°to 15°. Also see Figure 9.21.
4
0.001+0.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0.02*(AOY*Pi
/180)^2+0.0009*[SDaft(3)]
An example of how to account for changes in
angleofattack and angleofyaw, as well as the
deflection of a flap, here assumed to be surface
number 3. When [SDaft(3)] is 35°, a value of
0.0315 is added to the CDo.
5
CDwing+CDfuse+CDldg+CDcool+CDtail+Cdna
celle+Cdprotruberance+CDmisc
Here, the user has independently defined the
extra math objects describing the drag buildup
and is summing them up to return the basic
drag coefficient.
*Note that these are just examples of how one might set such formulation up. Your formulation is likely to be different.
Figure 9.21: Entering the formula for Example 3 in Table 9.21 for the math object CDo.
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IMPORTANT!
Note that in this text, the skin friction
coefficient is denoted by C
f
and skin friction
drag coefficient by C
Df
. These are not
interchangeable. C
f
is determined for a
laminar or turbulent boundary layer and is
related to the wetted area, S
wet
. The
coefficient C
Df
is the equivalent skin friction
drag coefficient for the entire airplane and
is related to the reference area, S
ref
. For
this reason, the distinction of the two terms
must be kept in mind. The two are related,
as shown in Equation (4).
Figure 9.22: Basic drag coefficient of Example 3 plotted for AOA and AOY.
9.3 Skin Friction Drag Coefficient, C
Df
Skin friction is caused by the fluid viscosity as it flows over a
surface. Its magnitude depends on the viscosity of air and the
wetted (or total) surface area in contact with it. The coefficient is
stored in the math object CDf. If compressibility modeling has
been selected, the returned value is the compressible skin
friction drag coefficient .
The analysis of skin friction drag is complicated by a process
called transition, when laminar boundary layer becomes
turbulent (see Figure 9.31)
5
. This results in a mixed boundary
layer, each with own skin friction coefficient. The nature of this
behavior on airfoils is shown in Figure 9.32. Airfoils have two
transition points; one on the upper and one on the lower surface.
Each transition point moves forward or aft, as shown in the
figure, when the angleofattack of the airfoil changes. Naturally,
the travel is entirely dependent on the geometry and surface roughness of the airfoil.
5
Note that it would be more correct to talk about a transition region. The line indicates a location beyond which transition has been
completed.
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Figure 9.31: Mixed Boundary Layer conditions complicate skin friction drag analysis. This image
is discussed in greater detail later.
Figure 9.32: The laminartoturbulent transition points move around depending on angleof
attack, airfoil shape, and surface roughness.
SURFACES employs a standard presentation of skin friction, for instance as presented in Reference 1.
The skin friction drag coefficient is defined as follows:
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.

\

=
p
=
· ref
wet
f
ref
f
Df
S
S
C
S V
D
C
2
2
(4)
Where: D
f
= Skin friction drag force in lb
f
(UK system) or N (SI system).
p = Air density, typically in slugs/ft
3
or kg/m
3
.
V
·
= Farfield airspeed, typically in ft/s or m/s.
S
wet
= Wetted area, typically in ft² or m².
C
Df
= Skin friction drag coefficient, dimensionless.
C
f
= Skin friction coefficient, dimensionless. See Equation (15) for more details.
If known, the user can enter an expression for the skin friction drag coefficient or use a combination of
builtin functions in the two following ways:
1. Use any of the builtin functions that extract surface areas or wetted area of surfaces in your own
formulation.
2. Use the builtin function [CDf] directly, but this requires skin friction coefficients to be defined
for the surfaces to be used.
Either method (or a combination thereof) is very handy if you modify the geometry, as they will instantly
update the skin friction drag coefficient. However, the [CDf] method is handier when you are estimating
the skin friction drag of a new design. If you choose to use the builtin function [CDf] you should follow
these steps to properly prepare the formulation (see Section 9.11 for an example setup):
STEP 1: Specify wetted area. Use the math object “Swet” for this purpose. The formula for “Swet” can
be as simple as a number (if you know the value) to an algebraic representation using functions such as
[SA(surf1, surf2,…)]or [Swet(surf1, surf2,…)], which computes the total and wetted area of
the selected surfaces surf1, surf2, and so on, respectively. At computation time the value of “Swet” is
used internally with Equation (4).
STEP 2: Specify skin friction coefficients for each surface. You can do this in two ways. You can
estimate a skin friction drag coefficient using your preferred method and enter for each surface
6
. Or you
can use SURFACES’ own internal estimation based on a laminartoturbulent boundary layer transition
points that you provide. The latter method is probably far easier, but a numerical example of how
SURFACES estimates this is presented later in this section to help clarify the method.
Since SURFACES models are made from infinitely thin surface panels, the program estimates wetted
area by determining the surface area and then doubles the value to get wetted area. Table 9.31 shows
some examples of possible user entries for CDf. If a function, such as [Swet(surf1, surf2,…)], is
used to estimate the wetted area, the user can multiply it by a factor to account for surface curvature (for
instance as shown Example 3 in Table 9.31).
Table 9.31: Example user entries for CDf.
Example Formula Comment
1 0.025
A constant value, which might be the result of a
prior drag breakdown analysis for an single
engine piston aircraft.
6
It is possible to enter this for multiple surfaces at a time.
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2 0.0250.0001*Re^0.25
This user accounted for changes in skin friction
with Reynolds Number using this formula. It
returns 0.0208 for Re = 3 000 000 and 0.01968
for Re = 8 000 000.
3 0.025+0.000018*1.05*[Swet(5,6)]
This user is adding the contribution of the
additional wetted area of winglets (surfaces 5
and 6), multiplying the result by a 1.05 to
correct for their curvature. For winglets with 50
ft² additional area, this formula returns 0.0260.
4
0.01*(Cf_lam*Plam+Cf_turb*(100
Plam))*Swet/Sref
Here the user is accounting for partial laminar
flow in this estimation. The expression assumes
the Sref will be divided out, leaving Swet
remaining, when incorporated in standard drag
calculations. The variable Plam means the
percentage of laminar flow. Plam = 50 for
laminar flow of up to 50% of wing wetted area.
Note that Swet here is not the same as
[Swet()]. See the discussion to follow for more
information.
5 [CDf]
This formula returns the result of an internal
calculation, in which all surfaces, to which a
skin friction coefficient has been defined, are
summed up using Equation (15).
*Note that these are just examples of how one might set such formulation up. Your formulation is likely to be different.
Other handy formulations are cited below for the convenience of the user.
Sutherland’s Formula for Viscosity:
When using the UK system the temperature is in °R. In that case the viscosity can be found from
7
:

.

\

+
× =
216 T
734.7
T 10 3.170
1.5 11 
u lb
f
·s/ft² (5)
When using the SI system the temperature is in K. In that case the viscosity can be found from
8
:

.

\

+
× =
4 . 10 1 T
1
T 10 1.458
1.5 6 
u N·s/m² (6)
Where; T = Outside Air Temperature, in °R or K.
u = Air viscosity, in lb
f
·s/ft² or N·s/m².
Reynolds Number:
u
p
=
VL
Re (7)
7
See Equation (2.90) of Reference 7.
8
See Equation (2.91) of Reference 7.
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Where; L = Reference length (for instance mean aerodynamic chord), in ft or m.
V = Reference airspeed, in ft/s or m/s.
p = Air density, in slugs/ft
3
or kg/m
3
.
u = Air viscosity, in lb
f
·s/ft² or N·s/m².
A simple expression, valid for UK system at sealevel conditions only is (V and L are in ft/s and ft,
respectively):
VL 6400 Re ~ (8a)
A simple expression, valid for SI system at sealevel conditions only is (V and L are in m/s and m,
respectively):
VL 68500 Re ~ (8b)
Laminar Flow Skin Friction Coefficient
9
This is the classical Blasius solution for a laminar boundary layer on a solid surface.
Re
328 . 1
=
lam
f
C (9)
Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient
10
This is the socalled Schlichting relation, which is found to be in good agreement with experiment.
( ) ( )
58 . 2
10
Re log
455 . 0
=
turb
f
C (10)
Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient – Compressible
11
( ) ( ) ( )
65 . 0
2 58 . 2
10
144 . 0 1 Re log
455 . 0
M
C
turb
f
+
= (11)
Where; M = Mach Number.
Equation (10) and not (11) is the preferred form in SURFACES as the program will apply correction for
compressibility effect using the FranklVoishel scheme. Using Equation (11) could result in the correction
applied twice.
Mixed LaminarTurbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient
12
The method below is taken from Reference 8. Also refer to Figure 9.31 for the location of the points X
0
and X
tr
. Of these, the user must specify the location of the transition point, which is used to calculate the
start point of the fictitious turbulent laminar flow. This is required to ensure the boundary layer thickness is
a continuous function. The user is referred to Reference 8 about methods on how to estimate transition
location; however, often drag analysis in SURFACES involves estimating the impact of 25% or 50%
9
See Equation (3.11) in Reference 8.
10
See Equation (6.53) in Reference 8.
11
See Equation (12.28) in Reference 4.
12
See Section 6.8, pages 162164 in Reference 8.
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transition on the total airplane drag. In other words, the designer is attempting to answer a question like:
“What is the benefit of achieving a partial laminar boundary layer on my design?” The answer may help
direct the designer towards an appropriate airfoil.
0.375 0.625
0
Re
1
9 . 36

.

\


.

\

× = 
.

\

C
X
C
X
tr
(12)
Then, the skin friction coefficient is determined as follows:
0.8
0
0.2
1
Re
074 . 0


.

\


.

\
 ÷
÷ =
C
X X
C
tr
f
(13)
Where; C = Reference length (e.g. wing chord).
X
0
= Location of the fictitious turbulent boundary layer.
X
tr
= Location of where laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent.
Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient – Compressible
13
Note that surface roughness affects C
fturb
, but this is typically accounted for through the use of a so called
“cutoff Reynolds Number.” If the actual Reynolds Number exceed the cutoff Reynolds Number, it is used
instead. For more information on the topic, the reader is directed towards texts, such as Reference 4.
053 . 1
21 . 38 Re

.

\

=
k
C
cutoff
(14)
Where; C = Reference length.
k = Skin roughness value.
The roughness value is based on the values in the following table, which is taken from Reference 4. If
these are not acceptable, the user can also enter own Re
cutoff
value.
Surface Type k
Camouflage paint on aluminum 0.00040
Smooth paint 0.00025
Production sheet metal 0.00016
Polished sheet metal 0.00006
Smooth molded composite 0.00002
When using the builtin function [CDf], SURFACES uses Equation (15) to calculate the coefficient using
all surfaces for which (C
f
)
i
has been defined:
( )




.

\

×


.

\

=


.

\

=
¯
=
wet
N
i
i
i
f
ref
wet
f
ref
wet
Df
S
S C
S
S
C
S
S
C 1 (15)
13
See Equation (12.28) in Reference 4.
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Where (C
f
)
i
= Skin friction coefficient of surface i
N = Number of surfaces
S
i
= wetted area of surface i (in ft² or m²)
S
wet
= Wetted area (in ft² or m²)
Of these, the skin friction coefficient of each surface, (C
f
)
i
, needs further explanation. The user must
estimate this value for each surface to be included in the analysis. This brings up an additional question:
How does one handle laminar flow over a surface consisting of two distinct defining airfoils? In order to
shed light on this, the demo aircraft model built in Section 4 will be used.
Consider the wing of the demo aircraft shown in Figure 9.32, which consists of two dissimilar airfoils on a
tapered wing planform. The wing span is 18 ft, the root chord (Curve A1) is 3 ft and tip chord (Curve A2)
is 2 ft (see Figure 41a). Also, the reference area is 45 ft² (as you will know if you created the model per
the instructions in Section 4). Assume that at the given condition, the airfoil of curve A1 is a true laminar
airfoil which is capable of sustaining 55% laminar flow on upper surface and 35% on the lower. The airfoil
of curve A2 is a turbulent flow airfoil, but still sustains laminar flow to 15% on the upper surface and 15%
on the lower. This airplane is cruising at 100 KTAS (168.8 ft/s) near sealevel, where the air density is
0.002378 slugs/ft
3
. Determine the skin friction drag coefficient and force acting on the wing due to the
mixed laminar and turbulent regions.
Figure 9.32: Example aircraft from Section 4.
One way to tackle this problem is to assume a linear change in laminar transition from A1 to A2. We’ll
calculate the skin friction, using the mixed boundarylayer formulation, as follows:
STEP 1: Start by using Equation (5) to compute the viscosity assuming an atmospheric temperature of
518.67 °R (15 °C):
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( )
7  1.5 11 
10 3.745
216 518.67
734.7
518.67 10 3.170 × = 
.

\

+
× = u lb
f
·s/ft²
STEP 2: Using Equation (7) we compute the Reynolds Number for airfoil 1, using a standard day air
density of 0.002378 slugs/ft
3
.
( )( )( )
3215539
10 3.745
3 8 . 168 0.002378
Re
7  1
=
×
=
u
p
=
VL
STEP 3: Then compute the Reynolds Number for airfoil 2
( )( )( )
2143692
10 3.745
2 8 . 168 0.002378
Re
7 
2
=
×
=
u
p
=
VL
STEP 4: Using Equation (12) we compute the location of the fictitious turbulent boundary layer on the
upper and lower surfaces of airfoil 1 (noting the different locations of the X
tr
on each surface).
Lower: ( ) 0.06948
3215539
1
35 . 0 9 . 36
Re
1
9 . 36
0.375
0.625
0.375 0.625
0
= 
.

\

× = 
.

\


.

\

× = 
.

\

C
X
C
X
tr
Upper: ( ) 0.09216
3215539
1
55 . 0 9 . 36
0.375
0.625
0
=

.

\

× =

.

\

C
X
STEP 5: Repeat for airfoil 2 (noting an equal value for each surface).
Lower: ( ) 0.04763
2143692
1
15 . 0 9 . 36
0.375
0.625
0
=

.

\

× =

.

\

C
X
Upper: 0.04763
0
= 
.

\

C
X
STEP 6: The skin friction coefficient for upper and lower surface of airfoil 1 is determined using Equation
(13) as follows:
Lower: ( ) ( ) ( ) 002841 . 0 06948 . 0 35 . 0 1
3215539
074 . 0
1
Re
074 . 0
0.8
0.2
0.8
0
0.2 1
= ÷ ÷ =


.

\


.

\
 ÷
÷ =
C
X X
C
tr
lower
f
Upper: ( ) ( ) ( ) 002265 . 0 09216 . 0 55 . 0 1
3215539
074 . 0
0.8
0.2 1
= ÷ ÷ =
upper
f
C
Call the average of the two the representative skin friction coefficient for airfoil 1, i.e.
002553 . 0
2
002265 . 0 002841 . 0
1
=
+
=
f
C
STEP 7: Repeat for airfoil 2 (noting an equal value for each side).
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Lower: ( ) ( ) ( ) 003677 . 0 04763 . 0 15 . 0 1
2143692
074 . 0
1
Re
074 . 0
0.8
0.2
0.8
0
0.2 2
= ÷ ÷ =


.

\


.

\
 ÷
÷ =
C
X X
C
tr
lower
f
Upper: ( ) 00367 . 0
2
=
upper
f
C
The average of the two is of course:
003677 . 0
2
=
f
C
STEP 8: The representative skin friction coefficient for the total wetted surface is simply the average of
the coefficient for both airfoils, i.e:
003115 . 0
2
003677 . 0 002553 . 0
=
+
=
f
C
STEP 9: Determine wetted area of the wing:
( )  
2
2
1
0 . 90 18 2 3 2 ft S
wet
= × + × =
STEP 10: Estimate skin friction drag due to the laminar flow.
( )( ) ( ) lbf C S V D
f wet lam f
5 . 9 003115 . 0 90 8 . 168 002378 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
= × × = × × p =
Note that an equivalent skin friction drag coefficient, which is based on S
ref
, would be found from Equation
(15):
( ) 0.006230 003115 . 0
45
90
= 
.

\

=


.

\

=
f
ref
wet
Df
C
S
S
C
Also note that the value, 0.003115 (and not 0.006230), is what one could enter as Cf_i for the wing
surface when using the internal generation of C
Df
in SURFACES (see the red box for each method below
in Figures 9.32 and 3). This can be done by one of the two following methods.
Method 1: Surfacebysurface basis
Doubleclick on a surface to open its properties form.
Click on the ‘Tuning’ tab. Enter the skin friction
coefficient for the surface in the textbox in the red
frame.
Method 2: Multiple surface entry
The user can select any number of surfaces (by
holding Shift while clicking on surfaces) and then
select Modify>Surface Properties…. Enter the
desired value, which will be applied to all selected
surfaces.
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Figure 9.32: Method 1
Figure 9.33: Method 2
9.4 Induced Drag Coefficient, C
Di
The induced drag is caused when the airflow perturbs the flow field as it makes its way around the wingtip
(generating the wingtip vortices) of a 3D wing (see Figure 9.41), compared to what would happen to an
infinitely long wing
14
. An integration of the pressure field over the wing yields a higher drag than would be
obtained if this tip flow did not occur. In other words: the generation of the wingtip vortices induces the
extra drag and the higher the lift, the higher is this additional drag.
The coefficient is stored in the math object CDi. If compressibility modeling has be selected, the returned
value is the compressible induced drag coefficient. SURFACES allows the user to determine the induced
drag using three different methods:
METHOD 1: Surface integration sums the pressure forces acting on each panel and resolves it into a
three orthogonal components and rotates this to the wind axis coordinate system. Using the wing axis
coordinate system, the force in the Xdirection is by definition the drag, the force in the Ydirection is the
side force, and the force in the Z direction is the lift.
14
The astute student will recognize that D’Alembert’s 2D paradox that a body in inviscid flow produces no drag does not apply in
3D flow, due to the downwash created by the trailing wake.
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METHOD 2: (C
L
C
L CDmin
)²/(t·ARref·Eref) method computes the induced drag based on the current lift
coefficient, the CL where minimum drag occurs (C
L CDmin)
, reference Aspect Ratio (ARref), and reference
span efficiency (Eref).
METHOD 3: Trefftz plane integration uses flow perturbations in an imaginary plane infinitely far behind
the model to determine the induced drag. The location of the plane is a mathematical simplification that
allows one to neglect the xperturbation from the flow field formulation, as it is theoretically zero that far
from the model. This way, a 3D relationship (volume) can be considered as 2D (plane).
Figure 9.41: A 3D wing in airflow.
9.5 Total Drag Coefficient, C
D
Once SURFACES has determined the basic, skin friction, and induced drag coefficients, it computes the
total drag coefficient using Equation (3), repeated here for convenience. The coefficient is stored in the
math object CD.
Di Df Do D
C C C C + + = (3)
It should be noted that the coefficients are based on S
ref
. forces Equation (3) can be rewritten as follows:
ref
i
wet
f
ref
o
D
S V
D
S V
D
S V
D
C
2 2 2
2
2
2
p
+
p
+
p
= (16)
For internal consistency, we could thus write;
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.

\

+


.

\

+


.

\

p
=
p
+


.

\

p
+
p
=
i
wet
ref
f o
ref
ref
i
ref
ref
wet
f
ref
o
D
D
S
S
D D
S V
S V
D
S
S
S V
D
S V
D
C
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
(17)
Which, is how SURFACES returns the total drag coefficient.
Table 9.51: Example user entries for CD.
Example Formula Comment
1 CDo+CDf+CDi
Here, the math objects CDo, CDf, and CDi have
already been defined (as it is in the standard
template).
2 [CDo]+[CDf]+[CDi]
This could be a way to account for changes in
skin friction with Reynolds Number.
3 0.0045+0.000023*1.05*[Swet(5,6)]
Here a user is adding contribution of the wetted
area of surfaces 5 and 6, multiplying the result
by a 1.05 to account for curvature.
9.6 Compressibility Modeling
SURFACES allows the user several options in compressibility modeling. Figure 9.61 shows the form
used to select compressibility modeling. If no modeling is selected, SURFACES will return the
incompressible coefficients C
L
, C
D
, C
Do
, C
Df
, and C
Di
. Otherwise, the values returned will include the
compressibility corrections. The following corrections are included:
Table 9.61: Compressibility formulation in SURFACES.
Name Formulation Remarks Reference
PrandtlGlauert
2
1 M
C
C
Po
P
÷
=
Typically underpredicts experimental
values. Simple enough to be applicable
to most of the coefficients.
Ref. 6,
Equation
(9.36)
KarmanTsien
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 Po
Po
P
C
M
M
M
C
C


.

\

÷ +
+ ÷
=
Is applied directly to panel pressure
coefficients inside SURFACES and is
thus not applied to C
Do
. Approaches
PrandtlGlauert for low Mach Numbers.
Ref. 6,
Equation
(9.40)
Laitone ( )
Po
Po
P
C
M
M M
M
C
C


.

\

÷
+
+ ÷
=
2
2 2
2
1 2
2 . 0 1
1
Is applied directly to panel pressure
coefficients inside SURFACES and is
thus not applied to C
Do
.
Ref. 6,
Equation
(9.39)
User defined 
Is applied directly to panel pressure
coefficient inside SURFACES and also
to C
Do
.

FranklVoishel
0.996) + 0.0204M
0.118M  0.0332M
+ M 0.00383  0.000162M (
2 3
4 5
+
=
Dfo Df
C C
Based on FranklVoishel. The
polynomial is obtained by interpolating
the data in the graph on that page.
Ref. 3,
5.1.5.115.
Table 9.62: Compressibility Modeling in SURFACES.
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When user selects… C
L
C
D
C
Do
C
Df
C
Di
…these compressibility models are applied:
None None None None None None
PrandtlGlauert
Prandtl
Glauert
Prandtl
Glauert
Prandtl
Glauert
FranklVoishel
Prandtl
Glauert
KarmanTsien KarmanTsien KarmanTsien
Prandtl
Glauert
FranklVoishel KarmanTsien
Laitone Laitone Laitone
Prandtl
Glauert
FranklVoishel Laitone
User defined User defined User defined User defined FranklVoishel User defined
As can be seen from Table 9.62, the compressible C
Do
always uses the PrandtlGlauert correction when
KarmanTsien or Laitone are selected for C
Di
. FranklVoishel is always used to correct C
Df
.
9.8 How SURFACES Calculates Do, Df, Di, and D.
Once SURFACES has determined the constituent drag coefficients is computes the basic drag, skin
friction drag, induced drag, and total drag forces using the following formulation:
Basic Drag Force:
Do ref o
C S V D
2
2
1
·
p = (18)
Skin Friction Drag Force:
Df wet f
C S V D
2
2
1
·
p = (19)
Induced Drag Force:
Di ref i
C S V D
2
2
1
·
p = (20)
Total Drag Force:
D ref
C S V D
2
2
1
·
p = (21)
9.9 Limitations of Drag Estimation Methodologies
Figure 9.91 shows what a true drag polar might look like for a real airplane. This data might have been
collected in flight or wind tunnel testing. The figure also shows a “simulated” drag polar, using a standard
second order polynomial representation (also known CLsquared method). This is represented by an
equation such as:
C
D
= C
Do
+ C
Df
+ (C
L
 C
L CDmin
)²/t·AR·e
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Figure 9.91: Typical drag polar.
The user should realize that the CL² method is only a representation that works over a range of C
L
s. It
becomes increasingly inaccurate if C
L
is too low or too high. Analysis done using that drag model will only
be reliable within that range. For instance, predictions based on the red curve in Figure 9.91 would
indicate less performance at higher AOA than the airplane would display in reality. However, there might
also be a scenario in which the simulated curve indicated less drag, and therefore better performance
than the real airplane would be capable. The point is that the user must understand the limitations of any
prediction made.
9.10 Setting up Drag Modeling on Example Aircraft
One of the advantages in using SURFACES is the geometric information can be utilized directly when
determining aerodynamic parameters. For instance, consider the balance a designer must find between
lift and drag. A large wing area results in a lower stalling speed, but greater drag and structural weight.
Being able to evaluate such parameters on the fly, as one modifies the wing (and thus its area) is
priceless to the aircraft designer. This section will show how to use geometric relations in drag modeling.
The model created in Section 4 will be used in a StepbyStep procedure.
Generally, the user should prepare models for geometric relations after they have been constructed, in
order to prevent relations to become corrupt as a consequence of adding and deleting geometric entities
during the construction phase. At any rate, it is a good practice to check for errors in the assignment of
geometric references before solving.
STEP 1: Open the demo airplane project from Section 4. Select File>Open… and
navigate to find the file SIMPLE DEMO.SRF. Doubleclick to open.
STEP 2: Select the XYZ view and orient the airplane similar to what is
shown in Figure 9.101.
C
D
C
L
True drag polar (from flight
testing or wind tunnel
testing).
“Simulated” drag polar
(e.g. from k·C
L
C
LCDmin
)²
methodology
C
L CDmin
Range of
“reasonable”
C
D
predictions.
C
D
= C
Do
+ C
Df
+ (C
L
 C
L CDmin
)²/t·AR·e
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Figure 9.101: The model if Step 2 was followed.
Let’s define the basic drag coefficient as follows:
CDo = 0.001+0.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0.02*(AOY*Pi/180)^2
Let’s define the skin friction drag coefficient as
follows:
CDf = [CDf]
And let’s define the induced drag coefficient as
follows:
CDi = [CDi]
Now, let’s enter these:
STEP 3: Open the VLM Console. From the
Edit menu select Reference Drag
Modeling… (See Figure 9.102). This
opens the dialog box shown in Figure
9.103. Enter the above drag
coefficients and other information as
shown in the figure. When done, press
the [OK] button to store the entered
information and close the form.
Figure 9.102: Select Reference Drag
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Modelling… from the VLM Console.
This step tells SURFACES how to compute our three crucial drag coefficients. We will now set up the skin
friction modeling for the surfaces and tell SURFACES how exactly to compute the skin friction drag.
Figure 9.103: Step 3 calls for this form to be filled out as shown.
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STEP 4: Go back to the worksheet and
select Edit>Select Surfaces… The
press the [Select All] button in the
form that opens up and then press the
[OK] button (see Figure 9.104). Now
all the surfaces are selected.
Figure 9.104: A quick selection of all surfaces.
STEP 5: Then select Modify>Surface
Properties… Select the option ‘Use
Curve A1 and A2 skin friction drag’ as
shown in Figure 9.105. Press [OK].
This step tells SURFACES to calculate the skin
friction drag using information we have yet to enter
for the A1 and A2 curves of the surfaces.
First, let’s assume the HT and VT are to be
designed using laminar flow airfoils capable of
sustaining 50% laminar flow. Let’s also assume the
wing will sustain laminar flow as discussed in the
example of Section 9.3.
Figure 9.105: A quick selection of all surfaces.
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STEP 6: Select all the vectors as shown in Figure 9.106. Make sure you use
the rubberband when selecting the centerline vectors as there are really
three vectors (or airfoils) there; two belonging to the HT root and one to
the VT tip. The following assumes you did this correctly.
Figure 9.106: A1 and A2 curves have been selected for all surfaces to be included.
STEP 7: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors…
from the worksheet.
This opens the form shown in Figure 9.107. As said earlier, we are assuming here that the airfoils can
sustain 50% laminar flow on the upper and lower surfaces. This case is often checked by aircraft
designers and is especially prepared here for quick entry. You can simply press the buttons labeled [0%],
[25%], and [50%] to set up these special cases. This assumes a constant transition (i.e. independent of
AOA) throughout the operational range, which is not necessarily true, but handy for quickstudies.
STEP 8: Press the [50%] button to fill in the textboxes in the form. Select
the option ‘Smooth molded composite’ for surface type. Press the [OK] button
to accept the editing.
SURFACES is equipped with a handy tool to help you visualize your work. Let’s turn it on.
STEP 9: Open the VLM Console. Select the ‘Panel Results’ tab find and check
the option ‘Upper surface laminar region’ (see Figure 9.108). View the
results in Figure 9.109).
There are 3
vectors here!
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Figure 9.107: Entering laminartoturbulent transition information for the selected vectors.
Figure 9.108: Display laminarturbulent regions.
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Figure 9.109: Image shows the laminar flow region (green) on the HT and VT. Note that when you
select to enter the skin friction coefficient directly (see Cf_i in Figure 9.105), rather than using the
A1/A2 curves, SURFACES won’t know the extent of laminar flow and, thus, will not plot the green
areas as shown here.
Note that at computation time, SURFACES will compare the actual AOA to the ones filled in Figure 9.107
and estimate the transitions at that angleofattack. If the AOA is less than the value AOA1, it will use the
transition values entered for the low angleofattack condition. If the AOA is larger than AOA2 then it will
use the values entered for the high angleofattack condition. Now let’s set up the mixed boundarylayer
conditions on the wing.
STEP 10: Select the wing tip vectors as shown in Figure 9.1010.
STEP 11: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors…
from the worksheet. Enter the information shown in Figure 9.1011.
STEP 12: Select the wing root vectors as shown in Figure 9.1012. Again, make
sure you use the rubberband when selecting the centerline vectors as there
are two vectors there. The following assumes you did this correctly.
STEP 13: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors…
from the worksheet. Enter the information shown in Figure 9.1013.
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Figure 9.1010: Selecting the wing tip vector in Step 10.
Figure 9.1011: Entering transition information for the wing tip in Step 11.
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Figure 9.1012: Selecting the wing root vector in Step 12.
Figure 9.1013: Entering transition information for the wing root in Step 13.
There are 2
vectors here!
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Now, only one thing remains. The wetted area for all the surfaces involved must be accounted for, or
SURFACES won’t be able to compute the skin friction drag coefficient. Let’s do this.
STEP 14: In the math objects list under the Objects tab tab on the pane in
left hand side of the worksheet, find the variable Swet. It should be in a
block of variables under the title “REFERENCE PARAMETERS”. Doubleclick on it
to open the variable editor (see Figure 9.101) and enter the function
[Swet(1,2,3,4,5)] (the order of the arguments doesn’t matter here). This will
calculate the wetted area of the selected surfaces. Press [OK] when done. .
Figure 9.1014: Editing variable Swet.
That’s it. The model is ready to be used for drag estimation. The model with the entered laminar flow
regions is shown in Figure 9.1015. The reported skin friction drag coefficient for the entire aircraft is
0.00907, but this yields a skin friction drag of a 38 lbf. But there is more. SURFACES allows us to take a
closer look at some other details about the skin friction drag. From the VLM Console’s Panel Results tab
you can select to have the program display the resulting skin friction drag coefficients or forces on each
surface. For instance, Figure 9.1016 shows that each half of the HT is generating 2.6 lbf of skin friction
drag, while the VT produces some 3.9 lbf (remember that the airplane modeled is small, perhaps UAV
sized). Additionally, it is of interest in noting that by setting the transition of all airfoils to 0% (turbulent
airfoils) C
Df
jumps to 0.01179 and skin friction drag to 49.4 lbf; i.e. by almost 30%!
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Figure 9.1015: The model displaying the extent of laminar flow regions after Step 15 has been
completed (green panels). Note the magnitude of the C
Df
for the entire aircraft is 0.00907. This
generates a skin friction drag of 38.02 lbf.
Furthermore, now that we have defined the drag for the airplane, we can learn a number of performance
related things about it. This is done by creating the drag polar for the full airplane, but this is shown in
Figure 9.1017. It was obtained by running the Virtual Wind Tunnel (note that elevator deflection was set
to 0°). Another interesting performance parameter obtained from the same VWT run is the L/D curve in
Figure 9.1018. From it we learn that the expected maximum L/D is 16.4 at an AOA of 6°.
We have just taken the first steps into a world of information about our design.
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Figure 9.1016: Displaying the skin friction drag on component basis.
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Figure 9.1017: Drag polar generated by the Virtual Wind Tunnel for the example aircraft.
Figure 9.1018: Variation of L/D with AOA, as generated by the Virtual Wind Tunnel.
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9.11 Summary of SURFACES Drag Analysis Methodology
Basic drag coefficient
Skin friction drag
coefficient
Induced drag
coefficient
Textbook representation C
Do
C
Df
C
Di
SURFACES representation CDo CDf CDi
Formulation allowed User entry only
User entry or internal
formulation
User entry or internal
formulation
Internal formulation No Yes Yes
Internal function name  [CDf] [CDi]
How does it work? Depends on user entry.
[CDf] returns the skin
friction coefficient by
summing up skin friction
coefficients assigned to
selected surfaces. The
function calculates the
area of the surface and
multiplies with the user
entered skin friction
coefficient.
[CDi] returns the induced
drag using one of three
modeling techniques;
surface integration, k·CL²
method, or Trefftz plane
integration.
Affected by
compressibility
Yes Yes Yes
Builtin compressibility Yes Yes Yes
Can use FranklVoishel No Yes No
Can use PrandtlGlauert Yes No Yes
Can use KarmanTsien No No Yes
Can use Laitone No No Yes
Can use User Defined No No Yes
References:
1. Aircraft Performance and Design. Anderson, John D., McGrawHill, 1999.
2. Convair Performance Methods.
3. USAF DATCOM. Hoak, D. E. et al, Flight Control Division, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory,
1970.
4. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach. Raymer, Daniel P., AIAA Education Series1989.
5. Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, and Flight Mechanics. McCormick, Barnes W., John Wiley & Sons,
1979.
6. Modern Compressible Flow. Anderson, John D., McGrawHill, XXXX.
7. Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance. Roskam, Jan, DARcorporation, 1997.
8. Boundary Layers. Young, A. D., AIAA Education Series, 1989.
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10. Validation Samples
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Validation 1: 2D Flat Plate Airfoil
V1.1 Model
A high aspect ratio (AR=20) wing model was constructed to obtain 2D pressure coefficients for
comparison to theoretical data. The model has a wing span of 20 units and a chord of 1 unit. The Angle
ofAttack is 10°at an airspeed of 10 unit/sec and density of 1 mass unit/length
3
. The Cp at the center of
the model was obtained for 2, 5, 10, and 15 chord wise panel density. Each of the two surfaces has 34
span wise panels.
Figure 11: High aspect ratio wing used to evaluate the 2D Cp.
V1.2 Expected Result
Is obtained from the book Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, and Flight Mechanics, by Barnes W. McCormick.
The data is obtained from Figure 3.17 on page 87.
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V1.3 Results from SURFACES
Figure 12: 2D Cp for various panel densities from SURFACES compared to exact theory.
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Data from Figure 3.17
X CP
Figure 12: 2D Cp from Figure 317 of reference document.
0.02 4.88
0.03 4.47
0.03 4.22
0.03 4.01
0.04 3.45
0.04 3.23
0.05 2.93
0.07 2.52
0.10 2.06
0.13 1.77
0.17 1.54
0.21 1.35
0.26 1.16
0.34 0.96
0.39 0.85
0.46 0.75
0.54 0.64
0.60 0.55
0.68 0.47
0.74 0.41
0.79 0.33
0.86 0.27
0.92 0.18
0.97 0.08
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Validation 2: 3D Properties of Two Wings
V2.1 Models
Two moderately high aspect ratio wing models were constructed to compare results from the VLM to a
standard 3D aerodynamic analysis. The models have a wing span of 10 ft and a chord of 1 ft. One model
has a 0°leading edge sweep and the other 35°. The angle of attack is 10°at an airspeed of 100 KCAS
(168.8 ft/s) and density of 0.002378 slugs/ft
3
. Each of the two surfaces has 32 spanwise and 8 chordwise
panels.
Figure 21: The two 3D wing models.
V2.2 Expected Result
The following parameters are given:
Airspeed V = 168.8 ft/s (M = 168.8/1116 = 0.151)
Wing area S = 10 x 1 = 10 ft²
Aspect Ratio AR = b² / S = 10²/10 = 10
Assume a 2D lift curve slope of deg per 0.1063
2
=
o D
L
C (for NACA0009, from Theory of Wing
Sections, by Abbott and Doenhoff). Start by computing a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF
DATCOM Section 1, page 17.
4
tan
1 2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
Where; AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 10
 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M
2
)
0.5
= 0.989
k = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2t = 0.1063 x (180/ t)/(2t) = 0.96934
A
c/2
= Sweepback of midchord = 0°and 35°
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A
c/2
= 0° A
c/2
= 35°
deg per 08846 . 0 rad per 5.068
4
989 . 0
0
1
96934 . 0
989 . 0 100
2
10 2
4
tan
1 2
2
2 2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
= =
+

.

\

+
×
+
· t
=
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
( )
deg per 07480 . 0 rad per 286 . 4
4
989 . 0
35 tan
1
96934 . 0
989 . 0 100
2
10 2
4
tan
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
= =
+


.

\
 °
+
×
+
· t
=
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
The lift coefficient at 10°is thus:
8846 . 0 10 = × ° =
o
L L
C C
The lift coefficient at 10°is thus:
7480 . 0 10 = × ° =
o
L L
C C
The total lift of the wing is
( )( ) ( )( )
f
L
lb
SC V L
299.7
8846 . 0 10 8 . 168 002378 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
=
=
p =
The total lift of the wing is
( )( ) ( )( )
f
L
lb
SC V L
253.4
7480 . 0 10 8 . 168 002378 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
=
=
p =
Induced drag is found from the standard relation
( )
( )
02491 . 0
10
8846 . 0
2 2
=
· t
=
· t
=
AR
C
C
L
Di
( )( ) ( )( )
f
Di i
lb
SC V D
4 . 8
02491 . 0 10 8 . 168 002378 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
=
=
p =
Induced drag is found from the standard relation
( )
( )
01781 . 0
10
7480 . 0
2 2
=
· t
=
· t
=
AR
C
C
L
Di
( )( ) ( )( )
f
Di i
lb
SC V D
0 . 6
01781 . 0 10 8 . 168 002378 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
=
=
p =
Lift to drag ratio: 5 . 35
02491 . 0
8846 . 0
= =
D
L
Lift to drag ratio: 0 . 42
01781 . 0
7480 . 0
= =
D
L
V2.3 Results from SURFACES
Document Title Page Numbers
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Summary for wing with 0°leading edge sweep*:
Parameter Symbol Classic Method SURFACES
Lift curve slope C
Lo
0.0885 0.0860
Lift coefficient C
L
0.885 0.845
Induced drag coefficient C
Di
0.0249 0.0227
Lift force L 300 lb
f
286 lb
f
Induced drag force D
i
8.4 lb
f
7.7 lb
f
Lifttodrag ratio L/D
i
35.5 37.2
*Span efficiency for both cases is unrealistically assumed to be 1.
Summary for wing with 35°leading edge sweep*:
Parameter Symbol Classic Method SURFACES
Lift curve slope C
Lo
0.0748 0.07365
Lift coefficient C
L
0.748 0.723
Induced drag coefficient C
Di
0.0178 0.0166
Lift force L 253 lb
f
245 lb
f
Induced drag force D
i
6.0 lb
f
5.6 lb
f
Lifttodrag ratio L/D
i
42.0 43.5
*Span efficiency for both cases is unrealistically assumed to be 1.
Printout from SURFACES:
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Validation 3: Warren 12 Wing
V3.1 Model
The Warren12 wing is a standard VortexLattice model used to check the accuracy of vortex lattice
codes. It provides a ready check case for the evaluation of any new or modified code, as well as a check
on the panel scheme layout. This wing is known as the Warren 12 planform, and is defined, together with
the “official” characteristics from previous calculations, in Fig. 31 below.
For the results cited, the reference chord used in the moment calculation is the average chord (slightly
nonstandard, normally the reference chord used is the mean aerodynamic chord) and the moment
reference point is located at the wing apex (which is also nonstandard).
“Published” Data:
AR = 2.83
A
LE
= 53.54°
C
ref
= 1.00
X
CG
= 0.00
S
wing
= 2.83
C
Lo
= 2.743 / rad
C
Mo
= 3.10 / rad
Figure 31: Warren12 planform
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Figure 32: Warren12 planform VL results
V3.2 Expected Result
The following results are expected:
C
Lo
= 2.743 / rad
C
Mo
= 3.10 / rad
V3.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 6 chordwise by 16 spanwise panels on each
wing (total of 192 panels):
C
Lo
= 2.790 / rad
C
Mo
= 3.174 / rad
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 8 chordwise by 24 spanwise panels on each
wing (total of 384 panels):
C
Lo
= 2.776 / rad
C
Mo
= 3.152 / rad
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 16 chordwise by 36 spanwise panels on each
wing (total of 1296 panels):
C
Lo
= 2.767 / rad
C
Mo
= 3.139 / rad
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Validation 4 : BertinSmith 2D Wing
V4.1 Model
Calculations for a highly swept back, high aspect ratio wing is provided in the text Aerodynamics for
Engineers by Bertin and Smith. This wing has detailed calculations shown in Example 62 (page 198) in
the text. The model in the text was recreated using SURFACES. Additionally, a comparison to another
VLM code (Tornado) is made.
Figure 41: The BertinSmith swept back wing.
V4.2 Expected Result
Is obtained from the book Aerodynamics for Engineers, by Bertin and Smith. The data is obtained from
the calculations on page 202, but the resulting lift curve slope is:
C
Lo
= 0.05992 / °= 3.433 / rad
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V4.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 1 chordwise by 4 spanwise panels on each
wing (total of 8 panels):
C
Lo
= 0.06011 / °= 3.442 / rad
SURFACES yields a difference of 0.26%. Another VLM code, called Tornado, considers the same
problem. In his Master Thesis, “A Vortex Lattice MATLAB Implementation for Linear Aerodynamic Wing
Applications” the author of Tornado, Mr. Tomas Melin, reports a lift curve slope of 3.450 /rad using
Tornado. The difference using that code is 0.5%.
It can be seen that both codes are very close to the theoretical calculations in the source, but
SURFACES yields less difference than Tornado. It should also be noted that the calculations in the
source only carries 4 significant digits through the calculations – SURFACES uses a double floating point
accuracy.
Summary:
Parameter Symbol BertinSmith TORNADO SURFACES
Lift curve slope C
Lo
3.433 3.450 (0.50%) 3.442 (0.26%)
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Validation 5: Cessna 172
Comparison of Several Codes
V5.1 Model
A model of the Cessna 172 was constructed to compare stability derivatives from SURFACES to other
VLM codes (AVL, VIRGIT, TORNADO) and the panel code CMARC, as well as published Cessna data.
The model has the camber line of the NACA 2412 airfoil of the Cessna 172. Additionally, it has a 1°30’
angleofincidence at the root of the wing and –1°30’ at the tip, and a 1°44’ dihedral like the original
airplane. A sweep of parameters was performed at an airspeed of 178.9 ft/s, at an altitude of 4921 ft (p =
0.002054 slugs/ft
3
), and at a weight of 2207 lbs.
Figure 51: A Model of the C172
V5.2 Expected Result
Range for C
Lo
:
The following parameters are given:
Wing area S = 174 ft²
Aspect Ratio AR = b² / S = 36.08²/174 = 7.48
Assume a 2D lift curve slope of deg per 0.107
2
=
o D
L
C (for NACA 2412, from Theory of Wing
Sections, by Abbott and Doenhoff, page 478).
Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1, page 17.
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4
tan
1 2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
Where; AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 7.48
 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M
2
)
0.5
~ 1
k = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2t = 0.107 x (180/ t)/(2t) = 0.97572
A
c/2
= Sweepback of midchord = 0°
( )
deg per 08267 . 0 rad per 74 . 4
4 1
97572 . 0
48 . 7
2
48 . 7 2
4
tan
1 2
2
2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
= =
+ +
· t
=
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
Range for C
n
:
Consider the following check for C
n
. The height, root, and tip chord of the fin is 5.50 ft, 4.25 ft, and 2.30
ft, respectively. The leading edge sweep is 40°. The airfoil is a NACA 0009 airfoil, whose properties are
discussed in Validation Sample 2. Using this data we compute the following lift curve slope for the fin:
Fin area S
fin
= ½ · (4.25 + 2.30) · 5.50 = 18.01 ft²
Aspect Ratio AR = b
fin
² / S
fin
= 5.50²/18.01 = 1.679
Assume a 2D lift curve slope of deg per 0.1063
2
=
o D
L
C (for NACA0009, from Theory of Wing
Sections, by Abbott and Doenhoff).
Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1, page 17.
4
tan
1 2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
Where;  = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M
2
)
0.5
~ 1
k = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2t = 0.1063 x (180/ t)/(2t) = 0.96934
A
c/2
= Sweepback of midchord ~ 28°
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( )
deg per 03835 . 0 rad per 197 . 2
4 28271 . 1 00019 . 3 2
54947 . 10
4
1
28 tan
1
96934 . 0
679 . 1
2
679 . 1 2
4
tan
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
= =
+ × +
=
=
+


.

\
 °
+ +
· t
=
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
If one considers the fin at a  = 1°, the fin lift coefficient is given by 03835 . 0 1 = × ° =
o
L L
C C . The total
lift of the fin at V = 178.9 ft/s and p = 0.002054 slugs/ft
3
is found to be
( )( ) ( )( )
f L fin
lb SC V L 7 . 22 03835 . 0 01 . 18 9 . 178 002054 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
= = p =
Assuming a tail arm from reference point of 16.0 ft, the total moment is found to be 363.2 ft·lb
f
, which
yields a C
n
of:
00176 . 0
17 . 36 174 9 . 178 002054 . 0
2 . 363
2
2
1
2
2
1
=
× × × ×
=
p
=
Sb V
N
C
n
Since N equals 0 ft·lb
f
at  = 0°, C
n
can be found to be:
rad per 1006 . 0 per 00176 . 0
1
00176 . 0
= ° =
°
~
 c
c
=

n
n
C
C
From this, a reasonable C
n
for this plane should be of the order of 0.030.17, depending on the
contribution of other components of the airplane.
V5.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES and compared to that of other VLM codes. The
data is obtained from the Tornado manual, pages 3438. All the stability derivatives presented below are
evaluated at o
= 0.
TABLE 51: Stability Derivatives at o
= 0:
TEST
15
AVL VIRGIT CMARC TORNADO SURFACES NOTE
C
Lo
4.6 4.98 5.25 5.214 5.2763 5.128/5.1803 1
C
Do
0.13 0 0.005 0.086 0.022 0.051/0.146 2
C
Yo
 0 0 0 0 0 
15
Comparison data is obtained from Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls, by Jan Roskam. Appendix C, page
592.
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C
lo
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
mo
0.89 0.33 0.85 1.432 1.498 1.148/ 3
C
no
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
L
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
D
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
Y
0.31 0.26 0.24 0.104 0.3 0.370/0.341 4
C
l
0.089 0.33 0.007 0.063 0.025 0.0479/0.045 5
C
m
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
n
0.065 0.092 0.1 0.042 0.12 0.117/0.0911 6
C
Lp
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
Dp
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
Yp
 0.066 0.1 0.015 0.039 0.110 7
C
lp
0.47 0.325 0.52 0.995 0.526 0.510/0.508 7
C
mp
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
np
0.03 0.007 0.01 0.133 0.006 0.0056/0.018 7
C
Lq
 9.41 9.3 9.003 10.18 7.894/9.111 8, 9
C
Dq
 0 0 0 0.128 0.432/0.256 8, 10
C
Yq
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
lq
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
mq
12.4 14.43 15 17.155 14.96 12.156/14.3 8, 9
C
nq
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
Lr
 0 0 0 0 0/0.0029 
C
Dr
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
Yr
0.21 0.209 0.23 0.45 0.271 0.296/0.306 7, 9
C
lr
0.096 0.021 0.008 0.195 0.009 0.101/0.0926 7, 9
C
mr
 0 0 0 0 0 
C
nr
0.099 0.075 0.095 0.212 0.11 0.115/0.119
All derivatives are per radian.
NOTES:
(1) There is a known difference in input geometry, which will likely cause numerical discrepancies. It is not
known if the other VLM codes included washout, dihedral, and wing camber like the SURFACES
model.
(2) A value of zero is expected at C
L
= 0 only if the airfoil of the wing is symmetrical (flat plate).
(3) The different values are primarily due to the different reference locations, but also due to possible
power effects. For instance, SURFACES and VIRGIT use 29.5% of MAC, Tornado uses 31.9% MAC.
AVL and CMARC reference points are unknown. SURFACES has the reference point located 2 ft
below the wing plane and does not account for power effects – it is unknown where the other codes
place the vertical location of the reference point, or if propeller normal force is accounted for.
(4) Note that for SURFACES the standard coordinate system is used with the AngleofYaw (positive
beta) coming from the left, rather than the right. Consequently, a sign change is added to compare to
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the other codes.
(5) SURFACES evaluated a restoring dihedral effect for the C172 – the only one of the above codes.
(6) [Deleted]
(7) The rate of roll and yaw derivatives are obtained with respect to P·Bref/(2·Vinf). For that reason,
derivatives with respect to P or R are multiplied by the factor 2·Vinf/Bref.
(8) The rate of pitch derivative is obtained with respect to P·Cref/(2·Vinf). For that reason, derivatives with
respect to Q are multiplied by the factor 2·Vinf/Cref.
(9) Differences are most likely due to modeling differences and differences in location of reference point.
(10) A change in lift should be associated with a change in drag. It is not known why Tornado and
SURFACES are the only codes to display a value here.
V5.4 Comparison of Codes
Table 51 prompts some interesting questions – for instance, how do the codes compare? Table 52
displays one such comparison. Here, a grade from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) is assigned to those stability
parameters that can be compared to the source. The parameters are compared by computing difference
using:
SOURCE
SOURCE CODE
P
P P
difference
÷
= A
Then, the code with the largest difference scores 1 and the code with the smallest one 5. A total of 30
derivatives are considered in Table 51, of which 12 have a value from the source document (Airplane
Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls, by Jan Roskam). The highest total score a code can receive is 5
x 12 = 60. The lowest total score is 12. The scores for the 5 codes are compared in Table 52:
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Table 52: Comparison of Several VLM Codes and the Panel Code CMARC.
Table 52 shows that SURFACES scores highest (44 points). CMARC scored worst (25 points). Two
codes never scored worse than 2, VIRGIT and SURFACES. On the other hand, AVL, CMARC, and
TORNADO all have at least one worst score. The most frequent low score (1) was received by CMARC, 7
times. The most frequent high score (5) was received by SURFACES, 4 times. In fact, SURFACES was
the only code to correctly compute a restoring dihedral effect for the Cessna 172.
AVL VIRGIT CMARC TORNADO SURFACES
C
Lo
5 2 3 1 4
C
Do
3 2 5 1 4
C
mo
(CMy
o
) 2 5 3 1 4
C
Y
4 2 1 5 3
C
l
(CMx

) 1 4 2 3 5
C
n
(CMz

) 4 3 5 1 2
C
l
, P (CMx, P) 2 4 1 3 5
C
n
, P (CMz, P) 4 5 1 3 2
C
m
, Q (CMy, Q) 4 2 1 3 5
C
Y
, R 5 4 1 3 2
C
l
, R (CMx, R) 4 2 1 3 5
C
n
, R (CMz, R) 2 5 1 4 3
TOTAL SCORE 40 40 25 31 44
Number of 1s 1 0 7 4 0
Number of 2s 3 5 1 0 2
Number of 3s 1 1 1 6 2
Number of 4s 5 3 0 1 3
Number of 5s 2 3 2 1 4
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Validation 6: 2D C
L
, C
D
, C
M
for NACA 23012
V6.1 Model
A high aspect ratio (AR=20) wing model was constructed to perform a 3D similarity evaluation to a
standard 3D aerodynamic analysis. The model has a wing span of 20 ft and a chord of 1 ft. An angle
sweep of attack from –8°through 8°at an airspeed of 100 ft/sec and density of 0.002378 slugs/ft
3
was
performed. The model has 16 chordwise and 60 spanwise panels. The panels form the camber line of the
NACA 23012 airfoil. The purpose of this validation is to demonstrate how SURFACES simulates airfoil
properties.
Figure 61: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil
V6.2 Expected Result
The following parameters are given:
Airspeed V = 100 ft/s
Wing area S = 20 x 1 = 20 ft²
Aspect Ratio AR = b² / S = 20²/10 = 20
The 2D lift curve slope of deg per 0.1051 =
o
l
C , 0.1233
0
=
l
C , and 0.01198 0.00020 ÷ o =
o
m
C is
obtained from interpolation (for NACA 23012, from Theory of Wing Sections, by Abbott and Doenhoff).
Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1, page 17.
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4
tan
1 2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
·
=
o
o
C
l
L
AR
C AR
C
Where; AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 20
 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M
2
)
0.5
~ 1
k = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2t = 0.1051 x (180/ t)/(2t) = 0.95840
A
c/2
= Sweepback of midchord = 0°
deg per 09551 . 0 rad per 472 . 5
4
1
0
1
95840 . 0
400
2
20 2
4
tan
1 2
2
2 2
2
2 /
2
2
2 2
= =
+

.

\

+ +
· t
=
+


.

\


A
+
k

+
· t
=
o
C
L
AR
AR
C
Compute zero lift angle for the 2D airfoil using: 1.173
1051 . 0
1233 . 0
0
0
0 0
= ÷ = ÷ = o · · o ÷ =
o
o
l
l
l l
C
C
C C
Compute lift at zero angle for the 3D wing using: ( ) 0.1121 0.09551 1.173
0
0
= · ÷ ÷ = · o ÷ =
o
L L
C C
Compute pitching moment for 3D wing:
o
o
o o
= A · A · =
l
m
l m
C
C
x x C C
( )
( )
01089 . 0
1051 . 0
01198 . 0
09551 . 0
3
÷ =

.

\
 ÷
· =


.

\

· = A · =
o
o
o o o
l
m
L L
D
m
C
C
C x C C
V6.3 Results from SURFACES
Summary:
Parameter Symbol Experiment
16
Classical Method Surfaces
Lift curve slope C
Lo
0.1051 (2D value) 0.0955 0.0943
Lift coefficient intercept C
L0
0.1233 0.1121 0.1194
Moment coefficient C
Mo
0.00020·o  0.01198 0.00016·o  0.01888
16
Theory of Wing Sections, by Abbott & Doenhoff, graph on page 498.
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Figure 62: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil camber line.
Figure 63: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil camber line.
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Validation 7: F104 Starfighter
V7.1 Model
A model of the Lockheed F104 Starfighter was constructed to compare selected stability derivatives from
SURFACES to that presented in the text Flight Stability and Automatic Control, by Robert C. Nelson. The
data can be found in Appendix B of the text, on page 253.
Figure 71: 3D VortexLattice model of the F104 Starfighter
V7.2 Results from SURFACES
Summary:
Parameter Symbol Source
17
SURFACES %Difference
Lift coefficient C
L
0.735 0.717
18
2.4%
Drag coefficient C
D
0.263 0.175
19
33.5%
Lift curve slope C
Lo
3.44 3.36 2.4%
Drag curve slope C
Do
0.45 0.66
20
45.8%
Moment slope (CMyo) C
Mo
0.64 0.756 18.1%
Side force slope (CFy) C
Y
1.17 1.12 4.3%
Dihedral effect (CMx) C
l
0.175 0.156 10.9%
Weathercock stability (CMz) C
n
0.50 0.491 1.8%
All derivatives are per radian. At M=0.257
17
Flight Stability and Automatic Control, by Robert C. Nelson.
18
Note that V = 0.257 x 1116 ft/s = 286.8 ft/s. Therefore, Lift is ½ ·0.002378·286.8² ·196.1·0.735 = 14097 lbf. This is the same lift
SURFACES generated to get the given lift coefficient.
19
Using the surface integration method
20
This is highly dependent on drag model. Here, C
Do
= (0.0009474·o 0.0004737)*180/ t, which at o = 12.6 becomes 0.656.
W = 16300 lbs
S = 196.1 ft²
C
MAC
= 9.5 ft
M = 0.257 at SL
CG at 7% MAC
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Figure 72: A Starfighter in flight
Image from http://www.starfighters.net/gallery/1999gallery/1999gallery.html
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Validation 8: Ryan Navion
V8.1 Model
A model of the Ryan Navion was constructed compare to the analysis of Example Problem 2.1 found in
Robert C. Nelsons “Flight Stability and Automatic Control”, on pages 5358. The VL model was based on
the threeview in Figure 81.
Figure 81. A threeview drawing of the Ryan Navion.
The reference document determines several parameters for the Navion in Problem 2.1. The calculation of
selected parameters is repeated in Section V8.1 for convenience.
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Figure 82. A Ryan Navion in flight – Photographer unknown.
Figure 83. The SURFACES VortexLattice model of the Ryan Navion.
V8.2 Expected Result
The stickfixed neutral point is estimated from Equation (2.37) in the reference document, here written
using variables more consistent with this document:

.

\

o
c
÷ n + ÷ =
o
o
o
o
d
d
C
C
V
C
C
C
X
C
X
w
t
w
f
L
L
HT
L
M
REF
AC
REF
NEU
1
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Where (note that numerical values are obtained from the document);
C
REF
= Reference wing chord = 5.7 ft
C
Low
= Slope of wing lift coefficient = 4.3 per rad
C
Lot
= Slope of HT lift coefficient = 3.91 per rad
C
Mof
= Slope of fuselage moment coefficient = 0.12 per rad
dc/do = Variation of downwash with angleofattack = 0.45
V
HT
= Horizontal tail volume = 0.66
X
AC
= Aerodynamic center of wingbody combination = 1.425 ft
n = Tail efficiency = 1
( )( ) ( ) 552 . 0 45 . 0 1
3 . 4
91 . 3
66 . 0 1
3 . 4
12 . 0
7 . 5
425 . 1
= ÷ + ÷ =
REF
NEU
C
X
Note that the reference document (which is a First Edition) states the Xneu is at 0.37, but in conversation
with the author (R. C. Nelson) it was confirmed this was an error that had been corrected for later editions
of the book.
Note that the planform properties of the VL model were determined using SURFACES’ built in tool, which
printed out the following analysis report:
MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD ANALYSIS
Surface chord, root .............. Cr = 7.200 ft
Surface LE, root ................. Xr = 0.000 ft
................. Yr = 0.000 ft
Surface chord, tip ............... Ct = 4.022 ft
Surface LE, tip .................. Xr = 0.806 ft
................. Yr = 16.446 ft
Surface half span ................ Bhalf = 16.446 ft
Surface span ..................... B = 32.893 ft
Surface half area ................ Shalf = 92.28 ft²
Surface total area ............... Stot = 184.56
ft²
Surface LE sweep angle ........... GLE = 2.805°
Surface aspect ratio ............. AR = 5.8621
Surface taper ratio .............. TR = 0.5586
Surface Mean Aerodynamic Chord ... Cmac = 5.761 ft
Surface MAC location ............. Xmac = 0.365 ft
............. Ymac = 7.447 ft
This information can be used when calculating the CG and neutral point locations as percentages of the
Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC). For instance, the CG located at Xcg = 2.0465 ft becomes 100·(2.0465
0.365)/5.7 = 29.5% MAC.
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Figure 84. Computing the neutral point.
The neutral point was estimated by computing the slope of the CMY curve for two different values of Xcg;
1.85 ft and 2.0465 ft. The corresponding values of CMY for two anglesofattack (AOA1 and AOA2) was
evaluated (SURFACES provides a tool to make this simple, shown in Figure 84). The resulting Xneu is
2.721 ft. This corresponds to:
( )
MAC
C
X
REF
NEU
% 3 . 41
7 . 5
365 . 0 721 . 2
100 =
÷
=
V8.3 Results from SURFACES
Summary (note that values from Nelson and Schmidt appear to be from the same source):
Ryan Navion
Source/
Symbol
Flight Stability
and Automatic
Control, R. C.
Nelson
VLM using
SURFACES
Panel Method
using CMARC
21
(DWT)
Introduction to
Aircraft Flight
Dynamics, Louis
V. Schmidt
22
Air density p 0.002378 slugs/ft
3
Outside Air Temperature OAT 518.69 °R
Speed of sound ao 1116 ft/s
Altitude H 0 ft
Far field speed Vinf 178 ft/s
Mach Number M 0.159
Baseline AOA AOA  0.88° 0.76° 0.6°
Reference span Bref 33.40 ft
21
Source: http://www.aerologic.com/stab/corr.html.
22
Document is cited in footnote 1.
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Reference wing chord Cref 5.70 ft
Reference wing area Sref 184.0 ft²
Reference aspec ratio ARref 6.06
Reference weight W 2750 lbs
Center of gravity (along Xaxis) Xcg 0.295 Cref
0.295 Cref
(2.0465 ft)
0.25 Cref 
Neutral point (along Xaxis) Xneu 0.552 Cref
0.413 Cref
(2.721 ft)
0.38 Cref 
Moment of inertia about Xaxis Ixx 1048 slugs·ft²
Moment of inertia about Yaxis Iyy 3000 slugs·ft²
Moment of inertia about Zaxis Izz 3530 slugs·ft²
Product of inertia about Xaxis Ixy
Product of inertia about Yaxis Ixz
Product of inertia about Zaxis Iyz
Lift coefficient for o = 0° CLo 0.375
23
0.329  
Slope of lift coefficient CLA 4.44 4.722 5.15 4.44
Lift coefficient CL 0.41 0.406 0.415 0.415
Parasitic drag coefficient CDo 0.0390 0.039  
Total drag coefficient CD 0.05
0.04952 (from
quadratic drag
polar)
 0.051
Slope of drag coefficient at o = 0° CDA 0.33
0.258 (quantic fit
at o = 0.88°)
 0.330
Span efficiency (Oswald’s) e 0.85 0.85  
AOA DERIVATIVES
CXA 0.330 0.268  
CYA  0  
CZA 4.850 4.935  
CMXA  0  
CMA 0.683 0.584 0.8721 0.683
CMZA  0  
AOY DERIVATIVES
CXB  0  
CYB 0.564 0.5065  
CZB  0  
CLB 0.0740 0.07723  
CMB  0  
CNB 0.0710 0.07639  
d(AOA)/dt DERIVATIVES
CXTA  Not predicted  
CYTA  Not predicted  
CZTA 1.7000 Not predicted  
CLTA  Not predicted  
CMTA 4.36 Not predicted  
CNTA  Not predicted  
UDERIVATIVES
CXU 0.1000 (?) Not predicted  
CYU  Not predicted  
CZU  Not predicted  
CLU  Not predicted  
CMU  Not predicted  
CNU  Not predicted  
PDERIVATIVES
CXP  0  
CYP  0  
CZP  0  
CLP 0.41 0.44  
CMP  0  
CNP 0.0575 0.0652  
QDERIVATIVES
CXQ  0  
CYQ  0  
CZQ  8.99  
CLQ  0  
CMQ 9.96 12.98 6.87 9.96
23
From analysis on page 54 of Reference document.
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CLQ  0  
RDERIVATIVES
CXR  0  
CYR  0.4059  
CZR  0  
CLR 0.1070 0.1374  
CMR  0  
CNR 0.1250 0.1557  
Additional comparison based on a table from the source http://www.aerologic.com/stab/corr.html.
CMARC
(DWT)
Perkins &
Hage
Etkin Seckel
24
Datcom SURFACES
Wind
Tunnel
Flight Test
Angle of
attack, o
0.732     0.732°  
Elevator
deflection, de
8.28       
C
L
0.271     0.269  
C
D
       
C
Lo
5.23 4.36 4.25 4.54 5.5 4.722 4.52 6.04
C
Do
       
C
Mo
0.91 .83 .715 0.545 1.24 0.584 0.95 
C
Mq
6.99 9.6 9.75 9.5 12.98 12.98  
C
Mode
2.99 3.0 4.91 4.91 6.58   
dc/do 0.428       
C
Lde
0.66       
C
Mde
1.68      1.42 1.42
24
Seckel E. “Stability and Control of Airplane and Helicopters”, Academic Press, 1964.
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Validation 9: Comparison to NACA R1208
V9.1 Introduction
This validation compares SURFACES analysis to the swept back wing featured in the NACA report R
1208. In the report a highly swept back, high aspect ratio wing compares three numerical methods to
wind tunnel test results. In this validation sample, a similar approach will be taken and the section lift
coefficients from SURFACES will be compared to the wind tunnel test results. The wing planform is
shown in Figure 91.
Figure 91: The sweptback wing wind tunnel tested per NACA R1208. Inserted image shows the
SURFACES VL model.
Three VL models were generated; one has 16 spanwise panel per wing side, the second one has 32
spanwise panels, and the third has 64 spanwise panels per side. The comparison takes place at 4.7°
angle of attack, per the NACA report..
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V9.2 Expected Result
Figure 92: Original graph of spanwise loading from NACA R1208.
V9.3 Results from SURFACES
The comparison of the numerical to the experimental data shows a close agreement, but also that the
accuracy improves with number of panels.
Figure 93: Comparing spanwise loading from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R
1208.
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Figure 94: Comparing lift curve from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R1208.
Figure 95: Comparing moment curve from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R1208.
The experimental data shows the well known early tip stall phenomena of swept back wings,
caused by spanwise flow near the tips. This is reproduced here to remind the user that all inviscid
codes (vortexlattice, doubletlattice, panelcodes, etc) do not model this viscous phenomena
accurately because the mathematical solution forces the flow to stay attached.
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Validation 10: Comparison to NACA TN1422
V10.1 Introduction
This validation compares SURFACES analysis to two of the three tapered and twisted wings featured in
the NACA report TN1422. This report compares several aerodynamic properties of three wings obtained
in wind tunnel tests. In this validation sample the section lift coefficients, lift curves, and moment curves
for two of these wings (from hereon referred to as WING 2 and WING 3) from SURFACES will be
compared to the wind tunnel test results. The general planform shape is shown in Figure 101, and is
reproduced from the original document.
Figure 101: The general shape of the wind tunnel model tested per NACA TN1422.
V10.2 Results from SURFACES
The comparison of the numerical to the experimental data shows a close agreement.
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Figure 102: Match for the lift curve for the twisted and untwisted wings.
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Figure 103: Match for the pitching moment for the twisted wing. Note the deviation at higher
values of the lift coefficient, which is caused by viscous effects.
Figure 104: Lift distribution at stall for the twisted wing.
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Figure 105: Lift distribution at stall for the untwisted wing.
SURFACES VortexLattice Module
Document
VLM.docx
Title
Surfaces – User Manual – VortexLattice Module
Page Numbers
Page 2 of 136
SURFACES – VortexLattice Module
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 5 "Vortex Lattice Methods" Why Should You Care? ..................................................... 6 Current Status ............................................................................................................... 7 1. Orientation of Forces and Moments ........................................................................ 9 2. Force and Moment Nomenclature.......................................................................... 10 3. Project Task List...................................................................................................... 11 4. Creating a Simple Model with SURFACES ............................................................ 14 5. Accomplishing Special Projects with SURFACES ............................................... 44
5.1 Tailoring Wings to Improve Stall Characteristics ........................................................................ 44 5.2 Determine Shear, Moment, and Torsion ....................................................................................... 45 5.3 How to Manage Airfoils in SURFACES.......................................................................................... 45
6. Transformation of Load Vectors from a Global to a Local Coordinate System . 52
6.1 Establishment of a Local Coordinate System .............................................................................. 52 6.2 Transformation of Force Vector in Coordinate System ABNC ................................................. 54 6.3 Determination of Moment Vector in Coordinate System ABNC................................................ 55 6.4 Determination of Shear and Moment Distribution ....................................................................... 57 6.5 Presentation of Data in SURFACES .............................................................................................. 61
7. Using the Virtual Wind Tunnel ............................................................................... 64 8. Determination of a Trimmed Flight Condition ...................................................... 65 9. Determination of Drag in SURFACES .................................................................... 67
9.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 67 9.2 Basic Drag Coefficient, CDo ............................................................................................................ 73 9.3 Skin Friction Drag Coefficient, CDf ................................................................................................. 75 9.4 Induced Drag Coefficient, CDi ......................................................................................................... 84 9.5 Total Drag Coefficient, CD ............................................................................................................... 85 9.6 Compressibility Modeling ............................................................................................................... 86 9.8 How SURFACES Calculates Do, Df, Di, and D.............................................................................. 87 9.9 Limitations of Drag Estimation Methodologies............................................................................ 87 9.10 Setting up Drag Modeling on Example Aircraft.......................................................................... 88 9.11 Summary of SURFACES Drag Analysis Methodology ............................................................ 101
10. Validation Samples ............................................................................................. 102 Validation 1: 2D Flat Plate Airfoil ............................................................................ 103
V1.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 103 V1.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 103 V1.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 104
Validation 2: 3D Properties of Two Wings ............................................................. 106
V2.1 Models .......................................................................................................................................... 106 V2.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 106 V2.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 107
Validation 3: Warren 12 Wing ................................................................................... 109
V3.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 109 V3.2 Expected Result .......................................................................................................................... 110 V3.3 Results from SURFACES ........................................................................................................... 110
Validation 4 : BertinSmith 2D Wing ....................................................................... 111
V4.1 Model ............................................................................................................................................ 111 Document
VLM.docx
Title
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............................................................................ 127
Validation 9: Comparison to NACA R1208 .... 119
V6.....................................................2 Expected Result ........................................................................................................1 Introduction .................................3 Results from SURFACES .........................1 Model .......... 122 V7...............................................................................2 Results from SURFACES .................................................................................... 112
Validation 5: Cessna 172 .................................................1 Model ................................................... 130 V9..................................................................................................... 113
V5...............................................................................................................................4 Comparison of Codes ................... 117
Validation 6: 2D CL.3 Results from SURFACES .......................................................................................................... 131 V9........................................................3 Results from SURFACES ................................................... 119 V6.......................................................................... 124
V8..... 124 V8............................ 130
V9.........................................................1 Model .................................. 125 V8.............................................................................................................................................................2 Expected Result ............................................................................. 133
V10....................................................................................................................................................................... CM for NACA 23012 ........................................................................................................................................... 115 V5..........................................3 Results from SURFACES .................................................................................................................3 Results from SURFACES ................................................................................................................2 Expected Result ........... 120
Validation 7: F104 Starfighter ............................... 133 V10.......................................................................................................................... 131
Validation 10: Comparison to NACA TN1422 ...............................................................V4.................docx
Title
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............ CD....................................................................................................2 Expected Result ............................................................................................................................... 119 V6...2 Results from SURFACES . 122
Validation 8: Ryan Navion ........ 113 V5........................................................................................... 122
V7.......2 Expected Result ................1 Model .............................................................1 Introduction ........ 133
Document
VLM........... 111 V4........ 113 V5............
multiple lifting surfaces. It allows you to quickly extract loads and stability and control data. Create a model of your aircraft and then use SURFACES to extract hardtoget information about it. You can even simulate the dynamic response of the aircraft in real time! SURFACES allows you to incorporate all the details of your design. allows you to perform very sophisticated dynamic stability analyses. whose properties are taken into account when determining trim or stability derivatives. forces and moments. when used with the builtin Aircraft Datasheet feature. Import stability derivatives directly from your VortexLattice analyses into an Aircraft Datasheet and plot the aircraft’s Short Period. whether it be a professional aerospace engineer or the designer of homebuilt aircraft. Rolling Convergence. Phugoid. SURFACES comes with video tutorials. airspeed and altitude. performance parameters are just the beginning of your discoveries. rulers. You do it all from within SURFACES. SURFACES allows you to extract surface pressures. You can extract in a matter of seconds some super complicated parameters that would take a trained aerospace engineer weeks to calculate using classical methods. such as airfoil properties. and create shear. Do you have a threeview drawing of your favorite aircraft? Simply import it in to the environment and scale it up. SURFACES is the ultimate tool for anyone designing subsonic aircraft. SURFACES was developed in real aircraft design environment and is loaded with highly developed tools that give you answers quickly.
Document
VLM. Plot the flow solution to better understand how the flow behaves around the airplane.docx
Title
Surfaces – User Manual – VortexLattice Module
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. Spiral Stability. or calculators are needed for scaling up the model. SURFACES uses a ThreeDimensional Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) to solve the airflow around an aircraft and extract an incredible amount of information from the solution. asymmetric geometries. Use the extra time to study variations of your design to make it even better for its intended mission. moment and torsion diagrams on the model. wing twist. It’s as easy as clicking a mouse button. Whatever the design task. SURFACES allows you to swiftly model any aircraft. winglets. We consider the program analogous to an extremely sophisticated airplane calculator. SURFACES determines most stability derivatives and. dihedral. We are certain you will find SURFACES priceless for your aircraft design projects. SURFACES is not just user friendly. SURFACES even allows you to account for engine forces as functions of angleofattack. loads. SURFACES will save you weeks if not months of work. force and moment coefficients. You will be working on your own airplane in 30 minutes or less. section lift coefficients. it provides you with very powerful features to help design your aircraft.INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing SURFACES. SURFACES is the perfect solution in any preliminary design environment. deflection of control surfaces and high lift devices. distributed loads. Stability derivatives. or to reverse engineer existing airplanes. and Dutch Roll modes. No pencils.
wingtwist. This causes the "effective angle of attack" of most wing tips to be reduced.docx
Title
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. At low speeds on a truly elliptical winged model. In most weather conditions a thermal duration contest is still 90% pilot 10% airplane. The wing "induces" some vertical components of velocity that change the "effective" angle of attack. it still takes wisdom and proper application to get good results. The sink rate and glide ratio should be a tweak better as well. Psyko. There is not space here to discuss how these codes work (and perhaps not interest either) but I will briefly describe what can be done with these programs and what it means for the pilot. Using this information it calculates the induced velocity field surrounding the wing including the effect of tip vortices. This particular tool is usually reserved for graduate degreed aerospace engineers with specialization in computational fluid dynamics. and 4. before the plane is built and without the need for a wind tunnel. Great OWL Publishing reprints it here for your convenience. leading to too little lift in that region and tip stall. Calculate the local flow direction on the stab including downwash from the wing. 3. We are only talking a couple percent decrease in drag over the "eye balled" planforms. again because of the higher available lift coefficient. it will usually propagate sideways and stall the entire wing. Like any tool. an expert pilot should notice that the launch is steeper because the wing can pull a higher lift coefficient before stalling. This means the whole wing is flying at the same "effective" angle of attack. Some of the things a glider designer can do with this program are to: 1. After trimming the plane.
Reprinted from: http://eiss. This is one form of aerodynamic wash out. The plane should be able to fly slower than other planes with the same airfoil and wing loading. but assumes no responsibilities for it. It is somewhat nonintuitive. As an example. A constant angle of attack is good because no part of the wing will stall early and the wing can achieve a high average lift coefficient. The downwash angle is relatively constant along the span. This is why the refined sailplanes tend to have finite tip chords. refine its twist distribution. just skip to the last two paragraphs. and angle of attack as inputs. The nearly elliptical wing has another beneficial quality. but the angle of attack of a wing is not simply the angle between your root chord and your tailboom. Generally the induced angle is smaller at the root of the wing and larger at the wing tips. Given a planform. the refined wings have nearly elliptical chord distributions with finite tip chords (no big surprise here). The contest placings usually sort the pilots by skill regardless of what they are flying. At our low Reynold's numbers. When any section of the wing stalls. contact me and I can email you directions on how to obtain a public domain program. the air flow will separate near the wing tip. For instance ads for the Saphire. A tip vortex will add a downward component to the air above the wing tip. and Edge all list it as a design feature. Laser.htm
NOTE: This article available online from the above link and is therefore assumed public (in the public domain).edu/articles/VortexLattice. Manage which part of the wing will stall first. 2. NSP's ad mentions the "LinAir" program.cnde. I am assuming that the designer of the four taper wing used the vortex lattice code properly. So what might a pilot notice in flight when flying one of these planes refined with a vortex lattice code? Most pilots won't notice the differences. a truly elliptical chord distribution does NOT result in an elliptical lift distribution.iastate. Will the computer refined planes always win? In general. a straight taper wing with its uneven effective angle of attack will stall at an average lift coefficient roughly 20% lower than the computer refined four taper wing."Vortex Lattice Methods" Why Should You Care?
By Mike Garton
Some of the latest glider designs are advertised as having computer optimized wings. but every little bit helps. If I lose you in technical jargon. Aerospace Engineers will assert that elliptical lift distributions DO result in the minimum possible induced drag for low speed wings. but is reprinted here as the editor of this manual considered it well written and pertinent to anyone using CFD methods. A vortex lattice program takes a wing planform. no. A vortex lattice program allows a designer to quantify these effects. The use of this tool does not guarantee a good wing. If anyone wants to play with a vortex lattice program. It was not written with SURFACES specifically in mind.
Document
VLM. which uses a form of computational fluid dynamics that we aerospace engineers call "vortex lattice methods" or "simple panel codes". Minimize induced drag (drag do to tip vortices). In general.
simplified and made far more user friendly.6):
REPAIR LOG
ID 1 2 Date 6/29/09 6/29/09 Version 2.86 (or 2. Math object list is now synchronized with the list that appears when the user presses the “Press to Select Objects for Legend…” button. Revised it to handle such surfaces correctly. Status Fixed Fixed
3
6/29/09
2.9
Added Fixed Added Fixed Added Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed
16
7/20/09
2.8.Current Status
Currently.8 2. The modification in ID2 now allows the user to enter a elevator+rudder deflection for Vtails New functions added: [SDfwd(i)] and [SDaft(i)].8 2.8.8. and [CL] were added to allow user to directly extract drag and lift coefficients from the model and VL solution. the latest version of SURFACES is 2. The following changes have been made to the program since Version 2. VLM Solution Seeker tool repaired and made visible to user.8 2.8.8 2. A large section on Drag Analysis has been added to VLM. [CDi].g.8. Now the user can associated skin friction drag with both surfaces and vectors (airfoils). Drag calculations have been completely scrubbed. Controllers tab on VLM console: Pressing the Reset button would not change numbers in the textboxes.docx
Title
Surfaces – User Manual – VortexLattice Module
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. Rotate about vector operations use a lefthand coordinate system (should be righthand) Math object list does not recalculate upon opening file Pressing Browse… in VWT form and navigating the directory form could crash the program if the selected drive was inop.8.8. 1” and it should say “last column” to match equation template.8 2.8. Subroutine DOC_Surface_ModifyDeflection not originally designed to handle coupled surfaces.8.8 2. Improved user information for usage of control deflections in form FormVLM17 (stab ders). Controllers tab on VLM console: Subroutine DOC_Surface_ModifyDeflection is used when the user presses the Set buttons.8.8 2.7 Description Selected surfaces deselected when VLM console icon on MDIForm clicked. but yet more powerful.7 2.9
Added
Document
VLM. These help the user to view the extent of the prescribed laminar flow on surfaces and the magnitude of skin friction drag on each surface. which retrieve forward and aft deflection angles of the selected surface i.8. [CD]. Vtail) reset elevator deflection in the VWT. Four new features have been added to the VLM Console.8 2. User can specify CDf directly for surfaces or specify transition location on airfoils for mixed laminarturbulent boundary layers. Bug in subroutine VLM_PlotStreamlines which would cause a crash if number of streamlines was 1.10.7 2.8.9
Added
17
7/20/09
2.7
Fixed
4
6/29/09
2.PDF. Overflow message generated when zoom in too far Recent projects list added Data Analyzer multivariable regression states the following in the text output “Analysis assumes X is in Col. Pitch/Yaw coupled surfaces (e.8.7
Fixed
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
6/29/09 7/2/09 7/2/09 7/3/09 7/3/09 7/4/09 7/4/09 7/5/09 7/5/09 7/5/09 7/13/09
2.8. This has been changed.8.8 2.8. Usage of drag has been improved.8.8.8. This is Section 9. Function [CDf].
It is intended to allow the user to temporarily turn the feature off.10
Panel orientation has been made independent of orientation as the program will now reassign panel corner IDs based on a special algorithm.10
Added Added Fixed Added Fixed
24
8/15/09
2.10 2. the math objects will not update correctly. Function [Swet(surf1.10 2. User can press F2 to copy viewport info (such as state of zoom) and paste into another viewport using F3.
Added
19 20 21 22 23
7/31/09 7/31/09 7/31/09 7/31/09 7/31/09
2.8. as this is a requirement of the VL method.8.10
Added
Document
VLM.8. but user must know that while off. …)] added to extract wetted area.docx
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.18
7/27/09
2. as it will prevent math objects from being solved after each change.8.10 2. This is handy for slower computers. The panels still have to be aligned to the Xaxis.8. However. the user can model circular shapes like an engine nacelle or round fuselage more easily. surf2. A bug that allowed any number of categories in the Project Properties form was fixed. User can turn AutoCalc on or off by doubleclicking a panel on the status bar.8. This means that the user can use Curves A1 and A2 for surfaces that are no longer parallel to the Xaxis.8.10 2. Expanded geometry recognition when user selects a math object referring to the geometry. User can investigate panel orientation in addition to surface A1/B1 curve orientation (by pressing Ctrl+T). which is what happens when AutoCalc is on.
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.1. Orientation of Forces and Moments
Z
Positive FZ Positive MY Positive MX + 
X STABLE MX +MX  + MX  MY STABLE MY +MY + 
Y
NEUTRAL MZ +MZ
+ MZ
Z
Positive MZ
Positive FY  +
Positive MX X
Y
STABLE MX +MX +  MX 
NEUTRAL MY +MY + 
STABLE MZ +MZ
+ MY MZ
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.2.e. the sign of the lift is positive.
z Typical righthanded Stability Coordinate System (SCS). towards positive X).e. when pointing upwards (i. The user must be cognizant of the orientation of the axes when interpreting results. when pointing backwards (i. which is conventionally used for other aspects of aircraft aerodynamic analyses. This is typically the default for stability and control related tools.
Note 1: Positive rotation about an axis is always in the direction of the thumb of the right hand. Force and Moment Nomenclature
Name Axial force (along Xaxis) Side force (along Yaxis) Normal force (along Zaxis) Rolling moment (about Xaxis) Pitching moment (about Yaxis) Yawing moment (about Zaxis) Coefficient of axial force (along Xaxis) Coefficient of side force (along Yaxis) Coefficient of normal force (along Zaxis) Coefficient of rolling moment (about Xaxis) Coefficient of pitching moment (about Yaxis) Coefficient of yawing moment (about Zaxis) SURFACES Symbol FX FY FZ MX MY MZ Cx Cy Cz Cl Cm Cn Other names X Y Z L M N Cx Cy Cz Cl Cm Cn
z
x y x
y Standard righthanded Aerodynamic Coordinate System (ACS). as can be seen in the above figure. Note 3: SURFACES comes with a routine that will convert stability derivatives to a standard body axes Stability Coordinate System (SCS). In this coordinate system. Note 2: SURFACES uses a standard right handed Aerodynamic Coordinate System (ACS).
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VLM. and the sign of the drag is positive. towards positive Z).
While not necessary. the wing area. Use parametric or Bezier curves to represent cambered airfoils.
Select Tools>Horizontal/Vertical Tail Volume… from the VLM Console. parametric curves.
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Define Vectors
Draw vectors. including the MAC. It also allows you to specify the CG location in terms of %MAC. Do this by selecting Edit>Remark… from the Surfaces Worksheet window. 5 Determine the Horizontal and Vertical Tail Volumes Although not necessary for analysis. or Bezier curves as needed. it’s recommended you copy the analysis report and paste as a Remark with your model. Copy and paste the analysis report into the remark. it is a good idea to tail volume and compare to other airplanes. You must use the Transfer tab on the form to transfer the calculated values to your model. Project Task List
A typical project in SURFACES is conducted per the following list:
Model Creation
Task 1 Description Define Points Remark Drop points as required to represent the extremes of the aircraft. Only use curves A1 and A2 for curved surfaces. using the points. and B1 and B2.
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Create Surfaces
Define surfaces by selecting the opposite curves A1 and A2.
Model Preparation
Task Description Remark Select Tools>Trapezoidal Mean Chord… from the VLM Console. and wing span. Aerodynamic
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Determine the Trapezoidal Mean Aerodynamic Chord
This tool will determine several important geometric reference parameters to use with your model.3. its location.docx
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Trim Analysis
Select the Panel Results tab on the VLM Console. This tool is helpful to determine required surface deflections for given weights.
Once your model runs. 10 Body Results Here you can extract information about forces and moments acting on your model. you must define control surfaces using edge deflections and proper references under the Edit Surface dialogbox (Edge Deflections and Reference tabs).
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Select Tools>Determine Neutral Point… from the VLM Console. normals.
Basic Investigations
Task Description Remark Select Tools>Determine Neutral Point… from the VLM Console. Here you can extract various information pertaining to panels. panel lift coefficients.Select Edit>Model Console. 7 Determine Neutral Point This is a necessary step as it will determine your aft CG limit. as well as the center of pressure.docx
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. All entries marked with an asterisk (*) are required for any VortexLattice analyses. 6 Other model properties
Properties…
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the
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Try to fill in as many properties as possible. and yaw angles. pressure coefficients. you can initiate a large number of specific investigations.
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Panel Results
Select the Body Results tab on the VLM Console. vortex strengths. Always consult the CG location of your design with a qualified Aerospace Engineer. velocity over a panel. such as areas. The CG is typically at least 810% MAC forward of the neutral point. force generated by a panel. airspeed. Note that before you can use this tool.
Note the result don’t necessarily result in an aerodynamically balanced model (i. The best example of its use is to move the leading points on a stabilator in the Zdirections at a specific flight condition so the MY is zero. MX. 11 Stip Results Here you can extract a number of information about strips of panels (chordwise). or even lift coefficient.
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Determine Specific Conditions
Select Tools>Geometric Goal Seek… from the VLM Console.
Select Tools>Goal Seek… from the VLM Console. Modify Geometry to Satisfy Specific Conditions This tool can be used to move points so that specific conditions are satisfied. forces.
You can conduct even more sophisticated analysis per the following task list. In other word.
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Determine Control Response
Select Tools>Determine Control Response… from the VLM Console. for instance. or Vinf required to generate a specific load. determine an ideal angle of incidence of a stabilator. Display strip CL (section lift coefficients) to help you design for delayed tip stall.docx
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. lift.
16
17
Virtual Wind Tunnel
Select Virtual WT>Setup and Execute WT Run… from the VLM Console. AOY. MY.Select the Panel Results tab on the VLM Console.
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Determine Loads
Select Results>Force Integrator… from the VLM Console. or MZ will be nonzero). With this tool you can calculate AOA.
Advanced Investigations
Task 12 Description Determine Stability Derivatives Remark Select Tools>Determine Stability Derivatives… from the VLM Console.
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VLM.e. moments and coefficients.
4. Maximize the window for added convenience. Pay close attention to which options and checks are made in each form below before proceeding to the next step. The move on to create surfaces to represent the wing. STEP 2: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface… STEP 3: Create the WING using the numbers in the dialog in Figure 41a through 41d.
Figure 41a: Creating the wing – Entering geometry (Step 3). Creating a Simple Model with SURFACES
The following model is designed to allow the novice user to quickly become familiar with SURFACES.docx
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VLM. STEP 1: Start a new project by selecting File>New Project… This will open a small form on which you need to specify the type of project to create. Press the button labeled ‘Surfaces Worksheet’ to open a blank worksheet.
The purpose of the options in Figure 41b is to automatically create formulation that calculates wing span. Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 3). and other for your convenience.Figure 41b: Creating the wing – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas. wing area. There are other ways to create such formulas. but you will learn these at later time. taper ratio. aspect ratio.docx
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a flat plat is assumed. You must press each of the buttons in Figure 41c to create your airfoils.
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VLM. but these are stored as text files that are called shape files. If an airfoil is not recognized. You can also create your own airfoils. They have the extension . Note that pressing the [Pick Root Airfoil…] or [Pick Tip Airfoil…] buttons will open the Camber Creator form in Figure 41d (Step 3).Figure 41c: Creating the wing – Setting panel density and picking airfoils for root and tip. You can navigate to the /Surfaces/Shape Files folder and doubleclick on one such file to open it in Windows Notepad and investigate how simple they are.SHP.docx
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. Here select NACA 4416 for the root airfoil and NACA 4410 for the tip (Step 3).Figure 41d: Creating the wing – Picking airfoil.
NOTE: This list contains the Math Objects. containing the selected airfoils. which are algebraic expressions used for everything in SURFACES. twist. the wing will appear as shown.
Figure 42: If you followed Steps 1 through 3 correctly. and dihedral (Step 3).docx
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Fill in the form using the numbers in the dialog in Figures 3a through 3c.
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.STEP 4: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface… to create the HORIZONTAL TAIL (HT).
Figure 43a: Creating the HT – Entering geometry (Step 4).
Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 4).Figure 43b: Creating the HT – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas.docx
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so the resulting airfoil is a flat plate (symmetrical airfoil) (Step 4).
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VLM. Note that no airfoils are picked here.Figure 43c: Creating the HT – Setting panel density.docx
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. the wing and HT will appear as shown (Step 4).Figure 44: If you followed Step 4 correctly.
rather than the XY plane used for the wing and HT (Step 5). Note the option selected in the “Create Surface in Plane” frame is now the XZ plane.STEP 5: Select Insert>Trapezoidal Surface… one more time and create the VERTICAL TAIL (VT) by filling the form using the numbers in the dialog in Figures 5a through 5c.
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Figure 45a: Creating the VT – Entering geometry.docx
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Note the selected checkboxes and options (Step 5).docx
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.Figure 45b: Creating the VT – This tab will help you create geometrically dependent formulas.
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Figure 45c: Creating the VT – Setting panel density.docx
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. so the resulting airfoil is a flat plate (symmetrical airfoil) (Step 5). Note that no airfoils are picked here.
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While this is not necessary. vectors. in the interest of time and simplicity. Here let’s hide the points.docx
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. Note that you can hide points. Do this by clicking somewhere on the black background. stretching vectors. You should be aware of that you can also create the surfaces directly by dropping points. it may clean up the view.Figure 46: If you followed Step 5 correctly. The resulting image appears in Figure 47. simultaneously press Shift and P (for Points). This ensures the workspace (image) has the focus. the wing. and surfaces. When complete your model should look like the one in Figure 46. a Ttail design with a straight tapered wing. and inserting surfaces. This selects all the points. However. and VT will appear as shown in the completed basic model (Step 5). Then simultaneously press Ctrl and H (for Hide). the user can create trapezoidal surfaces more easily using this tool. Then.
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VLM. HT.
Figure 48: Selecting all surfaces simultaneously (Step 6). you can see identified by red boxes in Figure 47 the horizontal and vertical tail volumes should be 0.Figure 47: The basic model after the points have been hidden. respectively. Similarly. As you can see identified by the red box in Figure 46. Document
VLM.. Press the [Select All] button and then the [OK] button (see Figure 48).docx
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.0826. the wing span (Bw) is 18 ft and wing area (Sw) is 45 ft²..8496 and 0. Now let’s add weight to the model using the specialized tools in SURFACES. STEP 6: Select Edit>Select Surfaces.
This will distribute a total weight of 400 lbs onto the model based on the area. You can check weight by selecting surfaces and pressing the F6 button (or by selecting Tools>Properties of Selected Surfaces).
Figure 49: Enter weight of the selected surfaces.STEP 7: Select Tools>Distribute Weight on Selected Surfaces and Nodes.5 lbs. Clearly. this adds up to 400 lbs. STEP 8: Make sure the CG is visible. which is calculated as (weight per total area of the selected surfaces) x (the area of the surface). Enter 400 in the entry box and press the [OK] button (see Figure 49). Select Tools>Options..2 lbs. Document
VLM. The results will be displayed on the Status bar on the bottom of the main window. here as 400 lbs (Step 7). As a consequence..
Figure 410: Confirm the CG checkbox is marked so you can see the CG in the workspace (Step 8). the total weight of the wings turns out to be 293. Check the ‘Show CG. That is.docx
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. and the VT weighs 48. Neutral Point.3 lbs.. The weight property of each surface will then be assigned a number. the HT weighs 58. Aerodynamic Center’ checkbox and press the [OK] button (see Figure 410). SURFACES calculates the total area of the selected surfaces and then computes weight per total area..
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VLM. STEP 9: Press the XY tab on the bottom of the workspace. Once completed. STEP 10: Press the sketchmode icon to display the sketch toolbar. This will display the model projected onto the XY plane. Enter the information shown in Figure 413. let’s create a ballast point. similar to what is shown in Figure 412.Figure 411: We can see the CG location (blackwhite circle) is too far aft. near the Xaxis. It is immediately evident that the CG is too far aft. press the [OK] button. To fix this and to allow us to control the location of the CG. STEP 12: Select the point by clicking on it and press the Insert a node point icon to convert it to a node. When completed. your model should look like the one in Figure 411.docx
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. STEP 11: Press the Insert a point icon and drop a point somewhere in front of the wing. This will open a dialog box to allow user to enter additional data.
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.This point will be converted to a Node. Return to the 3D view by pressing the XYZ tab (see the bottom of Figure 412). When completed your model should look like the one in Figure 414. To see what the true location of the CG is at this point.
Figure 412: Drop the point (to be converted to a node) in a location similar as shown (Step 11). locate the math objects Pmac and Xcg in the object list on the left hand side (Pmac is highlighted in Document
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Figure 413: Information entered with Step 12.
STEP 14: Select Tools>Specify a CG Location… Select the option and enter the value shown in Figure 415. Often it is necessary to specify directly the location of the CG. If none are selected a warning message appears. Let’s determine the neutral point per the following steps. The variable Pmac stores the CG location as a percentage of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord (Cref. moving the CG in the process (i. or but SURFACES has automatically changed its X location from 4 to 3.967% MAC or at 0.Figure 414). to the 25% MAC). Respond to the warning that appears by pressing [Yes].
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.347556 ft. We see the CG is located at 13. found under the REFERENCE PARAMETERS block in the Math Object list).47 ft. SURFACES comes with a tool to help you accomplish that.e. when adjusting the CG location. Note that SURFACES will only move the selected node or nodes. Now let’s learn some more details about the model. We will move it with a special tool. STEP 13: Click once on the Ballast node to select it. When completed. STEP 15: Press the [Adjust] button. press [Close] button to exit the form. Then. The following steps show how to move the CG to 25% MAC.
Wref variable
Pmac variable
Figure 414: The model with ballast point defined. your node will appear closer to the wing than before.
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Figure 415: Specifying a CG location (Step 14).STEP 16: Press the VLM Console icon.
Figure 416: The VLM Console (Step 16). This will open the VortexLattice Method Console shown in Figure 416.
. SURFACES has preset values for a multitude of variables.... Vinf). : 03162009 Time .docx
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... you can change these with ease...5032e01 3.5032e01 2.. and after a few seconds. Vtas. and AOA=2°. let’s assume these will suffice for our analysis...0000° 3.6946e01 3.. review the results in Figure 417. Generally you should pick the neutral point with the lower value of Xneu... Let’s transfer the resulting value to the variable Xneu in the model..6946e01 1.. STEP 17: Select Tasks>Determine Neutral Point… Press the [Analyze] button to begin. which currently has the initial value 0. but currently Vcas=100 knots. Note that SURFACES uses two methods to compute the neutral point. and angleofattack (AOA)...0000° 4. : 21:17:00 ANALYSIS VALUES: ID XCG AOA CL CMY 1 7....1761e01 2 1. Href=0 ft... The full report is displayed below. Naturally.
Figure 417: Determining neutral point (Step 17).Note that when you create a new project..7503e+00 3.7503e+00 2.1248e02 METHOD 1 Calculates Xneu from the expression:
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VLM.5413e01 4 1. altitude (Href).0000° 3.8059e01 1. : SimplePlane(03162009)..8059e01 3.0000° 4.2670e02 3 7.
========================================================================================== NEUTRAL POINT ANALYSIS ========================================================================================== Filename ... once done.SRF Date .. Among those are the airspeed variables (Vcas. here this implies Method 2. In interest of saving time for this demo..
Set number of chordwise panels on the aft edge to deflect to 2.
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VLM.08247% MAC) METHOD 2 Calculates Xneu by evaluating changes of CG and AOA on Cm: Function 1 (degrees): 0.154126 Function 2 (radians): 0. STEP 19: Doubleclick on one of the two surfaces that serve as the horizontal tail.docx
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.088875) = 1.044590 Function 1 (radians): 2. Here. by now. Check the ‘Surface is used for Pitch Control’.001422·AOA . STEP 21: Repeat Steps 19 and 20 for the other horizontal surface. we select File>Save As… and call it SIMPLE DEMO.091979·AOA .0. This displays a notification. To do that. Note the [Copy Report] button in the form in Figure 417. It allows you to copy the entire text in the form to the clipboard. Now let’s trim the aircraft for a level flight.Cref·dCm/dCL = 0.154126 Xneu = 1.044590 Function 2 (degrees): 0.(2. return back to the worksheet where the model is. just press the [Yes] button. You should do the same.05433% MAC) Total time:0h:00m:05s
STEP 18: Press the [Transfer] button and select the option ‘Neutral point using Method 2’. Press the [OK] button. Press the [OK] button to close it.036512·AOA . Press the [Close] button on the form to close it as well. STEP 20: In the same dialog select the ‘Reference’ tab.0.Xneu = Xcg .081474·AOA . it would be a good idea to save the work.790844 (66. First we must define which surfaces serve as the elevators.036512)/(0.0.75032 .0.534505)·(0.SRF. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 418. If a warning appears stating there’s already a VLM solution in memory.791557 (66. We consider it a good practice to copy and paste it as a comment under Edit>Remark… in the main worksheet for future reference. Also. Select the ‘Edge Deflections’ tab.
as shown in Figure 419. You can try the functionality out by displaying the VLM Console and select the ‘Controllers’ tab. For instance. You have now given SURFACES information it can use to automatically deflect the elevators to trim the model for level flight. Once done. enter 20 in the Pitch control textbox and press the [Set] button to see the model regenerate with that deflection.docx
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. press the [Reset] button to return the elevators to a neutral deflection (0°) and get ready to trim the model.Figure 418: Setting up elevator functionality (Steps 1921).
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.Notice deflected elevators
Figure 419: Demonstrating elevator functionality.. STEP 22: Select Tasks>Trimmed Level Flight..
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VLM. Follow the steps shown in the subsequent list of images. to display the Trim wizard.
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. Press the [Next >>] button.
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VLM. We will just trim to a single airspeed.
STEP 22b: Ensure the selection shown.STEP 22a: Press the [Next >>] button. but multiple airspeeds can also be analyzed.
Press the [Next >>] button. Here we allow 30 iterations before a solution will be declared as unachievable. the lift generated will be 700 lbs at the airspeed specified in Step 22b. Here. acceptable accuracy is provided by specifying 1% of the weight. the resulting lift will be 700 ±1 lbf and the moment 0 ±1 ft·lbf.docx
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. the accuracy is closer to 0. If solution is found. As a rule of thumb. Once complete. Press the [Next >>] button.
STEP 22d: Ensure the selection shown.
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VLM.STEP 22c: Ensure the selection shown.14%.
Press ‘Summary’ tab to read the results for each completed trim speed. STEP 23: Select Tasks>Determine Stability Derivatives. to display the Stability Derivatives form. The time to trim largely depends on the number of panels in the model and accuracy desired. The model is automatically set to the resulting AOA and elevator deflection.
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VLM. Press the [Next >>] button. The model presented here took 16 iterations and 31 seconds to trim. Next let’s determine stability derivatives for the model in this particular configuration.docx
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.STEP 22e: Ensure the selection shown. the model will fly level at an AOA of 3..587 lbf and moment about the yaxis (located at the CG) is 0.287698 ft·lbf. Check and uncheck the boxes shown in Figure 421 and press the [Analyze] button. The lift generated is 699.
Once SURFACES begins to trim..
STEP 22f: Press the [Trim!] button. Note that solution files can be created and saved using the file name entered as a seed.3966° (trailing edge up) to balance.3449° and will require an elevator deflection of 4. you can follow the progress on the ‘Progress Table’ or ‘Progress Plot’ tabs (see Figure 420). Press the [Close] button to exit the form. In this case.
CD. hcg. Clb (0. we must transfer these results to the airplane model. however. STEP 24: Select the ‘Transfer’ tab.172) that our airplane is statically stable about all three axes.105). Press [Yes] (in this example) if prompted to overwrite formulas. This will prevent them from being overwritten. Follow the remaining steps closely.
Upon completion you will see the results as shown in Figure 422. Now let’s proceed to the dynamic stability analysis. STEP 26: Press the [Deselect Nonrequested] button to deselect the derivatives that were not calculated. CDa. and Cnb (0. STEP 25: Press the [Select All] button to select all the derivatives in the list. Press the [OK] button on the form that appears to notify you of a successful transfer. but they already contain algebraic expressions that we don’t want to be deleted. CDi.
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VLM. Then press the [Close] button to close the Stability Derivatives form. STEP 28: Press the [Transfer] button. What we don’t know at this time are its dynamic stability properties. And this is what we intend to investigate next. uncheck the following variables: CL. we can see from values for Cma (2. First. and hn (see Figure 423).docx
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.119).Figure 420: Trim progress is displayed on the ‘Progress Plot’ tab. Without going into too many details. STEP 27: In addition.
Figure 421: Preparing to determine stability derivatives (Step 23).
Figure 422: Stability derivatives for the model (Step 23).docx
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The simulation icons will display the motion of the aircraft in real time.
STEP 28: Press the STAB Console icon. This will open the Stability Analysis Console shown in Figure 429.
Longitudinal stability analysis (report) Lateral/directional stability analysis (report) Root locus analysis tool
Short period and Phugoid mode (plots) Spiral convergence. It is left as an exercise for the user to press the various icons to experience functionality. and Dutch roll modes (plots)
Short period and Phugoid mode (simulation) Spiral convergence. Roll convergence. and Dutch roll modes (simulation)
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VLM. Roll convergence.Figure 423: Stability derivatives for the model (Steps 2428).docx
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0612 2. This model is also used for a skin friction drag demo in Section 9.3626
This concludes the introductory example.5641 0.docx
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.Press this icon to display the dutch roll response. Description Airspeed Altitude Period of oscillation Damping coefficient Natural frequency Damped frequency Damping Ratio Time to 0.1 Amplitude Symbol Vtas Href T n Wn Wd Zeta t½ N½ t0. You can get a report detailing the properties of the response by selecting View>Show Comparison Table.SRF 100 0 2.5 Amplitude Cycles to 0.3324 4.6454 15. so it will be convenient to save it. This is but one of many ways to extract information from the STAB module.1 N0. The resulting table is shown below.
Figure 424: Stability analysis module (Step 29. Document
VLM.450 0.5648 2.6246 37.1 Amplitude Cycles to 0.5 Amplitude Time to 0.1 Unit KTAS ft sec/cycle 1/sec cycles/sec cycles/sec sec cycles sec cycles SIMPLE DEMO. Also try Analysis>Create Analysis Report… to get a more detailed dynamic stability report.0238 11.
Accomplishing Special Projects with SURFACES
5. These are entered as reference values for curves A1 and A2 for each surface. Figure 51 shows how SURFACES can be used to help optimize stall characteristics. reduce sweep.docx
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. would result in an uncontrollable nose pitchup moment. increase tip chord. This situation can be remedied by modifying the wing geometry.
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VLM. The yellow line represents section lift coefficients at stall. or using airfoils with a higher max lift coefficient. but more seriously. The image shows the wing tip stalls long before the inboard part of the wing.5. Not only would this cause the airplane to a roll at stall (as one wing tip is prone to stalling before the other one). The red lines represent section lift coefficients at the flight condition. for instance by adding wing washout.1 Tailoring Wings to Improve Stall Characteristics
Figure 51: A model whose section lift coefficients near the tip are very high (“tiploaded).
or a Bspline.3 How to Manage Airfoils in SURFACES
SURFACES allows the user to study the influence of airfoils on flight characteristics. In order to do this effectively. The program comes with a tool that helps the user to do this more easily (see Figure 41d). a list of points. in which a parametric curve is created. The user can define camber lines using four different curves. Page Numbers
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. the user must keep the some rules in mind when manipulating or managing curves. This is done by specifying the camber line of the airfoil.
5. a 4point Bezier curve.2 Determine Shear. The bending moments along the right wing are plotted. Moment. The following example. Figure 52 shows the Force Integrator tool as applied to the right wing on the Ryan Navion model. STEP 1: Start a new project. gives an insight into how this is done. Note the wing curvature represents the camber line of the aircraft’s airfoils.5. Select File>New…
STEP 2: Go into sketch mode by pressing the Document
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icon. a parametric. and Torsion
Figure 52: Obtaining shear and moment distribution for a lifting surface. SURFACES comes equipped with a tool that allows you to analyze cantilevered shear and moment acting on any surface.
Let us create a simple parametric curve to demonstrate this better. but also a line extending from the start point to this third point (see Figure 56). Right click to stop (see Figure 54). If you select the vector you’ll see that SURFACES highlights the vector. If you select the XYZ view. One at 1.
Point A (1. you can see that SURFACES has created a third point (see Figure 55).3)
Figure 53: Defining start and end points for a vector in the XY plane. STEP 5: Doubleclick the parametric curve to open the Edit Parametric Curve.
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. Ignore the form that pops up first by pressing the OK button.3 (point B.STEP 3: Select the point icon and drop two points. See Figure 53). This point is called an alignment point.3)
Point B (9.3 (point A) and the other at 9. See Figure 57. The purpose of this point is to allow you to orient the parametric curve in 3D space.
STEP 4: Select the parametric curve icon and stretch a curve from point A to point B.
and the alignment point ID is 3 (point C).docx
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. If you did everything correctly.Parametric curve
Figure 54: Creating a parametric curve. This is the parametric function SURFACES will use to compute the shape of the parametric curve. Note that the curve should consist of 30 points. enter the function: tt*t.
Pay attention to the data in the form in Figure 57. STEP 7: Press the OK button. You can see that the start point ID is 1 (point A). STEP 6: In the textbox under the “Parametric Functions” frame labeled P(t). aligned to a plane formed by two vectors. you should see a curve identical to the one of Figure 58. one extending from point A to B and the other from point A to C. See Figure 57. the end point ID is 2 (point B). Press the Preview button to see what the curve looks like in 2dimensions (see Figure 57). Note you must use the variable ‘t’. Note how the curve has been drawn.
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and C define the parametric curve. B.
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Point B
Figure 55: Points A.docx
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.Point A
Point C: This point was created by SURFACES when the parametric curve was created.
Point A
Point B Point C
Figure 56: Selecting the parametric curve displays how SURFACES uses points to define a plane.
STEP 8: Doubleclick on point C and change its Zvalue from 0 to 6. Now. This is done in Step 9: Document
VLM.Figure 57: Creating a parametric curve. let us align the curve so it is parallel to the XZ plane. Reorient the image (CTRL+ mouse center button) to see how the airfoil is still being drawn in the plane formed by the three points. The resulting orientation can be seen in Figure 58.docx
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. Press the Apply button.
Figure 58: The parametric curve tt² shown as originally created in the XY plane.docx
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.
Figure 59: The parametric curve tt² shown at an angle.
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as if on an imaginary 2D plane that is oriented in 3D space.
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VLM. Press the Apply button. The resulting orientation can be seen in Figure 59.STEP 9: Doubleclick on point C and change its Yvalue to 3.
Figure 510: The parametric curve tt² shown parallel to the XZ plane. Note how the curve is always drawn.docx
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.
due to the discrete elemental forces generated by the right wing. one can analyze loads along vectors of arbitrary orientation.1 Establishment of a Local Coordinate System
Consider the force F generated by an arbitrary panel in the global coordinate system XYZ as shown in Figure 2. Additionally. With this information. the right wing has been highlighted. The analysis requires a coordinate system to be constructed.6. which from now on referred to as the local coordinate system.
6. they are referred to as the basis of the local coordinate system.docx
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. This way. SURFACES allows this to be done quickly and effectively. called the quarter chord. Consequently. The goal is to provide SURFACES with a tool that helps the structural analyst retrieve aerodynamic loads. For structural purposes it is desired to determine the shear and moments about an axis.
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VLM. A vector on the leading edge and along the fuselage have been highlighted (in red). A more descriptive example of this is shown with the typical VortexLattice model in Figure 1. the formulation is in fact applicable to any load analysis involving a discrete distribution of elemental loads. However. The two vectors are necessary to create the local coordinate system about which the shear and moments are resolved. Transformation of Load Vectors from a Global to a Local Coordinate System
The following derives mathematical formulation to determine shear forces and moments about an arbitrary axis.
Figure 1: A typical VortexLattice model. it is now possible to determine the 3D shear and moment distribution along either vector. Consider a lifting surface in a 3D coordinate system (from now on referred to as the global coordinate system).
BN. and C.
We can now create a local coordinate system. These vectors uniquely define a plane (and are thus the basis of the coordinate system). whose normal is given by the vector C. denoted by the vectors A.Z
F
FZ
FY X FX Y
Figure 2: A force in the global coordinate system. identified by the selection of two vectors. such that:
C A B
Z 2
(1)
F
FZ
A
C FY X FX BN 3 B 1 Y
Figure 3: Defining the local coordinate system. such that A is not parallel to B (see Figure 3). where BN is given by
BN A C
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(2)
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. A and B.
BN.docx
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. F. Also note that according to convention. Finally. here denoted by the lower case letters xyz. respectively. This is accomplished with a simple transformation of the vector F onto the three vectors A. Fy.2 Transformation of Force Vector in Coordinate System ABNC
The force vector. and C using the matrix notation of Equation (3). represented as {FX. Example: Document
VLM. FY. Fz} (see Figure 4).
Fx u AX Fy u BX Fz uCX
Z x
u AY u BY uCY
u AZ FX u AZ FY u AZ FZ
(3)
F
FZ Fz
A
z
Fx FY X Fy FX y 1
C
Y
BN
Figure 4: Transformation of vector F. The determination of BN is necessary as B may or may not be perpendicular to the vector A. The vectors BN and C correspond to the Y and Z axes.Note that the three vectors form a mutually perpendicular coordinate system. note that the unit vectors for the local coordinate system are denoted as follows: Unit vector for A: Unit vector for B: Unit vector for C:
u AX uBX uCX
u AY u BY uCY
u AZ u BZ uCZ
6. FZ} or FX i FY j FZ k in the global coordinate system can now be represented as a force in the local one as {Fx. the vector A represents the Xaxis of the local coordinate system.
80178
This yields the following force components using Equation (3):
Fx . It is denoted by the point (xP.5i .26726 0.15430 5 12.5k 0.
i j k C A B 1 1 1 0.The force vector
F Fx i Fy j Fz k 10 i .5i 2 j 0.53452 0. This point will be called the projection point from now on. zF) on to the vector A (see Figure 6).
A i . yP.80178 10 8. yF.
i j k B N A C 1 1 1 2. It was demonstrated in Section 2 how shear forces are transformed to a local coordinate system.61721 .0. ultimately. P.61721 .57735 u AZ .77152 0.0.0.5 1 1 .5i j 1. but it involves a tranformation about a point.8868 Fy .57735 0.0.57735 10 2.5k
Two vectors A and B are given as the basis for our local coordinate system as follows:
Determine the components of F in the local coordinate system created by the vectors A and B.5k 0 . The same methodology can be applied to the generation of moments.j 0.53452 0. the goal of the analysis presented herein is the determination of shear forces and moments about an axis due to the cumulative effects of multiple discrete forces.26726 0.57735 0.5 1 0.5 j 10 k is given in a global coordinate system.57735 .0178 z
6.0.15430 u AZ 0. Document
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Step 2: Determine the vector BN from B N A C .0. Solution: Step 1: Determine the vector C from
C A B .57735 .5
Step 3: Determine force component per Equation (5).3 Determination of Moment Vector in Coordinate System ABNC
As stated in the introduction.3443 F 0. It is the projection of the point (xF. through which the vector A goes.77152 0.0.docx
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.j k B 0. Start by determining the unit vectors and assemble into the transformation matrix:
u AX u BX uCX
u AY u BY uCY
u AZ . zP).
yP.e.Z x
F
FZ Fz
A
z xP. the parallel projection of W onto V is given by:
VW W V VV
The perpendicular projection is simply found from:
(4)
W W W
(5)
Using this. The location of this point is obtained using standard vector algebra. i. The method can be explained using Figure 7. which defines the arbitrary vectors V and W. z1
Y
Figure 6: Determination of moment vector M. zF y
1 BN x1. we first determine the vector R from the start point of the vector A to the force point.
W W W V
Figure 7: Projection of vector W onto vector V. y1. by Davis and Snyder.:
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VLM. The reader is referred to the one presented on page 31 in Introduction to Vector Analysis.docx
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. Then. yF. zP C
r
Fx FY X Fy
Q R
FX xF.
denoted by Q. MZ} is still in the global coordinate system. which is simply the distance of the projection point from the starting point of vector A (point 1).4 Determination of Shear and Moment Distribution
Figure 7 shows several loads whose components have been transformed to the local coordinate system specified by A. Mz} using the same transformation as for the force vector. calculate the disrete moment about the projection point from
(8)
i M F Q Fx Qx
j Fy Qy
k Fz Qz
(9)
The moment vector. i. BN. My. MY. Now.
M x u AX M y u BX M u z CX
u AY u BY uCY
u AZ M X u AZ M Y u AZ M Z
(10)
6. It can now be treated as the force in the local one. represented as {MX. as {Mx.e. xF x1 R y F y1 z z F 1
The location is then found by referencing Figure 7 and Equation (4) and by writing:
(6)
xP x1 AR A y P y1 AA z z P 1
(7)
The length of the parallel projection (the rightmost term of Equation (7)) is denoted by the letter r. one must determine the vector from the projection point to the force point. This vector is given by Equation (8):
xF x p Q yF y p z z p F
Then.
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. Each has associated force and moment components and the parameter r. The sorted components are then used to construct shear and moment diagrams in a standard fashion. M. It will be used in Section 4 to sort the discrete loads and moments along the vector A. The purpose of the parameter r is to allow sorting to take place (say from start towards the end of the vector A). and C.
z
F2 F i Fi Fzi Fi F i
ri
F1 x
Fyi Fxi
1
y
Figure 7: Methodology for construction shear and moment diagrams.
z
Fi
FN2 FN1 FN
y yi yN2 yN1 yN
Figure 8: Creation of shear and moment diagrams from discrete forces.
6.4.1 Approximation for Shear in the Zdirection Along the Yaxis Vector Approximating shear forces is simple, just apply Equation (11),
Vzi
F
N i j
zi
(11)
6.4.2 Approximation for Moment about Xaxis Along the Yaxis Vector The approximation for the moments is implemented as follows. The moment at N1 is due to the force FzN acting at a distance yN – yN1. Similarly, the moment at N2 is due to the force FzN acting at a distance yN – yN2 and the force FzN1 acting at a distance yN1 – yN2. Writing this in a general form leads to: Document
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M xi Fzi 1 yi 1 yi ... FzN 2 y N 2 yi FzN 1 y N 1 yi FzN y N yi
F
j i 1
N
zj
y j yi
(12)
6.4.3 Approximation for Torsion About the Yaxis Vector The approximation for the torsion is implemented as follows. The torsion at N1 is due to the force FN acting at an offset distance of xN – xpN, where xp denotes the x value of the projection point. Similarly, the moment at point N1 is due to the force FzN acting at a distance xN – xpN and the force FzN1 acting at a distance xN1 – xpN1. Writing this in a general form leads to:
M yi Fzi xi x pi ... FzN 2 xN 2 x pN 2 FzN 1 xN 1 x pN 1 FzN xN x pN
F x x
N zj j j i
pj
(13) Example: A lifting surface is 10 ft long (span) and 2 ft wide (chord). It carries a uniform pressure load of 1 lbf/ft². Determine the shear in the zdirection, moment about the xaxis, and torsion about the yaxis at y=0.5 ft, assuming the span to be partitioned into 10, 1 ft wide strips. Note that each strip will carry 2 lbf of load.
z
x
10 ft
2 ft
y
Figure 9: Lifting surface with a uniform pressure distribution.
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z
2 lbf 2 lbf 2 lbf 2 lbf 2 lbf
0.5 ft Mx
y
6.5 ft
Vz 7.5 ft 8.5 ft 9.5 ft
Figure 10: Discrete forces replace the uniform distribution. Reaction forces are shown in green.
Solution: Shear is determined from Equation (11):
Vi
F 2 2 ... 2 20
i i 1
N
lb f
Moment is determined from Equation (12):
M x F2 y2 y1 ... F8 y8 y1 F9 y9 y1 F10 y10 y1 2 1 ... 2 7 2 8 2 9 90 ft lb f
Torsion is determined from Equation (13):
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Finally.. Similarly (noticing that the centroid of the force V is at y=5 ft). we find that My = V·x = (20 lbf)·(1 ft) = 20 ft·lbf.5 ft) = 90 ft·lbf.
6. the user can press the Integrate button as shown in Figure 12.5 ft (necessitated by the discreteness of the strip solution) is Mx = V·y = (20 lbf)·(5 ft – 0.. noticing the the centroid of the force V is at x=1 ft.
Figure 11: Selecting the Force Integrator tool..M y F1 x1 x p1 . Selecting the Results tab will display a table with analysis results.docx
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.5 Presentation of Data in SURFACES
The user selects Results>Force Integrator… from the VLM Console in SURFACES as shown in Figure 11 below. the moment about a point y = 0. F8 x8 x p 8 F9 x9 x p 9 F10 x10 x p10 2 1 . 2 1 2 1 2 1 20 ft lb f
The exact value for the shear is determined from V = w·A = (1 lbf/ft²)·(10 ft x 2 ft) = 20 lbf.
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VLM. Table 2 details the heading names. Once the pertinent surfaces and vectors (corresponding to vectors A and B) have been selected..
which is its centroid.Text = "Fbx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl. YP. YP.Text = "Mx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl. Y.Text = "F" 'Panel moment in global coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl. and Zcoordinates of the panel force. Rz R Qx.ZP.Text = "M" 'Panel force in global coordinate system Document
VLM.Col = i: gridCntrl. and Zcoordinates of the panel force panel force projection onto vector A.Col = i: gridCntrl. The length of vector Q.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Figure 12: Force Integrator tool. Components of the vector Q.
'Panel force (body system) in global coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl. YF.Col = i: gridCntrl. Ry. Components of the vector R. from XP. ZP to XF.Col = i: gridCntrl.YP. X.Text = "Fy" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl. YF. ZF.Text = "Fby" i = i + 1: gridCntrl. Distance from Point 1 of vector A to XP. Qz Q Description X. ZF XP.docx
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.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mz" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Fb" 'Panel force (airspeed system) in global coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Fbz" i = i + 1: gridCntrl. The length of vector R.Col = i: gridCntrl.
Table 2: Heading Names Heading XF.Col = i: gridCntrl. ZP r Rx. from Point 1 of vector A.Text = "My" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl. Y.Text = "Fx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl. Qy.Text = "Fz" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.
Text = "Fty" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.docx
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.Text = "Ty" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ftx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Vy" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Mtx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mty" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Tz"
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VLM.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Mtz" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Vx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Col = i: gridCntrl.Text = "Ftz" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Mt" 'Panel force in local coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Tx" i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Vz" 'Panel moment in local coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl.Text = "Ft" 'Panel moment in global coordinate system i = i + 1: gridCntrl.
But isn’t the NavierStokes (NS) method more accurate? The answer is yes and no. Any good airplane design operates most of its lifetime at airspeeds at which the airflow is relatively smooth and at a low anglesofattack (AOA) and yaw (AOY).or a betasweep. Linear analysis is extremely fast when compared to nonlinear analysis. it must be emphasized that SURFACES is performing a mathematical simulation when you use its wind tunnel test tool. do not account for this phenomena. You will want to know at which AOA the linear assumption breaks down. But the primary reason is speed. and the rotation rates (P. but at this time. And. if one’s computer network holds up. At the time of this writing. well. using SURFACES one can create and analyze an aircraft in the linear range with an incredible accuracy in a matter of minutes. still need to be improved before an accurate comparison can be made of existing wind tunnel. you must understand its limitations. and linear modeling and the like. Speed! Accuracy is an additional benefit if your model is well created. Under these circumstances. The primary advantage is that drag is minimum at such conditions and. causing the flow to separate. when the airplane slows down before it lands. However. in the linear range. The same model may take 46 weeks to prepare for a nonlinear NavierStokes solver. the airplane is the most efficient. forces and moments change linearly with these angles. a real wind tunnel test always overrides any such calculations (assuming the data was obtained by reliable means). Before you use the tunnel. it will just take much. The concept of tuning is well known in the world of finite elements. Using the Virtual Wind Tunnel
The Virtual Wind Tunnel (VWT) allows you to analyze you model exactly as if you were to run it in a real wind tunnel. Tuning is done by making minor changes to the model un
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VLM. it begins to operate at larger AOAs and AOYs. The person writing these words has experienced many times that the VLM has been closer to actual wind tunnel data than NS. The strength of NS solvers is separated flow. (2) Features of your model that. Q. exactly as you would do it in a real tunnel.7. including SURFACES. therefore. Naturally. The same rule applied to all computer codes that emulate wind tunnels. The lifting surfaces are always sized such that this is achievable. or for some other extreme maneuvering. This will introduce a nonlinearity into forces and moments. flutter. you should ask the question. but without the hassle. the VWT is a great tool to help you understand the following issues: (1) The AOA and AOY. Linear codes. You can vary several parameters from an initial value to a final value in prescribed steps. and would give one (yes one) AOA. why then resort to linear analysis if it has this shortcoming? The answer is as simple as it is resounding. such tools are better at giving the aerodynamicist an idea of what the flow field looks like than trustworthy coefficients. At this point you may be asking yourself. R) where your math model breaks down. For instance. assuming you are using SURFACES to create a mathematical model of your design.docx
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. it will give a similar answer as the VortexLattice Method (VLM). However. say every 24 hours. you can perform an alpha. much longer to get those answers. In fact. the airspeeds.
to determine CL1 and Cm1. we can write Equation (1) as follows:
(1)
C L C Le e C L C L 0 Cm Cme e Cm Cm 0
The solution protocol is a follows: STEP 1: Compute:
C L Cm
C Le C L C L 0 Cme e Cm Cm 0
(2)
C Ltarget
2W V 2 S
STEP 2: Establish a value for and e.docx
and
C L 0 C L 2 C L 2
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. CL = lift coefficient CL0 = lift coefficient for zero angleofattack and zero elevator deflection CL0e = lift coefficient for zero angleofattack CLtarget = lift coefficient obtained from the lift equation CL = lift coefficient change with angleofattack CLe = lift coefficient change with elevator deflection Cm = pitching moment coefficient Cm0 = pitching moment coefficient for zero angleofattack and zero elevator deflection Cm0e = pitching coefficient for zero angleofattack Cm = pitching moment change with angleofattack Cme = pitching moment change with elevator deflection = angleofattack CURR = current angleofattack = deviation from current angleofattack e = elevator deflection e = deviation elevator deflection If the coefficient are known.8. when determining longitudinal trim (assuming a solution can be found) the following must hold:
CL CL 0 CL CLe e Cm Cm 0 Cm Cme e
Where. to determine CL2 and Cm2. A trimmed flight is defined as a flight in which the moment about all three axes is zero. Determination of a Trimmed Flight Condition
The following derivation details the requirements for a trimmed flight condition. For instance. STEP 4: Compute CL and Cm from:
C L1 C L 0 C L 1 C L 2 C L1 C L C L 2 C L 0 C L 2 2 1
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VLM. STEP 3: Set = CURR and e = 0. Set = CURR and e = 0.
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VLM. This is necessary because the deflection of a control surface modifies the geometry which. STEP 7: Set = target and e = e CURR +e . STEP 8: Compute CLe and Cme from: C L e
CL3 CL0 C Cm 0 and C m m 3 e e e
STEP 9: Compute the required CL to support the desired lift and knowing that Cm=0 for a balanced condition we populate the matrix of Equation (2) as follows:
C L C m
C Le C L C L 0 Cme e Cm 0
(3)
And solve for the and e. to determine CL4 and Cm4. which define the trimmed condition. The program comes with an easy to use Trim Wizard that makes this a breeze. creating an individual flow solution for each trimmed condition. and study the solution files the next day. to determine CL3 and Cm3. SURFACES solves this using an iterative algorithm and can do so about each of the airplane’s three axes. requires a new flow solution. You can leave your computer overnight running the trim solutions.and
Cm1 Cm 0 Cm 1 Cm 2 Cm1 C m C m 2 C m 0 C m 2 2 1 target C Ltarget C L 0 C L
and
C m 0 C m 2 C m 2
STEP 5: Compute:
STEP 6: Set = target and e = e CURR e .docx
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. in turn. Additionally. you can trim for multiple airspeeds. This is handy when you want multiple solutions for the same CG location.
The shape of a properly designed airplane flying at a low angleofattack (high speed) is such that air flows over it smoothly and its drag is relatively low when compared to other flight conditions. A prominent of those is drag. importance to the airplane involved. which eventually causes airflow to separate in various areas (e.
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VLM. There are several things that make drag remarkable as an aerodynamic force. This is so. These difficulties must always kept in mind SURFACES is a symbolic vortexlattice when predicting drag using any computer code. The calculation of solver. The math objects can use information As is revealed in the famous NavierStokes equations. help you make drag define own parameters that may be of predictions that are as useful as possible . although the multitude For instance. Re. = Angleofattack. as such. drag estimation is wrought with challenges. Extracting drag from wind tunnel testing presents challenges as well and requires great expertise. making its estimation harder and harder as the angleofattack increases and air begins to separate and form “separation bubbles”. must be taken with a grain mathematical expressions. etc) any tool that allows for a quick and reliable estimation is priceless.9. Determination of Drag in SURFACES
9. . V = Farfield airspeed.docx
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. exposed area (known as the wetted area). So if you modify your wing area for some reason. airspeed.g.V . Sref.g. has only two causes. it is so complex in nature that even state of the art NavierStokes solvers have a hard time predicting it accurately. . engine requirements. M = Mach Number. along trailing edge of wings. drag really directly from the geometry of your model. Such flow adds a considerable complexity to analysis work. . Reynolds Number and Mach Number). compressibility effects contribute more and more to the total drag. Stored in the variable Re. Eref. because the IMPORTANT! angleofattack at which flow separation begins differs from that of the full scale airplane.1 Introduction
One of the primary advantages of using the VortexLattice Method is speed and accuracy in the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments. this is represented in the formula:
D f ( geometry. Stored in the variable AOA. Since so many other factors rely on drag (performance. especially for scaled wind tunnel models. This
adds an incredible power to the analysis work.). the geometry of the value. fuselage wing juncture. It is the purpose of this section to explain how changeably). Among those is how hard it is to accurately estimate its magnitude. and flow physics (density. that way. aircraft orientation (e. to calculate wing area you of specialty drags that abound in aerospace engineering literature could enter a constant or you could use a imply otherwise. angleofattack and angleofyaw). that allow the designer to SURFACES computes drag and. Reducing the airspeed requires an increase in angleofattack. pressure and friction. etc. Mathematically. and Swet. increasing its drag. two drag sources to simplify drag estimation in the program. In fact. Stored in the variable Vinf. Re = Reynolds Number. …)].
1
(1)
In SURFACES geometry terms are stored in variables such as ARref. It allows the user to create drag is estimation only. Drag the program will automatically update this estimation involves several parameters. Drag is a rapidly changing variable. surf2. Stored in the variable MN. and. called Math Objects or Variables (which are used interof salt. The SURFACES development team uses these function like [Saxy(surf1. M )
Where: geometry refers to reference and wetted area1. Unfortunately. Another challenge is the fact that when airspeed increases.
changes the skin friction drag. causes a rise in the pressure drag. drag polar. the location where laminar boundary layer transitions into a turbulent one on the upper surface moves closer to the leading edge of the airfoil. and additional drag. For instance. this is not done here for two reasons: First. This changes the extent of laminar versus turbulent boundary layer and. flow begins to separate near the trailing edges of the wing. Dependency on . let’s begin by writing a standard definition of the total drag force:
D 1 V2 S ref C D 2
Where: CD = Total drag coefficient. the user must be made aware of the impact asymmetric flight has on aircraft performance. It is also evident that the CD is always larger than zero. Stored in the variable rho.5 is referred to as a drag bucket and is typically associated with laminar flow airfoils.docx
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. dimensionless. A typical representation of airfoil data is shown in Figure 9. and Re is usually handled in the expression for drag coefficient. which increases the pressure drag. therefore. Second. typically in ft² or m². Stored in the variable rho. The left graph shows how the lift coefficient varies with angleofattack. typically in ft/s or m/s. and V. The right one shows how the drag coefficient varies with the lift coefficient. . Exceeding this band of lift coefficients on either side. First. So. This additional drag is caused by an increase in flow separation.11 (642415 and 23012) display this phenomenon. . as the angleofattack increases more. achieving a certain minimum value at relatively low values of CL. The word geometry is somewhat nebulous here. especially when designing multiengine aircraft for engineout situations. It follows it makes sense to consider the drag as the sum of some minimum drag. while most texts on the subject tend to neglect the contribution of the angleofyaw. will result in a notable change in airflow behavior. = Air density. and pitching moment curves for several 2D airfoils and shows two graphs. This results in a higher speed over the airfoil than indicated by incompressibility. call it CDmin.
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VLM. namely. Sref = Reference area. CD. by using SURFACES this is simply no more complicated than accounting for angleofattack. V = Farfield airspeed. = Angleofyaw. The dip in the drag polar around a CL of 0. Stored in the variable AOY. This shows a lift curve. M.
(2)
Equation (2) explicitly contains three of the variables mentioned for Equation (1). but a simple explanation is that compressibility causes streamlines to align closer together and farther into the flow field than they do in an incompressible flow. therefore. Also. Second. The third factor is compressibility effects. Stored in the variable CD. By the same token. typically in slugs/ft3 or kg/m3. In aircraft design. The first is lift. D = Drag force in lbf (UK system) or N (SI system). = Air density. which increases the lowpressure on the airfoil and. . but it is so on purpose. thus. which depends on the angleofattack (and yaw) of the geometry. the rate at which both lift and
2
Reproduced from NACA R824. The shape of the drag polar depends on several factors. Note that the pitching moment coefficients are not important in this discussion. geometry. note how all but two of the airfoils in Figure 9. the user may use geometry in own drag estimation beyond the variables cited. This change affects the distribution of pressure around the airfoil and. the transition point on the lower surface will move closer to the trailing edge.2 to 0. aerodynamicists typically regard the drag coefficient as a function of the lift coefficient. CL and plot the two on a graph called the drag polar. caused in part by the change in CL.112. This is the second factor to be considered. This is a high speed phenomenon.
85. and 6 for further information. but the interested reader can refer to engineering texts such as References 2. automatically computes their effects for the user. In SURFACES. pages 115116. see discussion in Aircraft Performance and Design. you should apply compressibility corrections for cases when the airspeed exceeds Mach numbers of the order of 0. if the airspeed increases further.docx
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. a shockwave will form. Typically. John D. Anderson.5. From this discussion it makes sense to define the drag coefficient as follows:
3
For instance.
Drag Polar (CD versus CL)
Lift Curve (CL versus )
Pitching Moment (CM)
Figure 9. The theory of compressible flow is beyond the scope of this discussion. 3. SURFACES provides four different methods to model compressibility effects and.3 to 0. for instance if the airplane has thick wings. SURFACES does not predict shockwave formation. SURFACES has been designed to automatically include compressibility corrections if the user chooses to apply them. but may happen at a far lower airspeed.
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VLM.11: Drag polar for several 2D airfoils. shockwaves begin to form when airplanes fly at airspeeds faster than Mach 0.drag change with angleofattack. Compressibility drag is exclusively a pressure drag effect3 and eventually. The user must be cognizant of such high speed effects. if selected. so results in which shock would have formed in real flow are unreliable. This will be talked about in greater detail shortly.
dimensionless. actual change in AOA or AOY will change CDo. So.INI. Stored in the variable CDi. and using a correction only applicable to skin friction for CDf.
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VLM. CL. Note 6: SURFACES has internal functions that calculate most of these coefficients for the user. and [CL] for lift coefficient. see page 186 of Reference 5. CDo = Basic drag coefficient. using the functions [CDf] for skin friction. the program will load a standard list of math objects. Note 1: The form of Equation (3) preserves the idea expressed in most texts on aircraft design. a change in will move the laminar to turbulent flow transition point and reshape flow separation regions. This will not be done here for the simple reason that it adds complexity to keep track of yet another drag coefficient and hides the contribution of wetted area on the overall airplane drag. The CDi. Note that if these builtin functions are used.
4
For instance. [CD] for total drag (calculated per Equation (3)). which is stored in the /SURFACES/TEMP/ folder. CDf = Skin friction drag coefficient. dimensionless. compressible skin friction coefficient reduces slightly with Mach Number. the user can enter complicated expressions for each component. If you suspect this template file is corrupt or accidentally delete it. One way the aerodynamicist can estimate a variation in CDo with AOA and AOY is to wind tunnel test an aircraft with the lifting surfaces removed. on the other hand. Note 3: Although many aerodynamic texts treat CDo and CDf as if they were constant with respect to and there is no guarantee this is true in reality. when a new project is created.docx
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. a CDf of 0 will be reported until skin friction coefficient has been assigned to any of the surfaces. dimensionless. so that you won’t have to create commonly used variables each time. dimensionless. the formulation is already correctly set up by default. This is already set up in this fashion in the standard Math Object template .com.
(3)
Note 2: Since SURFACES is symbolic code. but this change is not to be confused with the change in induced drag. CDi = Induced drag coefficient.CD CDo CDf CDi
Where: CD = Total drag coefficient. For instance. Stored in the variable CD. However.e.greatowlpublishing. Additionally.
Note 7: As said earlier. Also. depends on the CL. See Note 9 for additional information. but this affects the shape and size of flow separation regions. All can be displayed as math objects. whose magnitude depends on the lift coefficient. which is not used directly for lift generation (although those lines are blurred at times). It depends on the attitude of the airplane (i. Stored in the variable CDo. The change in CDo is solely due to a change in pressure over the airplane. Stored in the variable CDf. or if the user resets the solution (clears it out of memory). SURFACES also provides the user with several tools to help and these will be discussed in greater detail in this section.
IMPORTANT!
When you start a new project in SURFACES (by selecting File>New… and then Surfaces Worksheet). a CDi and CL of 0 will be reported when there is no VortexLattice solution in memory. angular orientation) in the air4. but the other coefficients can be calculated internally if the user so wishes. Note 4: Sometimes the basic drag coefficient is lumped together with the skin friction coefficient and called profile drag. The user must supply CDo only. [CDi] for induced drag. Induced drag can be defined as the drag created by a wing in excess of what it would create in an inviscid flow at the same CL. The program loads this from a template file called OBJECTTEMPLATE. CDi. Note 5: The effect of compressibility is accounted for by modifying CDo and CDi using corrections that pertain to pressure drag only. whereas the basic drag coefficient increases. you can download a new one from: www.
PrandtlGlauert 2. Third. if compressibility correction is to be included the coefficients are modified. Laitone 4. Second. PrandtlGlauert 2.docx
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.12 shows a schematic of how SURFACES handles drag calculations.User defined
CDf CDf Compressible skin friction drag coefficient METHOD: FranklVoishel
CDi CDi Compressible induced drag coefficient METHODS: 1. KarmanTsien 3. incompressible drag coefficients are computed. the coefficients are added to return the total drag coefficient.
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VLM. First.User defined
CD CD Total drag coefficient Figure 9.Note 8: Figure 9.12: A schematic showing how SURFACES determines drag coefficients. Incompressible CDo CDo Basic drag coefficient CDf CDf Skin friction drag coefficient CDi CDi Induced drag coefficient
Compressibility?
Compressibility?
Compressibility?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
CDo CDo Compressible basic drag coefficient METHODS: 1.
(B) SURFACES handles this assortment of drag types in a simple manner. external store drag. which shows a simplified example of how CDo.Note 9: Consider Figure 9. This leaves the impression that there exist imaginary drag types that only affect certain airplane features. In reality. CDf. There is transonic drag. At times it’s not clear whether one is reading about aerospace or medical science.14 show how the same coefficients build up to form CD. Only airplanes with nacelles get nacelle drag. The confusion does not stem from the names these specialty drags receive. and so on. when in fact these features are simply changing the pressure field or modifying the boundary layer. Note 10: Aerospace engineering literature introduces the casual reader to an assortment of drag types. just to name a few. but a difference in definition between authors. While there are probably many who consider this advantageous. With that in mind. it ignores them. [NOTE THAT THIS APPLIES TO QUADRATIC DRAG MODEL ONLY]
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VLM. only airplanes with protuberances suffer from protuberance drag.
Figure 9. interference drag. this can also confuse the issue. but one should be careful in assuming CDo and CDf remain constant.13: Basic drag coefficient plotted for AOA and AOY. naturally limited by computer resources only. there are two points that must be emphasized: (A) Textbook authors are prolific inventors of terms for things that either increase pressure drag or skin friction drag. or a combination thereof. parasitic drag. and CDi might vary with angle of attack only (constant airspeed and altitude). when one author creates a name for a specialty drag another author doesn’t even mention. protuberance drag. leakage drag.docx
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. nacelle drag. especially at very low and very high AOA. and CDf will likely change as well as the laminar and turbulent flow regions change. Figure 9.13. It only uses the three terms in Equation (3) and leaves it to the user’s to define as many drag terms as desired. CDo might show a larger increase with AOA than displayed.
Remember that you can enter an algebraic expression to account for changes with respect to any other variable in the program.21.
Example 1 Formula (entered in the Formula box of Figure 2) 0.2 Basic Drag Coefficient. CDo
Basic drag is caused by pressure differences integrated over the entire external surface of the aircraft and always results in a force that impedes its motion. This is opened by doubleclicking on the variable in the math object list.001 Comment A constant value.21 shows some examples of possible user entries for CDo.
2
0. in the pane on the left hand side of the worksheet. especially during early concept studies of new aircraft. An example of how one could account for changes in the pressure drag with angleofattack. Table 9. If compressibility modeling has been selected. The coefficient is stored in the math object CDo.14: Basic drag coefficient plotted for AOA and AOY.001+0. Now let’s look at the three constituent drag coefficients in greater detail.docx
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. It gets larger with increase in flow separation and.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2
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VLM. the returned value is the compressible basic drag coefficient. therefore. although many do so in interest of convenience. generally should not be considered constant.
9. which might be the result of a prior drag breakdown analysis for an single engine piston aircraft.Figure 9. It includes the effects of interference of major parts. shown in Figure 9. such as fuselage and wing. the default value for every new project is 0. therefore. SURFACES assumes this coefficient is supplied by the user and.21: Examples of User Entries for CDo.
IMPORTANT!
Entry is accomplished through the math object editor. Table 9.
21: Entering the formula for Example 3 in Table 9.0315 is added to the CDo.
Figure 9.21.02*(AOY*Pi /180)^2+0.docx
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.02*(AOY*Pi /180)^2
An example of how one could account for changes in the pressure drag with angleofattack and angleofyaw.
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VLM. An example of how to account for changes in angleofattack and angleofyaw. Here. Your formulation is likely to be different.22 for AOA ranging from 2° to 12° and AOY ranging from 15° to 15°.0009*[SDaft(3)]
5
CDwing+CDfuse+CDldg+CDcool+CDtail+Cdna celle+Cdprotruberance+CDmisc
*Note that these are just examples of how one might set such formulation up. a value of 0.001+0. here assumed to be surface number 3.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0. This is the formula of a surface and is plotted in Figure 9. as well as the deflection of a flap.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0. the user has independently defined the extra math objects describing the drag buildup and is summing them up to return the basic drag coefficient.3
0. Also see Figure 9.21 for the math object CDo.
4
0. When [SDaft(3)] is 35°.001+0.
Airfoils have two transition points. The coefficient CDf is the equivalent skin friction drag coefficient for the entire airplane and is related to the reference area. the travel is entirely dependent on the geometry and surface roughness of the airfoil. when laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent (see Figure 9. Naturally. The two are related.
IMPORTANT!
Note that in this text. This results in a mixed boundary layer. The coefficient is stored in the math object CDf.docx
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. CDf
Skin friction is caused by the fluid viscosity as it flows over a surface. each with own skin friction coefficient. Sref. The nature of this behavior on airfoils is shown in Figure 9. These are not interchangeable.22: Basic drag coefficient of Example 3 plotted for AOA and AOY. Cf is determined for a laminar or turbulent boundary layer and is related to the wetted area.
The analysis of skin friction drag is complicated by a process called transition. Each transition point moves forward or aft.
9. when the angleofattack of the airfoil changes.
5
Note that it would be more correct to talk about a transition region. The line indicates a location beyond which transition has been completed.3 Skin Friction Drag Coefficient. the returned value is the compressible skin friction drag coefficient .31)5. Its magnitude depends on the viscosity of air and the wetted (or total) surface area in contact with it. For this reason.
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VLM.32. one on the upper and one on the lower surface. If compressibility modeling has been selected. Swet. the skin friction coefficient is denoted by Cf and skin friction drag coefficient by CDf. as shown in the figure. the distinction of the two terms must be kept in mind.Figure 9. as shown in Equation (4).
The skin friction drag coefficient is defined as follows:
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VLM.
SURFACES employs a standard presentation of skin friction.
Figure 9.Figure 9. airfoil shape.31: Mixed Boundary Layer conditions complicate skin friction drag analysis.docx
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. for instance as presented in Reference 1.32: The laminartoturbulent transition points move around depending on angleofattack. and surface roughness. This image is discussed in greater detail later.
CDf
2D f
2 V S ref
S C f wet S ref
(4)
Where: Df = Skin friction drag force in lbf (UK system) or N (SI system). = Air density, typically in slugs/ft3 or kg/m3. V = Farfield airspeed, typically in ft/s or m/s. Swet = Wetted area, typically in ft² or m². CDf = Skin friction drag coefficient, dimensionless. Cf = Skin friction coefficient, dimensionless. See Equation (15) for more details. If known, the user can enter an expression for the skin friction drag coefficient or use a combination of builtin functions in the two following ways: 1. Use any of the builtin functions that extract surface areas or wetted area of surfaces in your own formulation. 2. Use the builtin function [CDf] directly, but this requires skin friction coefficients to be defined for the surfaces to be used. Either method (or a combination thereof) is very handy if you modify the geometry, as they will instantly update the skin friction drag coefficient. However, the [CDf] method is handier when you are estimating the skin friction drag of a new design. If you choose to use the builtin function [CDf] you should follow these steps to properly prepare the formulation (see Section 9.11 for an example setup): STEP 1: Specify wetted area. Use the math object “Swet” for this purpose. The formula for “Swet” can be as simple as a number (if you know the value) to an algebraic representation using functions such as [SA(surf1, surf2,…)]or [Swet(surf1, surf2,…)], which computes the total and wetted area of the selected surfaces surf1, surf2, and so on, respectively. At computation time the value of “Swet” is used internally with Equation (4). STEP 2: Specify skin friction coefficients for each surface. You can do this in two ways. You can estimate a skin friction drag coefficient using your preferred method and enter for each surface6. Or you can use SURFACES’ own internal estimation based on a laminartoturbulent boundary layer transition points that you provide. The latter method is probably far easier, but a numerical example of how SURFACES estimates this is presented later in this section to help clarify the method. Since SURFACES models are made from infinitely thin surface panels, the program estimates wetted area by determining the surface area and then doubles the value to get wetted area. Table 9.31 shows some examples of possible user entries for CDf. If a function, such as [Swet(surf1, surf2,…)], is used to estimate the wetted area, the user can multiply it by a factor to account for surface curvature (for instance as shown Example 3 in Table 9.31). Table 9.31: Example user entries for CDf.
Example 1 Formula 0.025 Comment A constant value, which might be the result of a prior drag breakdown analysis for an single engine piston aircraft.
6
It is possible to enter this for multiple surfaces at a time.
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2
0.0250.0001*Re^0.25
This user accounted for changes in skin friction with Reynolds Number using this formula. It returns 0.0208 for Re = 3 000 000 and 0.01968 for Re = 8 000 000. This user is adding the contribution of the additional wetted area of winglets (surfaces 5 and 6), multiplying the result by a 1.05 to correct for their curvature. For winglets with 50 ft² additional area, this formula returns 0.0260. Here the user is accounting for partial laminar flow in this estimation. The expression assumes the Sref will be divided out, leaving Swet remaining, when incorporated in standard drag calculations. The variable Plam means the percentage of laminar flow. Plam = 50 for laminar flow of up to 50% of wing wetted area. Note that Swet here is not the same as [Swet()]. See the discussion to follow for more information. This formula returns the result of an internal calculation, in which all surfaces, to which a skin friction coefficient has been defined, are summed up using Equation (15).
3
0.025+0.000018*1.05*[Swet(5,6)]
4
0.01*(Cf_lam*Plam+Cf_turb*(100Plam))*Swet/Sref
5
[CDf]
*Note that these are just examples of how one might set such formulation up. Your formulation is likely to be different.
Other handy formulations are cited below for the convenience of the user. Sutherland’s Formula for Viscosity: When using the UK system the temperature is in °R. In that case the viscosity can be found from7:
3.170 10 11 T 1.5
734.7 T 216
lbf·s/ft²
(5)
When using the SI system the temperature is in K. In that case the viscosity can be found from8:
1.458 10 6 T 1.5
Where; T = Outside Air Temperature, in °R or K. = Air viscosity, in lbf·s/ft² or N·s/m². Reynolds Number:
1 T 110 .4
N·s/m²
(6)
Re
VL
(7)
7 8
See Equation (2.90) of Reference 7. See Equation (2.91) of Reference 7.
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VLM.docx
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Where; L = Reference length (for instance mean aerodynamic chord), in ft or m. V = Reference airspeed, in ft/s or m/s. = Air density, in slugs/ft3 or kg/m3. = Air viscosity, in lbf·s/ft² or N·s/m². A simple expression, valid for UK system at sealevel conditions only is (V and L are in ft/s and ft, respectively):
Re 6400VL
(8a)
A simple expression, valid for SI system at sealevel conditions only is (V and L are in m/s and m, respectively):
Re 68500VL
Laminar Flow Skin Friction Coefficient9 This is the classical Blasius solution for a laminar boundary layer on a solid surface.
(8b)
C flam
1.328 Re
(9)
Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient10 This is the socalled Schlichting relation, which is found to be in good agreement with experiment.
C fturb
0.455 log 10 Re 2.58
(10)
Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient – Compressible11
C fturb
Where; M = Mach Number.
0.455
log10 Re
2.58
1 0.144M
2 0.65
(11)
Equation (10) and not (11) is the preferred form in SURFACES as the program will apply correction for compressibility effect using the FranklVoishel scheme. Using Equation (11) could result in the correction applied twice. Mixed LaminarTurbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient12 The method below is taken from Reference 8. Also refer to Figure 9.31 for the location of the points X0 and Xtr. Of these, the user must specify the location of the transition point, which is used to calculate the start point of the fictitious turbulent laminar flow. This is required to ensure the boundary layer thickness is a continuous function. The user is referred to Reference 8 about methods on how to estimate transition location; however, often drag analysis in SURFACES involves estimating the impact of 25% or 50%
9
See Equation (3.11) in Reference 8. See Equation (6.53) in Reference 8. 11 See Equation (12.28) in Reference 4. 12 See Section 6.8, pages 162164 in Reference 8.
10
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375
(12)
Then. X0 = Location of the fictitious turbulent boundary layer.g.053
(14)
The roughness value is based on the values in the following table. k = Skin roughness value.00040 0.
1. wing chord). C = Reference length.074 X tr X 0 1 Cf C Re 0. which is taken from Reference 4. it is used instead. such as Reference 4. the user can also enter own Recutoff value.00025 0.00006 0.8
(13)
Where.9 tr C C
0. the designer is attempting to answer a question like: “What is the benefit of achieving a partial laminar boundary layer on my design?” The answer may help direct the designer towards an appropriate airfoil. For more information on the topic. If these are not acceptable. Turbulent Flow Skin Friction Coefficient – Compressible13 Note that surface roughness affects Cfturb.
X0 X 36. Surface Type Camouflage paint on aluminum Smooth paint Production sheet metal Polished sheet metal Smooth molded composite k 0.” If the actual Reynolds Number exceed the cutoff Reynolds Number.28) in Reference 4. SURFACES uses Equation (15) to calculate the coefficient using all surfaces for which (Cf)i has been defined:
C Df
S wet S ref
C f S wet S ref
N C f i S i i 1 S wet
(15)
13
See Equation (12. but this is typically accounted for through the use of a so called “cutoff Reynolds Number. the reader is directed towards texts. C = Reference length (e.2
0.
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VLM. the skin friction coefficient is determined as follows:
0.625
1 Re
0.00002
When using the builtin function [CDf].docx
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.
C Re cutoff 38. Xtr = Location of where laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent.00016 0.transition on the total airplane drag.21 k
Where. In other words.
the root chord (Curve A1) is 3 ft and tip chord (Curve A2) is 2 ft (see Figure 41a). This airplane is cruising at 100 KTAS (168.
Figure 9.
One way to tackle this problem is to assume a linear change in laminar transition from A1 to A2.67 °R (15 °C):
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VLM. This brings up an additional question: How does one handle laminar flow over a surface consisting of two distinct defining airfoils? In order to shed light on this. which consists of two dissimilar airfoils on a tapered wing planform.Where (Cf)i = Skin friction coefficient of surface i N = Number of surfaces Si = wetted area of surface i (in ft² or m²) Swet = Wetted area (in ft² or m²) Of these.8 ft/s) near sealevel. the demo aircraft model built in Section 4 will be used. The wing span is 18 ft. Determine the skin friction drag coefficient and force acting on the wing due to the mixed laminar and turbulent regions. Also.32: Example aircraft from Section 4. but still sustains laminar flow to 15% on the upper surface and 15% on the lower.docx
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. as follows: STEP 1: Start by using Equation (5) to compute the viscosity assuming an atmospheric temperature of 518. The airfoil of curve A2 is a turbulent flow airfoil. (Cf)i. where the air density is 0. We’ll calculate the skin friction.002378 slugs/ft3. the skin friction coefficient of each surface. the airfoil of curve A1 is a true laminar airfoil which is capable of sustaining 55% laminar flow on upper surface and 35% on the lower. the reference area is 45 ft² (as you will know if you created the model per the instructions in Section 4).32. needs further explanation. The user must estimate this value for each surface to be included in the analysis. Consider the wing of the demo aircraft shown in Figure 9. Assume that at the given condition. using the mixed boundarylayer formulation.
5 7 3.8 0.04763 C
0.625 0 36.745 10 518.83 3215539 3. Document
VLM.9 0.35 0.002378 168 .745 10 .7 1.
Lower:
X0 X 36.069480.9 tr C C
0.625
1 3215539
0.7
STEP 3: Then compute the Reynolds Number for airfoil 2
Re 2
VL 0.
Re1
VL 0.8 0.
C f1
0.745 10 .375
0.55 0.67 3.8
0.002841 0.074 1 0.074 X tr X 0 1 C Re 0.55 C 3215539
0.002378 168 .7
STEP 4: Using Equation (12) we compute the location of the fictitious turbulent boundary layer on the upper and lower surfaces of airfoil 1 (noting the different locations of the Xtr on each surface). i.002841 0.2 3215539
Call the average of the two the representative skin friction coefficient for airfoil 1.15 C 2143692 X0 0.
Lower: Upper:
1 X 0.625 0 36.82 2143692 3.074 1 0.docx
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.002265 0.375
0.002378 slugs/ft3.35
0.9 0.9 0.04763
STEP 6: The skin friction coefficient for upper and lower surface of airfoil 1 is determined using Equation (13) as follows:
Lower:
C
f
lower 1
0.2 3215539
Upper:
C
f upper 1
0.092160. using a standard day air density of 0.734.375
0.67 216
lbf·s/ft²
STEP 2: Using Equation (7) we compute the Reynolds Number for airfoil 1.06948
Upper:
1 X 0.09216
STEP 5: Repeat for airfoil 2 (noting an equal value for each surface).625
1 Re
0.e.375
36.002553 2
STEP 7: Repeat for airfoil 2 (noting an equal value for each side).2
0.170 1011 518.002265 0.
e:
Cf
0. which is based on Sref.003115 2
STEP 9: Determine wetted area of the wing:
S wet 2 1 3 218 90.32 and 3). This can be done by one of the two following methods.006230). Click on the ‘Tuning’ tab.003677
STEP 8: The representative skin friction coefficient for the total wetted surface is simply the average of the coefficient for both airfoils.003115 9.047630. Enter the desired value. i.003677 0.003115 0.074 X tr X 0 1 C Re 0.2
0.
D f lam 1 V 2 S wet C f 2
1 2
0.82 90 0.002553 0.0 ft 2 2
STEP 10: Estimate skin friction drag due to the laminar flow.
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VLM. would be found from Equation (15):
S C Df wet S ref
C f 90 0.00367
The average of the two is of course:
C f 2 0.074 1 0. Enter the skin friction coefficient for the surface in the textbox in the red frame.8
0.docx
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.002378168.8 0.
Method 1: Surfacebysurface basis Doubleclick on a surface to open its properties form.003115 (and not 0. which will be applied to all selected surfaces. 0.
Method 2: Multiple surface entry The user can select any number of surfaces (by holding Shift while clicking on surfaces) and then select Modify>Surface Properties….15 0.5 lbf
Note that an equivalent skin friction drag coefficient. is what one could enter as Cf_i for the wing surface when using the internal generation of CDf in SURFACES (see the red box for each method below in Figures 9.2 2143692
upper 2
0.006230 45
Also note that the value.Lower: Upper:
C C
f f
lower 2
0.003677 0.
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.
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VLM. In other words: the generation of the wingtip vortices induces the extra drag and the higher the lift. Using the wing axis coordinate system. the returned value is the compressible induced drag coefficient. the force in the Ydirection is the side force. due to the downwash created by the trailing wake. CDi
The induced drag is caused when the airflow perturbs the flow field as it makes its way around the wingtip (generating the wingtip vortices) of a 3D wing (see Figure 9.4 Induced Drag Coefficient.Figure 9. compared to what would happen to an infinitely long wing14. SURFACES allows the user to determine the induced drag using three different methods: METHOD 1: Surface integration sums the pressure forces acting on each panel and resolves it into a three orthogonal components and rotates this to the wind axis coordinate system.32: Method 1
Figure 9. and the force in the Z direction is the lift. An integration of the pressure field over the wing yields a higher drag than would be obtained if this tip flow did not occur.41). If compressibility modeling has be selected. the force in the Xdirection is by definition the drag. The coefficient is stored in the math object CDi. the higher is this additional drag.
14
The astute student will recognize that D’Alembert’s 2D paradox that a body in inviscid flow produces no drag does not apply in 3D flow.33: Method 2
9.
it computes the total drag coefficient using Equation (3). the CL where minimum drag occurs (CL CDmin). reference Aspect Ratio (ARref). METHOD 3: Trefftz plane integration uses flow perturbations in an imaginary plane infinitely far behind the model to determine the induced drag. and reference span efficiency (Eref). CD
Once SURFACES has determined the basic.
Figure 9. and induced drag coefficients.41: A 3D wing in airflow. This way. The coefficient is stored in the math object CD. as it is theoretically zero that far from the model. The location of the plane is a mathematical simplification that allows one to neglect the xperturbation from the flow field formulation.METHOD 2: (CLCL CDmin)²/(·ARref·Eref) method computes the induced drag based on the current lift coefficient. a 3D relationship (volume) can be considered as 2D (plane).
CD CDo CDf CDi
(3)
It should be noted that the coefficients are based on Sref.docx
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.
9. repeated here for convenience. skin friction.5 Total Drag Coefficient. we could thus write. forces Equation (3) can be rewritten as follows:
CD
2D f 2Do 2Di 2 2 V S ref V S wet V 2 S ref
(16)
For internal consistency.
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.2M 2 C Po 1 M 2 2 2 1 M
CP
C Po
Ref. Document
VLM. CD. and CDi have already been defined (as it is in the standard template). is how SURFACES returns the total drag coefficient.000023*1. SURFACES will return the incompressible coefficients CL. 6.1.CD
2D f Sref 2Do V 2 Sref V 2 Swet Sref
D 22 i V S ref
2 2 V S ref
S Do D f ref Di S wet
(17)
Which.
Example 1 Formula CDo+CDf+CDi Comment Here. CDf. and CDi.5. Table 9.6)]
9. Figure 9. the values returned will include the compressibility corrections.61: Compressibility formulation in SURFACES. If no modeling is selected. 3. The following corrections are included: Table 9.05*[Swet(5.000162M 5 .
Table 9. Approaches PrandtlGlauert for low Mach Numbers.00383 M 4 +
FranklVoishel
0.40)
CP
C Po 1 M 2
Typically underpredicts experimental values. Equation (9.0204M + 0.61 shows the form used to select compressibility modeling. Otherwise.118M 2 0. This could be a way to account for changes in skin friction with Reynolds Number.0045+0.51: Example user entries for CD. 6. 6. The polynomial is obtained by interpolating the data in the graph on that page.996)
Ref. Is applied directly to panel pressure coefficients inside SURFACES and is thus not applied to CDo.62: Compressibility Modeling in SURFACES. Is applied directly to panel pressure coefficient inside SURFACES and also to CDo. the math objects CDo. Equation (9.0.6 Compressibility Modeling
SURFACES allows the user several options in compressibility modeling. Is applied directly to panel pressure coefficients inside SURFACES and is thus not applied to CDo.
2
[CDo]+[CDf]+[CDi]
3
0. 5.05 to account for curvature.0.
Name PrandtlGlauert Formulation Remarks Reference
Ref.115. multiplying the result by a 1.0332M 3 .36) Ref. Based on FranklVoishel. Here a user is adding contribution of the wetted area of surfaces 5 and 6. Simple enough to be applicable to most of the coefficients.39)
User defined


C Df C Dfo (0. CDo.
KarmanTsien
Laitone
C Po M2 1 M 2 2 1 1 M 2 C Po CP M 2 1 0. CDf. Equation (9.
When user selects…
CL
CD
CDo
CDf
CDi
…these compressibility models are applied:
None PrandtlGlauert KarmanTsien Laitone User defined None PrandtlGlauert KarmanTsien Laitone User defined None PrandtlGlauert KarmanTsien Laitone User defined None PrandtlGlauert PrandtlGlauert PrandtlGlauert User defined None FranklVoishel FranklVoishel FranklVoishel FranklVoishel None PrandtlGlauert KarmanTsien Laitone User defined
As can be seen from Table 9. using a standard second order polynomial representation (also known CLsquared method). Di.62. the compressible CDo always uses the PrandtlGlauert correction when KarmanTsien or Laitone are selected for CDi.9 Limitations of Drag Estimation Methodologies
Figure 9. skin friction drag. The figure also shows a “simulated” drag polar.91 shows what a true drag polar might look like for a real airplane.docx
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. Df.
9.
Once SURFACES has determined the constituent drag coefficients is computes the basic drag. This is represented by an equation such as:
CD = CDo + CDf + (CL . and D. FranklVoishel is always used to correct CDf. and total drag forces using the following formulation: Basic Drag Force: Skin Friction Drag Force: Induced Drag Force: Total Drag Force:
2 Do 1 V Sref CDo 2 2 D f 1 V S wetCDf 2 2 Di 1 V S ref CDi 2 2 D 1 V Sref CD 2
(18) (19) (20) (21)
9. This data might have been collected in flight or wind tunnel testing.CL CDmin)²/·AR·e
Document
VLM. induced drag.8 How SURFACES Calculates Do.
10 Setting up Drag Modeling on Example Aircraft
One of the advantages in using SURFACES is the geometric information can be utilized directly when determining aerodynamic parameters. Doubleclick to open. At any rate. and therefore better performance than the real airplane would be capable. The user should realize that the CL² method is only a representation that works over a range of CLs. STEP 1: Open the demo airplane project from Section 4. as one modifies the wing (and thus its area) is priceless to the aircraft designer. in order to prevent relations to become corrupt as a consequence of adding and deleting geometric entities during the construction phase.
9. there might also be a scenario in which the simulated curve indicated less drag. This section will show how to use geometric relations in drag modeling.SRF. For instance.101.91 would indicate less performance at higher AOA than the airplane would display in reality. However.docx
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. Analysis done using that drag model will only be reliable within that range. The point is that the user must understand the limitations of any prediction made. consider the balance a designer must find between lift and drag. it is a good practice to check for errors in the assignment of geometric references before solving. For instance.
CL
Figure 9. STEP 2: Select the XYZ view and orient the airplane similar to what is shown in Figure 9.CD
CD = CDo + CDf + (CL . It becomes increasingly inaccurate if CL is too low or too high. from k·CLCLCDmin)² methodology
CL CDmin
Range of “reasonable” CD predictions. but greater drag and structural weight. Generally. The model created in Section 4 will be used in a StepbyStep procedure.CL CDmin)²/·AR·e
True drag polar (from flight testing or wind tunnel testing). the user should prepare models for geometric relations after they have been constructed.91: Typical drag polar. Select File>Open… and navigate to find the file SIMPLE DEMO.g. “Simulated” drag polar (e. Being able to evaluate such parameters on the fly. Document
VLM. predictions based on the red curve in Figure 9. A large wing area results in a lower stalling speed.
101: The model if Step 2 was followed. Enter the above drag coefficients and other information as shown in the figure. From the Edit menu select Reference Drag Modeling… (See Figure 9. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 9. Let’s define the basic drag coefficient as follows: CDo = 0. let’s enter these: STEP 3: Open the VLM Console.05*(AOA*Pi/180)^2+0.102).Figure 9.001+0.102: Select Reference Drag Document
VLM.103.docx
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.02*(AOY*Pi/180)^2 Let’s define the skin friction drag coefficient as follows: CDf = [CDf] And let’s define the induced drag coefficient as follows: CDi = [CDi] Now. press the [OK] button to store the entered information and close the form. When done. Figure 9.
103: Step 3 calls for this form to be filled out as shown.Modelling… from the VLM Console. We will now set up the skin friction modeling for the surfaces and tell SURFACES how exactly to compute the skin friction drag. This step tells SURFACES how to compute our three crucial drag coefficients.docx
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.
Document
VLM.
Figure 9.
STEP 5: Then select Modify>Surface Properties… Select the option ‘Use Curve A1 and A2 skin friction drag’ as shown in Figure 9.105: A quick selection of all surfaces.3. Let’s also assume the wing will sustain laminar flow as discussed in the example of Section 9.104).
Document
VLM. all the surfaces are selected. Press [OK].
Figure 9. let’s assume the HT and VT are to be designed using laminar flow airfoils capable of sustaining 50% laminar flow.
and The the the Now
Figure 9.STEP 4: Go back to the worksheet select Edit>Select Surfaces… press the [Select All] button in form that opens up and then press [OK] button (see Figure 9.105.104: A quick selection of all surfaces. This step tells SURFACES to calculate the skin friction drag using information we have yet to enter for the A1 and A2 curves of the surfaces.docx
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. First.
108).107. This assumes a constant transition (i. View the results in Figure 9. but handy for quickstudies.docx
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. STEP 9: Open the VLM Console. This case is often checked by aircraft designers and is especially prepared here for quick entry.106. Let’s turn it on. Document
VLM.109). This opens the form shown in Figure 9.STEP 6: Select all the vectors as shown in Figure 9. two belonging to the HT root and one to the VT tip. independent of AOA) throughout the operational range. we are assuming here that the airfoils can sustain 50% laminar flow on the upper and lower surfaces. STEP 8: Press the [50%] button to fill in the textboxes in the form. Select the option ‘Smooth molded composite’ for surface type. [25%]. As said earlier. Make sure you use the rubberband when selecting the centerline vectors as there are really three vectors (or airfoils) there. Select the ‘Panel Results’ tab find and check the option ‘Upper surface laminar region’ (see Figure 9. and [50%] to set up these special cases. You can simply press the buttons labeled [0%].
There are 3 vectors here!
Figure 9. The following assumes you did this correctly. which is not necessarily true.106: A1 and A2 curves have been selected for all surfaces to be included. Press the [OK] button to accept the editing. STEP 7: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors… from the worksheet.e. SURFACES is equipped with a handy tool to help you visualize your work.
Document
VLM.108: Display laminarturbulent regions.Figure 9.docx
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.107: Entering laminartoturbulent transition information for the selected vectors.
Figure 9.
1010. Now let’s set up the mixed boundarylayer conditions on the wing. If the AOA is larger than AOA2 then it will use the values entered for the high angleofattack condition.107 and estimate the transitions at that angleofattack.docx
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. STEP 13: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors… from the worksheet.105). will not plot the green areas as shown here.Figure 9. SURFACES won’t know the extent of laminar flow and.1011. Enter the information shown in Figure 9. thus. it will use the transition values entered for the low angleofattack condition. make sure you use the rubberband when selecting the centerline vectors as there are two vectors there.1013.1012. Again. If the AOA is less than the value AOA1. The following assumes you did this correctly. STEP 11: Select Tools>Distribute Laminar Transition for Selected Vectors… from the worksheet. Note that at computation time.109: Image shows the laminar flow region (green) on the HT and VT. rather than using the A1/A2 curves. Enter the information shown in Figure 9. SURFACES will compare the actual AOA to the ones filled in Figure 9. Note that when you select to enter the skin friction coefficient directly (see Cf_i in Figure 9. STEP 12: Select the wing root vectors as shown in Figure 9.
Document
VLM. STEP 10: Select the wing tip vectors as shown in Figure 9.
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.
Figure 9.1011: Entering transition information for the wing tip in Step 11. Document
VLM.1010: Selecting the wing tip vector in Step 10.Figure 9.
1013: Entering transition information for the wing root in Step 13.docx
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. Document
VLM.1012: Selecting the wing root vector in Step 12.There are 2 vectors here!
Figure 9.
Figure 9.
perhaps UAV sized).
Figure 9.1015. it is of interest in noting that by setting the transition of all airfoils to 0% (turbulent airfoils) CDf jumps to 0.docx
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. Doubleclick on it to open the variable editor (see Figure 9.00907.101) and enter the function [Swet(1. Figure 9.01179 and skin friction drag to 49. i.3. Additionally. It should be in a block of variables under the title “REFERENCE PARAMETERS”.2. SURFACES allows us to take a closer look at some other details about the skin friction drag. But there is more. The model with the entered laminar flow regions is shown in Figure 9. only one thing remains. while the VT produces some 3.6 lbf of skin friction drag. or SURFACES won’t be able to compute the skin friction drag coefficient. From the VLM Console’s Panel Results tab you can select to have the program display the resulting skin friction drag coefficients or forces on each surface. by almost 30%!
Document
VLM.5)] (the order of the arguments doesn’t matter here).4 lbf. The wetted area for all the surfaces involved must be accounted for.1014: Editing variable Swet. find the variable Swet.4. The model is ready to be used for drag estimation.9 lbf (remember that the airplane modeled is small.Now. The reported skin friction drag coefficient for the entire aircraft is 0.e. but this yields a skin friction drag of a 38 lbf.1016 shows that each half of the HT is generating 2. Let’s do this. This will calculate the wetted area of the selected surfaces. For instance. That’s it. STEP 14: In the math objects list under the Objects tab tab on the pane in left hand side of the worksheet. . Press [OK] when done.
1017. This generates a skin friction drag of 38.
Furthermore.00907. It was obtained by running the Virtual Wind Tunnel (note that elevator deflection was set to 0°). This is done by creating the drag polar for the full airplane.4 at an AOA of 6°.Figure 9.docx
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.1015: The model displaying the extent of laminar flow regions after Step 15 has been completed (green panels).1018. Note the magnitude of the CDf for the entire aircraft is 0. we can learn a number of performance related things about it.
Document
VLM.02 lbf. but this is shown in Figure 9. From it we learn that the expected maximum L/D is 16. now that we have defined the drag for the airplane. Another interesting performance parameter obtained from the same VWT run is the L/D curve in Figure 9. We have just taken the first steps into a world of information about our design.
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VLM.docx
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.Figure 9.1016: Displaying the skin friction drag on component basis.
as generated by the Virtual Wind Tunnel.Figure 9.1017: Drag polar generated by the Virtual Wind Tunnel for the example aircraft. Document
VLM.
Figure 9.1018: Variation of L/D with AOA.docx
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.
Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach. USAF DATCOM.
Affected by compressibility Builtin compressibility Can use FranklVoishel Can use PrandtlGlauert Can use KarmanTsien Can use Laitone Can use User Defined
Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
References: 1. Anderson.. Aerodynamics.. Boundary Layers.. E. A. Young. John D. Barnes W. Daniel P. The function calculates the area of the surface and multiplies with the user entered skin friction coefficient. 1979. McGrawHill. 1997.
Document
VLM. John Wiley & Sons. Roskam.11 Summary of SURFACES Drag Analysis Methodology
Basic drag coefficient Textbook representation
SURFACES representation
Skin friction drag coefficient CDf CDf User entry or internal formulation Yes [CDf] [CDf] returns the skin friction coefficient by summing up skin friction coefficients assigned to selected surfaces. AIAA Education Series1989. Flight Control Division.docx
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.
[CDi] returns the induced drag using one of three modeling techniques.9. 5. Aircraft Performance and Design. and Flight Mechanics. Raymer. Modern Compressible Flow. McCormick. AIAA Education Series. 1999. 3. John D. k·CL² method. 4. DARcorporation. Convair Performance Methods. surface integration. or Trefftz plane integration.. 7. Hoak. 1989. 1970. Anderson. 6. Jan. 2. D. XXXX. D.. Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Induced drag coefficient CDi CDi User entry or internal formulation Yes [CDi]
CDo CDo User entry only No 
Formulation allowed Internal formulation Internal function name
How does it work?
Depends on user entry. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. McGrawHill. 8. Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance. Aeronautics. et al.
10. Validation Samples
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.
McCormick. The model has a wing span of 20 units and a chord of 1 unit. The Cp at the center of the model was obtained for 2. and Flight Mechanics. The AngleofAttack is 10° at an airspeed of 10 unit/sec and density of 1 mass unit/length3. Each of the two surfaces has 34 span wise panels.docx
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. 5. The data is obtained from Figure 3. Aeronautics.2 Expected Result
Is obtained from the book Aerodynamics. and 15 chord wise panel density.
V1. by Barnes W.1 Model
A high aspect ratio (AR=20) wing model was constructed to obtain 2D pressure coefficients for comparison to theoretical data. 10.17 on page 87.
Figure 11: High aspect ratio wing used to evaluate the 2D Cp.Validation 1: 2D Flat Plate Airfoil
V1.
Document
VLM.
Document
VLM.3 Results from SURFACES
Figure 12: 2D Cp for various panel densities from SURFACES compared to exact theory.docx
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.V1.
03 0.34 0.01 3.86 0.85 0.Data from Figure 3.23 2.39 0.10 0.79 0.75 0.03 0.74 0.07 0.54 1.22 4.05 0.02 0.41 0.03 0.17 0.04 0.52 2.08 Figure 12: 2D Cp from Figure 317 of reference document.47 4.27 0.88 4.77 1.17 X 0.35 1.04 0.13 0.46 0.21 0.92 0.64 0.93 2.18 0.60 0.47 0.45 3.33 0.54 0.
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.97 CP 4.68 0.96 0.06 1.16 0.55 0.26 0.
1063 x (180/)/(2 = 0. The angle of attack is 10° at an airspeed of 100 KCAS (168.
C L 2
2 AR AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 4 1 2 2
Where. by Abbott and Doenhoff).2 Expected Result
The following parameters are given: Airspeed Wing area Aspect Ratio V = 168. from Theory of Wing
Sections.docx
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. One model has a 0° leading edge sweep and the other 35°. Start by computing a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1.8 ft/s) and density of 0.989 = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2 = 0. AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 10 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M2)0.1 Models
Two moderately high aspect ratio wing models were constructed to compare results from the VLM to a standard 3D aerodynamic analysis.002378 slugs/ft3.8/1116 = 0.1063 per deg (for NACA0009. page 17. The models have a wing span of 10 ft and a chord of 1 ft.
V2.151) S = 10 x 1 = 10 ft² AR = b² / S = 10²/10 = 10
Assume a 2D lift curve slope of
CL 2 D 0.Validation 2: 3D Properties of Two Wings
V2.8 ft/s (M = 168.
Figure 21: The two 3D wing models.5 = 0. Each of the two surfaces has 32 spanwise and 8 chordwise panels.96934 c/2 = Sweepback of midchord = 0° and 35° Document
VLM.
82 10 0.8846
0.c/2 = 0°
c/2 = 35°
C L 2 2
2 AR AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 1 4 2 2 2 10 100 0.9892 tan 2 35 1 4 0.08846 per deg
4.07480 per deg
The lift coefficient at 10° is thus:
The lift coefficient at 10° is thus:
CL 10 CL 0.9892 0 1 4 2 0.8846
The total lift of the wing is
CL 10 CL 0.286 per rad 0.02491 CL CDi AR 10 2
253.5 D 0.02491
6.7480
299.02491
0.969342 0.7 lb f
Induced drag is found from the standard relation
2 0.82 100.docx
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.96934 0.0 D 0.7480 0.989 2
C L 2 2
2 AR AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 1 4 2 2 2 10 100 0.002378 168.3 Results from SURFACES
Document
VLM.7480 42 .002378 168.82 100.8846 35 .002378 168.002378 168.82 100.7480
The total lift of the wing is
L 1 V 2 SC L 2
1 2
L 1 V 2 SC L 2
1 2
0.01781
8.9892
5.01781
Lift to drag ratio:
Lift to drag ratio:
V2.4 lb f
L 0.4 lb f
Induced drag is found from the standard relation
2 0.0 lb f
L 0.01781 CL CDi AR 10 2
Di 1 V 2 SC Di 2
1 2
Di 1 V 2 SC Di 2
1 2
0.8846 0.068 per rad 0.
0178 253 lbf 6.0 lbf 42.5
*Span efficiency for both cases is unrealistically assumed to be 1.Summary for wing with 0° leading edge sweep*: Parameter Lift curve slope Lift coefficient Induced drag coefficient Lift force Induced drag force Lifttodrag ratio Symbol CL CL CDi L Di L/Di Classic Method 0.0249 300 lbf 8.0748 0.748 0.
Summary for wing with 35° leading edge sweep*: Parameter Lift curve slope Lift coefficient Induced drag coefficient Lift force Induced drag force Lifttodrag ratio Symbol CL CL CDi L Di L/Di Classic Method 0.4 lbf 35.7 lbf 37.0166 245 lbf 5.723 0.0860 0.5 SURFACES 0.
Printout from SURFACES:
Document
VLM.2
*Span efficiency for both cases is unrealistically assumed to be 1.07365 0.885 0.845 0.docx
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.0227 286 lbf 7.6 lbf 43.0 SURFACES 0.0885 0.
together with the “official” characteristics from previous calculations. For the results cited. normally the reference chord used is the mean aerodynamic chord) and the moment reference point is located at the wing apex (which is also nonstandard).00 Swing = 2. 31 below.83 CL = 2.83 LE = 53. in Fig. This wing is known as the Warren 12 planform. It provides a ready check case for the evaluation of any new or modified code.Validation 3: Warren 12 Wing
V3. the reference chord used in the moment calculation is the average chord (slightly nonstandard. “Published” Data: AR = 2.00 XCG = 0.743 / rad CM = 3. and is defined.docx
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.1 Model
The Warren12 wing is a standard VortexLattice model used to check the accuracy of vortex lattice codes.54° Cref = 1.10 / rad
Figure 31: Warren12 planform
Document
VLM. as well as a check on the panel scheme layout.
2 Expected Result
The following results are expected: CL = 2.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 6 chordwise by 16 spanwise panels on each wing (total of 192 panels): CL = 2.152 / rad The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 16 chordwise by 36 spanwise panels on each wing (total of 1296 panels): CL = 2.790 / rad CM = 3.Figure 32: Warren12 planform VL results
V3.743 / rad CM = 3.174 / rad The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 8 chordwise by 24 spanwise panels on each wing (total of 384 panels): CL = 2.767 / rad CM = 3.10 / rad
V3.776 / rad CM = 3.docx
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.139 / rad Document
VLM.
05992 / ° = 3.
Figure 41: The BertinSmith swept back wing. The model in the text was recreated using SURFACES.433 / rad Document
VLM. but the resulting lift curve slope is: CL = 0.docx
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. by Bertin and Smith. Additionally. The data is obtained from the calculations on page 202. a comparison to another VLM code (Tornado) is made. high aspect ratio wing is provided in the text Aerodynamics for Engineers by Bertin and Smith.
V4.1 Model
Calculations for a highly swept back.2 Expected Result
Is obtained from the book Aerodynamics for Engineers. This wing has detailed calculations shown in Example 62 (page 198) in the text.Validation 4 : BertinSmith 2D Wing
V4.
The difference using that code is 0. reports a lift curve slope of 3.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES for 1 chordwise by 4 spanwise panels on each wing (total of 8 panels): CL = 0.5%. but SURFACES yields less difference than Tornado. In his Master Thesis. Summary: Parameter Lift curve slope Symbol CL BertinSmith 3.450 /rad using Tornado.06011 / ° = 3.450 (0. It can be seen that both codes are very close to the theoretical calculations in the source.V4.442 / rad SURFACES yields a difference of 0. considers the same problem.442 (0.26%.docx
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. Another VLM code.50%) SURFACES 3. “A Vortex Lattice MATLAB Implementation for Linear Aerodynamic Wing Applications” the author of Tornado. called Tornado. It should also be noted that the calculations in the source only carries 4 significant digits through the calculations – SURFACES uses a double floating point accuracy.433 TORNADO 3. Mr. Tomas Melin.26%)
Document
VLM.
Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1. The model has the camber line of the NACA 2412 airfoil of the Cessna 172. Document
VLM.48 slope of
Assume a 2D lift curve
CL 2 D 0. Additionally. at an altitude of 4921 ft ( = 0. A sweep of parameters was performed at an airspeed of 178.9 ft/s. page 478). page 17. as well as published Cessna data. and at a weight of 2207 lbs.docx
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. VIRGIT.
Figure 51: A Model of the C172
V5.Validation 5: Cessna 172
Comparison of Several Codes
V5.107 per deg (for NACA 2412. from Theory of Wing
Sections. and a 1°44’ dihedral like the original airplane.08²/174 = 7.002054 slugs/ft3). by Abbott and Doenhoff.1 Model
A model of the Cessna 172 was constructed to compare stability derivatives from SURFACES to other VLM codes (AVL.2 Expected Result
Range for CL: The following parameters are given: Wing area Aspect Ratio S = 174 ft² AR = b² / S = 36. TORNADO) and the panel code CMARC. it has a 1°30’ angleofincidence at the root of the wing and –1°30’ at the tip.
C L 2
2 AR AR 2
2 2
tan 2 C / 2 1 4 2
Where.48 4.96934 c/2 = Sweepback of midchord 28°
Document
VLM. page 17.
CL 2 D 0.50²/18. The airfoil is a NACA 0009 airfoil.25 + 2. and tip chord of the fin is 5.679
Assume a 2D lift curve slope of Sections.5 1 = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2 = 0. and 2.48 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M2)0.08267 per deg 7.1063 per deg (for NACA0009.107 x (180/)/(2 = 0.50 ft. The height. AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 7.1063 x (180/)/(2 = 0.01 = 1. Using this data we compute the following lift curve slope for the fin: Fin area Aspect Ratio Sfin = ½ · (4.
C L 2
2 AR AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 1 4 2 2
Where.25 ft.5 1 = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2 = 0.97572 c/2 = Sweepback of midchord = 0°
CL
2 AR 2 AR 2
2 2
tan 2 C / 2 1 4 2 2 7.975722
Range for Cn: Consider the following check for Cn. = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M2)0.30) · 5. whose properties are discussed in Validation Sample 2.docx
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. by Abbott and Doenhoff). 4.30 ft. respectively.01 ft² AR = bfin² / Sfin = 5. root.482 1 4 2 0.50 = 18. The leading edge sweep is 40°. from Theory of Wing
Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1.74 per rad 0.
7 lb f
Assuming a tail arm from reference point of 16.002054 slugs/ft is found to be
L fin 1 V 2 SC L 2
1 2
0.03835 per deg 2 3.96934 12 10.0 ft.128/5. by Jan Roskam.98 0 0
VIRGIT 5.679 4
2 1. The total
lift of the fin at V = 178.6 0. Appendix C. All the stability derivatives presented below are evaluated at = 0.146 0
NOTE 1 2 
Comparison data is obtained from Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls.3 Results from SURFACES
The following results where obtained from SURFACES and compared to that of other VLM codes.2 ft·lbf.docx
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.92 18.17
Since N equals 0 ft·lbf at = 0°.1803 0.086 0
TORNADO 5.010.C L 2
2 AR AR 2 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 1 2 2 1.03835 . which yields a Cn of:
Cn
1 2
N V 2 Sb
1 2
363 .214 0.2 0. a reasonable Cn for this plane should be of the order of 0.679 tan 28 4 1 2 2 0.197 per rad 0.002054178.00176 0.1006 per rad 1
From this.00019 1.9 ft/s and = 0.9 2 174 36 .17. TABLE 51: Stability Derivatives at = 0:
TEST CL CD CY 4.00176 per 0. the fin lift coefficient is given by
3
C L 1 C L 0.002054 178 . the total moment is found to be 363.051/0.13 15
AVL 4. depending on the contribution of other components of the airplane.
V5.030. Cn can be found to be:
C n
C n 0.03835 22.
15
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VLM.28271 4
2
If one considers the fin at a = 1°.00176 0.25 0.2763 0. The data is obtained from the Tornado manual.005 0
CMARC 5.022 0
SURFACES
5. page 592.54947 2. pages 3438.
006 10.015 0.096 0.85 0 0 0 0. Tornado uses 31.26 0.3 0 0/0.9% MAC.24 0.119
3 4 5 6 7 7 7 8.41 0 0 0 14.155 0 0 0 0.3 0. (2) A value of zero is expected at CL = 0 only if the airfoil of the wing is symmetrical (flat plate).148/ 0 0 0 0.1 0 0 0. rather than the right.195 0 0.306 0.104 0.4 0.341 0.296/0.212
0 1.03 12. Consequently.96 0 0 0 0.498 0 0 0 0. 9 8.18 0.115/0.11
0 1.33 0 0. a sign change is added to compare to Document
VLM.432 0 0 0 0.110 0.101/0. 9 7. or if propeller normal force is accounted for.89 0.894/9. SURFACES and VIRGIT use 29.
NOTES: (1) There is a known difference in input geometry.0029 0 0.3 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0.docx
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.47 0. 10 8.042 0 0 0.33 0 0 0 0.039 0.007 0 0.526 0 0.025 0 0.508 0 0.0479/0.045 0 0.271 0. 9 
All derivatives are per radian.5% of MAC.0056/0.003 0 0 0 17.092 0 0 0.065 0.021 0 0.111 0.095
0 1.31 0.370/0.007 9.Cl Cm Cn CL CD CY Cl Cm Cn CLp CDp CYp Clp Cmp Cnp CLq CDq CYq Clq Cmq Cnq CLr CDr CYr Clr Cmr Cnr
0.21 0.009 0 0. but also due to possible power effects.43 0 0 0 0.0926 0 0.133 9. SURFACES has the reference point located 2 ft below the wing plane and does not account for power effects – it is unknown where the other codes place the vertical location of the reference point.0911 0 0 0.45 0.510/0. which will likely cause numerical discrepancies.099
0 0. It is not known if the other VLM codes included washout. For instance.23 0.156/14.008 0 0.128 0 0 14.01 9. 9 7. and wing camber like the SURFACES model. (3) The different values are primarily due to the different reference locations.52 0 0.325 0 0.117/0.209 0.089 0.066 0.075
0 0.1 0.995 0 0.12 0 0 0. (4) Note that for SURFACES the standard coordinate system is used with the AngleofYaw (positive beta) coming from the left. dihedral.256 0 0 12.018 7.063 0 0.432/0. AVL and CMARC reference points are unknown.
the code with the largest difference scores 1 and the code with the smallest one 5. (8) The rate of pitch derivative is obtained with respect to P·Cref/(2·Vinf). (10) A change in lift should be associated with a change in drag. a grade from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) is assigned to those stability parameters that can be compared to the source. The scores for the 5 codes are compared in Table 52:
Document
VLM. The lowest total score is 12. by Jan Roskam). It is not known why Tornado and SURFACES are the only codes to display a value here. how do the codes compare? Table 52 displays one such comparison. For that reason. of which 12 have a value from the source document (Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls.4 Comparison of Codes
Table 51 prompts some interesting questions – for instance. derivatives with respect to P or R are multiplied by the factor 2·Vinf/Bref. A total of 30 derivatives are considered in Table 51. The highest total score a code can receive is 5 x 12 = 60.the other codes. Here. derivatives with respect to Q are multiplied by the factor 2·Vinf/Cref. For that reason.docx
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. (5) SURFACES evaluated a restoring dihedral effect for the C172 – the only one of the above codes. The parameters are compared by computing difference using:
difference
PCODE PSOURCE PSOURCE
Then. (6) [Deleted] (7) The rate of roll and yaw derivatives are obtained with respect to P·Bref/(2·Vinf).
V5. (9) Differences are most likely due to modeling differences and differences in location of reference point.
R) TOTAL SCORE VIRGIT CMARC TORNADO SURFACES
5 3 2 4 1 4 2 4 4 5 4 2 40 1 3 1 5 2
2 2 5 2 4 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 40 0 5 1 3 3
3 5 3 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 7 1 1 0 2
1 1 1 5 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 31 4 0 6 1 1
4 4 4 3 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 3 44 0 2 2 3 4
Number of 1s Number of 2s Number of 3s Number of 4s Number of 5s
Table 52 shows that SURFACES scores highest (44 points). CMARC scored worst (25 points). R Cl . VIRGIT and SURFACES. Two codes never scored worse than 2. Q) CY. The most frequent high score (5) was received by SURFACES. P (CMz. 7 times.docx
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.Table 52: Comparison of Several VLM Codes and the Panel Code CMARC. Q (CMy. R) Cn. P (CMx. CMARC. 4 times. The most frequent low score (1) was received by CMARC. and TORNADO all have at least one worst score. R (CMz. AVL. P) Cn. In fact.
AVL CL CD Cm (CMy ) CY Cl (CMx ) Cn (CMz ) Cl .
Document
VLM. R (CMx. SURFACES was the only code to correctly compute a restoring dihedral effect for the Cessna 172. P) Cm. On the other hand.
CM for NACA 23012
V6. The panels form the camber line of the NACA 23012 airfoil.
Figure 61: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil
V6.002378 slugs/ft3 was performed. The purpose of this validation is to demonstrate how SURFACES simulates airfoil properties.00020 0. An angle sweep of attack from –8° through 8° at an airspeed of 100 ft/sec and density of 0.docx
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. Compute a 3D lift curve slope from Method 1 of USAF DATCOM Section 1. and Cm 0.1233 . The model has a wing span of 20 ft and a chord of 1 ft.1 Model
A high aspect ratio (AR=20) wing model was constructed to perform a 3D similarity evaluation to a standard 3D aerodynamic analysis.1051 per deg .
Document
VLM.01198 is
obtained from interpolation (for NACA 23012.Validation 6: 2D CL. page 17. Cl0 0.2 Expected Result
The following parameters are given: Airspeed Wing area Aspect Ratio V = 100 ft/s S = 20 x 1 = 20 ft² AR = b² / S = 20²/10 = 20
The 2D lift curve slope of
Cl 0. by Abbott and Doenhoff). CD. The model has 16 chordwise and 60 spanwise panels. from Theory of Wing Sections.
1121 Surfaces 0.1233 0.95840 1 5.
Document
VLM.173 0.0.00016· .1121
Cm Cl x
x
C m Cl
C
m 3 D
Cm CL x CL Cl 0.173 0.95840 c/2 = Sweepback of midchord = 0°
C L 2
2 AR AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 4 1 2 2 2 20 400 0 2 1 2 4 2 0.472 per rad 0.01198 0.09551 per deg
Compute zero lift angle for the 2D airfoil using: Cl0 0 Cl Compute lift at zero angle for the 3D wing using: Compute pitching moment for 3D wing:
0
Cl0 Cl
0.0943 0. graph on page 498.5 1 = Ratio of 2D lift curve slope to 2 = 0.0.00020· . AR = Wing Aspect Ratio = 20 = Mach number parameter (PrandtlGlauert) = (1M2)0.docx
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.1194 0.1051
CL0 0 CL 1.09551 0.09551 0.1233 1.3 Results from SURFACES
Summary: Parameter Lift curve slope Lift coefficient intercept Moment coefficient Symbol CL CL0 CM Experiment16 0.0955 0.01888
16
Theory of Wing Sections. by Abbott & Doenhoff.01198 Classical Method 0.C L 2
AR Cl AR 2 2 tan 2 C / 2 4 1 2 2
Where.1051 x (180/)/(2 = 0.01089
V6.1051 (2D value) 0.1051 0.
Figure 63: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil camber line.docx
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.
Document
VLM.Figure 62: 3D wing model with a 23012 airfoil camber line.
175 0.1 Model
A model of the Lockheed F104 Starfighter was constructed to compare selected stability derivatives from SURFACES to that presented in the text Flight Stability and Automatic Control.9% 1.0004737)*180/. The data can be found in Appendix B of the text.263 3.8% 18.Validation 7: F104 Starfighter
V7.0009474· 0.
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VLM.2 Results from SURFACES
Summary: Parameter Lift coefficient Drag coefficient Lift curve slope Drag curve slope Moment slope (CMy) Side force slope (CFy) Dihedral effect (CMx) Weathercock stability (CMz)
All derivatives are per radian.45 0.1·0. which at = 12. 19 Using the surface integration method 20 This is highly dependent on drag model. by Robert C. Nelson.8 ft/s.docx
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.
W = 16300 lbs S = 196.491
%Difference 2.156 0. Therefore.6 becomes 0. by Robert C.8² ·196. Nelson. Note that V = 0.002378·286.257
Symbol CL CD CL CD CM CY Cl Cn
Source17 0. Here.5% 2.656.17519 3.8%
17 18
Flight Stability and Automatic Control.12 0.71718 0.64 1. on page 253.1% 4.257 x 1116 ft/s = 286.257 at SL CG at 7% MAC
Figure 71: 3D VortexLattice model of the F104 Starfighter
V7.735 = 14097 lbf.756 1. CD = (0.6620 0.4% 33.1 ft² CMAC = 9. This is the same lift SURFACES generated to get the given lift coefficient. Lift is ½ ·0. At M=0.4% 45.36 0.44 0.17 0.5 ft M = 0.735 0.3% 10.50
SURFACES 0.
Figure 72: A Starfighter in flight Image from http://www.starfighters.net/gallery/1999gallery/1999gallery.html
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VLM.docx
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Validation 8: Ryan Navion
V8.1 Model
A model of the Ryan Navion was constructed compare to the analysis of Example Problem 2.1 found in Robert C. Nelsons “Flight Stability and Automatic Control”, on pages 5358. The VL model was based on the threeview in Figure 81.
Figure 81. A threeview drawing of the Ryan Navion. The reference document determines several parameters for the Navion in Problem 2.1. The calculation of selected parameters is repeated in Section V8.1 for convenience.
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Figure 82. A Ryan Navion in flight – Photographer unknown.
Figure 83. The SURFACES VortexLattice model of the Ryan Navion.
V8.2 Expected Result
The stickfixed neutral point is estimated from Equation (2.37) in the reference document, here written using variables more consistent with this document:
C M f CL d X NEU X AC VHT t 1 CREF CREF CLw CLw d
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VLM.docx
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..... Surface Surface Surface Surface ft² Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Cr = 7........... ... Shalf = total area . Surface LE.552 10....45 0...... taper ratio .. B = half area ...............3
Note that the reference document (which is a First Edition) states the Xneu is at 0.........91 per rad CMf = Slope of fuselage moment coefficient = 0.. .5% MAC.... C.. root ....66 XAC = Aerodynamic center of wingbody combination = 1.022 ft Xr = 0. MAC location .. the CG located at Xcg = 2......0465 ft becomes 100·(2....... .. Bhalf = span .446 ft 32.... Surface chord.200 ft Xr = 0..
Document
VLM.....425 0..
GLE AR TR Cmac Xmac Ymac
= = = = = =
2..37.... tip .Where (note that numerical values are obtained from the document)....04650.........7 ft CLw = Slope of wing lift coefficient = 4.... which printed out the following analysis report:
MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD ANALYSIS Surface chord.425 ft = Tail efficiency = 1
X NEU 1....... Stot
LE sweep angle ..... Mean Aerodynamic Chord .....45 VHT = Horizontal tail volume = 0...... Note that the planform properties of the VL model were determined using SURFACES’ built in tool.000 ft Ct = 4.. Surface LE....7 = 29..........3 per rad CLt = Slope of HT lift coefficient = 3..806 ft Yr = 16. For instance..12 3..8621 0........28 ft² = 184....docx
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.447 ft
This information can be used when calculating the CG and neutral point locations as percentages of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)........365)/5........3 5.446 ft 16........ CREF = Reference wing chord = 5.. tip ......893 ft 92.....56
half span .....5586 5.. Nelson) it was confirmed this was an error that had been corrected for later editions of the book.66 C REF 4 .....365 ft 7..000 ft Yr = 0... aspect ratio .761 ft 0..... but in conversation with the author (R........... root ...805° 5..........7 4 ....12 per rad d/d = Variation of downwash with angleofattack = 0..91 1 0.....
aerologic. The neutral point was estimated by computing the slope of the CMY curve for two different values of Xcg.69 °R 1116 ft/s 0 ft 178 ft/s 0.3% MAC 100 C REF 5 .
Document
VLM.721 ft.html. This corresponds to:
X NEU 2.com/stab/corr. The resulting Xneu is 2. The corresponding values of CMY for two anglesofattack (AOA1 and AOA2) was evaluated (SURFACES provides a tool to make this simple.85 ft and 2. 1.365 41 .40 ft
0. shown in Figure 84).docx
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.159 0. R.6°
Source: http://www. Louis 22 V. Computing the neutral point.002378 slugs/ft 518. Nelson
VLM using SURFACES
Panel Method 21 using CMARC (DWT)
3
Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics.76° 33.3 Results from SURFACES
Summary (note that values from Nelson and Schmidt appear to be from the same source): Ryan Navion
Source/ Symbol Air density Outside Air Temperature Speed of sound Altitude Far field speed Mach Number Baseline AOA Reference span
21 22
Flight Stability and Automatic Control.7
V8.0465 ft. C. Schmidt
OAT ao H Vinf M AOA Bref

0.Figure 84.88° 0. Document is cited in footnote 1.721 0.
85 0.85 0.330 0.44 0 0.33
23
AOA DERIVATIVES
AOY DERIVATIVES
d(AOA)/dt DERIVATIVES
UDERIVATIVES
PDERIVATIVES
QDERIVATIVES
0.0575 9.0390 0.683 9.552 Cref
5.330 4.05 0.0652 0 0 8.406 0.850 0.41 0.38 Cref (2.0465 ft) 0.70 ft 184.329 4.584 0 0 0.
Document
VLM.415 0.051 0.36 0.375 4.935 0 0.8721 6.06 2750 lbs 0.Reference wing chord Reference wing area Reference aspec ratio Reference weight Center of gravity (along Xaxis) Neutral point (along Xaxis) Moment of inertia about Xaxis Moment of inertia about Yaxis Moment of inertia about Zaxis Product of inertia about Xaxis Product of inertia about Yaxis Product of inertia about Zaxis Lift coefficient for = 0° Slope of lift coefficient Lift coefficient Parasitic drag coefficient Total drag coefficient Slope of drag coefficient at = 0° Span efficiency (Oswald’s)
Cref Sref ARref W Xcg Xneu Ixx Iyy Izz Ixy Ixz Iyz CLo CLA CL CDo CD CDA e CXA CYA CZA CMXA CMA CMZA CXB CYB CZB CLB CMB CNB CXTA CYTA CZTA CLTA CMTA CNTA CXU CYU CZU CLU CMU CNU CXP CYP CZP CLP CMP CNP CXQ CYQ CZQ CLQ CMQ 0.039 0.722 0.564 0.5065 0 0.683 0.0 ft² 6.07639 Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted Not predicted 0 0 0 0.44 0.98
5.7000 4.295 Cref 0.04952 (from quadratic drag polar) 0.415 0.268 0 4.87
4.295 Cref 0.25 Cref (2.413 Cref 0.docx
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.0710 1.721 ft) 1048 slugs·ft² 3000 slugs·ft² 3530 slugs·ft² 
0.96
0.44 0.0740 0.99 0 12.88°) 0.96
23
From analysis on page 54 of Reference document.1000 (?) 0.258 (quantic fit at = 0.15 0.41 0.07723 0 0.
25 .42
6.
CMARC (DWT) Angle of attack.23 0.98 6.722 0.732 Perkins & Hage Etkin Seckel
24
Datcom
SURFACES
Wind Tunnel 
Flight Test



0.1070 0.715 9.6 3.aerologic.91 
4.269 4. 1964.75 4.42
24
Seckel E.99 0.99 2. “Stability and Control of Airplane and Helicopters”.1374 0 0.83 9. Academic Press.271 5.36 .95 1.428 0.545 9.732°

8.28 0.52 0.91 
5.1250
0 0 0.com/stab/corr.html.04 1.24 12.docx
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.54 0.4059 0 0.
Document
VLM. de CL CD CL CD CM CMq CMde d/d CLde CMde 0.5 1.58 
0.66 1.1557


Additional comparison based on a table from the source http://www.RDERIVATIVES
CLQ CXR CYR CZR CLR CMR CNR
0.68
4.91 6.584 12.98 
4.0 
4.5 4. Elevator deflection.
The comparison takes place at 4.. Three VL models were generated. Inserted image shows the SURFACES VL model. the second one has 32 spanwise panels.
Document
VLM.
Figure 91: The sweptback wing wind tunnel tested per NACA R1208.7° angle of attack. and the third has 64 spanwise panels per side. high aspect ratio wing compares three numerical methods to wind tunnel test results. In the report a highly swept back. In this validation sample.1 Introduction
This validation compares SURFACES analysis to the swept back wing featured in the NACA report R1208.Validation 9: Comparison to NACA R1208
V9. a similar approach will be taken and the section lift coefficients from SURFACES will be compared to the wind tunnel test results.docx
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. The wing planform is shown in Figure 91. per the NACA report. one has 16 spanwise panel per wing side.
3 Results from SURFACES
The comparison of the numerical to the experimental data shows a close agreement. but also that the accuracy improves with number of panels. Document
VLM.docx
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.
V9.2 Expected Result
Figure 92: Original graph of spanwise loading from NACA R1208.V9.
Figure 93: Comparing spanwise loading from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R1208.
The experimental data shows the well known early tip stall phenomena of swept back wings.Figure 94: Comparing lift curve from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R1208. caused by spanwise flow near the tips. doubletlattice. panelcodes.docx
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. This is reproduced here to remind the user that all inviscid codes (vortexlattice.
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VLM.
Figure 95: Comparing moment curve from SURFACES to experimental data from NACA R1208. etc) do not model this viscous phenomena accurately because the mathematical solution forces the flow to stay attached.
lift curves.1 Introduction
This validation compares SURFACES analysis to two of the three tapered and twisted wings featured in the NACA report TN1422.
Document
VLM.
Figure 101: The general shape of the wind tunnel model tested per NACA TN1422. The general planform shape is shown in Figure 101.
V10.docx
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. and moment curves for two of these wings (from hereon referred to as WING 2 and WING 3) from SURFACES will be compared to the wind tunnel test results. and is reproduced from the original document. In this validation sample the section lift coefficients.2 Results from SURFACES
The comparison of the numerical to the experimental data shows a close agreement.Validation 10: Comparison to NACA TN1422
V10. This report compares several aerodynamic properties of three wings obtained in wind tunnel tests.
Figure 102: Match for the lift curve for the twisted and untwisted wings.
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.
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. Note the deviation at higher values of the lift coefficient. Document
VLM.
Figure 104: Lift distribution at stall for the twisted wing. which is caused by viscous effects.Figure 103: Match for the pitching moment for the twisted wing.
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.Figure 105: Lift distribution at stall for the untwisted wing.
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VLM.