You are on page 1of 14

TOPIC: RAISING AWARENESS OF FLORIDA RED TIDE, HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOMS AND THEIR

PUBLIC HEALTH EFFECTS

SUBMITTED BY: Florida Nursing Students Association Executive Board

AUTHORS: Jena Pecori, Amber Grant, Caitlin Cox, and Shayla Bass

WHEREAS, Karenia brevis (K. brevis) is a type of dinoflagellate that can form Harmful Algae Blooms
(HABs) that are frequently referred to as “Florida red tide,” an event that occurs
throughout the West Florida Shoreline and can also extend up through the East coast as
far as North Carolina and can last for either weeks or over a year (Kirkpatrick et al.,
2014, p. 27); and
WHEREAS, K. brevis, when lysed, releases brevetoxins, a potent neurotoxin, into the water that can
also be incorporated into the marine aerosol (Kirkpatrick et al., 2010, p. 186; Maze et al.,
2015, p. 1); and
WHEREAS, these brevetoxins are known to kill fish, sea birds, marine mammals, as well as induce
gastrointestinal diseases for those that consume contaminated shellfish and respiratory
illness for those that inhale the aerosolized toxins, especially in those with chronic
respiratory conditions, like asthmatics (Kirkpatrick et al., 2010, p. 186); and
WHEREAS, the total estimated illness costs for both gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses
related to HABs ranged from $60,000-730,000, with capitalized costs of predicted future
illnesses ranging between $2-24 million annually (Hoagland et al., 2014, p. 144, 150);
and
WHEREAS, the physical manifestations of HABs, including dead manatees, fishkills, shellfish
closures, noxious odors, changes in water color, and human respiratory impairments are
concerning to affected communities in Florida that rely heavily on coastal tourism and
have estimated economic losses to tourism from HABs (Hoagland et al., 2014, p. 144-
145); and
WHEREAS, communities that are regularly affected by red tide and HABs have a need for accurate
information throughout the year, not just during blooms, due to a substantial
prevalence of misperceptions that some activities that are established as unsafe can be
viewed as safe by residents and tourists and vice versa (Nierenberg et al., 2010, p. 604);
therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Students Association (FNSA) encourage its constituent chapters

and members to advocate and raise awareness about the environmental, physical, and

economic effects associated with red tide and HABs; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA and its constituents contact government representatives at the local and

state level in order to lead a call to action regarding an increase in efforts to properly

and consistently educate the public and tourists to the dangers associated with red tides

and HABs; and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA and its constituents contact government representatives at the local and

state level advocating for an increase in funding going towards the research and

monitoring of red tides and HABs; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA publish an article in the FNSA HOTLINE on this topic; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Florida Nurses Association, Florida

League for Nursing, the office of Governor Ron DeSantis, and all others deemed

appropriate by the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: IN SUPPORT OF INCREASING FUNDING FOR MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN FLORIDA

SUBMITTED BY: Florida Atlantic University Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing


City/State: Boca Raton, Florida

AUTHORS: Samantha Algigi and Nigam Reddy

WHEREAS, A study from the Cohen Veterans Network (CVN) and National Council for Behavioral
Health that “revealed American mental health services are insufficient, and despite high
demand, the root of the problem is lack of access – or the ability to find care” (Wood
Burwell and Rawlett, 2017); and
WHEREAS, In 2018, Florida was ranked 40th on access to mental health care in each state (Mental
Health America, 2019, pg 13); and
WHEREAS, Florida was one of six states with the least access to mental health care that also have
the highest rates of incarceration (Florida Health Behavioral Association, 2018, pg 13);
and
WHEREAS, Florida’s per capita support for mental health services ranks last among the states
(Florida Health Behavioral Association, 2018, pg 6); and
WHEREAS, A recent economic model estimates that mental illness costs states $3.4 trillion in
medical treatment and nearly $141 billion in societal costs (e.g., lost productivity,
additional jail time for inmates, and Medicaid-supported nursing home stays)
(Democratic Governors Association, 2017, pg 4); and
WHEREAS, A recent World Health Organization study estimated that for every $1 put into scaled up
treatment for common mental disorders, there is a return of $4 in improved health and
productivity (Florida Health Behavioral Association, 2018, pg 23); and
WHEREAS, State and local level policies have the biggest impact on access to mental health care. In
states that embraced various ACA reforms, including Medicaid expansion, residents
have greater access to mental health services (Democratic Governors Association, 2017,
pg 9); and
WHEREAS, Technology-based therapies such as Mood Gym and virtual care visits can improve
access by enhancing patient convenience, and are available at a lower cost in
comparison to face-to-face conventional psychotherapies, especially for those who may
be uninsured or underinsured (Kickman etc., 2016, pg 6); and
WHEREAS, Increased adoption of value-based approaches and bundled-payment models allow
adoption of behavioral care services in local primary care practices along with added risk
adjustment that ensures providers are paid appropriately to maintain adequate
resources flowing to care for these patients while keeping the cost low for the patient
(Kickman etc, 2016, pg 5); and
WHEREAS, Expansion of loan repayment programs by the Bureau of Health Workforce for primary
physicians, dentists, and nurses to cover those professionals caring for people with
mental health and substance use disorders, thus increasing the skilled workforce
capability as well as access to skilled mental health services (Kickman etc, 2016, pg 7);
therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Students Association (FNSA) and its constituents advocate and

raise awareness for the need of mental health services in Florida to reduce the stigma of

mental health; and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA encourage its constituents to contact their local representatives and lead

a call for action regarding the increase in funding for mental health services to increase

access to care; and be it further; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA publish an article in the FNSA HOTLINE on this topic; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to Florida Nurses Association, the Florida

Medical Association, National League of Nursing, Florida League for Nurses, American

Nurses Association, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, International Society of

Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses, American Health Association and all others deemed

appropriate by the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: Advocating for Transcultural Healthcare Awareness Among Nursing Professionals and
Students Throughout the State of Florida

SUBMITTED BY: Florida Atlantic University’s Student Nurses Association


City/State: Boca Raton, Florida

AUTHORS: Alaiya Dewji, Heather Underwood, and Kim Gross

WHEREAS, Healthy People 2020 acknowledges that health disparities and challenges to healthcare
adversely affect groups of people based on their racial or ethnic group, religion,
socioeconomic status, age, mental health, disability, sexual orientation or gender
(identity), geographic location or other characteristics linked to discrimination or
exclusion. It recognizes the lack of culturally competent care as responsible for these
health disparities and challenges (Healthy People 2020, 2019); and
WHEREAS, Global migration of populations presents nurses with the challenge of delivering care to
unknown numbers of patients with health care beliefs and practices that may differ
from their own. These challenges heighten the need to identify guidelines for the
delivery of culturally competent care for an increasingly diverse population and
minimize health inequities regardless of geographic location (Douglas et al., 2014, p. 1);
and
WHEREAS, Ethnic and racial disparities continue to be prevalent in healthcare regardless of efforts
to improve this inequality. Despite efforts to train and educate healthcare providers
about cultural competence, a lack of attention, as well as knowledge and consistency
exist in improving these programs (Weinstein, Geller, Negussie & Baciu, 2017, p.59;
Young & Guo, 2016, p.100); and
WHEREAS, Recent studies have identified gaps in knowledge and methods of improving awareness
within the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) culture (Wycoff, 2019, p. 12
5-131); and
WHEREAS, “The military as an organization, cultural group, and social group is distinct from any
other groups; hence, the need to develop military cultural competency” (Atuel & Castro,
2018, p. 80); and
WHEREAS, The American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, the Institute of
Medicine, and The Joint Commission recognize the need for cultural diversity and
competency training for healthcare professionals due to a lack of understanding of how
culture may determine patients’ perspectives of health or illness, how linguistics can
cause misinterpretation between patients and providers and highlights the need for
education beginning in nursing and medical schools to continue throughout professional
practice (Young & Guo, 2016, p. 94-99); therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Students Association (FNSA) encourage its constituents to

advocate and raise awareness for the unique healthcare needs of our transcultural

society; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA publish articles in Hotline highlighting various cultures throughout the

year (i.e. publish an article in November that contains information about the military

culture and their unique/predominant healthcare concerns); and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Florida Nurses Association, the

Florida League of Nursing, the Florida Medical Association Transcultural Nursing Society,

and all others deemed appropriate by the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: IN SUPPORT OF LACTATION EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR NURSES WHO CARE FOR
WOMEN AND CHILDREN

SUBMITTED BY: Palm Beach State College Nursing Student Association


City/State: Lake Worth, FL

AUTHORS: Govinda Bilges and Alexa Soos

WHEREAS, mother’s hospital experience is a determinant of successful breastfeeding, and nurses


are supportive of breastfeeding but have different levels of breastfeeding education,
knowledge and inconsistencies in practice and no education beyond orientation and no
hands-on training (Cunningham, Doyle & Bowden, 2018); and
WHEREAS, when breastfeeding problems surface, physicians refer mothers to lactation consultants
(Radzyminski & Callister, 2015); and
WHEREAS, there are only 3.79 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants for every 1000
live births in the United States, bedside nurses are the primary support for
breastfeeding families (Folker-Maglay, Plyman, Couch, Spatz, Marzalik, 2018); and
WHEREAS, women seek breastfeeding advice from healthcare professionals, yet information
provided to them is often inconsistent or conveys conflicting messages that can
negatively affect their breastfeeding experiences create barriers to attaining their
breastfeeding goals (Folker-Maglay, Plyman, Couch, Spatz, Marzalik, 2018); and
WHEREAS, nurses’ knowledge about breastfeeding can predict the support they provide and
educating nurses is associate with improved breastfeeding rates, maternal satisfaction
and higher level of professional knowledge and skill (Radzyminski & Callister, 2015); and
WHEREAS, breastfeeding education is not considered important to basic nursing education and
many nursing student have gross misconceptions of women’s ability to breastfeed
(Folker-Maglay, Plyman, Couch, Spatz, Marzalik, 2018); and
WHEREAS, breastfeeding support is unlikely to have an impact if the staff providing support is
unequipped with relevant knowledge, attitudes and skills to do so (Gavine, MacGillivray,
Renfrew, Siebelt, Haggi, McFadden, 2016).

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Student Association (FNSA) encourage its members to advocate

for lactation specific education and training for all nurses who care for women and

children in healthcare facilities; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA provide information to nursing students by hyperlinking studies and

articles on its website, as well as by publishing an article in the FNSA Hotline and on the

FNSA website in order to further educate about the importance of lactation education

and training for nurses who care for women and children, if feasible; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA educate its members on the importance of training and education for all

nurses who work with women and children; and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Association of Women’s Health,

Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, American Academy of Pediatrics, National Association of

Neonatal Nurses, American Nurses Association, and all others deemed appropriate by

the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: INCREASING AWARENESS OF SYRINGE ACCESS PROGRAMS AND SUPERVISED
INJECTION FACILITIES BENEFIT ON COMMUNITY HEALTH

SUBMITTED BY: PALM BEACH STATE COLLEGE, LAKE WORTH, FL

AUTHORS: JEREMY FILIPPELLI, DANIEL REGAN, ALEX BLOOM, GINA GEORGE

WHEREAS, syringe access programs decrease incidence of blood-borne disease infection and high
risk behavior among injection drug users Van der Muelen, Reece, Chu, 2018, p. 301);
and
WHEREAS, syringe access programs provide resources for people who inject drugs to properly
dispose of needles (Zerden, O’Quinn, 2015, p. 430); and
WHEREAS, overdoses in supervised injection facilities have a lower need for hospital admissions
than overdoses in public places due to the availability of trained staff monitoring for
signs of overdose and rapid medical intervention (Ramirez, 2019, p. 12); and
WHEREAS, syringe access programs reduce the time that needles are in circulation in the
community, reducing the risk of the public coming in contact with dirty needles (Murray,
2019, p. 21); and
WHEREAS, clients who utilize syringe access programs more likely to enter treatment programs
(Murray, 2019, p. 20); therefore, be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Students Association (FNSA) encourage its constituents to

increase the awareness of syringe exchange programs and supervised injection facilities

and their benefits on community health; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA encourage its constituents to explore and advocate in their own

communities for community health programs related to syringe access programs and

supervised injection facilities; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA publishes an article in the FNSA Hotline; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Florida Nurses Association, the

Florida League of Nurses, the Association of Recovery in Higher Education (ARHE), and

all others deemed appropriate by the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: IN SUPPORT OF INCREASING AWARENESS OF UNDERTREATED PAIN AND
IMPROVING PAIN MANAGEMENT IN NON-VERBAL CHILDREN

SUBMITTED BY: University of Central Florida Student Nurses Association


City/State: Orlando, FL

AUTHORS: Johmarc Dela Cruz, Kathleen Jaramillo-Zuniga, & Rebecca Smith

WHEREAS, developmentally nonverbal children often experience greater degrees of pain


due to frequent medical/surgical procedures and illnesses, and suspicion of pain should
be high requiring meticulous assessment methodology (Herr et al., 2011, p.237); and
WHEREAS, the inability to obtain a child’s self-report of pain or illness history and presenting
symptoms delays the evaluation process (Quinn et al., 2018, p.35); and
WHEREAS, untreated pain may seriously affect the development of a child, contributing to
chronic emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression, learning disabilities, and
other issues with growth and development (Harvard Mahoney Neuroscience Institute,
2011, p. 3); and
WHEREAS, many of the traditionally employed pain scales do not account for the behavioral
expressions of pain that nonverbal children present, including self-injurious
behavior, laughing, and hand clapping (Malviya et al., 2006, p.259 & 263); and
WHEREAS, studies have shown that nurses often score pain for these children low even during
a pain related admission (Quinn et al., 2018, p.28-29); and
WHEREAS, studies show that the ability to recognize the specific child’s behavior in context, and
the science behind the behaviors exhibited by the population as a whole are integral in
accurately assessing pain in non-verbal children (Hunt et al., 2002, p. 171, 179-180);
and
WHEREAS, despite treatment of issues such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or spasticity,
pain in children with severe neurological impairment was noted to occur weekly in
44% of children with moderate to profound cognitive impairment and almost daily in
41% to 42% of children with severe to profound impairment (Hauer and Houtrow,
2017, p.2); and
WHEREAS, pain is presented differently depending on a variety of factors such as age,
gender, cognition, previous pain experience, temperament, cultural, family
factors, and situational factors (Mathews, 2011, p. 72); and
WHEREAS, pain scales used for children with chronic pain are not entirely reliable due to the
tolerance for pain developed overtime, meaning that a typical presentation of pain
may be absent on assessment (Popenhagen, 2006, p. 62); therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Student Nurses Association (FNSA) encourages its constituents to

follow a more holistic approach when assessing and managing pain in

non-verbal children; and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA encourage its constituents to educate nursing students, health care

professionals, community organizations, schools, and colleges to promote education

regarding undertreated pain and improving pain management in non-verbal

children; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA demonstrate a commitment to health promotion by providing

education regarding methods of assessment and treatment of pain for

non-verbal pediatric patients through seminars at State Convention each year, if

feasible; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA publish an article in Hotline on this topic, if feasible; and be it

further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Florida Nurses Association, the

Society of Pediatric Nurses, the National Association of Pediatric Nurse

Practitioners, Florida Public Health Association, and any others deemed

appropriate by the FNSA board of directors; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the National Student Nurses'

Association (NSNA) House of Delegates for considering implementing the

resolution into their policies and actions.


TOPIC: In Support of Increasing Availability of Epi-Pens in All AED Devices in Public

SUBMITTED BY: University of Central Florida Student Nurses Association


City/State: Orlando, FL

AUTHORS: Dana Monsalvatge, Kendall Neswold, Jake Sandoval, Liliana Valencia

WHEREAS, the increasing prices of Epipens restricts the availability for the average person to own
an Epipen. In 2016, the price of a two pack of Epipens increased 545%, causing the two
pack to cost upwards of seven-hundred dollars. These expensive prices discourage
individuals with no insurance or insurance with high deductibles to forgo buying Epipens
even though they are vital safety measure for people with allergies that can cause
anaphylactic shock (Bonds, Asawa, & Ghazi, 2015, p. 74); and
WHEREAS, an additional barrier to the use of epinephrine is lack of proper training which results in
improper technique. Studies found that 84% of patients with prescriptions for EAIs could
not accurately demonstrate use and only 39% of participants demonstrated proper
technique (Prince et al., 2018, p. 147, Bonds et al., 2015, p. 75, Ridolo et al., 2015, p.
939); and
WHEREAS, a barrier to the use of EpiPen’s is the hesitancy of when it is appropriate to administer,
with 54.4% of patients not using their EpiPen during an anaphylactic reaction because
they thought the use of adrenaline was unnecessary (Nolmark, Wales, & Du Toit, 2011,
p. 290); and
WHEREAS, many patients do not have epinephrine readily available during an anaphylaxis reaction,
a study found that less than 50% of all known food allergy reactions patients that
presented to a pediatric emergency department had epinephrine on hand (Prince,
Mikhail, & Stukus, 2018, p. 148); and
WHEREAS, there is a spot shortage or constrained supply of EpiPen, EpiPen Jr, and Adrenaclick
(Food Allergy Research & Education, 2019); and
WHEREAS, hesitancy towards having EpiPens more readily available in emergent situations are due
to high cost. However, AED machines are required in public buildings and cost can range
from $2,000 and up, while an EpiPen can cost upwards of $730 (Mao & Ong, 2016, p. 26,
Bonds, Asawa, & Ghazi, 2015, p 74); therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Student Association (FNSA) encourage its constituents to

educate nursing students, healthcare professionals, community organizations, schools,

and colleges to promote education on signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis requiring

EpiPen use and proper administration; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA will encourage its constituents to include an EpiPen in all public AED

machines, since many AEDs are found in restaurants where many allergic reactions

could occur, if feasible; and be it further


RESOLVED, that the FNSA will encourage its constituents to include an informational course(s) on

EpiPen use to include on orientation days of employees with public AEDs and EpiPens, if

feasible; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA will encourage its constituents to include a printable sticker with

directions for effective use of EpiPens for ease of use on each AED machine paired with

an EpiPen, if feasible; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA will post an article about increasing awareness of EpiPen use and

inclusion of EpiPens into public AEDs in Hotline; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to Florida Nurses Association, American

Nurses Association, National League for Nursing, Florida Board of Nursing, National

Student Nursing Association, National Institute for Nursing Research, and all others

deemed appropriate by the FNSA Board of Directors.


TOPIC: Advocating for Increased Patient Satisfaction and Involvement During Hospital Stays

SUBMITTED BY: Florida Gateway College


City/State: Lake City, FL

AUTHORS: Zoey Love

WHEREAS, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems of Hospitals
reports 69% of patients staying overnight in a Florida hospital would recommend the
hospital (Medicare.gov, 2019); and
WHEREAS, lack of patient preference in a patient’s care plan disrupts the process of restoration
while also creating an unwelcoming environment (Medicare.gov, 2019); and
WHEREAS, according to the HCAHPS only 58% of patients felt their hospital room was always quiet
during sleep hours (Medicare.gov, 2019); and
WHEREAS, when awake, 64% of patients obtained help from their care team as soon as they
wanted, showing there is still significant improvement needed to increase patient
satisfaction quickly (Medicare.gov, 2019); and
WHEREAS, research and interviews show there is 25% to 50% lack of patient satisfaction in areas of
care such as rest and attentiveness (Medicare.gov, 2019); therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Florida Nursing Students Association (FNSA) impress upon its constituents the

importance of patient preference as they recover; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA support increased surveys on Florida hospitals to ensure complete

contentedness of patients; and be it further

RESOLVED, that upon results of in-depth surveys that the FNSA develop methods to resolve

discovered problems; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA encourages its constituents to incorporate the techniques to improve

patient satisfaction into their clinical requirements as a student nurse and member of

this association; and be it further

RESOLVED, that the FNSA send a copy of this resolution to the Hospital Consumer Assessment of

Healthcare Providers and Systems, Florida Nurses Association, Florida League of

Nursing, American Nurses’ Association, and all others deemed appropriate by the FNSA

Board of Directors.