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Modeling of Recoil Control System for Vehicle-Mounted Machine Guns
Wesley Crane Chad Linn
medium-caliber machine guns (20-30mm) have been developed that are capable of penetrating some of the heaviest armor that has been created. It was adopted by the British Army this same year. an active. motor-driven chain gun. Army’s M230 30mm. . By World War I. The first battle action that the Maxim gun saw was in the Matabele War in 1893-94. In one engagement. the Gatling gun was developed in 1862.S. Hiram Maxim is credited with demonstrating the world’s first automatic machine gun. These machine guns will be the focus of this project. specifically.000 Matabele warriors with merely four Maxim guns. Due to the ferocity of machine guns against infantry. From World War II to the present. nearly every solider is equipped with a fully-automatic rifle of some kind. variable-rate damping system will be modeled for the U. The original hand-crank version was used by the United States Army until 1911. fifty British troops were able to hold back 5.Introduction Machine guns have played a crucial role in the recent history of mankind. Although not technically a machine gun. most nations had machine gun of various forms. mounted to an AH-64 Apache helicopter. just before World War I. The Model 1862 Gatling gun was capable of firing up to 600 rounds per minute. modern war devices like tanks and heavy armor were designed to counter machine guns. Today. In 1885.
The M230 is very articulate. in such a manner that it can look in nearly a full circle as well as up and straight down. It is mounted to the underside and reward of the nose of the Apache. .
the momentum was found to be 238.Problem Parameters Many parameters exist with this type of problem. a closer look was taken at some basic physics. and that there was enough momentum .32456 N*m/s = 2 * m p * v p => L(U) = 2 * m p * s kt = spring constant of system bt = damping constant of system Z = actuator input KP = proportional control factor KI = integral control factor KD = derivative control factor G After great difficulty attempting to develop the proper transfer function for a dual-mass. velocity.03 m/s! Assuming that it was standing still or hovering when firing the M230. three-dimensional damping system.5kg Mh = mass of the Apache = 7484. Taking the velocity of the projectile. Momentum is the mass multiplied by the velocity. Mh and Mg. Obviously. together. The direction. the resulting velocity of the Apache was a mere 0.30132 kg Vp = velocity of the projectile = 792 m/sec U = impulse of the recoil = 439.645 N*m/s. and the mass of the projectile. the recoil of the M230 must be considered. Mg = mass of the M230 = 57. Vp. The following is a list of our parameters and their values if known or are constant. Mp.4 kg Mp = mass of the projectile = 0. Factoring the mass of the Apache and gun. namely the Law of Conservation of Momentum. and orientation of the helicopter is also a factor. How the gun itself is oriented will change how the damping will need to be applied.
With that small discovery. It was also decided that the system should be slightly under-damped for the quickest response possible.8 ≤ ζ ≥ 0. . it was decided that our system should be reduced to a simple mass-spring-damper system. and some disturbance input from the M230 chain gun itself. it was agreed upon that the active damping should have an incredibly quick settling time of t s = 0. perhaps a half of a second long in duration. even for a the full two minutes to empty the ammunition drum! Obviously. a PID controller and an accompanying actuator. For the performance requirements of the system.conserved to overcome friction. It was determined that the gun should travel no more than 25mm during the initial response to the recoil. or approximately 0. The difference in these two models would be that a step disturbance represents a continuous fire mode and an impulse disturbance is a short burst of fire.95 The travel of the gun itself also needs to be limited.03 m/s. drag. although it should be able to detect these changes. It was also decided that modeling the disturbance as both a step disturbance and an impulse disturbance would be most realistic. the Apache would very likely not even be affected by the firing of the chain gun. This approach would also decrease ammunition usage since fewer rounds would be fired during the time it takes to get the gun fully on target. the likelihood of solid hits increased. and other forces opposing the momentum.1sec This short settling time was chosen because the quicker than the gun could get on target. the Apache’s flight control computer cannot regulate the exact velocity of the craft to a level of 0.
and division by zero is not recommended in most applications. the input to the system is only the disturbance.System Development Initially we needed to develop a set of equations and transfer functions to model the components of the system. . The equation for the plant was derived assuming that all initial conditions were zero. The plant of the system starts with the following equation initially mx + b x + k = u This equation was transformed into the Laplace domain with the following form Y 1 = 2 D s + 5s + 250 Since the reference input is set at zero.
Before the controller. and actuator were added to the system. set to be slightly underdamped. the step disturbance response is very slow in reacting. the pilot or gunner have moved to the next target. it appears as if the system could meet the design criteria. By this point. it was modeled as a simple mass-spring-damper system. The results from a step disturbance (green line) are similar. Also. Taking the step disturbance and impulse disturbance. sensors. but not quite as dynamic and with about half of the settling time. . but closer inspection reveals that the system is still oscillating after two seconds with an impulse disturbance (blue line). the system was found to react in the following manner At first glance.
0125s 2 + s = R 0.19s 2 + 15975s + 32000 With the active control components inserted into the system.09s 3 + 2067. Consequently. the controller. The controller was modeled using the standard configuration for PID controllers KDs2 + KPs + KI s The standard equation for the actuator was also used 1 Ts + 1 With the actuator and controller factored into the system.719 s 4 + 61. actuator. the response improved dramatically in the following manner for a step disturbance .From here. and sensor were inserted in the system. the overall transfer function was developed to become Y . the complexity and level of control greatly increased.
The travel of M230 was significantly reduced. down to just a few millimeters. but since the travel is limited to such a short distance. this extended settling time should have minimal effects on the system. Even more dramatic improvements were made with an impulse disturbance . the settling time is not in the neighborhood of one-tenth of one second. Unfortunately.
but by the time that the system is settling down to the initial state. which is very desirable.The response time of the system is nearly instantaneous. but only by a few millimeters. The travel of the gun is slightly more than what we had required. the response to an impulse disturbance is more impressive indeed. . Considering that the majority of the shots taken with the M230 will be of the burst-fire variety. the crew of the Apache has quit firing the gun. The overall settling time is a little slower than what we desired.
Machine guns have accelerated this technological development even more. Just scroll down and view the Phalanx videos from there. The Phalanx is used to defend Naval vessels from anti-ship missiles and other short distance threats. simple machine guns combined with leading edge electronics create some of the devastating devices on the battlefield.Conclusion Militaries have been some of the leading technology developers for centuries.com and search for “Gatling gun. If the above link to a video does not work.” The third link of the search results should take you to the same page linked above.google. beginning in the mid-1800’s. can be found in the United States Navy’s Phalanx Close-in Weapons System1 (CIWS-pronounced SeeWiz). A perfect example of what a properly damped machine gun paired with a state-of-the-art closed-loop radar tracking system. open Internet Explorer from the Desktop. go to www. 1 . Today.
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