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American History Mid-Term Exam

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Polk believed no one would take enslaved persons to the Southwest because
a. the Southwest was free territory.
b. abolitionism was strong in the Southwest.

c. the climate would not support plantations, which made slavery profitable.

d. enslaved persons could easily escape to Mexico from farms in the Southwest.

____ 2. Conscience Whigs were Northern Whigs who

a. supported Zachary Taylor. c. supported slavery.
b. opposed slavery. d. were mainly cloth manufacturers.

____ 3. The Know-Nothings were

a. antislavery and nativist. c. anti-Catholic and nativist.

b. antislavery and anti-Catholic. d. pro-slavery and anti-Catholic.

____ 4. Crittenden’s Compromise proposed to

a. prohibit slavery north of an extended Missouri Compromise line and allow slavery south
of it.
b. prohibit slavery in Nebraska but allow it in Kansas.

c. prohibit slavery from expanding into the western territories.

d. require new states to enter the Union in free-slave pairs.

____ 5. In his inaugural speech, President Lincoln

a. threatened to attack the seceded states if they did not return to the Union.

b. repeated his commitment not to interfere with slavery where it already existed.

c. repeated his commitment to abolishing slavery.

d. threatened to attack if the South did not return the federal forts it had seized.

____ 6. The Wilmot Proviso, which never passed, would have

a. prohibited slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.

b. prevented Congress from banning slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.

c. created a compromise by dividing the territories into free and slave states.

d. made it easier for slaveholders to retrieve an enslaved person.

____ 7. John Brown’s intention in raiding the arsenal at Harpers Ferry was to arm
a. slaveholders so they could defend themselves against a slave insurrection.

b. Virginians for civil war.

c. his followers so they could overthrow the federal government.

d. enslaved people and begin an insurrection against slaveholders.

____ 8. All of the following states seceded from the Union EXCEPT
a. North Carolina. c. Arkansas.
b. Tennessee. d. Missouri.

____ 9. According to the chart above, which of the following statements is accurate about the time period from
1790 to 1850?
a. The number of Southern slaves tripled from 1830 to 1850.

b. There were one million more Southern slaves in 1850 than in 1790.

c. The number of Southern slaves increased four times.

d. The highest growth rate in number of Southern slaves was from 1790 to 1810.

____ 10. Which of the following is not true about the time period 1790 to 1850, according to the chart above?
a. The number of slaves living in Northern states did not even double.

b. The number of slaves living in Southern states quadrupled.

c. There was a 50 percent growth in the number of slaves in Northern states.

d. After 60 years, there still were not as many enslaved people in the North as there were in
the South in 1790.

____ 11. Robert E. Lee did not accept command of the Union troops because
a. he believed in slavery.

b. he supported secession.

c. he could not fight against Virginia.

d. he already commanded Confederate troops.

____ 12. Jefferson Davis wanted to fight a war of attrition, in which the South would
a. avoid large battles and force the North to exhaust its resources.

b. attack only when the battle would result in heavy losses to the enemy.

c. defend its territory but not invade the North.

d. not attack, but would fight when the North attacked.

____ 13. The map shows the site of the battle that was the turning point of the war. That battle took place at

a. Chattanooga. c. Chickamauga.

b. Chancellorsville. d. Gettysburg.

____ 14. All of the following were advantages the North enjoyed over the South EXCEPT
a. a larger population. c. more military colleges.

b. more industry. d. more miles of railroad tracks.

____ 15. The North’s Anaconda Plan proposed all of the following EXCEPT
a. a blockade of Confederate ports.
b. controlling the Mississippi River with gunboats.

c. a strong, quick invasion toward the capital of Richmond.

d. dividing the Confederacy and exhausting its resources, forcing surrender.

____ 16. The Emancipation Proclamation

a. decreed freedom for all enslaved people.

b. decreed freedom for all enslaved people in the states at war with the Union.

c. decreed freedom for all enslaved people in the loyal border states.

d. started the process of amending the Constitution to free all enslaved people.

____ 17. To receive a pardon under Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan, Southerners had to take an oath of loyalty to the
United States and
a. promise never to secede again. c. set up schools for freedmen.
b. accept that slaves were now free. d. pay damages to the North.
____ 18. President Andrew Johnson believed that the ____ caused the Civil War.
a. Southern politicians c. rich planter elite

b. Northern abolitionists d. Radical Republicans in Congress

____ 19. President Johnson challenged the Tenure of Office Act by

a. running for a third term as president.
b. not replacing cabinet members.

c. firing General Grant.

d. firing Secretary of War Stanton.

____ 20. Some scalawags were

a. wealthy planters who were looking for a way to regain power.

b. owners of small farms who did not want wealthy planters to regain power.

c. Northern schoolteachers who educated whites and African Americans.

d. African Americans who had won office in Southern state governments.

____ 21. Originally, the goal of the Ku Klux Klan was to

a. terrorize African American freedmen to force them to move to the North.

b. remove African Americans from public office.

c. drive out all Northern influences and return to a plantation system in the South.

d. drive out Union troops and regain control of the South for the Democratic Party.

____ 22. Reconstruction ended when

a. Hayes was elected.

b. Hayes submitted a plan for the “New South.”

c. Hayes pulled federal troops out of the South.

d. industrialization began in the South.

____ 23. The main goals of the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction included all of the following EXCEPT
a. guaranteeing seats in Congress for African Americans.

b. preventing Confederate leaders from returning to power.

c. making the Republican Party a powerful institution in the South.

d. guaranteeing African Americans’ right to vote in the South.

____ 24. Some carpetbaggers were

a. Northerners who moved to the South to take advantage of the war-torn region.

b. Southerners who favored Republican plans for developing the economy.

c. Southern African American freedmen who moved to the North.

d. white Southerners who moved to the North to escape the South’s turmoil.

____ 25. In the late 1800s, support grew in the U.S. for building a large modern navy to
a. protect the U.S. from invasion.

b. conquer Latin American countries.

c. conquer islands in the Pacific.

d. avoid being shut out of foreign markets.

____ 26. The United States caused an economic crisis in Cuba by

a. preventing trade with Spain.

b. blockading the island.

c. passing a tariff on sugar.

d. withdrawing American investments.

____ 27. According to the treaty that ended the Spanish-American War, the U.S. would
a. annex Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.

b. free Cuba, and annex Guam and Puerto Rico.

c. free Guam and Cuba, and annex Puerto Rico.

d. free Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.

____ 28. When the U.S. assumed the responsibility for collecting customs tariffs in the Dominican Republic, using the
Marines as agents, it was applying
a. the Open Door Policy. c. dollar diplomacy.
b. the Roosevelt Corollary. d. the Platt Amendment.

____ 29. The Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown by

a. a group of Hawaiian peasants, upset over the islands’ economic troubles.
b. an invasion by the United States military.

c. a group of planters supported by the United States Marines.

d. a group of Hawaiian peasants supported by the United States Marines.

____ 30. American support for the rebels in Cuba was fueled by
a. the desire to protect American sugar interests on the island.

b. popular interest in starting an American empire by taking control of Cuba.

c. sensational stories published by rival newspapers.

d. the fear of having a Spanish colony so close to the United States.

____ 31. In 1898 President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Havana to
a. evacuate Americans if necessary. c. put down the Cuban rebellion.
b. put down riots by Spanish loyalists. d. negotiate peace with Spain.

____ 32. Supporters of annexing the Philippines believed all of the following EXCEPT
a. the islands would provide the United States with a naval base in Asia.
b. the United States could profit from the islands’ rich mineral resources.

c. the islands represented a large market for American goods.

d. America had a duty to teach the “less civilized” peoples how to live properly.

____ 33. The Platt Amendment effectively made Cuba into an American
a. protectorate. c. unincorporated territory.
b. colony. d. state.

____ 34. The purpose of the Open Door policy in China was to
a. end the Boxer Rebellion.
b. gain leaseholds.

c. establish spheres of influence.

d. ensure trading rights for all nations.

____ 35. Progressives had a strong faith in

a. the basic goodness of humanity. c. science and expertise.
b. politicians to serve the people. d. God.

____ 36. Alice Paul’s strategy alarmed many in the suffrage movement because she wanted to
a. support Woodrow Wilson. c. use protests to force suffrage.

b. start a women-only political party. d. use violence to force suffrage.

____ 37. Socialists believe in

a. no government.
b. private ownership of business.

c. government regulation of business.

d. government ownership of business.

____ 38. Theodore Roosevelt tried to win the Republican nomination from William Howard Taft in the 1912 election
because he believed that Taft
a. did not deal with trusts aggressively enough.

b. had failed to live up to progressive ideals.

c. could not defeat Woodrow Wilson.

d. was too slow in pushing for tariff reform.

____ 39. The Underwood Tariff Act included a provision for

a. negotiating tariffs with other nations.
b. levying an income tax.

c. starting a new national bank.

d. banning tying agreements.

____ 40. In a direct primary,

a. all party members vote for delegates to the party’s convention.

b. the party’s state legislators vote for delegates to the party’s convention.

c. all party members vote for a candidate to run in the general election.

d. the party’s state legislators vote for a candidate to run in the election.

____ 41. Theodore Roosevelt viewed the coal miners strike against mine owners in 1902 as an example of
a. groups pursuing their private interests at the expense of the nation.

b. workers pursuing their right to fair wages and safe working conditions.

c. big business abusing its power by exploiting workers.

d. big business exercising its right to operate without a union.

____ 42. The Payne-Aldrich Tariff

a. raised tariffs significantly. c. cut tariffs significantly.
b. imposed new tariffs. d. cut tariffs hardly at all.

____ 43. Roosevelt believed that Taft’s focus on breaking up trusts would
a. promote competition and lower prices for consumers.
b. please progressives and help the Republicans stay in power.

c. destroy the system of cooperation and regulation Roosevelt had arranged.

d. ruin the efficiency of business and cause prices to rise.

____ 44. Wilson believed lower tariff rates would lead American companies to
a. go out of business.

b. form trusts.

c. invest in foreign companies.

d. improve products and lower prices.

____ 45. The Triple Entente included

a. Germany, Bulgaria, and Italy. c. Britain, France, and Russia.
b. Germany, Turkey, and Russia. d. Britain, France, and the U.S.

____ 46. In the case Schenck v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that
a. immigrants from countries at war with the United States could be excluded from positions
of power.
b. freedom of speech could be curbed in wartime.
c. the right to bear arms could be limited for immigrants.

d. the Sedition Act was unconstitutional.

____ 47. The event that touched off the first declaration of war in World War I was
a. the assassination of the archduke of Germany.

b. the assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.

c. the German invasion of Belgium.

d. the German invasion of Russia.

____ 48. World War I was the first war in which

a. African American soldiers were not segregated from white soldiers.

b. women officially served in the armed forces.

c. the government officially imposed conscription.

d. the military drafted African American men.

____ 49. To conserve energy during World War I, the Fuel Administration introduced
a. longer workdays. c. Hooverizing.
b. daylight savings time. d. corn-based fuels.

____ 50. The Great Migration during World War I was a flow of
a. European immigrants fleeing to the United States to escape the war in Europe.
b. French refugees fleeing to Britain ahead of the German onslaught.

c. Mexicans fleeing to the American Southwest to escape political turmoil.

d. African Americans moving from the South to Northern cities.

____ 51. The “Big Four” who attended the peace conference at the end of World War I were the leaders from the
United States, Britain, France, and
a. Russia. c. Italy.
b. Germany. d. Austria-Hungary.

____ 52. The Triple Alliance included

a. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
b. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.

c. Britain, France, and Russia.

d. Britain, France, and the United States.

____ 53. According to the Zimmermann telegram, if Mexico allied with Germany, Germany would
a. send troops to support the Huerta government.

b. prevent the United States from taking control of Mexico.

c. help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

d. help Mexico take control of Central America.

____ 54. According to the Selective Service Act, the order in which men were called to service would be determined
a. local draft boards.

b. military headquarters in Washington, D.C.

c. age, drafting 21-year-olds first and 30-year-olds last.

d. lottery.

____ 55. During World War I, Americans were encouraged to “Hooverize” by

a. observing Wheatless Mondays.

b. observing Heatless Mondays.

c. buying Liberty Bonds.

d. buying only products necessary to live.

____ 56. “Selling” the war to the American people was the task of
a. J. Edgar Hoover.

b. the War Propaganda Board.

c. the War Industries Board.

d. the Committee on Public Information.

____ 57. Criticism of the war at home was effectively silenced by

a. the Committee on Public Information.

b. the Espionage and Sedition Acts.

c. the Red Scare.

d. the Palmer raids.

____ 58. The organization that eventually became the Federal Bureau of Investigation was originally formed to
a. uncover German spies during World War I.

b. spread propaganda within the United States in support of the war.

c. infiltrate unions to head off strikes.

d. raid radical headquarters looking for evidence of a Communist conspiracy.


Match each item with the correct statement below. One letter is used twice.
a. George McClellan f. Stonewall Jackson
b. John Wilkes Booth g. David G. Farragut

c. William Tecumseh Sherman h. Ulysses S. Grant

d. Robert E. Lee i. Henry Wirz

e. Winfield Scott
____ 59. regretted the all-out assault he ordered at Cold Harbor
____ 60. general in chief of the U.S. who proposed Anaconda Plan
____ 61. ran for president against Lincoln in 1864
____ 62. commander whose reinforcements from Virginia stood firm during the First Battle of Bull Run
____ 63. after McDowell’s failure at the First Battle of Bull Run, ordered by Lincoln to lead the Union army in the east
____ 64. promoted by Lincoln to lieutenant general
____ 65. uttered the quote “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!”
____ 66. surrendered to Grant to end the Civil War
____ 67. assassinated Abraham Lincoln
____ 68. commandant of an infamous military prison

Match each item with the correct statement below. Answers may be used more than once.
a. Military Reconstruction Act e. Tenure of Office Act
b. Enforcement Acts f. Civil Rights Act of 1866

c. black codes g. Fourteenth Amendment

d. Fifteenth Amendment
____ 69. passed to prevent Johnson from firing Stanton
____ 70. allowed African Americans to own property
____ 71. intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery
____ 72. divided the former Confederacy into five districts
____ 73. prohibited states from taking a citizen’s life, liberty, or property without due process of law
____ 74. declared that no state could deny any person “equal protection of the laws”
____ 75. provided authority to arrest members of the Ku Klux Klan
____ 76. intended to combat the violence in the South
____ 77. led to the impeachment of Andrew Johnson
____ 78. declared that the right to vote “shall not be denied . . . on account of race, color, or previous condition of

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a. Open Door Policy f. Matthew C. Perry
b. Roosevelt Corollary g. Platt Amendment

c. Pan-Americanism h. Foraker Act

d. Anglo-Saxonism i. protectorate

e. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty j. dollar diplomacy

____ 79. if American business leaders supported Latin American and Asian development, everyone would benefit
____ 80. ensured that Cuba would remain tied to the United States
____ 81. the United States would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary
____ 82. gave the United States the right to build and control a canal through Central America
____ 83. kept Chinese ports open to vessels of all nations
____ 84. made Puerto Rico an “unincorporated territory”
____ 85. the U.S. had a duty to shape “less civilized” areas
____ 86. idea that the U.S. and Latin America should work together
____ 87. local rulers had to accept advice from an imperial power
____ 88. took a naval expedition to Japan

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a. Sussex Pledge f. Pancho Villa

b. Black Hand g. espionage

c. Barnard Baruch h. Vladimir Lenin

d. John Pershing i. Liberty Bonds

e. Ferdinand Foch j. Four-Minute Men

____ 89. general who failed to capture Pancho Villa

____ 90. Mexican guerrilla leader who conducted raids into the U.S.
____ 91. promise not to sink more merchant ships without warning
____ 92. gave patriotic speeches urging support of war effort
____ 93. Serbian nationalist group behind assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
____ 94. method of loaning money to the government to pay for war
____ 95. spying to acquire government secrets
____ 96. supreme commander of the Allied forces
____ 97. Bolshevik leader
____ 98. stockbroker who led the War Industries Board

Short Answer

99. Use the word “TARIFF” correctly in a sentence.

100. What is the approximate time period that was covered in this mid-term exam? (For example, 1776 - 1820)