Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the file copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version ( November 12, 2010)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159


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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliii Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 20 21 26 29 39 39 47 47 49 49 50 50 50 51 53 57 58 59 59 60 63 63 63 65 65 66 70

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .

CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Effects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Effects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 74 78 80 81 81 83 85 85 94 101 108 118 119






Integral Analysis
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127 127 128 129 131 131 138 140 146 149 151 151 151 152 153 153 154 158 161 162 169 170 173

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 175 175 187 188 189 189 191 191 192 192 194

7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform


Differential Analysis
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197 197 198 201 203 208 208 209 210 214 224 224 228 238 243 243 243 244 245 246 247 251 252 255 256 258 259 260 262

8 Differential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simplified Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Differential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classification of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Definitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 263 265 266 273 275 275 276 278 280 286 286 287 289 292 294 297 299 301 301 302 303

A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Differential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Differentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Differential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Differential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Differential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index 305 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308


. .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . .3 1. The raising height as a function of the radii. . . . . . . . . .19 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in fluid mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . .12 1. .LIST OF FIGURES 1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . . . . . . .1 3. . Forces in Contact angle. .14 1. . . . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature.13 1. Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia .2 3.11 1. . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . .15 1. . . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 24 26 27 29 30 31 34 34 48 49 50 51 52 53 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . The deformation of fluid due to shear stress. . . . .6 Diagram to explain part of relationships of fluid mechanics branches. . . . . . . . . . . . .17 1.8 1. . . . . . . . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . . .6 1. . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. .20 3. . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting fluids. . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. .4 3. The raising height as a function of the radius. . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . . . . . . The difference of power fluids. . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.10 1. . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . .18 1. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity.

. . . . . . . . . . . The difference between the slop and the direction angle. . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . . . . .11 4.12 4. . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES .33 4. Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 4. Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . The varying gravity effects on density and pressure . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . .19 4. . . . .35 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . .16 4. . The forces on curved area. . . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. .25 4. . . . . .6 4. Description of parabola . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . . . . . . . . . The effects of multi layers density on static forces . . . .3 4. . . . . . center of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . . . . . . Stability analysis of floating body. .27 4. 53 54 54 55 55 56 58 63 66 66 67 68 70 70 73 76 78 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 89 90 93 94 95 96 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 108 109 109 111 Description of a fluid element in accelerated system. .34 4. .8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 4. . . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . . .2 4. . . . .x 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . Inclined manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure lines in a static constant density fluid. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . . .28 4. . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . . .31 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 4. . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4. . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. Schematic of a thin wall floating body . . . . .9 4. . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . .11 3. . . .32 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . .4 4. . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . . . .10 4. . The effective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.13 4. . . . . . Schematic of floating cubic . . Schematic of submerged area. . . . . . . . . . .14 4. . Moment of inertia for rectangular . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . The floating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. .21 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . area . . . . . . . . .12 3. . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . Schematic of Net Force on floating body. . . . . . .moment of inertia and Triangle for example 3.7 . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane . Schematic of floating bodies . . . . . . . . Inverted manometer . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .42 4. . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . The mass balance on the infinitesimal control volume . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . . . . . 202 . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7.37 4. . . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . . 198 The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . . . . . . . .44 4. . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . .1 5. . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular cross section for finding Ux . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . .12 6. . .9 5. . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . . . . . . .14 . Measurement of GM of floating body. . . . . . . . . . .11 5. . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . .47 5. . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . .38 4. . .4 8. . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to find the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of flow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. . . .39 4. . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . .2 6. . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . .43 4. . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity Flow in an oscillating manometer .45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . .41 4. . . . . . . . .9 6.6 5. . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . 200 Mass flow due to temperature difference . . . xi 111 112 113 114 116 117 119 120 121 122 123 127 128 129 130 133 136 141 146 147 148 149 150 152 155 157 159 160 161 164 165 169 171 174 176 178 179 188 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . .40 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A heavy needle is floating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . The effects of liquid movement on the GM . .3 Stability of cubic body infinity long. . .5 5. . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet .4 6. . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . .46 4. . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . Deformations of different rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratified flow in horizontal tubes.19 8. . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 211 212 214 216 217 219 219 219 220 225 227 228 228 230 231 234 236 238 245 247 248 248 249 250 251 261 262 263 264 264 265 266 266 272 275 276 282 283 284 285 303 8.xii 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . The flow patterns in solid-liquid flow. . . . . .6 A. . . . . .2 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . Image of counter-current flow in liquid–gas/solid–gas configurations. . . . . . . . . . A diagram to explain the flood in a two dimension geometry. One dimensional flow with shear between plates . . . . . . . . . Counter–current flow in a can. . . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .20 9. .16 A. .9 9. . . . . . . . . . .15 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Different fields of multi phase flow. . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 8. . Linear strain of the element . The right hand rule . . . . .10 LIST OF FIGURES Mass flow in coating process . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 9. . . .3 9. . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . Modified Mandhane map for flow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plug flow in horizontal tubes with the liquids flow is faster. The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . .5 A. . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . Mass flow due to temperature difference . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . .8 9. . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . .5 8. . Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . .4 8. .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress at different surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8. . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical flow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . .17 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . Liquid flow due to gravity . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . The control volume in pipe flow . . . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . .1 A. (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . .13 8. . A flow map to explain the horizontal counter–current flow. . . . . . . . . . .4 A. . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . . .11 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. .13 9.12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Stratified flow in horizontal tubes when the liquids flow is very slow. . . . . . . Counter–flow in vertical tubes map. . . . . .16 8. .

. . .1 3. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sutherland’s equation coefficients . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials.1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . xl 13 13 14 15 21 22 30 36 37 44 61 62 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . .7 1. . . . . .4 1. . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . 286 xiii . . . . . . . .6 1. Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . .


page 259 The area of surface.22).9). see equation (9.1). page 43 Specific volume heat. see equation (6.3). see equation (6. page 152 Units length. see equation (2.0).121).0). page 40 xv . page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.38). see equation (6. see equation (2.. page 63 Body force. page 39 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. see equation (4.11). page 169 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (4. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 151 Martinelli parameter. see equation (6. Ti0 .v.23). page 41 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. see equation (1. page 94 The acceleration of object or system.17).17).26). see equation (5.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.6). page 43 Internal energy.7). see equation (1. see equation (2. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum. page 153 The velocity taken with the direction. page 40 Internal Energy per unit mass.1). page 128 Specific pressure heat. page 12 External forces by non–fluids means. page 43 The shear stress Tenser. see equation (2.43).

page 40 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2.1.2). see equation (1. see equation (2. page 40 The gravitation constant.17).3). see equation (4. page 42 Specific enthalpy. see equation (2. page 176 Angular momentum.18). page 87 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. see equation (2.6). see equation (2. see equation (2. page 40 Specific gas constant. page 79 general Body force.2). page 60 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin.42). see equation (1. page 128 . see equation (2. page 40 the coordinate in z direction. page 42 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 59 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. page 40 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.66). page 40 Work per unit mass. page 65 Subscribe says.2). see equation (4. see equation (5.17).6). page 43 Fluid thermal conductivity.14).4). see equation (4.xvi Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 42 the ratio of the specific heats. see equation (3. see equation (2. page 12 Torque. page 63 Enthalpy. see equation (4.24). see equation (3.27). see equation (2.0).13). page 44 Entropy of the system.18).0). page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (1.17).89). see equation (2. see equation (7. page 12 velocity .40).

2010 (3.The Book Change Log Version 0. xvii .3 M 354 pages) ˆ Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. Version 0.3.artofproblemsolving. ˆ Add several examples on surface tension. ˆ Add discussion about inclined manometer ˆ Improve many figures and equations in Static chapter. ˆ Improve English in static and mostly in differential analysis chapter.1 Nov 12.0 Oct 24. ˆ Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation.3 M 358 pages) ˆ Build the chapter log file for latex (macro) process Steven from www. ˆ Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear ˆ Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to differential equations.0. ˆ Improvement of properties chapter.3. ˆ Improve English in several chapters. 2010 (3.

3 M 338 pages) ˆ Initial release of the differential equations chapter.4 March 01. ˆ Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. ˆ Add the macro protect to insert figure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.2.9 M 280 pages) ˆ The energy conservation chapter was released. 2010 (2. 2010 (3.artofproblemsolving. ˆ Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille flow. ˆ Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. ˆ Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.6 March 10. ˆ Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. Version 0. Version 0.9 M 280 pages) ˆ add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.2. ˆ Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra.9 Sep 20.1 Oct 11. ˆ Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny. 2010 (2.xviii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Version 0. ˆ Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder figure.2. 2010 (3. ˆ Add example. ˆ Add to the appendix the differentiation of vector operations.3 M 344 pages) ˆ Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter.2. ˆ Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan) .

5 M 197 pages) ˆ Continue fixing the long titles issues. 2009 (2. ˆ English corrections.LIST OF TABLES ˆ Add example about the the third component of the velocity.1. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir xix Version 0. 2009 (2.8 M 241 pages) ˆ The momentum conservation chapter was released.5 Nov 01. 2010 (2. ˆ English corrections. Version 0.3 Jan 01.9 Dec 01. ˆ Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.1.8.1 Sep 17. ˆ Add some examples to static chapter.6 M 219 pages) ˆ The mass conservation chapter was released. ˆ Add the open question concept. ˆ English corrections.1. ˆ Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter. ˆ Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.8.2. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. ˆ Add the first draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. ˆ Improve the dwarfing macro to allow flexibility with sub title. ˆ Add an example to mechanics chapter. ˆ Corrections to Static Chapter.5 M 203 pages) ˆ First true draft for the mass conservation. Two open questions were released. 2009 (2.artofproblemsolving. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version .

8a July 5. viscosity and other properties of fluid.4 M 189 pages) ˆ Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase flow ˆ Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene).5a Jun 11. ˆ Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Version 0. 2008 (1. Version 0.1. Version 0. . ˆ Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.6 M 183 pages) ˆ Fixing some long titles issues.xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0.1. 2008 (1.3 M 151 pages) ˆ Fix the English in the introduction chapter.1.8 Aug 6.1.1. 2008 (1. ˆ Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).6 Jun 30. ˆ Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). Version 0.4 M 155 pages) ˆ Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter. ˆ Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.5 Jun 5. (thanks to Tousher). 2008 (2.4 M 149 pages) ˆ Add the introduction. ˆ Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters. 2009 (2. ˆ Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) ˆ Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.

1 May 8. ˆ Minor corrections for all three chapters. ˆ The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter). 2008 (1. Version 0.1a April 23. 2008 Version 0. ˆ The mechanics chapter was released. .1.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. 2008 ˆ The Thermodynamics chapter was released.1 M 111 pages) ˆ Major English corrections for the three chapters.1a April 23. ˆ Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter.


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” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a ”major” contribution. 2009 xxxi .com ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Minor contributions (typo corrections. time. Dec. ˆ Contact at: barmeir at gmail. contact Steven from artofproblemsolving. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. and resources to make this a better book! ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present ˆ Nature of contribution: Original author. etc.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. etc. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s).CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. date. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.

xxxii LIST OF TABLES ˆ Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. John Herbolenes ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Olson ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 ˆ Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. ˆ Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have different counter for . ˆ Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. Dec 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. ˆ Contact at: my email@provider. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. describing how you contributed to the book. Richard Hackbarth ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 ˆ Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Your name here ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution ˆ Nature of contribution: Insert text here. Eliezer Bar-Meir ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Dan H. Henry Schoumertate ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms.

38) by Michal Zadrozny. review of statics and thermo chapters. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues).CREDITS xxxiii Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions ˆ R. January 2008. ˆ Tousher Yang April 2008. Gupta. (Nov 2010) . ˆ Corretion to equation (2.


These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). All the models have practical applicability.G. Dr. the critical piston velocity in a partially filled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. the author’s models were used in numerical works.D. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. Eckert. R. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the field of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes fluid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. For example. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. books and software.E. As the change in the view occurred. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. Currently. In his early part of his professional life. In the area of compressible flow. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. British industry. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. Spain. and Canada. xxxv . Moreover. in GM. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. Now.

he often feels clueless about computers and programing. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea officer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. He described and categorized the filling and evacuating of chamber by compressible fluid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working fluid was ideal gas. He built a model to explain the flooding problem (two phase flow) based on the physics. . The author lives with his wife and three children. A past project of his was building a four stories house. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a finite radius. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two flow regimes.xxxvi LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buffer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. practically from scratch. All the previous models for the flooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. Bar-Meir demonstrated that fluids must have wavy surface when the materials flow together. the author just know to learn quickly. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that flow can turn in a sharp corner. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno flow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion.

wikipedia. the creation of the POTTO Page). one should increase wisdom. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. is a new idea3 . There is always someone who can add to the book. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. Kook. like an open source. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. Writing a book in the technical field is not the same as writing a novel. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. Hence. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. As individuals we have to obey the law. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal for more information) copyrights practically remain indefinitely with the holder (not the creator). the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand.harvard. xxxvii . 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. As R.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The first issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. particularly the copyright law with the “infinite2 ” time with the copyright holders. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. one of this author’s sages. On one hand. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). Ashcroff (see http://cyber.

The social function can have at least two components. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the effort. Thus. For others. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES related problems. In a The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. The answer varies from individual to individual. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the For some contributors/authors. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. 1989 (see for information http://www.. one also begins to better understand the material. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. In these cases. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. 77:139. For some authors. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. While one can be as creative as possible. Thus. the books on compressible flow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that specific section (even within question/answer sections). To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected field. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.html) . the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private affair. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identified. It is not just for experts to contribute. For example. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. Whatever the reasons. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the first question the undersigned was asked. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution.ex. Nigel R. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks.” American Scientist.

chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. etc. the chapters on Fanno flow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. Farassat. graphs and etc. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible flow tables collection in the world). This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). These books should be considered more as a project than to fit the traditional definition of “plain” books. Every month people from about 110 different countries download these books. Even if not complete. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. The book on compressible flow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. Additionally. Thus. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. while in other cases only the gate keeper. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. Unlike a regular book. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts.” In this process. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. some errors are possible and expected. These data (tables. In addition. Nevertheless. But more than that. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)).CREDITS xxxix process. Thus. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. The books are used in more than 165 different countries around the world. NASA Langley Research Center. .000 copies a month. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “flesh and skin. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. Potto books on compressible flow and fluid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. many algorithms for calculating Fanno flow parameters which are not found in any other book. For example. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving.

advanced topics. a process in which books . and ˆ the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.0 0.xl Table -1.0. However.4.1 0. and all of the examples and data (tables.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: ˆ The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. etc.0. ˆ in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.0. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).2 0. figures.0 0.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download      Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi flow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY first chapter 0.0 0.1.) are already presented.0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0. While some terms are defined in a relatively clear fashion.0.0. But such a thing is hard to define and should be enough for this stage.0.0. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.0.1 0. Books under development in Potto project. ˆ in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. other definitions give merely a hint on the status.8. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.01       TelAviv’notes 0.3 0. and special cases.0 0. but it has roots in the way science progresses.

are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. who passed way some years ago. 6 Originally authored by Dr..e. and perhaps troff. only LTEX. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. which include the actual writing of the text. many of whom volunteered to help. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. pieces of material and data can be used by different books. and Microsoft Word software. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative effort of many individuals. because of the open nature of this project. . Further. are not appropriate for these projects. However. Word processors. Again.CREDITS xli have a new version every a few years. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. The text processes. Abiword. A new version is created every several years. writing examples. creating diagrams and figures. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. i. such as OpenOffice. especially LTEX. But more A than that. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. Schlichting.


it is very satisfying for the author. aerospace engineering. and civil engineering. in this version. Even in this early development stage. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xliii .6M When this author was an undergraduate student.Prologue For This Book Version 0. and electrical engineering. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations.8 August 6. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality.3M The topic of fluid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. Version 0. This author was bothered by this explanation. 2008 pages 189 size 2. In fact. While the emphasis is somewhat different in this book. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. so much energy).1 April 22. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. Now. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. chemical engineering. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance.1. 2008 pages 151 size 1. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel flow.

it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the field but change some of the way things are taught. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. The next two chapters will deals with open channel flow and gas dynamics. For example. The topic of fluid mechanics was chosen just to fill the introduction chapter to compressible flow. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. not a traditional topic. Today. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. and their colleagues. met its opposition. The book is organized into several chapters which. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. Eckert. Eckert. must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. on compressible flow. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. as a traditional textbook.xliv LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this field. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. However. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. At this stage.G. Up to Egret’s book. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. . With all the above. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. Ernst Schmidt. The next topic is statics. ideal flow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). will be presented next (again under construction). In this book it is hoped to insert. this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. this is the only reply. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. the previous book. multiphase is an advance topic. dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction). When the Static Chapter was written. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. aside from his research activity. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. Clearly. An introduction to multi–phase flow. As traditional texts in this field. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase fluid. Indeed. show me what is wrong”. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. One of the difference in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase flow. deals with a basic introduction to the fluid properties and concepts (under construction). however. he just doesn’t know from where and what. In writing the chapter on fluid statics.R.

The approach adapted in this book is practical. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems.” Later. There are numerous books on fluid mechanics but none of which is open content. multi–phase flow chapter was written. xlv . So. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly different from other books because the usability of the computers. The chapters are not written in order. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This author was influenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. In writing this book. The figure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. this book avoids this kind of issues. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. and is copyleft by him. The graphics were done by TGIF. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The figures were done by gle. and more hands–on approach. Of course. it was assumed that introductory book on fluid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. The structure of Hansen. and hope to find a way to use gaspell. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. The first 4 chapters were written first because they were supposed to be modified and used as fluid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. Streeter and Wylie. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaffolding for this book.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible flow book. Otherwise. The spell checking was done by ispell. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far.


However. statics’ equations. marked with a Mata mark. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. and there were words. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. say. 9 At 8 To xlvii . increase your understanding of the many aspects of fluid mechanics. Nevertheless. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. the present. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. etc. This book is only to explain his power. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. this manuscript is first and foremost a textbook. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. Like all volunteer work. Let This book. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. I believe professionals working in many engineering fields will benefit from this information. of the bits moved upon said. if you need information about. And the Author there be words. the power and glory of the mighty God. the POTTO project was and void. without form. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. the book is not well organized. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. This book contains many worked examples. and emptiness was upon the face and files. describes the fundamentals of fluid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. Moreover. naturally. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. which can be very useful for many. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task.Preface "In the beginning. there is a limit on how much effort I was able to put into the book and its organization. physics.9 Reading everything will. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the fluid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. you can read just chapter (4). For example." 8 .

ignore them please. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. graphic design.xlviii LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I am interested in it all. If you want to be involved in the editing. . You may contact me via Email at “”. isn’t it?). ideas. If you have Internet e-mail access. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. directly or indirectly. In practice. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. rewritten sections. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. ideas for new areas to cover. more fundamental material. Naturally. G. Dr. R. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . Several people have helped me with this book. Incorrect language. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). literature review is always good. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. There are also notes in the margin. This material never went through a close content review. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. whose work was the inspiration for this book. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. and assistance. Eckert. more mathematics (or less mathematics). graphic ability. E. errors. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. However. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. LTEX knowledge. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. 10”. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). or proofreading. editing. please drop me a line. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction.

illustration or photo of experiment. Material can be further illuminate. It is hoped that the style file will be converged to the final form rapidly. there are specific issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Nevertheless. Additional material can be provided to give a different angle on the issue at hand. At this stage. mistakes. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. Specific missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. question. These omissions. xlix . many chapters are missing. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.


Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. For example. flow in enclose bodies. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. This study area deals with many and diversified problems such as surface tension. The fluid mechanics study involve many fields that have no clear boundary between them. glass appears as a solid material. and statical conditions in continuous material. etc. flow stability. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in fluid mechanics) 1 . Researchers distinguish between orderly flow and chaotic flow as the laminar flow and the turbulent flow. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a fluid mechanics problem. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. the boundary between the solid mechanics and fluid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. or flow round bodies (solid or otherwise). motions.). It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. The fluid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase flow and multiphase flow (flow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). fluid statics.1 for the complex relationships between the different branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. After it was established that the boundaries of fluid mechanics aren’t sharp. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power fluids) fluids which will be defined later. Furthermore.CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic situations. In fact. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Moreover. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. Diagram to explain part of relationships of fluid mechanics branches.1. For ) analyzed a flow of a complete still liquid assuming a . -1.2 CHAPTER 1. Or. http://ekkinc. After it was made clear that the boundaries of fluid mechanics aren’t sharp. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some effects can be neglected. flow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. air with dust particle). isn’t sharp because fluid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the flow and switch from a single phase flow to a multi phase flow. when a general model is need because more parameters are effecting the situation. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between fields.

He also made several attempts to study the flight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of fluid mechanics materials. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. This book attempts to find a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented first (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Differential analysis. The first progress in fluid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the first chambered canal lock near Milan. and D’Alembert. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the fluid mechanics. Before dealing with the boundaries.C. chapters on open channel flow (as a sub class of the multiphase flow) and compressible flow (with the latest developments) are provided. Bernoulli family. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent flow model. conflicts with the reality. turbulence. there isn’t a clear winner. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. Reviewing many books on fluid mechanics made it clear. For example. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts.1. boundary layer and internal and external flow . two different of school of thoughts were created: the first be- . Naturally. to be followed by stability. Torricelli.2. the knowledge of fluid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. aqueducts were constructed. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. Euler. Yet. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of fluid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. As in thermodynamics. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase flow. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Differential Analysis. 1. etc. and continue with Empirical Analysis. Newton.) on the principles of buoyancy. Thus. After his initial work. the simplified private cases must be explained. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. “The theory of fluids must necessarily be based upon experiment. These two approaches have justifications and positive points.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. For example. When cities increased to a larger size. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. The ideal flow (frictionless flow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. The first approach introduces the fluid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving fluid problems. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. Later. At some point.

there are many . at the same time proposed many correlations to many fluid mechanics problems. Taylor. and Manning. d’Aubisson. mainly in pipes and open channels area. In the middle of the nineteen century. On the “experimental” side. La Grange. transformed the fluid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. The experimentalists. Perhaps the most radical concept that effects the fluid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern fluid mechanics. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. for example. and Poisseuille. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Thus. people cannot relinquish control. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. the empirical formulas generated by fitting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. and Kelvin. At the end of the twenty century. Dubuat. resistance by Darcy. However. Bhuckingham. But. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. were Brahms. Rose. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. first Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real fluid motion. Rankine. Thus. There are many open source programs that can analyze many fluid mechanics situations. von Karman. Dupuit. Ganguillet. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of fluid mechanics. Hydraulics. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. Hagen. Stanton. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Rayleigh. the way how it was calculated changed. On the theoretical side. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. many call Prandtl as the father of modern fluid mechanics. and Aeronautics. Bossut.4 CHAPTER 1. after World War Two. Helmhoitz. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the fluid mechanics. Kirchhoff. Meyer. Prandtl and his students Blasius. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. which describes the flow (or even Euler equations). The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the field. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing specific cases. as in thermodynamics. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. the demand for vigorous scientific knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every fluid was created by the expansion of many industries. and many others. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Therefore. Gas Dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory flow (1894). Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). Coulomb. This problem led to two consequences. Fanning. Weisbach. Fabre. Chezy.

KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. In this book. The second quantity discussed here is the area. e. EKK.3. For example. The area is measured in [m2 ]. This difference can be. 1. assuming turbulent flow for still flow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. It must be remember that force is a vector. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. the pressure will not affect the volume. Inc). these kinds of areas should be addressed infinitesimally and locally. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. The main difference between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost fix volume. The unit used to measure is [N]. and it is referred to the direction of the area. For example. For the discussion here. Later. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. no shear stress is applied. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does fill the entire volume). one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. which is force per area has a new meaning. any change in pressure directly affects the volume. the pressure has three components.1).g it has a direction. In the best scenario. then the change of volume is at best 5%. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. The fluid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). The gas fills the volume and liquid cannot. But below the critical point.1.3 Kinds of Fluids Some differentiate fluid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. The first is force which was reviewed in physics. for most practical purposes considered. This differentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. Thus. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. the emphasis is on the physics. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. sharp even though in reality this difference isn’t sharp. The traditional quantity. It is a known fact said that the fluid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a finite deformation which does not change with time. Thus. The difference between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. Hence. The pressure component in the area . In gaseous phase. if the change of pressure is significantly less than that. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. So. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. these programs are as good as the input provided. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. under certain limits.

The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. 1. In solid mechanics. U0x F However.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). the density remains constant. -1.6 CHAPTER 1. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. isn’t it?). In this discussion. the density is defined as Fig. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous.2. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. h is the distance between the plates.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. here it will be treated as a separate issue. Figure 1. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. that is. F.3. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. Different from solid. Thus. After certain sample size. When this assumption is broken. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. the velocity of the plate increases also. (1. fluid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. (1. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. .3). From solid mechanics study. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are significant (see Figure 1. -1. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). the aim is to develop differential equation. then. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in fluid mechanics. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. it was shown that when the force per area increases. h) (1.2) Where A is the area. the F denotes the force.

5) From equations (1.10) If the velocity profile is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. Hence. d = U δt = h δβ (1. In steady state.4.7) From Figure 1. The deformation of fluid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.3) (1.4.9) Combining equation (1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.4) and (1. -1.8) From equation (1.9) with equation (1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.11) . the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1. applying the coefficient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. δt is d = U δt (1.4) (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was defined as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.1.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1. Thus. the following can be written (see equation (1. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm.6)) F = 1 × 1.12) Newtonian fluids are fluids which the ratio is constant. the viscosity is the resistance to the flow (flux) or the movement. Solution . The units of shear stress are the same as flux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus.5 A µU ∼ = 53. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. water etc.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction.5 m/sec. Some referred to shear stress as viscous flux of x–momentum in the y–direction.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is filled with glycerin. This approximation is appropriate for many other fluids but only within some ranges.10) referred to as Newtonian fluid. Many fluids fall into this category such as air. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ].1 [m].1[m] diameters with height of 0. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. Solution Assuming Newtonian flow.01 End Solution Example 1. Example 1. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly. These cohesion and interactions hamper the flux in y–direction. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.2[m] and 0. Assume steady state conditions. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity.8 CHAPTER 1. In fact.069 × 0. which is exhibited by all fluids. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between fluid molecules. Equation (1.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C fills the space between two concentric cylinders of 0.45[N ] h 0. The property of viscosity.

in gases. temperature variation has an opposite effect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of flow. The different of power fluids families. In liquids. Thus. Thus.1 × 12/60 = 0. The difference is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.13 h 0. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n r-P hi as lip po ff di la ta nt .1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. However. the Fig.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1.5. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. while in the dU liquids. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. -1.4 ¡ M= ∼ . The same way as in example (1.1).1.5 Viscosity 1. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. thus. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. and it resists the flow.5.5. In gases. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases.986 0.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. Figure 1.13) are constant. the pressure has minor effect on the viscosity. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian fluid and K becomes the familiar µ. -1. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. K) in equation (1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. 1. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. -1. On the liquid side below the critical point. The viscosity coefficient is .6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.7.13) The new coefficients (n. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1.5). There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid.6. both materials are only a function of the temperature.5. the coefficient depends on the velocity gradient. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. Well above the critical point. It simply depends on the structure of the flow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase flow. From the physical point of view. Not all the materials obey this relationship. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn .10 CHAPTER 1.

[m2 /sec].0018 0. Skalny.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.003 0. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian fluid for large shear stress. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.000025 0. F. When n. eds. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. is above one. Materials Science of Concrete VI.0028 0. However.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. cosity is defined as 0.0004 0. This fact explains Fig. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.of the temperature.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1.8. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. 1.0014 0.1. However. When n is below one. Martys. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.0026 0. The reason for this new definition is that some experimental data are given in this form. this kind of figures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. S.0006 0.7.0002 5. the fluid is pseudoplastic. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). Many fluids satisfy the above equation. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.e-05 0. The kinematic vis. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic fluids (see Figure 1. 1 C.5.13) are referred to as purely viscous fluids. The general relationship for simple Bingham flow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1. Mindess and J.0012 0.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. Ferraris. de Larrard and N. These results also explained better using the new definition. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 .5.0008 0. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. In the simple case.5).0022 0.0024 0.000015 0. For example. the liquid is dilettante. VISCOSITY 11 always positive. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a fluid. for most practical purposes.. -1.0016 0.002 0. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.

2008 0.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . For many gases. T T0 3 2 (1.710−5 .07 3 2 ∼ 2. For isothermal flow. Water viscosity as a func1. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.07 + 120 µ = 0.8 and Fig.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.9. -1.555 × 524. Use the data provide in Table 1. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.002 0.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.12 CHAPTER 1.00001827 × × 0.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.1. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. have expressions that provide an estimate. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.1 Example 1.001 0.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.0015 The absolute viscosity of many fluids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.9. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.5. . The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.

0000203 0.93 540.07 527. VISCOSITY 13 ––– ––– coefficients chemical ––– ––– formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.1. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0001781 0.0000876 0.67 528.0000146 0.00000982 0.0001254 Table -1.00001720 0. .00001827 0.67 524.67 518.05 528. Viscosity of selected gases.00001480 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.0000076 0. The list for Sutherland’s equation coefficients for selected materials.1.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.0000109 0.99 526.0002018 0.5.2.

14 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.01915 0.15-0.000245 0.072 0.000647 0.084 0.986 5-20 0. Viscosity of selected liquids.001547 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.098 0.001194 0.3. .069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.000946 0.6 0.05 0.200 0.54 1.

cation (mushy zone). for practical purpose.9696 2.83865 46.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.97 44.5.636 58. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.8823 73. other points can be estimated. ∼ 1[bar]. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. In this graph.358525 48. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. The lower pressure is.5 2. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the first solidification appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).4 or similar information.3 5. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).54 15.5 151 289.1. Even when there is a solidifi. Liquid Metal viscosity 2. if one point is well documented.2 154.7685 36.01 32.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.4. May 1995 p. Pr = P/Pc are drawn. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. In Figure 1.9 15 Table -1.04 Tc [K] 33.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.7 647.00 30.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian fluid for many applications.10.0 21. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.6 26. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. then the critical .096 K Pc [Bar] 12. The lines of constant relative pressure.865925 50.5 1.003 20.4 49. Washington D. Tr .0 0.016 4.3 19.4 305. 19.0 18.944 131.26 44.183 39.8 132 304. -1.0 15. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.S.40685 22.07 16. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” fluids where information is limit.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.289945 27. this graph also shows the trends.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.4 190. 258. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. Figure 1. Furthermore.Fig.3 28.256425 48. The second way.47 2. Government Printing Office. Vol.C. Furthermore.

.35[Bar] Tc = 154. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally. For most 3 Kyama. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. 26 No. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr figure 1.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1.15 ∼ 2. 2 1956.35 373.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.2 = 21.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar]. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.18) The third way.4 50. Makita. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. Even for homogeneous mixture. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.11 (1.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. Rev. In this book. when none is available. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. Example 1.41 154.

and µi is the viscosity of component i.22) Here. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. xi is the mole fraction of component i. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. -1.11. .5.1.2 Pr=0. The subscript i should be used for the j index. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.21) where Φi j is defined as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. 2008 Fig. cases.

28. M 32. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Mole Fraction. µ 0.8 Viscosity.0000203 0.4 Tr=1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.1 Tr=1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.18 6 CHAPTER 1.2 0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.12.00001754 . -1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.2 Tr=1. Example 1. 2008 Fig.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen. x 0.

0000182 .0 Φij 1.875 1.996 1.0000073 kN . for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.23)  τxy dy 1 + τs   Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.0 1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.00105 N sec .12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.8 × 0.2 × 0. Reiner and Phillippoff suggested the following formula   1 µ0 − µ∞  τ  xy dUx µ + 2  = ∞ (1. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.25) .0 µi /µj 1. µ0 = 0.0 1.0 19 µmix ∼ 0.0 1.0000181 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0024 0. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.2 × 0.157 .5. m2 m2 and τs = 0.0024 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.0 + 0.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.0215 N sec .00001754 N sec + ∼ 0. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0. m2 Figure 1. End Solution In very low pressure.001 kN . This equation (1. in theory.143 0. It this method the following is defined as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.86 1.996 + 0.2 × 1.8 × 1.8 × 1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.0000203 0.1. An example for values for this formula.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric. Examples to described usage of property are provided. 1.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C.6.c) . For this example.VI.20 and CHAPTER 1. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P (1.6 Fluid Properties The fluids have many properties which are similar to solid. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 . As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank.VI.26) 1. it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible.b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2.6: A steel tank filled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C.VI. The rest of the properties lumped into this section. Example 1. State your assumptions.

VI.3 4.74 [MPa] 4. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf Pc 57. Table -1. The bulk modulus is defined as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1. FLUID PROPERTIES or using equation (1.10 1.20 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).e) 1.3 [Mpa] nf 7.5 [Bar] nf .27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.5.5 0. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.5.d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α.a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 21 E − ∆P E (1.5 [Bar] 172.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.6.06 1.49 0.49 [MPa] 6.80 1.32 1.1. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.03-4.97 2.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.52 26.VI.2-28.00 [MPa] Est 78.6. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).VI.

5 2.174 Tc nf nf na na 591. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. Fanno Flow Standard basic Table (continue) chemical component Olive Oil Paraffin Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus N 109 m 1. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and specific volume as P = f (T.34) T .33) From equation (1.22 CHAPTER 1. These definitions are related to each other.62 1. Another definition is referred as coefficient of tension and it is defined as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1. and therefore equation (1.32) On constant pressure lines.109 [MPa] na 22.28 2.79 K na 647.60 1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant). The thermal expansion is defined as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.064 [MPa] In the literature.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.096 K Pc nf nf na na 4.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.15-2.09 1. additional expansions for similar parameters are defined. dP = 0.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.5.34 1.

00035 End Solution Example 1.8: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.9: .6. In contrast.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].35) The last equation (1.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away. Example 1. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.15 109 . Solution Using the definition for the bulk modulus βT = −v ∂P v 5 ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.1. Solution Using the definition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.01 = 2.34) indicates that relationship for these three coefficients is βT = − βv βP 23 (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.7: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. FLUID PROPERTIES Equation (1.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Two layers of two different liquids are contained in a very solid tank. The new pressure is P1 . ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.b) V −V BT .c) End Solution Example 1. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom.a) The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.IX. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure.IX. The liquids are air (or gas) compressed due to the pressure increases.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1. Solution For the the first method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1. -1.13. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 .X. For this example. The area of the h1 Oil (liquid 1) tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 .IX.X.a) Fig. The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored. Estimate the change h2 Water (liquid 2) of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.13.24 CHAPTER 1.10: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1. calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers).9. State your assumptions. Two liquid layers under pressure.

6.X.X.X.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .f) can be converted to differential equation when the two sides under differentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.X. FLUID PROPERTIES In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x 25 ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.X.1. .X.X.X.X. It is convenient to change further equation (1.e) to 1− g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.d) ρ(x)dx 0 (1.h) The solution is (1.i) or rearranged as ρ= (1.X.c) Combining equation (1.j) The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = 4 Under BT ρ0 BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1.f) The integral equation (1.X.g) (1.X.k) construction .c) yields ρ(x) = g V −V Equation can be rearranged to be ρ(x) = V m x g 1− ρ(x)dx BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT x 0 m x ρ(x)dx BT (1.X.X.e) Equation (1.b) with equation (1.

scribing principals radii. conception for the source of the surface tension. This explanation is wrong since it is in conflict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). -1.e) is ρ0 ρ0 B T ρ= =⇒ g (1. and fluid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. Thus. Consider a small element of surface. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . the pressure difference has to balance the surface tension. There is a common mis. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry.36) .m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution 1. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to R1 many drops (atomization).X.26 Hence the solution is CHAPTER 1.X. When the surface tension is constant. In the vertical direction.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the 2dβ1 liquid at the free surface edge. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or ma. surface tension. the density at the bottom using eqution (1. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1.X.Fig.14. Surface tension control volume analysis deterials. In many (physics. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found.l) In the “constant” density approach. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. The R2 dℓ1 surface tension is force per length x and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. y Surface tension is also responsi2dβ2 ble for the creation of the drops dℓ2 and bubbles. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ0 x + BT (1.

inner and outer.37) predicts that pressure difference increase with inverse of the radius.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. the equation (1.15).02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0. Estimate the depression size. The second with two equal radii. A soap bubble is made of two layers. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.40) Example 1. Furthermore. Thus.1. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that serveral forces act on it. The inner diameter is 0.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. SURFACE TENSION 27 For a very small area.11: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.5 Fig.37) Equation (1.38) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.36) can be simplified as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. It can be assume that the h 0. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of infinite and radius of finite size.a) . As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.39) Where R is the radius of the sphere. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C.021[m]. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi .02[m] σ 1. Glass tube inserted into mercury.XI.15. -1. The first case is for an infinite long cylinder for which the equation (1.7. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).37) is reduced to ∆P = 2σ R (1.

r.39) for reversible process. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. .42) Where.d) (1.XI. if the inside and the outside diamters are considerble different the resutls is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1.XI. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1.12: A Tank filled with liquid.c) b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W Or after simplification h= 2σ gρr (1. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.13: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders.b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magnified glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 ∼0 (1.XI. It can be noticed that the work is negative. The relationship between pressure difference and the radius is described by equation (1. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the final stage.41) The minimum work will be for a reversible process. However. The reversible process requires very slow compression. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS This force is upword and the horizontal force almost canceled.e) End Solution Example 1. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . End Solution Example 1. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer.28 CHAPTER 1. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is infinity.XI. that is the work is done on the system. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. It is worth noting that for very slow process.

Thus.b) can be simplified 2σ h= (1. SURFACE TENSION Solution 29 The difference lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise. This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary. equation (1. the masses of the solid.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1.7. In Figure 1. The gas solid surface tension is different from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.XIII. the solid reaction force must be zero.1.44) into equation (1.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.XIII. Thus. Forces in Contact angle. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simplified as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1.44) (1. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.43).XIII.43) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase.b) (1.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. -1. .16.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig. and gas can be ignored. consider the point where three phases became in contact. liquid.16.7.45) (1. For example.XIII.

The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.6. There is a common definition of wetting the surface. water is described in many books as a wetting fluid. thus. The surface tension is a molec.30 CHAPTER 1. It must be noted that the solid boundary Fig. The contact angle is determined by Wetting fluid whether the surface tension between the gas fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting.76 to π/3. however. the wetness of fluids is a function of the solid as well.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).7 π/6 to π/4. For example. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency.non–wetting fluids. The contact angle for air. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The surface tension forces must be balanced. E.83 π/3.4 π/3. This statement is correct in most cases. a contact angle is created to balNonWetting ance it. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. thus depend on the locale structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. Keshock (1975) “Effects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble . -1. G. Siegel. Table -1. Description of wetting and isn’t straight. On the other hand. chemical component Steel Steel. ular phenomenon.17).74 to π/3.83 π/4.5 π/3. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. So. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid.74 π/4.7 π/4. gas medium and the solid surface.17.

Symp.18). R. W..” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. No 12.. on the gas side. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface.I.1. 1975 2 Bergles A.18 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension... Y. V. R. Pages 509 . 124. is the atmospheric pressure. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. C. K. 56.. J. pp.38) is applicable to it. and Ostrovsky. Aladev O. SURFACE TENSION 31 dynamics in saturated water. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. and Rohsenow W. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. No 1.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. H.T. 5 Labuntsov D. -1..18. F. Prog. 9. the P h pressure difference between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.N. papes 717 -728. Vol. A. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. Description of liquid surface. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure difference will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). V. the Figure 1. Vol. Warrier.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. ρ = σ R(x) (1. 6 Basu. and Dhir. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”.” J. Energetika I transport. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. K.I. 7 Gaetner. 8 Wang.372. (1993)... G. Heat Transfer. In Figure 1. “Effect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. 3 Tolubinsky. N.. vol 1 pp 365 . and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1..517. Eng.7. Heat Transfer 115. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. Appalling equation (1.. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. ASME. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.38) and using the pressure difference yields 0 0 0 g h(x). 4 Arefeva E.46) . The pressure. Ser. V. and Dhir. pages 1465-1470. and Westwater.18. I. J. E. M.” Chem.

51) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.47) into equation (1.51) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.52) . x+dx. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The radius of any continuous function.47) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1.48) is non–linear differential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 (1. The differential dh is h.46) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1.50) dh (1.49) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. Substituting equation (1.32 CHAPTER 1. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. Equation (1. h = h(x).47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.48) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1. and x+2dx) and thus finding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).48) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence.

52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 33 (1.58) can be integrated to yield           dh   = x + constant   2    1   −1  2  1 − 2h Lp 5 This (1.59) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant.54) Equation (1. SURFACE TENSION After the integration equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.1. Equation (1.56) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ = h= dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.54) is a first order differential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 .54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. constant = −1 .7.58) Equation (1. .55) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields h = ˙2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.53) At infinity.57) = dx −1 (1. Shamefully.

2 0.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity effect.20 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube. Furthermore.1 Capillarity h The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). The raising height as a 1.6 0.19. The raising height as a function of the radii.19 as blue line. -1. For a small tube radius. The actual height is shown in the red line. otherwise it will not be there.0 { Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r 0 Theory actual working range (1. In that case equation (1. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity effect).8 Height [cm] 0.0 0.20. there are information about the contact angle.4 2. -1.61) is shown in Figure 1. The height based on equation (1. However.0 0.7.60) R Where ∆ρ is the difference of liquid density to the Fig. . For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .9 1.61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure. equation (1.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. However.7 Radii [cm] May 29. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. 1.34 CHAPTER 1.5 1. for extremely small radii equation (1. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.6. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. This book is introductory. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.4 0.1 2.61) Figure 1.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. gas density and r is the radius of tube.3 0.1.8 2. On the other hand.6 0. For large radii equation (1. Furthermore. 2008 hmax 2σ = g ∆ρ r function of the radius. Equation (1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that affects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. (1. the small scale indicates 6 Actually. that information conflict each other and no real information is available see Table 1.2 1.60) becomes Fig.2 1.

In conclusion. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.02 cm. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.0[N/m2 ] r 0. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible.39). The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.1.” The depression height. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.14: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure difference of 1000[N/m2 ]. Example 1. However. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.16: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.7. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. SURFACE TENSION 35 that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a different model is needed.61) with a minus sign.0002 End Solution Example 1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. h is similar to equation (1. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1.7.0728 = ∼ 2.15: Calculate the pressure difference between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. Neglect the weight of the ring.61). Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.19. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β .20. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm].

0773 -0.1094 -0.1308 -0.88 39.0 22.1011 n/a -0.1120 -0.95 34. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.10 32.50 41.40 32.1484 -0.70 26.1160 -0.1160 -0. End Solution Table -1.50 36.1037 -0.60 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C - correction mN mK n/a -0.1118 .1211 -0. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.6 25.10 22.0890 -0.04 × 0.4 28.1191 -0.20 ∼ 21 64.20 47.2049 -0.3 22.0832 -0.0728 ∼ .12 33.20 43.36 CHAPTER 1.1159 -0.10 29.50 24.1117 n/a -0.95 36.1063 -0.1066 -0. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.30 23.0920 -0.7.30 43.20 24.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.70 58.0966 -0.1484 -0. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulfid Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulfid Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Surface Tension 27.70 38. Therefore.50 28.0 0.0842 n/a -0.60 27.1295 -0.1085 -0.00 45.12 425-465.0598 n/a -0.8 32.1291 -0. However.

60 n/a 54-69 28.00 36.0935 -0.067 -0. SURFACE TENSION Table -1.85 11.80 30.1189 n/a -0.90 43.7.1514 -0.1.1172 -0.1372 -0.1101 -0.1104 .1100 n/a n/a -0.7.1177 -0.90 n/a n/a -0.0777 -0.10 28.50 23.6 5.91 14.70 38.0972 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) 37 chemical component Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perfluoroheptane Perfluorohexane Perfluorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK 22.4 27 72.0-48.0 12.0902 -0.00 41.15 43.


there is a transfer of energy so that its effect can cause work. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). the work was defined as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. Work In mechanics. 2.1) This definition can be expanded to include two issues. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. 39 . This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. So. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t.1 Basic Definitions The following basic definitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. System This term will be used in this book and it is defined as a continuous (at least partially) fixed quantity of matter. a review of several definitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. Two. The first issue that must be addressed. In this definition. it is assumed that the system speed is significantly lower than that of the speed of light. The dimensions of this material can be changed.

4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2. For such body force. etc. etc as long the mass remain constant the definition is not broken.5) is transformed into Spesific Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. The statement describing the law is the following.2) The system energy is a state property.E. the conservation is applied to all systems. A common body force is the gravity. = mU 2 2 (2.3) Interesting results of equation (2. is the internal energy per unit mass. and electrical energy. . chemical potential. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.6) 2 (2. The “new” internal energy.40 CHAPTER 2. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. From the first law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to final results. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The kinetic energy is K.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). Eu . There are several definitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. potential energy (gravity). Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. work.

the integral is independent of the path. BASIC DEFINITIONS 41 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a fixed mass. Thus differentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several definitions of the second law. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. These states are independent of the path the system goes through.8) For the case were the body force. choosing any point in time will make it correct.7) In the same manner. Hence.12) The last integral can go though several states. This observation leads to the definition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.13) . Bf .1. No matter which definition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form.9) (2. δQ =0 T (2.10) The time derivative operator.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. If there is no lost.2.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.18) the (2. it still remail valid for all situations.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. Enthalpy It is a common practice to define a new property.21) ρ .17) (2. the enthalpy of the system. Or in a differential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.42 CHAPTER 2.16) (2.18) For isentropic process. Furthermore.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. equation (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. H = EU + P V The specific enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. Thus. which is the combination of already defined properties. For reversible process equation (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.19) (2. Thus.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.20) (2.16) into (2. isn’t correct.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. h. The equation (2.15) (2.

Commonly the difference for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. pressure.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is defined as Spesific Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2. Normally the relationship of temperature.1. k. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. and specific volume define the equation of state for gases. and it is defined as P = ρRT (2.24) For solid.23) The ratio between the specific pressure heat and the specific volume heat is called the ratio of the specific heat and it is denoted as. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. the ratio of the specific heats is almost 1 and therefore the difference between them is almost zero. Spesific Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. The ratio the specific heat of gases is larger than one. 43 Specific Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new definitions.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. The first change of the internal energy and it is defined as the following Spesific Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.26) .” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.2. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.3145 kj kmol K (2.

29683 0.299 1. Table -2.126 1.0035 0.07703 4.948 58.003 2.091 1.1926 14.289 1.27650 0. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.7165 0.0416 1.0299 1.07 28.999 44.4108 1.054 4.6794 1.6529 0.29680 0.2091 2.409 1.20813 0.7445 1.5203 1.7354 0.3122 1.0413 1.5734 0.400 1.097 18.18892 0.7662 1.1156 10.07279 0.667 1.044 1. the specific gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.8418 1.44 CHAPTER 2.183 28.013 114.1.7113 0.2518 3.14304 0.25983 0.6179 0.01 30.28) .41195 0.6618 1.29637 2.124 44.230 31.327 From equation (2.6385 0.29) (2.48152 1.237 1.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.667 1.18855 0.7164 0.400 1.8723 0.27) The specific constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.5482 5.667 1.28700 0.9216 1.016 16.01 28.0849 1.04 20.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.51835 0.186 1.4897 1.7448 1.12418 0.970 39.393 1.400 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.1.4909 1.2537 1.

30) Utilizing equation (2.32) (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.28) and subsisting into equation (2.2. ∆s = 0. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. The ratio of the specific heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesific Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. of Classical thermodynamics. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F. k value ranges from unity to about 1.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.31) Cp to Spesific Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.36) (2.1).667. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the definition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 45 (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.1.38) .34) Using the identities developed so far one can find that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.33) The specific heat ratio. The entropy for ideal gas can be simplified as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.35) Or using specific heat ratio equation (2.

The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.46 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simplified version of the real behavior of real gas.39) . This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and defined as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.

R . 3.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. t in a location.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the fire in a building as depicted in Figure 47 . These concepts and definitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. This chapter provides a review of important definitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3.2) Example 3.

For given velocity.a).e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. -3.I. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components.f) (3. θ.I.I.I.I.b) and (3. To simplify the calculations.a) and substituting into equations (3. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.I. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. and time. .11 .d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.I.I.48 CHAPTER 3.I.e) into (3.I.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3. dow. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3. U .I.I. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.I. t and three equations. (3.c) b= and equation (3.c) These nonlinear equations (3. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.1. Calculate what is the veFig. There there are three unknowns.I.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. Isolating t from (3.c) can be solved explicitly.I.b) and (3.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.

first. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. the center will be defined as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.3. The density “normally” defined as mass per volume. CENTER OF MASS 49 3. Also.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. Note. -3. 3. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. fashion the center of mass can be defined in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3.Fig. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). the center of mass is required to make the calculations. The density.2. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t affected by the distribu. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). x. moment of inertia. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.2. In x coordinate. Thus. In other words.2.4) where xi is the direction of either. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. the dV element has finite dimendV sions in y–z plane and infinitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. the x mass. m is the total mass of the object. Here. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. etc. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi .3) z Here. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. In same is calculated. rho) as a function of the location. the body will not rotate. .2. center of the mass and two. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. y or z.

3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. t. Furthermore. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. 3.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. 3. the body was a three dimensional shape. schematic. equation (3. Thus equation (3. Thus. Thin body center of mass/area The density.3 which has density.3.8) . it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.5) Fig.50 CHAPTER 3. Moment of inertia of mass is defined as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. ρ and the thickness. -3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. are constant and can be canceled. ρ. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent.3.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density.2.

11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be defined as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.15) mation of moment of inertia. equation (3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 51 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.12) x= y2 + z2 (3. . The schematic that explains the sum- (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. - ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.10) 3.9) The body has a different moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = ( 3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness.3.13) y’ C z Thus. Some people define the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.

20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.52 CHAPTER 3.17) equation (3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.19) Hence. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.5 and therefore. -3.22) .3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.16) 3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.2. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.5. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.18) The first term in equation (3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig.

3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3.3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle.6.14) as following   0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A  2 2  y +z  dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. as shown in Figure 3. For example.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. .6. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. -3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. Fig. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 53 Equation (3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. End Solution Fig. r0 . The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. dr r 3.3.7 around x coordinate.7. -3.3.

This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.54 CHAPTER 3.9. -3. b has no effect on the error. I can be noticed that the error is significant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:fig:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3.23) dz dIx x m  b a3  = ρdy  + z2  12 2 r r A 2   ba   A a b (3. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.8. February 28. consider a simple shape to see the effects of this assumption. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3. 2 This . -3.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3.Fig. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 .9. x can be done as following   Ixx b a3 12 (3. The results are present in Figure 3. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name.24) to write as t/2 Fig. Ad.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero.

calculate the area first.10. Solution dx dy y r x 55 2b 2a Fig. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia. y = αx2 .3.11. There are several ways to approach the calculation (different infinitesimal area).5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3.V. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. Rectangular Moment of inertia. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig.c) Example 3.V. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3. -3.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.20). Hint.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. depicted in Figure 3. b/α. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular. -3. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. Hint.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.11.V.

7. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. . Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0.56 CHAPTER 3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left.27) can be done in two steps first calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. Assume that base is a and the height is h. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3.12.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. Triangle for example 3.6).27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. -3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3. The center of every 2 element is at.

The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. The product of inertia defined as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3.3. Here only the product of the area is defined and discussed.31) A . MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 57 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t different much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.30) expanding equation (3. the product of inertia is commonly used. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.3.28) For example. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. End Solution a3 h 2 3.

13. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.3. . The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3. End Solution 3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. Product of inertia for triangle.35) System which creates equation (3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part. Example 3. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero. -3.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.58 The final form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.35) referred as principle system.

40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. thus. F= ρ rdV V (3. Angular. ˙ 3.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. it can be treated as the regular derivative. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. is defined as L = r × Udm (3. Yet. stresses). The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic field or gravity. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces.41) .4. The same as in the dynamic class. r × ω.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 59 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. ω×(r × ω). dm. Coriolis. Two. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.38) The velocity. 2 (Ur × ω). These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.3. the system acceleration called the internal forces.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the fluid during operation of the forces.

46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.5.40) provides   ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U =  x y 0  = (x v − y u)k (3. The force can be written. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.42) to calculate the torque as   ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F =  x y 0  = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.44) To understand these equations a bit better. 3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.42) where Tτ is the torque.43) m It can be noticed (well. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.60 CHAPTER 3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. in the same fashion. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. . Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.

5.1. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 61 Table -3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc . yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .3.

REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.62 CHAPTER 3.2. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc . yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .

several assumptions must be made. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. 4. z).1. with acceleration. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of fluid is when the fluid is at rest or queasy rest. y. Description of a fluid element in accel- Equation (4. where n is the steepest 63 .CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. a as shown in Figure 4.1) erated system under body forces. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the first time. The first assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. gG (x. -4. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in effective body force which is gG − a = geff y P     P+ ∂P  dy  dxdz  ∂y     P+ dy ∂P  dz  dxdy ∂z     P+ ∂P  dx dydz ∂x  dz dx z P x (4. However.1. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. Fig. In these derivations.g. that pressure can increase and later decrease.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A fluid element with dimensions of DC. The system is in a body force field. dy. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not significant compared to the first derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). Furthermore. a = 0. Later.1) can be reduced and simplified for the case of no acceleration.

FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the infinitesimal length. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. the effective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. it has a direction).4) In general.2) In the same fashion.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction.8) (4.6) Hence. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geff dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geff (4. now. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4. P . If the pressure.64 CHAPTER 4. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. the pressure is treated. For example. As before. Even though. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a different orientation the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on infinitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction.7) . The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector.

These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.4. The effective body force is ˆ geff = −g k (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. There are fields where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. . For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.3.9) and substituting it into equation (??) results into three simple partial differential equations.9) Utilizing equation (4.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. and temperature. Traditionally.11) and therefore P (x. y) = constant (4. First.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section. pressure. P .12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 65 Some refer to equation (??) as the Fluid Static Equation. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. y. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.3.11) (4. For example. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. it will be used. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. However. ρ. 4.10) and constant in equation (4.12) (4.

15) is defined as piezometric pressure.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. Pressure lines in a static fluid with a constant density. The liquid is filling the tube and is brought into a steady state. -4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. Figure 4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. It is evident from equation (4. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature). The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. the right hand side of the equation (4.2 4. A schematic to explain the measure to define h as the dependent of the fluid of the atmospheric pressure.15) In the literature.3.3. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. -4.2.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.3.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. . 4. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous fluid.2.66 CHAPTER 4.3.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.

The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. The ratio of the Fig. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part.82 × 0. h . The mercury density is 13545.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 67 Example 4. Gas The pressure. For smaller width.82[m/sec]. L. U tube is L. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 .16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.4.39[P a] ∼ 1. Hence.000001793[Bar] which is insignificant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example.85 × 9.3. End Solution (4. Locate the liquids surfaces.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube.000179264[kPa]. -4. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube.85[kg/m3 ].4. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. P valve 2 1 Example 4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.3.76 ∼ 101095. Equation (4. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. Pa = 13545.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. Solution The question is to find the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. The high of the Mercury is 0.

. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. FLUIDS STATICS Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 4.2. -4. The gas density is significantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.68 The mass conservation results in CHAPTER 4.4).5.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.Fig.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. Thus. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.3. This way. Consider a chamber filled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .

Figure 4. in writing equation (4.3.20). With the equation for height (4. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations. Thus.3 Magnified Pressure Measurement 69 For situations where the pressure difference is very small. In steady state. For example. The pressure difference can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. Additional parameter.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. Additionally. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities difference.23) . In the previous technique. This technique utilizes the opposite range. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers filled with the light density liquid.3.19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.22) A2 A1 (4. then equation (4.2. the pressure balance (only differences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. A2 /A1 << 1. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). the volume ratio.4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . if the volumes in two containers is equal then −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − h2 A2 A1 (4.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. If the pressure differences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magnified” height.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 (4.21) For the small value of the area ratio. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.20) Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal.22) becomes h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. Here.20) equation (4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause significant complications.18) the gas density was neglected.

-4.25) a b 2 (4.7. Inverted U-tube manometer The difference in the pressure of two different liquids is measured by this manometer. ρ2 .26) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4. . FLUIDS STATICS Some refer to the density difference shown in equation (4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model 3 The personal experience of this author while working in ship that this manometer is significantly inaccurate (to be the first thing to be replaced on the ship).70 CHAPTER 4. As in the previous “magnified” manometer if the density difference is very small the height become very sensitive the change of pressure.7). a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . The equation (4.23) as “magnification factor” since it replace the regular density.26) 1 For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4. it can be written the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4.24) If there is insignificant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is significant). caption. This idea is similar to “magnified” manometer but in reversed. Schematic of inverted manometer. This method is attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. right leg left leg Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4.6. P1 − Poutside = ρ g d (4. 4.17) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ Fig.3. Thus.27) Fig. Due to surface tension cause air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. liquids and other.6). Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer. In this method. In the gas phase. The pressure line are same for the both legs on line ZZ.25) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. -4.

30) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.33) Equation (4. 4.28) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). Thus equation (4.11) becomes ∂P gP =− ∂z RT (4.31) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. Equation (4.3. However.33) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 . density and location. .4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.31) can be expanded to show the difference to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simplified form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor  h2 P ρ0 g h −  + ··· =1+   6 P0 P0 2 (4.32) (4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.30) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.3.3. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. These relationships will be used to find the functionality between pressure. As first approximation.29) (4.29) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.

can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. So.39) .34) (4. In general. the first approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor. The compressibility is defined in equation (2. the differential equation for density should be solved first.38) Equation (4.28). In these cases.35) Without going through the mathematics.37) The integration of equation (4. a numerical integration must be carried out.3. Fortunately. there are two differential equations that needed to be solved. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. FLUIDS STATICS Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). the value of the compressibility factor. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).3. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. The governing differential density equation (see equation (1. here. The modified equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . 4.32).36) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. Z.37) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.36) The variables for equation (4. For these cases.39). the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.31) and (4.72 CHAPTER 4.38) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was defined in equation (1.

the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. The integration constant. is a typical length of the problem. with units of length.3.39) in equation (4.40) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.42) e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 Equation (4.45) An approximation of equation (4.39) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase. Sometimes. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant.44) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. Fig. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4.43) and is plotted in Figure transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. Utilizing equation (4.41) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.43) March 11.40) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4. can be evaluated at any specific point. The exponent can be expanded as  piezometric corrections  pressure (P − P0 ) + BT 2 P − P0 BT 2 + BT 6 P − P0 BT 3 + ···  = z g ρ0 (4.8.44) compressibility in the liquid phase.46) . Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). -4. BT /g ρ0 . Hydrostatic pressure when there is The solution is presented in equation (4.41) has units of length. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 = z g ρ0 BT (4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).

P/BT is small (<< 1). the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. Using these definitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. For example. Additionally. Hence.50) (4. For h = 0. FLUIDS STATICS It can be noticed that equation (4.3. when the temperature field is not uniform.4. For the atmosphere.49) with (4.74 CHAPTER 4.49) Separating the variables in equation (4. 4. .51) P R (T0 − Cx h) Defining a new variable5 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. just ignore it.1 The Pressure Effects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other effects. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. Air can be a function of the temperature field and the pressure.47) dh where h here referred to height or distance.50) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− (4.).52) 5 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students. please. the density is affected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.3.48) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.4 4.46) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. If you feel that it is too simple. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx (4. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. Here.

e..56) shows that the correction factor (lapse coefficient).54) and (4. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − . It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. However.51) and reusing (the reverse definitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. It has to be noted that these equations (4.49).54) It can be noticed that equation (4. negative direction). I am grateful to my adviser E. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .G.56) Equation (4. The simplest assumption to combine these 6 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–fluid science.53) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.55) shows that the first two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i.54) represents only the pressure ratio..54) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. (4.56) are not properly represented without the characteristic height.55) and (4.55) Equation (4. Equation (4. Equation (4.3.. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter6 . . The first approximation for a small distance.4.R. Cx .54) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. influences at only large values of height. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 75 After integration of equation (4. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. For engineering purposes. h.. It has to be inserted to make the physical significance clearer. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.

The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. higher heights). Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. h. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. -4.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest.54) is stable and if so under what conditions. In reality.4. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. That is.9) What could happen? There are two Fig.25). a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. That is. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process.76 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. equation (2. The first case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). Under equilibrium. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). this shock is insignificant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). Clearly.3. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.57) Advance material can be skipped 4.9. However. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. Suppose that h for some reason. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. . the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. Thus. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not.

55) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.4..62) provides the conditions to determine the stability. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the first term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.3.63) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.54) but can be approximated by equation (4. From a mathematical point of view.58) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4.61) Expanding equation (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.62) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. under the above discussion and simplifications.58) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh.59) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 77 The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.60) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.61) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .64) .61) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. no significant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The process.63) and (4.57) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4.

The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . issues. Again. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant.65) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. 4.will not be introduced here.11) can be used 7 The same issue of the floating ice. Thus.64) and using the ideal gas identity. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is significantly change. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.3. it is said that situation is neutral. around this value additional analysis is needed 7 . Equation (4. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. The varying gravity effects Thus.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side.10. 4. -4. At first glance.5. However. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself.78 CHAPTER 4. The gravity force can be assumed that for infinity.5 Gravity Variations Effects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the fluid.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. . It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. ρ and the body force.3. Thus. the discussion is separated into two different on density and pressure. See example for the floating ice in cup. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. Fig. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. the density. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. Assuming that the pressure is affected by this gravity/body force. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. the body force is independent of the fluid. FLUIDS STATICS After rearrangement of the inequality (4. g. equation (4.

PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r 79 (4. equation (4..67) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).69) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4.5. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. equation (4. As before.. This equation confirms .67) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.68) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.3. Thus.69) Equation (4. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.71) With the same process as before for ideal gas case.66) where here G denotes the general gravity constant.72) Equation (4. is employed.67) results in ln Or in a simplified form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .70) = = 1− − + . 4.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.3. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. This equation confirms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. The integration of equation (4. numerical integration is a possible solution. Z.

76) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. FLUIDS STATICS that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes. if applicable. 4..3. 4.69) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + .77) .000 [m].. the Cartesian coordinates provides sufficient treatment to the problem.5. If the liquid “equation of state” (4. Derivations of the fluid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.80 CHAPTER 4.3.39) is used with the hydrostatic fluid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.74) e P0 −P BT = Constant − B T g ρ0 r (4. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.75) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied. As before taylor series for equation (4.73) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.74) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4.

Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. -4. Example Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the effective gravity.78) where the magnitude of the effective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. However. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) different equations. The solution is obtained by finding the effective angle body force. The change of the acceleration form the right to left is .80) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. Thus. body forces were considered as one-dimensional. the previous derivations can be easily extended.79) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. This question is one of the traditional question the fluid static and is straight forward.4.11. 4. The effective angle is obtained by adding vectors. in a two dimensional system. for the effective gravity (4. As before. The effective gravity is for accelerated cart. Equation (??) can be transformed into a different coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the effective gravity. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 81 4. The general.1 a 5  m  sec g geff Fig.3: A tank filled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.

82 CHAPTER 4.01◦ g 9.82) (4.812 = 11. α < β. Calculate the shape of the surface. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4. -4.4: Cart partially is filled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. If there is no resistance. FLUIDS STATICS like subtracting vector (addition negative vector).015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. lar to the slope.83) (c) . The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface.12. In that case the effective body moves closer to the gravity forces. A cart slide on inclined plane. Thus. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.81) ) F (a β The effective body force is acting perpendicu.81 The magnitude of the effective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9.Fig. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.12.

4.4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the effective body force is zero. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure difference can be found. So, the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.
a rf su ce wi th fr o ti ic n



β g sin β − Fnet m

β g


4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density

Fig. -4.13. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.

For simplification reasons, the first case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. That is the effective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.85) (4.84)

z r

unit mass

ω2 r g


center of circulation

Equation (4.85) can be integrated as ω2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.86)

Fig. -4.14. Schematic to explain the angular angle.

Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω2 r2 (4.87) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point, example 4.5 is provided. Example 4.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. The center of rotation is a distance, L from the “left” hand side. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is difference in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4.15. Expresses the relationship between the different parameters of the problem. Solution

Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center
ns ta su pr es re lin e







Fig. -4.15. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.5.

It first assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. Thus, equation (4.86) represent the pressure line. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g

Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g

It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to find the gravity.
End Solution

Example 4.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. How would you suggest to define the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.15 shown the infinitesimal area used in these calculations. The distance of the infinitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. The height of the infinitesimal area is ?. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are different from each other. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry.
End Solution

Example 4.7: In the U tube in example 4.5 is rotating with upper part height of . At what rotating




velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center, what happen the rotation approach very large value?

4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces
The forces that fluids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. This section deals with these calculations. These calculations are divided into two categories, straight surfaces and curved surfaces.


Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces

A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Initially, a simple case will be examined. Later, how the calculations can be simplified will be shown. Example 4.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.16. Calculate the minimum forces, F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is


β = 50


ℓ = 5[m]


dM = P a dξ ( + ξ)



The pressure, P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is

Fig. -4.16. Rectangular area under pressure.


g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ)

The integral can be simplified as

M = g a ρ sin β

( + ξ)2 dξ


86 The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β


3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. Additional equation is needed. It is the total force, which is

Ftotal =

g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ

The total force integration provides

Ftotal = g ρ a sin β

( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β

2 b + b2 2

The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2

Additionally, the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6
End Solution

3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. Looking at the above calculations, it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.88) and also a center of area. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. Several rep- Fig. -4.17. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems.

β ξ





Symmetrical Shapes



Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.17. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. First, the force is

F =

P dA =

(Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg

(ξ +

0 ) sin β

dA (4.89)

In this case, the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.89) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. The integral in equation (4.89) can be further developed as    Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β   In a final form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is
ξ1 0A+

xc A

 (4.90)

  ξdA 


y ξ0 β

a F1 b

My =

P (ξ)ξdA




ξ sin β

My =

(Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA



Or separating the parts as
xc A ξ1

Fig. -4.18. The general forces acting on submerged area.
Ix ξ1

My = Patmos

ξdA +g ρ sin β

ξ 2 dA


The moment of inertia, Ix x , is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Equation (4.94) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.95)



Example 4.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in figure 4.18 which has two forces that balance the body. Equations (4.91) and (4.95) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix
x x 0

+ xc )]

(4.96) (4.97)

ρ sin β −

Patmos gb

xc +


ρ sin β + g (b − a)

Patmos g

b A−, Ix


ρ sin β


ρ sin β −

ρ sin β −

Patmos ga

xc +


ρ sin β +

Patmos g


g (b − a)


In the solution, the forces can be negative or positive, and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. Additionally, the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. However, in non–symmetrical area there two different moments and therefor three forces are required. Thus, additional equation is required. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.19). The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.95) and the total force is given by (4.91). The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx =

y P dA


Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.100) into Mx =

y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA


The integral in equation (4.100) can be written as
A yc Ix

Mx = Patmos

y dA +ρ g sin β

ξ y dA


The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.103)




The product of inertia was presented y in Chapter 3. These equations (4.91), ξ (4.95) and (4.103) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform deny dA sity. There are many combinations of x problems (e.g. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. Example to illustrate the use of Fig. -4.19. The general forces acting on non symthese equations is provided.
metrical straight area.

Example 4.9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.20. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1



+ F2 (a +


+ F3


= Mx


The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.91), (4.95) and (4.103). The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4.20) for triangle 1 and 2). Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus, moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is
A1 ∆x1 2 0 2

Ixx 1 =


3 1− 0)




1− 0)

3 0)



1− 0)


The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is

and its width b and thus, the moment of
∆x2 2 1


Ixx 2 =


1− 36

0 )]



1 − 0 )]




1 − 0 )]



The definition is derived or obtained from equation (4. pressure centers are commonly defined. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.103). The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4. FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a .  b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4.108) .107) In the same way.95) and equation (4.5. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .” Thus.20.1. the pressure center in the y direction is defined as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.90 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.1 Pressure Center In the literature. -4. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2  + 0 +a Ixy = 0  b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 . These definitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O.

Consider straight/flat body that is under liquid with a varying density8 .5. the reader can find that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function.113) As before for single density. However. If density can be represented by average density.112) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably9 . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 91 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.1. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. the density was assumed to be constant. the integral has be carried out. the following can be written  x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An  (4. In fact. Thus. 4. 9 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. the reasonable average can be used. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.110) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center definitions. In cases where density is non–continuous.111) It has to emphasis that these definitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. . but constant in segments.5.4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.114)  Ftotal = g sin β ρ1  ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An  ξ dA  8 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4.109) according to equation (3. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar.

one can find that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4.5[m]. h2 = 2[m]. FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. h3 = 3[m]. The forces distances are a1 = 1. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. a2 = 1. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ].116) After similar separation of the total integral. and b1 = 4.and h4 = 4[m]. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 .21. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur.10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . Example 4.119) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. Moreover.5[m].117) If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can find that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4.92 CHAPTER 4. The moment around axis y.75[m].115) where the density.118) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. . the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.

pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The effects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular.115).118) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal 3 F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos .5.118) can be used by modifying it. as can be noticed that instead Fig.4. of using the regular atmospheric forces. -4. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc2 = xc3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. the following equations are obtained Thus. only two equations are needed. Equation (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 93 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns. which are (4.118) and (4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the specific height difρ4 ference to be zero).21. the first equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4.

122) From this analysis (equation (4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as . At this stage.696 A2 = 3. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area. outward as positive. -4.122)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.292 Ix x 3 = 86. So. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.92[N ] End Solution 4.535 Ix x 1 = 14. for example.9497 A1 = 2.120) z dAy dAx dA Here. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig.94 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4.5355 xc3 = 4. P n dA ˆ (4. if the y component of the force is needed. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.22.718 The final answer is F1 = 304809. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. dA.121) The result of the integral is a vector.535 A3 = 3. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].5.2892 xc2 = 3.215 Ix x 2 = 44. The forces on curved area.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy. [m2 ]. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.

126) and the angle in the other plane. “y z” is tan θzy = (4. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Figure 4.23 shows a floating body with cut–out slot into it.124) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. Cut–Out Shapes Effects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. Thus.125) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4. Schematic of Net Force on floating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. -4. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insignificant (neglecting the change in the density). Equation (4. Fig.123) The same can be said for the x direction. Inside the slot.11: . For example. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. However. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.124) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.23. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 Fy = A P dAy (4.127) body.4.5. Example 4.

-4. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. Compare the different methods of computations. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The Fx = integration ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. Ax (see Figure 4.96 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. direct and indirect. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam.25.).24)). -4.128) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). Solution The force in the x direction is CHAPTER 4. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). The differential area that will be used is. The gravity is 9. . The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.24. FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig. why? Fig.25) as Ax xc A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ].

The force in the y direction is the area times width.65174 ∼ 0.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL10 ). FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.1 and 3.5.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.2.348[m] 10 Well. just a demonstration! .4.26) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. -4. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.216[N ] 2  2  The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation.26.25) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.  V A   θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0    0 − Fy = −   b g ρ ∼ 22375. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1). The arc center (see Figure 4.

Moment on arc element around Point “O.27. -4. FLUIDS STATICS Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.98 The moment is CHAPTER 4.” or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 θ0 The vertical force can be obtained by Fv = 0 P dAv .21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following θ0 O dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2  ℓ = 2 r sin   and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 θ  2  π 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos dF θ/2 M= 0 dM θ0 Fig.348 × 22375.2 ∼ 7792.

The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). It is much simpler now to use the second method. Example 4. Fv = End Solution To demonstrate this point further. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. Solution o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. and the direct approach was presented second. The element force (see Figure 4.4. the traditional approach was presented first. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. -4.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth.28 . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or θ0 P dAv 99 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations. It can be noticed that the differential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. and thus. In fact.28) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the differential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4.28.12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. From mathematics. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries.28). it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 .5.

-4. To evaluate the moment. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. In this case. consider the specific case of y = 2 x6 . The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 dy dx ℓ dF b θ y = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 x x The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by finding the first and positive root of the equation of n 0= i=1 ai x − b i Fig. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 is measured in meters.29.100 CHAPTER 4. The difference between the slop and the direction angle. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m5 ]. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract.29). FLUIDS STATICS O y The right side can be evaluated for any given function. The distance is = (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 . For example.

The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . This omission saves considerable time. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientific principles behind it.30. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. Here. he was able to cap. To understand this issue. It was taught by people like these. the floating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding11 . 150 years ago and more.4. -4. ture the essence.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientific rea search on fluid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b 101  b − 2 x6  −1  6  b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed 0 0 11 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school.6. This author find this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. While the question of the stability was not scientifically examined in the past. End Solution 4. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. However. more advance mathematics will be used. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Officers High School. trying to find the center of the area will double the work.Fig. In fact. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. because this material is presented in a different era.

135) . any shape is made of many small rectangles. on the vertical direction. Another way to look at this point is by approximation.131) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.133) Fig. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. the pressure on the two surfaces are different.132) Rearranging equation (4.130) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. h0 as shown in Figure 4. the horizontal forces are canceling each other.134) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). -4. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. (4.102 CHAPTER 4. All the horizontal forces are canceled.31. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. While the horizontal force is Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4.30. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.129) represents a depth (into the page).133) is F = −π r2 ρ g 2π The floating forces on Immersed Cylinder.131) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. The force per area (see Figure 4.129) to F = ρg (4. The solution of equation (4. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). In illustration of this concept.31) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ 2π (4. Thus. However. On the other hand. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume.30.131) F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. those will cancel each other. Rearranging equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS in liquid and center in a depth of. For any two rectangle bodies.

32. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. calculate the pressure inside the container. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is  Patmos RT A    mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). -4. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. The second example of the speed of the floating bodies. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained Fig. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. The container diameter is w. Since there are no better examples.13: A cylindrical body. h1 has to be zero. the height. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). it can be inserted into the above equation.4. h1 t 103 w hin h Example 4. as a floating body.6. T1 for the body to float. ρl . Schematic of a thin wall in it. shown in Figure 4. function of the density of the wall. floating in liquid with density. ρs liquid density. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 . the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. t. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. Express the maximum wall thickness. these examples are a must.32 . Note that for the maximum thickness.

net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . FLUIDS STATICS h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. the air. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected.104 The last equation can be simplified into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and hin = Patmos + CHAPTER 4. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0.14: Calculate the minimum density an infinitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. Example 4. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 Patmos 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t float in the normal sense. End advance material Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. Thus. When the floating is under vacuum condition.

6. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. It is reasonable as the first approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The final temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simplified to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation.4. The thickness is known. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 105 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has different value from the final temperature. Thus.

h0 and left at rest. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4.16: In some situations. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. End Solution Example 4. it is desired to find equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape.106 CHAPTER 4.15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. The body’s density is α ρl . the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magnified and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.

What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. In the same vein. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section.4. In this case there are two different liquid densities. ρl < ρs < rhoh is flating between the two liquids.17: In the introduction to this section. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density.6. There situations where density is a function of the depth. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 107 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! π $$− ρS ) r¡ (ρL $$ 3 $ = &  $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$   4 2 £ 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Thus the height is π h = r 4 End Solution Example 4. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . the body can be separated into two which one in first liquid and second in the second liquid. Body with density between the two liquids.

The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. they have to accounted for. A is canceled on both sides. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. Schematic of floating bodies.6. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. End Solution 4. -4. However.33. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). Tilting the body with a small angle from gravity center Full a b c Fig.108 CHAPTER 4. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and it will be floating. FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. x1 .33 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod.1 Stability Empty buoyancy center Figure 4. if body is small compare the zone of variation. Thus. .

The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. in any of these six positions.35. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. it is referred to as the neutral stable. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . B. -4. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). This analysis is based on the difference of the displaced liquid. the cubic results in returning to the original position. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. move to a new buoyant center.6. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. B’.35.33b). The body.34). If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation.4. Stability analysis of floating body. shown in Figure 4. it results in a flipping into the next stable position.33c . This B situation is similar to Figure 4.35 is displaced by the same . A wooden cubic (made of pine. the body is in situation like in 4.34.33c. Small amount of tilting of Fig.33c. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. So. categories. the body stability must be based on the difference between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. -4. for example) is inserted into water. B’ as shown in Figure 4. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4.35. In fact. However. when given a tilted position. Part of the block floats above water line. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. β. should to be calculated. Schematic of floating cubic. That is. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 109 its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4.

139) with (4. M. FLUIDS STATICS area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change12 so the total immersed section is constant.142) 12 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical.140) And combining equations (4. when the body is not symmetrical. BB is the distance between points B and point B’.139) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. For small angle. β.35 as ∆F . BB .).141) lim (4. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.138) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. However. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. and. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating.138) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.110 CHAPTER 4.136) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes).137) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. The distance. . The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. W referred to the weight of the body.138) The integral in the right side of equation (4. So the perpendicular distance.140) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. BB W = M (4. BB can be written from equation (4.

6 0.144) 2. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM 111 h h1 L GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.4 α = 0.0 α = 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. Show that the block’s length.3 0. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus.9 1.8 2.2 -0.2 0. Fig. 1 GM = h 12 α a h 2 1 − (1 − α) (4.0 0.1 Stability of Square Block h1 0.3 1.9 0.1 2.6 0.8 1.4 1.35.1 1. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.3 1.0 1. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.143) requires that several quantities should be expressed.34) 3.0 1.1 and is Ixx = La .2 α = 0.145) 2 .36.4 0.0 -0. -4.5 α = 0.1 1.8 0.8 0.7 0. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.5 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h  2 L ¡ V 3 α = 0. L.0 0. Solution Equation (4.4 Ixx α = 0.0 a h April 16.5 0.2 BG = h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− GM h ρs ρl (4.2 1. Example 4.4. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides Fig.2 1.6 1. Stability of cubic body infinity long.0 0.5 -0. -4.0 ρs 1− ρl -0.5 0. Where L is the length into 12 the page.7 α = 0. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is floating in a liquid.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density.6. the distance BG is (see Figure 4. Looking at Figure 4.37. is insignificant for this analysis.143) a To understand these principles consider the following examples.

The maximum height reverse as a ferent shapes and the results are shown for function of density ratio. L. FLUIDS STATICS where α is the density ratio.0 0.5 2. The difference between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0.144)).6 0. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.0 square circle And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 1.146) End Solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4.38. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64. With the exception of the circular shape. these two shapes in Figure 4.5 1. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks GM g = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 a h 3. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.112 CHAPTER 4.5 0.2 0. .9 1. Thus. Principle Main Axises Any body has infinite number of different axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated.1 0. Some analysis of floating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. this problem is reduced to find the stability for principle axis. -4. For each of these axises there is a different moment of inertia.38.146) can be expressed. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body.0 0. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4. Thus.0 This kind of analysis can be carried for difFig.5 0.7 0. For stability analysis. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth. it is enough to find if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4. For example.0 0.0 2.8 0.3 0. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. 2008 α 0.4 April 16.

Example 4.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .39. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. To find this ratio equation terms in (4. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. but rather practical. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable.6.4. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. explanation in example (3. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Unstable Bodies 113 What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will flip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle).39. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for tougher. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl . -4.143) have to found. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). In commercial ships. So. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable.7) is a h3 Ixx = 2 And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. This is not a hypothetical question.

and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. furniture. for stability analysis. The movement of the load (grains. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. alcohol) and ship with . a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. For example. FLUIDS STATICS The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the definitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and defining a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM .114 CHAPTER 4. For practical purposes. account these shifting mass speeds.40. the slow reaction of the load.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other floating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the floating body.1. -4. However. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/floating body is examined.Fig. here. Sometimes. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis.6. The effects of liquid movement on nored. is enough to be ig.

This quantity. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4. the general formula is g ρA Ixx A 1 Gc M = − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4.4.153) .150) A new point can be defined as Gc . it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4.147) Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank. G Gc = GG sin β (4.149) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vbi (4.148) Equation (4. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is floating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. is similar for all liquid tanks on the floating body.6. Moreover. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations.151) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4.152) If there are more than one tank partially filled with liquid. G1 G1 .40). the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 115 low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).148) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. At the same time. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = g VB ¨B ρl¨ VB ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.40. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. in this analysis.

156) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4. GM . is the total weight of the floating body including measuring weight.157) with equation (4. Wtotal . Measurement of GM of floating body. Moving the weight. Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. .156) If the change in the GM can be neglected. This control of the stability. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.41.154) T d h G Fig.1.156) provides the solution.2 Metacentric Height. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by finding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the floating body.158) (4. The angle. of the ship. θ. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. equation (4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the effect of the measuring weight. GM .6. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the effect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. is measured as the difference in the orientation of the floating body.155) Where. GM . can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.116 CHAPTER 4. -4. T a distance.157) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by (4. 4. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability.

For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. However. The center of the moment is needed be found. When the floating object is immersed in the two layers.42. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.1. . then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. Fig. However.6. In cases where the density changes significantly. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now). When the body is submerged in a single fluid layer. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body).6.4. this density change helps to increase the stability of the floating bodies. -4. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. For an example of such a case is an object floating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). Thus.42.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most floating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. is when b = 3 a. it must be taken into account. 4.1. all fluids have density varied in some degree. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. After the tilting. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons).6.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 117 The analysis of submerged bodied is different from the stability when the body lay between two fluid layers with different density. Consider the first strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. Generally. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. There are two situations that can occur. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition.42). These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.

6. the larger GM the more stable the floating body is. the body should be accelerate. 4. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).1. the common explanation is wrong. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g.6.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz.118 4. In this section. the liquid is not in motion.161) In general. Similar situation exists in the case of floating bodies.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.159) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. If the floating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. Example 4. in this case. Thus.162) V ρs GM Ibody (4. etc. However. coating. End Solution .160) In the same fashion the frequency of the floating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. The basic differential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. Thus. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the floating body. only simplified topics like constant value will be discussed.

-4. ρL . For perfectly straight interface. This condition is determined by competing . Example 4.3. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. For example. above lower fluid with lower density. However. I. the heavy fluid will stay above the lighter fluid. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 119 Fig.4. Taylor. This distortion can be as a result of heavy fluid above the lighter liquid. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter fluid layer. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. or water over air(gas–liquid). A heavy needle is floating on a liquid. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. If the surface will disturbed. some of heavy liquid moves down. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. Thus. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). heavy fluid that is being placed above a lighter fluid in a gravity field perpendicular to interface.21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids.7. This instability deals with a dense. After certain diameter. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. In poor designs or other situations. liquid metal is injected in a cavity filled with air. For example a heavy fluid density. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. The simplified case is the two different uniform densities. For example in die casting. ρG .43. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G.3. This analysis is referred to the case of infinite or very large surface. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. This situation has engineering implications in several industries.

Thus.167) . Thus. equation (1. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive fluid then the whole system is stable.47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. The depression has different radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions.163) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. example of a cosine function will be examined. the surface density.47). On the other hand. In that case. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4.44. Thus. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The first derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not sufficient. the liquid fluid zone and vice versa. FLUIDS STATICS forces.164) According to equation (1.44). x. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. The fluid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to infinity.165) (4.38) the pressure difference or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. -4. the force that acting to get the above fluid down is the buoyancy force of the fluid in the depression. the situation is Fig.163) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4.166) The pressure difference due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines.120 CHAPTER 4. and the buoyancy forces. Thus.

they are not part of the control volume. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. It can be approximated as a flat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a different place. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4. the error is not significant.45. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. Additionally when the depression occurs.45. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.166) and (4.167) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 121 (4. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. At the cylinder bottom.170) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere.4.45. At the bottom. the force is ρ g h × A.168) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. At the top. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. -4. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is filling the missing portion.45. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. To analyze it.7. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. The first control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. This acts Fig. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. For the depression. the force is the integral around the depression. In reality. Thus. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored.171) .169) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.

For the cylindrical geometry.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. θ = π/2. The cross section of the interface.46). the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.173) (4. -4. the specific radius is limited. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.122 CHAPTER 4. At that case.175) Fig.176) .172) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. As shown in Figure 4. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.174) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.45.46.

End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.176) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. . Solution The depression radius is assume to be significantly smaller and thus equation (4.4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 123 The actual radius will be much larger.175) can be used.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. In Figure 4. -4.46. σ r∼ 8 π 0. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].176. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter.7. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.the depression is larger for square area. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. this angle is never obtained.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same.47.168 by introducing experimental coefficient. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. For example. However. Example 4.4 2400 × 9. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . In equation (4. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations.

23: A canister shown in Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15. for known geometries of the fluids. Is there difference if the process is isentropic? If so what is the difference? . Describe the interface of the fluids consider all the limiting cases. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Is there a difference if the fluids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the fluids are compressible. Assume that the fluids do not mix. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 4. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point).S.47 has three layer of different fluids with different densities. You can assume that the process is isothermal.124 CHAPTER 4. ω. You the ideal gas model. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave.

Part I Integral Analysis 125 .


The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set differentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.motion. The main difficulty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. L. These differential equations will be used in Fig. Ad. Even though this system looks reasonable. one wants to find or predict the velocities in the system. This name is in honored J. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. When the fluid system moves or changes. The Eulerian method focuses on a defined area or locaa system tion to find the needed informab tion. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. The main target of such analysis is to find the value of certain variables. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a defined point or a defined volume. 127 . -5. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving fluid particles.1. the Lagrangian system turned out to be difficult to solve and to analyze. This method applied and used in very few cases.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5.

entropy etc. At the same time.128 CHAPTER 5. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. -5. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”.piston with in and out flow. energy. The control volume is differentiated into two categories of control volumes. non–deformable and deformable. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure ??. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. After a certain time. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility).2. trol volume. mass. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is fixed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. The coordinate system could be fixed to the conduit. The difference between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure ??. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. The green lines in Figure ?? represent the system. momentum. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate difference between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. . the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. The control volume is a defined volume that was discussed earlier. 5. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version).2. The red dotted lines are the control volume. the control volume is a system. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to define a control volume (some time more than one). Fig. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people.

3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3).1) The system mass after some time.3.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.7) . (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if flow out the control volume and negative if the flow is into the control volume.v.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. Thus.3) The first term in equation (5. The mass flow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. CONTINUITY EQUATION 129 5.v.5.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. according Figure ??. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. -5. + ma − mc (5. In this chapter. the flow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.3. (5.v. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. is made of msys = mc. The interface of the control volume can move. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. the mass conservation will be discussed.2) The change of the system mass is by definition is zero.v. The actual velocity of the fluid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.3).

Example 5.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. t) = 1− cos .1: The density changes in a pipe. The negative sign is because flow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. Schematics of flow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. Substituting equation (5.10) Equation (5.v.9) into equation (5.1. ρ0 L t0 . due to temperature variation and other reasons.7) are similar and can be combined. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral. In the same manner.8) and (5.4. (5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net flow in or out of the control system. the flow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.130 CHAPTER 5.9) applying negative value to keep the convention.v. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. -5. X dx L Fig.

5.v.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are fixed in time and hence. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. 5.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simplifications of equations (5. Vc.v.11) Equation (5. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc. ρ0 c. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The flow out is a function of length.v.11) is simpler than equation (5. . d dt ρ0 1 − c. Express the mass flow in and/or out. CONTINUITY EQUATION 131 The conduit shown in Figure 5.v.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is fixed with time. t.v. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. End Solution 5. and time.3. L.10) become conservation of the volume. the flow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.10). the derivative in equation (5. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.3.4 length is L and its area is A. r and angle.3.v.10). Using equation (5.

15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume flow into it.132 5. Sc.1 CHAPTER 5. Ubn dA = Sc.v. Example 5. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Sc.3.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.3.v. The liquid fills a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.v. Physically.2. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. Urn dA (5. (5.v.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc. c. the net flow (in and out) is zero.7 Ap .v. Ubn dA (5. Example 5. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.15) The meaning of the equation (5. the meaning is that volume flow rate in and the volume flow rate out have to equal.5.v. 5. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the filling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . Find the height as a function of the other parameters. Hence.2 illustrates this point.2.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the liquid boundary in bucket. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with .14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.2: Liquid fills a bucket as shown in Figure 5.v. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.

In reality. -5. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. flow in = c. CONTINUITY EQUATION 133 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air.v. several assumptions must be made.2.v. Third. this effect can be neglected for this range which this problem.3. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. Fourth. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. First.v. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. The first control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. the air effects are negligible. some influence of momentum equation). In this analysis. (Uj + Ub ) dA .5. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. Second. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. c.5.v. However.

When examining solution there are two limits.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .II. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not infinity.II.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns.v.II.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. The reason for this difference is that the liquid already fill the bucket and has not to move into bucket.c) The solution of equation (5. Urn dA The entrance is fixed. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following flow in flow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5.II. the side. The first limit is when Ap = A/0.II.II. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. Substituting the first equation.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.7 Ap Ub (5.a) and (5.134 CHAPTER 5.v. mi . c.II. (5.a) into (5. e. thus the relative velocity.g.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. It also interesting to point out that if the filling was from other surface (not the top surface). End Solution Example 5.b) The above two equations (5. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c. Uj .a) To find the jet velocity.II.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is filled instantly. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate.

v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 135 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . This simplification provides very useful description for many fluid flow phenomena. The right side of equation (5. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc.3.v.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simplification of the continuity equation is of one dimensional flow. Sc.5.v. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. End Solution 5.v.3. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The first integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student).16) . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc.2. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.

MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. For the first case. Is there a critical value and then if exist find the critical value of the system parameters.4: Liquid flows into tank in a constant mass flow rate of a.136 CHAPTER 5. determine the height.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. Height of the liquid for example 5. -5.6. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5.16). h as function of the time. The mass flow rate out is √ function of the height. What happen if the h0 = 0? . Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .4. min h Fig.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.19) For incompressible flow (constant density).18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. Example 5. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.

b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coefficient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution.3. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). However. For second case. the height will increase.5. If the reverse case appeared. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 137 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the flow is only function of x coordinate.16) is flow out flow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . the governing equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= flow out b1 h flow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. Essentially.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. the critical ratio state if the flow in is larger or lower than the flow out determine the condition of the height.

v.v f ρ Urn dA (5.archive. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. . y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . To make the previous derivation clearer.24) differentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 .23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . For its derivative of equation (5. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. if there will be a demand for such. Osborne.22) Initially. Nevertheless. y) − − (x1 . c.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as specific entropy. This author find material just given so no questions will be asked. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. y) ∂y dy dy (5.25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 .org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. y) dα (5. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is defined as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x.23) is f (x. it will be provided.138 CHAPTER 5. This is engineering book and thus.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. End Solution 5. y) − G(x1 . the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. specific enthalpy. y) = f (α. y) − f (x1 .

the mass will be different and it will not be a system.4. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. The accumulative flow of the property in. y) dx ∂y (5. F .28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5. F .30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative flow of the property out. The intensive property. with time. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a different variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 139 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a different coordinate system.v. Suppose that a fluid is flowing in a conduit.31) The change with time of the accumulative property.27) The same can be said for the third term (3).26) The first term (1) in equation (5. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.5. (5. The same can be said for the other side. Urn = U1 − Ub . This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. is then F2 dx2 dt (5. Since the change is very short (differential).32) . The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . f is investigated or the accumulative property. the flow in (or out) will be the velocity of fluid minus the boundary at x1 . The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. F . F . F .

Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions.a) is R2 = Uave π R2 6 The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Umax π Uave = Umax 6 (5. Additionally. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero.13).V. Solution The velocity profile is linear with radius. f ρ Urn dA (5. After magical mixing.V.b) (5.v Sc. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.V. D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity profile as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .140 CHAPTER 5.a) The integration of the equation (5. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity profile is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration). Thus. the velocity became uniform. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule.c) End Solution . The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. t.v. The only difference is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.V. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance.33) 5. Since the time variable. Example 5.

Boundary Layer control mass. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the flow as shown in Figure 5. the left. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it.5. and upper. In this case. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). The assumption is that fluid attaches itself to surface. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary effect is penetrating further into fluid.7.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. Then assume parabolic velocity profile as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume.5. Solution Assuming the velocity profile is linear thus. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. -5.7. right. For simplicity assume slowed fluid has a linear velocity profile. The above integrals on the . Compare the two different velocity profiles affecting on the mass transfer. Example 5.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 141 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig.

01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) flow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? . the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the effect of flow. The next example deal with such reversed mass flow rate. Example 5.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.1 kg/sec = = 1. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5.1 kg/sec.8: The tank is filled by two valves which one filled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. The tank is 3/4 fulls.13) is used. Thus.142 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic profile δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. the flow out is ( 5 + 0.1 ) 5. 7 hours. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. and 8 hours.02kg/m3 AU 0. However sometime.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.7: Air flows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel flow into the jet is at 0. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.

The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. For simplicity. Thus.v. in or out flow rate = Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 143 Easier measurement of valve flow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. if all the valves are open the tank will be filled.v boundary velocity + Sc.9: Inflated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass flow. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. Assume that the cylinder inflated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. mass flow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass flow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. End Solution Example 5. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but first the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.5.v. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. assume that the process is isothermal. The time to completely filled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction.5. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.

Where fv is a coefficient describing the balloon physical characters. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The first term requires to find the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the first term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. . A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain differentiation similar to Leibniz rule.v Vc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coefficient with the right dimension.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.144 CHAPTER 5.v. mi .

v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc. ρUrn dA Vc. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The first term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that first term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary. .v.v. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 145 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. Sc.

However. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the flow.11: Solve example 5. However. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. A similar control volume construction to find the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumumption that flow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the flow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to find the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. . Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. Example 5. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic.8. local averaged velocity in three coordinates.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. -5. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components.S. What are the units of the coefficient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coefficient in the previous problem? 5. Consider a container filled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid flows out as shown in Figure 5.8. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 .146 CHAPTER 5.

The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the flow in term. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.6. . One zone is right to the exit with flow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right.5.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. It can be notice that the velocity.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. The only difference is that the velocity has two different directions. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a different control volume. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion.9 under the blow line.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary.9. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 147 (5. Substituting into (5. -5. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the flow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.37) Fig. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x.

e) (5.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is defined as Ux = U dS S (5. α provides the averaged velocity.XII.XII.XII. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). MASS CONSERVATION Example 5. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.i) Example 5.b) Fig.f) 1 α − . The same way it can be represented for angle calculations.10.g) Where here S represent some length.148 CHAPTER 5.XII. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted.XII. sin(2α) r2 2 (5. -5. The value dS is r cos α.XII.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII.XII. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.13: .h) (5. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5.12: Calculate the velocity. Circular cross section for finding Ux and various cross sections. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.XII.

b) 5. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the flow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side.7.XIII.39) modified to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. Thus. y velocity for a circular shape The flow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons.a) (5. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example.11.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5. That is the flow field is a mirror images.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many fluid mechanics exams is the following. Thus. every point has different velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).14: . equation (5.12. Example 5. -5.5. Solution X(y) x 149 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig. The flow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.XIII.

the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. what Fig. Urin = Aout 0.75m/sec Ain 0.75m3 /sec The flow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0. Schematic of the are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat for example 5. However. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume flow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec.05 m2 . MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that flows at a speed of 5m/s.05 = 1.12. -5.05 Urout = 35 = 8.2 End Solution .14 boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant.150 CHAPTER 5.

Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.1.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6.3) 151 . Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude).2) The fluid can be broken into infinitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.1 Momentum Governing Equation 6. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6. the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation.1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. For several bodies (n).2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6.1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.

. τ dA (6. are the body forces. After infinitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. the main body force is the gravity. Where the surface “force”. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations.1. is in the surface direction.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. Thus.7) Fig.v. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6.1. Here for simplicity. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6.1. The gravity acts on all the system elements. The surface “force”. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. Thus. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. The forces. the terms on the left hand side. -6. is made out of two components. In this chapter. Sn dA + c. and τ are the shear stresses. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. it can be written as Fs = c. excluding the external forces.).v. have to be discussed.152 CHAPTER 6. or the forces. 6. Sn . one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the fluid pressure. Again. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. Sn .4) In this book (at least in this discussion).2 External Forces First. hence. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side.

c. P cos θx dA + c.v. Thus.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c. c. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 153 6. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.v.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c.1. Fext .v.v.6.11) ρ U dV + c. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference.v.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system. U . t dt c.v. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–fluid elements.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components.13) . ρ U U rn dA (6. c.v.v.1. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. ducts. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).1. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. friction (non-fluid).v.v. the components are Fx + c. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. c. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6.v. for example in the x coordinate. t = dt c. c. c.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). Equation (6.v. ρ U Urn dV The external forces.v. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6.v. (6.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. In Cartesian coordinate.v.v. supporting solid structures. With external forces equation (6. etc.v. (6.9) The liquid velocity. 6.

The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero.3.18) is applicable to any velocity profile and any geometrical shape. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. a acc ρ dV (6. Additionally.154 CHAPTER 6. flow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. equation (??) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity profile by the following integral U = 2 (6.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simplified for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6.15) 6.v. ρ U Urn dA (6. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions.v. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. P dA + c.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6. Thus. in these situations.v. 6.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.6. . g ρ dV − c. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.18) Equation (6.1.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simplification deals with flow under approximation of the frictionless flow and uniform pressure. τ dA = c.1. the mass flow rate in and out are equal. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.v.5. In this situation.v.

Uo θ Ui F Fig b. Neglect the friction. Solution The velocity profile is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.I. Fig.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.6.I. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6. Example 6. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.a) Substituting equation (6.2). What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .2. -6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle effects.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus.1.I.2. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 155 Example 6.a) into equation (6. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity profile for a circular pipe.I.

the mass flow rate remains constant. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. Equation (6. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0.3: Liquid flows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates.3 with a mass . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. because it is a steady state.156 Solution CHAPTER 6.11) can be reduced. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution. Fx occurs when cos θ = π.II.II. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of flow around thin wings. End Solution Example 6.

c. First. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6.v. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.v. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.3.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION flow rate of 0. =0 c.1.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. τ z dA = (6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.01 [gk/sec]. τ z dA = c.3. ρ U z · U rn dA .v.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c.6.III. The entrance area is 0.v.b) c.3.v.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.0015 [m3 ].0001[cm2 ].III. c.v. -6. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0. Hence.v. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].0001 Equation (6. the velocity has to be found.v.v. This situation is a steady state for constant density. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 157 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig. =0 liquid surface Fz + c.

v. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours.4. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the fluid momentum.4 the fluid flows from the left to the right. . This surface is called slip surface. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.III.v. Improvements can be made to this analysis.v. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state.III. Either it is assumed that some of the fluid enters into the container and fluid outside is not affected by the propeller.III.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. In the Figure 6. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6. P cos θz dA = c.v. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c.d) 6. fan etc. Here.III. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used.v. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move fluids as a pump.v.158 CHAPTER 6. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the fluid outside changes only the flow direction. this analysis is used for academic purposes. Combining all transform equation (6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c.v. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the difficulty in understanding the velocity field.

6.2. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As first approximation, the pressure around control volume is the same. Thus, pressure drops from the calculation. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6.19)









Combining the control Fig. -6.4. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6.20)

This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the flow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insignificant. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. Essentially, the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. Here, a very limited discussion related to the steady state is offered. The difference between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. In Jet propulsion, the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Hence, this direct conversion can be, and is, in many case more efficient. Furthermore, as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible flow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound, a major obstacle in the past. The inlet area and exit area are different for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6.21)

An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Notice that Example 6.4: A sled toy shown in Figure ?? is pushed by liquid jet. Calculate the friction force on the



toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity, U0 . Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reflecting jet is vertical. The velocity of the jet is uniform. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. -6.5. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6.4. namics friction is µd .
2 1

Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity, U 0 . The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff +

g ρ dV −

P dA +

τ dA =

ρ U U rn dV


The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume, the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms, thus g ρ dV ∼ 0

The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0

The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0

6.2. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. The momentum flux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2



The substituting (6.IV.b) into equation (6.IV.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd )


Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.
End Solution


Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow

The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.10). This method is cumbersome in many cases. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.


mf mR UR


Fig. -6.6. A rocket with a moving control volume.




Momentum Application to Unsteady State

Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. The difference is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. This mechanism is useful for specific locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. However, the derivative with respect to time, dU /dt = 0 is not zero. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . The momentum equation is
FR 0

τ dA +
c.v. c.v.

g ρ dV +

P dA − d dt

ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV +
Vc.v. c.v.

ρUy Urn dA


There are no external forces in this control volume thus, the first term FR , vanishes. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the difference can be neglected. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. Yet, the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6.23)

The first term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. d dt ρUy dV =

d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt


Clearly, the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected. The oxidant and fuel flow outside. However, inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. This change is minimal and for this analysis, it can be neglected. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙


Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6.26)



Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . As first approx˙ imation, for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant), gas flow out is constant as well. Thus, for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6.27)

Separating the variables equation (6.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.28)

Before integrating equation (6.28), it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR , is a function of the several parameters such the duration, the speed (the Reynolds number), material that surface made and the medium it flow in altitude. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. Thus it is assume that FR = 0. Integrating equation (6.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides
U 0

˙ dU = −MT Ue


dt − MT


g dt


˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6.30)

The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to find method of approximation for not given velocity profiles1 Example 6.5:

1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. However, in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in configuration leads to a constant x velocity. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. For which he noticed this “constant velocity.”


UT y x

A tank with wheels is filled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.7. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid flows out with an uniform velocity profile. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known, mt . Calculate the tank velocity for two cases. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight. linear function of the height. Solution



Fig. -6.7. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion

Assume that the exit velocity is a

This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist, the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. Furthermore, the fluid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics. The control volume is shown in Figure 6.7. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.12) for two dimensions is used. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV +
Vc.v. Sc.v.

ρdA = 0


Equation (6.V.a) can be transferred to dmc.v. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.V.b)

Where m0 is mass flow rate out. Equation (6.V.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6.V.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.31)

The relationship between the height and the flow now can be used. U0 = B h (6.V.d)

Where B is the coefficient that has the right units to mach equation (6.V.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. Substituting equation (6.V.d) into equation (6.V.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.V.e)



Equation (6.V.e) is a first order differential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . The solution (see for details in the Appendix A.2.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e

t A0 B A


UT To find the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6.8. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part. The tank depth, is not relevant. The mass con- Fig. -6.8. A new control volume to find the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.5.
h x
o R

w &x

dh = −& h Ux w dt


Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. Substituting (6.V.f) into (6.V.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0   B − ¨   ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x. Perhaps surprising, it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time. Using this function, the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L
L 0

x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A


It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height, h. In fact, it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). Using a similar control volume2 , the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.V.j)

It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.11) which is reduced to

F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) =

d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt


2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .

32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.m) There is no mass flow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. a Vc. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity profile is not given inside the control volume. and the resistance due to air is negligible. The momentum flow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. mf and mt are the mass of the fluid and the mass of tank respectively.v.v. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ).v. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). mc. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.v. Here this effect is neglected.166 CHAPTER 6. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. It . The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels).v.V.v.V. (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative fluid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. This effect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters.

q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.6.2. Ux Vf Thus. d d Ux Ux + mc.d) the mass flow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.v.V. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.V. d Ux Ux + mc.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.V.v. From equation (6. Ux = mc.v.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6. dt dt dt (6. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6. However.v.V.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the flow out in equation (6. if the difference between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.r) .p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.V. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. The first component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).V. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 167 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.v.v.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.V.V.

The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.V.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented. There are situations where actual velocity profile is not known but is function can be approximated.V. ρ Ux dV (6.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0. For example.v U = ρ V c.V.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6. For these cases a correction factor can be used. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented. the velocity profile can be estimated using the ideal fluid theory but the actual values are not known.q) transforms it to a differential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.s) into equation (6. For example. the flow profile in example 6. This correction factor can be calculated by finding the relation between the two cases.35) .v U dV (6.v.V.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching. Substituting equations (6. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed   m f  t A0 B    −  A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e      ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.V.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6.r) and (6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time.168 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6. Here.

9 commonly used in industry. However. Sc. ditionally increase of velocity occur. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. ρ Ux dV (6.9. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. 6. -6.39) The angular momentum equation. The impeller increases the velocity of the fluid by increasing the radius of the particles.v 169 U dV = c. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.Fig. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.v. the coefficient is not equal to one. To demonstrate this idea.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume. if the density is not constant. the following discussion is provided.v.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.3.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. The flow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. applying equation (6. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit.40) . C ρV c. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus.6.39) to uniform and steady state flow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum.36) If the density is constant then the coefficient is one (C ≡ 1).

The height of the impeller is h.170 CHAPTER 6. Ut2 and radial component. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ .40[m].7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . U2 has two components.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .p.m.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. one the tangential velocity. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. Here it is assumed that fluid is incompressible (ρ = constant). Notice that tangential liquid velocity. The thickness of the impeller. Un2 . 6.43) The difference between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the efficiency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. r.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. The exit liquid velocity. and h. The angular velocity is 1200 r. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. Example 6.41) results in Um2 (6.42) (6. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 .

3) without a solution. ˆ No gas leaves the rocket. forces for example 6. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. Additionally.6. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to find the rocket Liquid acceleration. ˆ The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. . The upper part of the rocket tank is filled with compressed gas. ˆ The gas obeys the ideal gas law.4. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity.VII. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. ˆ The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible.10. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem.7 What are the parameters that effect the problem.2. ˆ The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 171 6. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. the initial take off is requires a larger pressure. -6. ˆ The cross section of the liquid is constant. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls). Liquid fills the lower part of the rocket tank.10. Develop exFig. ˆ No resistance to the rocket (can be added). hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. ˆ The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process).a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0.

The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. equation (6.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .VII.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.h) (6.VII.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.VII. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid. Furthermore.VII.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).VII.VII.j) .a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.d) mg R T V0g (6.VII. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.VII.g) (6.VII.172 CHAPTER 6. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.VII. Using the above definition.VII.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass flow out.

l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.VII. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected. At a specific moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to fly.m) Example 6.8: A rocket is filled with only compressed gas. What are the parameters that effect the rocket velocity.11: .VII.4.VII.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.9: In Example 6.VII.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 173 (6. End Solution (6. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket fly. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6.4.6. Example 6. 6.k) According to the assumption the flow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus. Example 6.10: For each following figures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .

consider the unsteady effects.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is filled with liquid.11. -6.11 . What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front.174 Situations CHAPTER 6. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. Fig.

1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the first law of thermodynamics1 . This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. this law allows to solve problems. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . For example. However. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.1) Equation (7. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked flow.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. Moreover.2) (7. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. which is external force. as all phases and materials.2) is similar to equation (6.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. 175 . here it will be derived. the relationship between height and flow rate was assumed previously. For example. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the effects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). which were assumed in the previous chapters. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. The fluid. 2 Some view the right hand side as external effects while the left side of the equation represents the internal effects. is included on the right hand side.

-7. Hence. . conduction.176 CHAPTER 7. There are three modes of heat transfer.v. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer.1. The first kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. the radiation is minimal. As in the previous chapter. In most problems.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an infinitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. 3 There 4 When (7. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. convection4 and radiation. dealing with convection. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction.7) are other methods such as magnetic fields (like microwave) which are not part of this book. the surface forces Fig.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out.done by two different mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an infinitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coefficient. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the definition of system.

8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several different kinds of fluids.7.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the flow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.8) Equation (7.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is flow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.1. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6. In the last term in equation (7.11) Equation (7.12) .10) The first term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the flow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.2) for system is kT Asys 177 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.9) the velocity appears twice.8) for more details). Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.

The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density.2. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is defined as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. which was discussed on page 42. -7.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simplified Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. Additionally.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. a discussion about the height opening effects will be discussed. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. small. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension effects zero.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7.178 CHAPTER 7. the temperature is assumed to constant. the flow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . h. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. surface tension effects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. 6 This 5 Later . With these definitions equation (7. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. The flow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy.15) Equation (7. the gas density is very small compared to Fig.15). The example of flow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.

How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. However. .1. for simplicity. 7 For the mass conservation analysis. is sufficient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish.7. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. Hence it requires that velocity profile in x y to be parabolic. this quantity will be used.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. However.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical.3. -7. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero.17) Equation (7. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the flow is symmetrical7 . the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 field isn’t zero.20) In this analysis. However.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.3. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 179 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7.

Yet.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. Ec which is very small. The pressure terms in equation (7.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” effects. The temperature is constant8 . the internal shear work is assumed negligible.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. In this light. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. Combining all these information results in energy flow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. this change is a function of Eckert number. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 .15) which is applicable to this case. . The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number.R. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. Eckert. In this case. E. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. Additionally. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. Clearly. A discussion about this effect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter.G.180 CHAPTER 7. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the flow direction hence the shear work is vanished.26) The governing equation (7. Furthermore.

28) V V The second integral (in the r. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7.30) into equation (7. Furthermore.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average.s) of equation (7.33) .31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity profile. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.30) Substituting the results of equation (7. The first integral can be estimated by examining the velocity profile effects.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.1. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used.29) yields d gρ dt   V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7.h. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181 The minus sign is because the flow is out of the control volume.7. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coefficient.

the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. CF is the correction coefficient.35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity profile. it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. 11 Laminar flow is not necessarily implies that the flow velocity profile is parabolic.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . More about this issue in the Differential Analysis Chapter. Note. Substituting equation (7. a good guess number is about 1. The correction factor for a constant density fluid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7. Uave is obtained by using equation (7. For a pipe geometry. In this case. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion.1. The flow is parabolic only when the flow is driven by pressure or gravity. The difference between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for different directions while in the momentum case. .34) Here.32) which yields 1/2.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7.36) into equation (7. The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter. different directions cancel each other out. For circular shape.37) The correction factor for many other velocity profiles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible fluid. A large family of velocity profiles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional flow)11 . for simplicity reason.182 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7.

. But in the same vain. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. However.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7. However. some other effects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.7. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this effect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.39) Therefore.1.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by definition) is Ub = dh dt (7. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this effect of the height. It must be remembered that is effect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form  2 U2 d  U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2  183 V hA (7.

45) Combining all the terms into equation (7. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.47) Equation (7.s. .49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “flow rate” transforms to 1 U dh  1 A B ¨ gh  dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h  + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2  e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.47) can be rearranged and simplified and combined with mass conservation 15 . Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.h.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.27) results in   V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ  + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of first term on l.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.184 The last term is CHAPTER 7.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1   A  − dt 2   dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7.

.52) Defining a new tank emptying parameter. Dividing equation (7. Thus define function of the height as         dh  f (h) = −  (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16         dh  − = t + k2     (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2    h (T e − 2) f (G) or                  - (7.7.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.57)     (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2    h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 185 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. equation (7. Te .55) dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) = t + k2 (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time.1.

63) is still non linear equation.58) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7. The initial velocity 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account.186 CHAPTER 7. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7.63) While equation (7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simplification in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7. However. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. . if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. The first condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. Thus for a very short time.61) (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.59) (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of first order Ordinary Differential Equation that they allow only one initial condition.

The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei. . 1608 October 25. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation).2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. Yet.7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician.68) 1− 1− U∼ = 2gh (7. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.2. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 187 field was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then 2gh A Ae (7. In the calculations 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh Ae 2 A (7. Equation (7.70) 7. Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. The experimental coefficient can be added to account for the dissipation and other effects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7.69) Equation (7.

4. -7. two such corrections were presented. In fact. the problems can be solved. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suffers from no ability to exact flow field and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. Flow in an oscillating manometer. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. the knowledge of whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from different techniques. Hence different techniques are required. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. It turn out that these simplifications can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work. In the case of the tank. The following sections provides further explanation. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. Additionally. ENERGY CONSERVATION of the exit velocity of a tank. Furthermore. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ficient tool to analyze the issue at hand.188 CHAPTER 7. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or effects the energy equation. . the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. too crude to handle issues of free interface. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. 7. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . the integral methods is Fig. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. The first type is the prediction of the velocities profile (or the concentration profile).3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simplifications that were carried. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity field. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total field is different from the averaged of different zooms. H For example.

71) If the flow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform. the pressure is different. equation (7.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. The reason is that while the velocity is constant.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity.74) in 7. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 189 7. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. This imaginary fluid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.3. under this simplification transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7. For a stationary fix control volume the energy equation.3.3.73) Dividing equation the mass flow rate provides Steady State Equation.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the flow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7. Equation (2.75) .71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.72) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.7. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.

74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.83) from equation (7.81) As before equation (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.190 CHAPTER 7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.82) in (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.80) can be simplified for uniform flow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.84) .80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.

For example. The only acceptation to the above statement. The gravity force for fluid element in small distance then is g dz dm.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is defined as P. = − ref F ·d (7. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.4.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. There is no conceptional difference between these two accelerations. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented.7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. 7. the mathematical treatment is somewhat different which is the reason for the separation.4. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7. r and m are the distance and mass respectively.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 191 (7. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.85) For no shaft work equation (7. However. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coefficient and M is the mass of the Earth.E. .89) The reference was set to infinity. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. for the gravity force is GM m (7.86) 7. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. linear and rotational. In many cases.

4.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7. The Force due to the acceleration of the field can be broken into three coordinates. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. The same can be done for the other two coordinates.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7. Thus.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around fix axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7. and z = 0. y = 0.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.192 CHAPTER 7.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. The “potential” of moving the mass in the field provides the energy. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the .

and k are units vector in the coordinates r. θ. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.100) The first term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 275 for vector explanation). consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system.103) P Ubn dA . Hence. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U .7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity.98) (7.97) (7. θ and z respectively. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7.99) ˆ where r. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the first multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication. the flux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.4. From physical point of view. The forces acting on particles are   centrifugal Coriolis   F =  ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω  dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. However. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 193 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. To understand it better.

.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7.4. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.103) is to assume uniform flow.194 CHAPTER 7.

Part II Differential Analysis 195 .


In differential analysis. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. which leads to a different approach of differential analysis.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. 197 . As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. The equations without the viscosity effects are referred to as the ideal flow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. This analysis leads to partial differential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. as he done to many other equations or conditions.g. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity effects. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. the solution is not unique. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between fluid layers. The differential analysis allows the investigation of the flow field in greater detail.CHAPTER 8 Differential Analysis 8. the emphasis is on infinitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 .

which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. the complexity of the equations. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. The mass balance on the infinitesimal control volume.2 Mass Conservation Fluid flows into and from a three dimensional infinitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. The choked flow is associated with single phase flow (even the double choked flow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase flow. (8. At a specific time this control volume can be viewed as a system. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. The mass conservation for this infinitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8. 8. Even for simple situations.1. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the fluid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked flow). there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked flow). the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. Sometimes. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. on one hand.1. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal flow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations.1.3) .2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. Historically. -8. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. The connection between these two ideas or fields was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter.198 CHAPTER 8.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).

The net mass change.8) dv (8. in the x coordinate.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz The difference between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simplified by using the definition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8. It also can be noticed that.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx .4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.2. neglecting higher order derivatives. . the operation.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8. produces additional dx thus a infinitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. MASS CONSERVATION 199 The first term in equation (8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. as depicted in Figure 8.8.7) Combining the first term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates.2. for example.3) for the infinitesimal volume is expressed.

Hence.11)–(8. dr r dθ dz results in total net flux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure. the change of r with r.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8.12) Combining equations (8.13) and dividing by infinitesimal control volume. The mass flow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .2. The net mass flow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.10) The net flux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net flux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. This change creates a different differential equation with additional complications. -8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r)  dz dθ dr ∂z   ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ )  + dθ dr dz ∂θ  dz  ρ Uz  r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+  dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. The change is flux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. the r is “trapped” in the derivative.g. In a similar fashion the net flux in the z coordinate be written as net flux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net flux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8.200  ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.14) 3 The mass flow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. e. r .

1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .16) The continuity equations (8. . At time. For academic purposes.8. (8. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 . 8. MASS CONSERVATION 201 Combining equation (8.2. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8.8). However. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A.18) Compare to equation (8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit.14) with the change in the control volume (8.17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8.1. several examples are constructed here. t0 .2.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations).9) divided by infinitesimal control volume. Hence.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.8). The index notation really does not add much to the scientific understanding.2 page 278).16) can be expressed in different coordinates. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8.15) and (8.

I.I.e) is first order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.f) .I. ρ. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Mass flow due to temperature tom.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.I.202 CHAPTER 8.I. Assume that the velocity is only a difference for example 8. it is treated as a constant.I.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8. Substituting the density.I. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature profile as depicted in Figure 8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.I. For this question.3.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.I.I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.1 function of the y coordinate. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the final temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.3. -8. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.

2.I. 4 Since (8. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.2 Simplified Continuity Equation A simplified equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8. Equation (8.19) If the fluid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer.4.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration.f) as a constant4 . .I.8. For this example.2. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the film. MASS CONSERVATION 203 Uy is a function of the time but not y. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8. End Solution 8. -8. Example 8. Assume that the film temFig.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.II.2. Calculate the film velocity field if the density is a function of the temperature.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.f) holds for any time and thus.I.2: In many coating processes a thin film is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8. Mass flow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. Hence. from the extraction point.I.4.

b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At first. This assumption is consistent with the first solution (no stability issues).I.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8.II. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.II. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8. .II.II. Hence equation (8. However.II. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide.II. however it can be considered as steady state. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8.b).f) (8.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation.g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems.II. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8. See the resembles to equation (8. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.1 for the general function T = F (x). 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.15 . On personal note. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .204 Solution CHAPTER 8.II. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientific establishment.II.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8.

20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8.III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.III.c) is an ODE with constant coefficients.3: The velocity in a two dimensional field is assumed to be in a steady state. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.h) ∂y .III.III. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8. Thus.III.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.b) (8.8.g) is first order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).g) ∂y a Equation (8.III.c) (8.III. MASS CONSERVATION 205 Example 8. The velocity.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.a) Equation (8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. Calculate the velocity field in this case.III.e) Taking the derivative of the first term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.2. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant. Solution The flow field must comply with the mass conservation (8. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component. For the second part equation (8. Notice the symmetry of the situation.III.III.

a) Is the flow is incompressible? Is the flow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state. End Solution Example 8.III.III.206 CHAPTER 8.IV. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8. this kind of presentation is possible. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8. this flow field is not steady state.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this flow. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. Thus.IV.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8. Hence. This flow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component.a) Mathematically speaking. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix). Check if the flow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional flow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)).i) End Solution Example 8. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.4: Can the following velocities co-exist. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8.III. if it exist.j) (8. In this problem these physical .IV.V. must be compressible flow.

V. must be zero and thus the constant. is substituted.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.V. Hence.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. Ux .h) Equation (8.V.j) .V.V.V.2.V.8.d) (8.e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.h) is constant coefficients first order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.V.h) is given by   impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √   π i c3 erf  √ c −  2  ix √ 2       (8. real value. c3 . MASS CONSERVATION 207 components are ignored for academic reasons.V.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.a) and noticing that the density. The solution of (8.a) is first order partial differential equation which can be converted to ordinary differential equation when the velocity component. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.b) Substituting equation (8.b) into equation (8.V.f) (8. Equation (8.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.V. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. ρ.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.V.V.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.V.

the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the flow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. y. . scalar.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8.208 CHAPTER 8.g.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate. are presented. vector or tensor.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.3. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8. 8.V. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.j) by (8. z. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8.24) into equation (8.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time. t).24) Substituting equation (8.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.V.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (5.k) Where the constant.V. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.

Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to find the particles acceleration of the fluid. y. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. Therefore. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation. t) j + Uz (x.27) 8.2. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt     φ       d  dV  1 ρ   φ    (8.3. y.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example. z. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. For an infinitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8.28)  dx dy dz = 0    + · ρ 1 U    dt   - The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.8. t) i + Uy (x. y. z.3. x.32) .21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ. y.29) Equation (8. it can be written that U (x.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the flow field. t) k (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 209 By the definition of equation (8.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.31) Equation (8.3. t) = Ux (x.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. A fluid particle velocity is a function of the location and time. z. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the fluid.2 8.

The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector).210 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the flow is steady state.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8. A ) (8. While the flow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the flow.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F .39) .35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8. The flow in a nozzle is an example to flow at steady state but yet has acceleration which flow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic flow. 8.34) (8.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words.

The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a difference is related to the first derivative.8. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 211 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components.4. similarly for τxz . If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms   τxx τxy τxz τ =  τyx τyy τyz  (8. tetrahedron in the z direction.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction.44) . A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface.5. -8. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. However. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig.5. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface.

The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. -8. However. can create torque. τyx τ However. These relationships provide the transformation for the different orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. A finite angular distortion of infinitesimal cube requires requires an infinite shear. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the first derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. for cases that body force.6. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the specific location. Hence. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor. such yy as the magnetic fields. the rotation of the infinitesimal fluid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it.212 CHAPTER 8. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. The shear stress at point x is τxy . . uniform and hence act not through the mass center. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insignificant). Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction.5 for moment of inertia. dx For simplicity and generality. The areas are related to each other through angles. The body force can exert torque is Fig.

54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof. .50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration).50) The integral of (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8. For example.8.4. It can be ignored.49) Substituting (8. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of infinitesimal length. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 213 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction.48) into (8.

since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. y. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. .5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig. for almost all practical purposes. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. -8. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested.55) 8. z and the j is any of the other x. can be neglected11 . y. The shear stress at different surfaces. Equation (6. Later it will be used and generalized. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is significant and has to be included in the calculations.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. However. However. Previously it was shown that equation (6. this change. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces.11) is also applicable for the small infinitesimal cubic. and internal forces.214 CHAPTER 8. The body force that acting on infinitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this effect hopefully will be presented.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for fluids. z 10 . The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure ??). If the body forces effect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. gravitation forces.7.

The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 215 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.59) where i in this case is x.5. or z.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ&   & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz &   & + fG x ρ &   & (8.57) fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8. y. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.61) equation (8.8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. Equation (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.64) .57) and (8. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the different coordinates.58) The same can be written for z direction. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. Hence.

65) End Advance material Equations (8. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity field. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. As engineers do in general.8 (by the blue color). or z. a. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids.64) requires that stress tensor be defined. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three different changes. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic fluid). the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. the result is a continuous deformation. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B  +  + ∂Uy  U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A  @t Uxdt  Uy + ∂Uy  dt ∂x  C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump- Fig.8. In solid material the shear stress yields a fix amount of deformation. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). when applying the shear stress in fluids. The control volume moves to a new location. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. Furthermore. At time t. y.8)). The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. b. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in fluids yields larger deformations.65) or (8. Additionally. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. and c. -8.216 where here CHAPTER 8. In contrast. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model.

is the diagonal component which dealt below.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. first assumption is mentioned above.67) In these derivatives. at this stage. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations.5. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 217 volume.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coefficient which the linear coefficient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the fluid. In general equation (8. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation.9. The only missing thing. However. For the assumption of linear fluid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8.8. The deformation of the control volume has several components. -8. . 12 While 13 The Fig.70) Note that the viscosity coefficient (the linear coefficient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. It can be noticed at this stage. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8.68) where. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. The third change is the misconfiguration or control volume deformation.

75) relates the difference between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. τii (where i is either . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress.8) in the control volume move to the new locations.76) (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal.218 CHAPTER 8. y. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. For example.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8.9. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.74) from (8. The small deformations a .10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt.77) d x= dx . b. In addition. To find the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ . The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.75) (8. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. c. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter.x.73) Equation (8. Figure 8.74) (8. The angular strain rate in the (x. y’ ) frame. y coordinates).

and (8.10.77). The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.79) Here. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are infinitesimally small. Fig. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 219 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular.10(b).78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ. Hence. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as first approximation to change.8.80) Equation (8. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. Deformation of the different triangles for the calculations of the normal stress.10(b)). The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . (8.78). Thus.5. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. -8.81) .

81) with equation (8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.82) Combining equation (8.90) . ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.87) y’     (8.87) and (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8. The linear deformation is the difference between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.84) From (8.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.11.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8.85) From equation (8. (8.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ. (8.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy  dt  ∂y ’  Uy’dt    The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.83) Equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8. -8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx  dt ∂x ’ x’  Equation (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location differential transform equation (8.220 CHAPTER 8.

95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.141. This pressure is a true scalar value of the flow field since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ .71).96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8. The mechanical pressure can be defined as averaging of the normal stress acting on a infinitesimal sphere.90) results in 2 4 221 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.89) and (8. 1967. .5.8.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. K. It can be shown that this two definitions are “identical” in the limits15 . p. Batchelor. Commonality engineers like to combined the two difference expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous flows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress. Cambridge University Press. With this definition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special significance and hence equation (8.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is defined as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.91) rearranging equation (8.

The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation. The expansion rate of change and the fluid molecular structure through λ control the difference.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P .100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0.2. With God help. it does not add any additional information. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. this association was established.3 .0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues.99) ·U (8. are similar to the viscosity µ. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. λ.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. connection between τxy and the deformation was built.9. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. The dimension of the bulk viscosity. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. it will be provide before version 0. Equation (8. This expression suggests a new definition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . This coefficient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coefficient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity. Using the coordinates transformation. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. an additional correction will be needed. First. Second Viscosity Coefficient The coefficient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. However.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise.222 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.

λ. can be over 100 times larger than µ.100) into equation (8.101) To explain equation (8. Only in micro fluids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this effect has some significance.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8. Clearly for incompressible flow.8. For complex liquids this coefficient. the total effect of the dilation on the flow is very small. it can be written for spesific coordinates.101).104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. For example. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net effect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. In most cases. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress.102) For the total effect.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8. Thus. .105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8.107) 17 The reason that the effect vanish is because · U = 0. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 223 The significance of the difference between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with fluid dilation which connected by · U . In material such as water.5. neglecting this effect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. τxy . substitute equation (8. this coefficient or the whole effect is vanished17 . In fact this effect is so insignificant that there is difficulty in to construct experiments so this effect can be measured. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8.

These conditions can be categorized by the velocity.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. thus equation (8. pressure.112) + ρgz 8.6.108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). For this discussion. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ). In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8.224 For incompressible flow the term ρ CHAPTER 8. . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes.106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity. In the literature. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area).

the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal fluid (“inviscid flows”) because this kind of flow normally deals with large scales.12. etc) (8.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8.113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 225 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q. The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r . While this condition (8. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df r = 0 on the surface f (r . Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8.113) is given in a vector form.113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8.115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point.114) Note.6. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero.117) .Fig. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. y). Another condition which affects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change.8. The condition (8. t) = 0 (8. when the flow is with a strong velocity fluctuations. -8. scale. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b. For example. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. The slip condition is dealing with a difference in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the fluid media. In another view. The difference between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8. x. the difference in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases.

If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress.120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. The jump in the density (between the two fluids) creates a surface tension which offset the jump in the shear stress. Off course. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). In this book.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. In same instances. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress difference to the forces results due the surface tension. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown).119) (8. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). In other cases. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. this condition cannot be tolerated since infinite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. this constant is determined from the volume conservation. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line. n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). The shear stress difference is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location.121) 18 There is no additional benefit in this writing. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). there situations where the fluid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct fluids. Furthermore.226 CHAPTER 8. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. . A jump in the shear stress creates infinite force on the adjoin thin layer. In reality the interface between these two fluids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory). In index notation equation (8. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes.119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value).

74 (1980). The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier.13.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at specific value. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many fluid mechanics problems. Free surface of the steady flow of a Newtonian fluid in a finite channel. no. -8. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at specific location. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the flow beside the velocity. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or significant just a random example. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. material. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. 3. In fluid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited effect and but sometime is significant and more rarely dominate. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. M. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the flow flow direction.8. Arch. . Anal. For example. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x).6. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the fluid was solid material. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. Kerosene lamp. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons).13. 197–217. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 227 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. Jean. Rational Mech.47). pulling the side will pull all the material.

15). The only (almost) propelling source of the flow is the surface gradient. Later. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the flow. U which is defined as positive when it move with the flow.13 can be used and idealized as a flow around an inner rode. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. the physical condition in Figure 8. First. Schematic of kerosene lamp. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is infinite (approximated). The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient. The fluid surrounds the rode temperature and flows upwards. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. 20 The difference is measured at the bottom point of the plate.6: Incompressible liquid flows between two infinite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. the surface tension gradient remains. The control volume shown in darker colors. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. In this Fig. . For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. Example 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension.15. this effect is not discussed. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insignificant.7 Examples for Differential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional flow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . example dealing won one phase are present. The distance between the plates is . However. Even in that case. -8. In the case. book. } } } 8. examples with two phase are presented. -8.14. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii.228 CHAPTER 8. In that case. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig.

130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity effects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.7. Furthermore.131) .8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Solution In this example. the mass conservation yields =0 229 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8.124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). the flow in and the flow out are equal.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure difference in the z direction.125) Thus. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian fluid is τ xy = −µ dU dy  (8.128) (8.127) On the upper surface is different by Taylor explanation as  ∼ =0  dU  d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ  + dy + dy + · · ·  dy  2 3 dy dy The net effect of these two will be difference between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8. The only difference in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.

25 1.25 Ψ = −0.230 CHAPTER 8.7 0.0 0.25 Ψ = 2. Equation (8. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.75 Ψ = 2.6 0.2 0.25 Ψ = 1. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8.133) (8.0 0.2 0. -8.0 y ℓ October 4.1 0.134) (8. However.8 0. dition21 .4 0.75 Ψ = 1.131) is a partial differential equation but can be treated as ordinary differential equation in the z direction of the pressure difference is uniform. In that case.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in  =Ψ Ux (y) = y  y y  2 dP   1−  +  U0 2µ dx  For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.25 Ψ = 0.75 Ψ = −0.3 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig. Newtonian fluid.75 Ψ = −1. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution. The boundaries conditions are 1.75 Ψ = 0. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” differential equation (8.16.5 0.0 0.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx  (8.75 green line to 3 the blue line.tween -1. the left hand side is equal to constant. The problem is still one dimensional because the flow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.8 Ux Uℓ 0.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional flow several assumptions which include the direction of the flow.2 Ψ = −1.4 0.9 1.6 0. One dimensional flow with a shear both.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional flow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates. .

17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation.140) .138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. The analysis can be carried out by two different approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. -8. of (only) radius.8.139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. Thus.7. Poiseuille study flow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 231 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi o z n dr Fig a. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. Hence. Fig.17. This flow referred as Poiseuille flow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated flow of blood in veins.

144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut. Integrating equation (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems. However.138) into equation (8. it has several deficiencies which include the ability to incorporate different boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.142) is a first order differential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.145) (8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition. However. The applicable equation is still (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.141) Equation (8.143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder.136) since the condition did not change.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8. While the above analysis provides a solution.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8. this chapter deals with construction of differential analysis more general analysis is provided.17a.232 CHAPTER 8.137) and (8. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8.

the governing equation (8.149) (8.7.154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical.153) Equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure difference P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 233 (8.152) is the governing equation only the z direction.7: .154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coefficient c1 to be zero.150) Substituting equation (8.136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.150) and equation (8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8.151) Equation (8.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.7.152) or its solution (8.8.152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8. Example 8. However. The only difference is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8. The same result is obtained.

-8. After the previous example.VII.VII. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig.155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8.18. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.VII. In this solution will be discussing the flow first mode.d) . the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. For this mode the flow is assumed to be one dimensional.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates.234 A liquid with constant density is flowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8. In fact there is no physical reason why the flow should be only one dimensional. However. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the flow first mode that appear in reality.VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.VII. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero   =f (t) =0  ∂U ∂Uz Uφ  z ρ + Ur + ∂r r  ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz   +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z  ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional.c) 0 0 (8.7.b) Dividing equation (8. or z coordinate. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity profile.18.VII. That is.a) The PDE above (8. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. Calculate the flow rate for a given pressure gradient. Solution CHAPTER 8. Build the velocity profile when the flow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.VII.

j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional flow.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25. . This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes.e) Applying the first boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integration of equation (8.VII. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 . Furthermore.VII. 1882 September 1.VII. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid flows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer. Example 8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 235 (8.8.f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations.7.VII. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.VII.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The flow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.

For this system. The governing in the x direction is  =f (t)  ∂U  x ρ +  ∂t  =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz  Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0  =0 =0  (8. -8. Write the governing equations for this situation. For simplicg sin θ ity. For this example. The dominate force is the gravity.1 dimensional in the x direction.a) − g sin θ  ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux   + ρ gx +µ  + +  ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2  The first term of the acceleration is zero because the flow is in a steady state. Calculate the velocity profile. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom).236 CHAPTER 8. The first term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example flow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”).19. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. Assume that the flow is one Fig. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. assume that the flow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate.19). Mass flow due to temperature difference for example 8. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the flow direction and y perpendicular to flow direction (depicted in Figure 8.VIII. Fully developed flow means that the first term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible. . The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant.19. Assume that the flow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished). As it will be shown later. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain).

VIII. equation (8.VIII.VIII. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 237 (8. the governing equation can not be sufficient from the mathematical point of view.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8. the velocity profile is Ux = The flow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Thus.k) .VIII.7.VIII.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the flow.VIII.VIII.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.VIII.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simplified to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8. Integration of equation (8.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.8.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.d) If there is additional requirement.VIII. such a specific velocity at the surface.VIII.VIII.VIII.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.VIII.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.

there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisfied. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the flow through curved interface is examined. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. the maximum height). 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin film (gravity flow). This explanation bothered this author. .20.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisfied. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions.7. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8. Thus. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface.238 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8.l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the flow rate and the averaged velocity. 8.9: A simplified flow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the flow was in a very stable system. The Fig. No matter how low flow rate was small and big occurred. Flow of liquid in partially filled duct. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase. Example 8. solution to the differential governing equations provides only two constants. The flow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the flow is at steady state.VIII. The flow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. However. For the liquid. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. -8. Two boundary conditions must be satisfied at the interface. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisfied. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the flow.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary).

158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8. .162) (8.7.159) with (8.159) (8.162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 239 (8.160) yields ρg ρ (8.156) Note.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8.8.VIII.164) (8.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.160) (8.

164) and (8.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.171) . (8.169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve. So equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.240 CHAPTER 8.162).167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.169) Or rearranging equation (8. Equation (8.

Combining infinite size domain of one fluid with finite size on the other one side results in unstable interface.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8. is infinite long.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8.177) The two different fluids28 have flow have a solution as long as the distance is finite reasonable similar. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively. 28 This 27 Later . The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. The boundary conditions of flow with infinite depth is that flow at the interface is zero. flow at infinite is zero. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Further rearranging equation (8. mostly the gas.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 241 (8. The requirement of the shear stress in the infinite is zero as well.176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8.7. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction.172) (8. What happen when the lighter fluid.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 . The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8.8.


there is not a consensus to the exact map of many flow regimes. Thus. only the trends and simple calculations are described. books on multiphase flow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world.2 History The study of multi–phase flow started for practical purposes after World War II. 243 . 2 Or when the scientific principles simply dictate. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence.D. the topic of multi–phase flow is ignored in an introductory class on fluid mechanics.1 Introduction Traditionally. Additionally.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. the nature of multiphase flow requires solving many equations. is required for many engineering problems. For many engineers. It is recognized that multiphase flow is still evolving. there was a Ph. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . The author believes that the trends and effects of multiphase flow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. For simple models. In the past. 9. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. As result. Here. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. working for the government who analyzed filing cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). In fact. Calculations of many kinds of flow deals with more than one phase or material flow1 .there are two possibilities (1) the fluids/materials are flowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. who did not consider the flow as two–phase flow and ignoring the air.

It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase flow must be included in introductory class on fluid mechanics3 . flow parameters effects on the flow regimes. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). . This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on five non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the different regimes are applicable. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a different map for different combination of phases. However. For example. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase flow and their relationship. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. Hence. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. and actual calculation of pressure of the different regimes. researchers started to look for different flow regimes and provided different models. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. (2) the fluids/materials are flowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. partial discussion on speed of sound of different regimes. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. multi–phase flow parameters definitions. and importance to real world. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to find the viscosity). The flow patterns or regimes were not considered. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. and more importantly. will know and understand the trends.244 CHAPTER 9. 9. the concept of flow regimes. However. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the flow of the two fluids are independent of each other. Which leads to the concept of flow regime maps. phase change or transfer processes during flow. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). When it became apparent that specific models were needed for different situations.

the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. many layers (infinite) of different materials). -9. Hence. or a large acceleration. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. Different fields of multi phase flow.” 4 Different concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. However. nonetheless it exists. For example. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase flow. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the fields since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee.4. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to influence many in the field of fluid mechanics. While the difference of the concentration between the top to button is insignificant.9. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen.000 in about two and half years.1. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 245 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the flows are a form of multiphase flow. In our calculation. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible flow has exceed more than 100. there are situations when air flow has to be considered as multiphase flow and this effect has to be taken into account. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. Practically for many cases. consider air flow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase flow. . Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratified because of large body forces. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air flow as stratified flow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. 9. In fact.

The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. Yet. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. This flow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. and industries. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. Flow of air is actually the flow of several light liquids (gases). for example. Open Channel flow is. solid propellant rocket. The liquid–solid. Thus. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. it is more common to categorize the flow by the distinct phases that flow in the tube. in nature can be blood flow. Many industries are involved with this flow category such as dust collection. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas flow. solid–gas. they can be solid–liquid. plasma and river flow with live creatures (small organisms to large fish) flow of ice berg. for an example. spray casting.246 CHAPTER 9. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. However. and avalanches. When the . The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. For example. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas flow and is a sub category of the multiphase flow. In a four (4) miles long train. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. March 29. For the gas. There are many more categories. For example. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials flows. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. paint spray.5 Classification of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid flow will be discussed as a special case. mud flow etc. Jr. The materials can flow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current flow. although important. fluidized bed. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. This notion eliminates many other flow categories that can and should be included in multiphase flow. In the past. 9. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. living bodies (bio–fluids). and river flow. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound.. Liquid–liquid flow is probably the most common flow in the nature. The same can be said for gas–gas flow. the flow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase flow. Generally. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase flow. 1887). In almost all situations. Since there are three phases. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter difference in stopping) and can cause an accident. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. sand and grain (which are “solids”) flow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid flow. rain. there are two possibilities for two different materials to flow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). there are situations where cleanness of the air can affect the flow. The water flow is the source of the friction. This flow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidification (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. The multiphase can be found in nature.

The main difference between the liquid–liquid flow to gas-liquid flow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. The flow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the fluids. When the flow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero.1. the flow of gas–liquid can have several flow regimes in one situation while the flow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one flow regime. Light Liquid and non open channel flow). For low velocity (low flow rate) of the two liquids. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel flow are very diverse. The channel flow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. 9.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current flow.5. Additionally. the heavy liquid flows on the Fig. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble flow. This definition (open channel flow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier flow can be calculated as open channel flow (ignoring the lighter liquid). and what ever between them. Yet. up or down.2.2. This kind of flow regime is referred to as horizontal flow. water and air flow as oppose to water and oil flow. 9. The vertical configuration has two cases. plug flow. The other characteristic that is different between the gas flow and the liquid flow is the variation of the density. it is referred as counter–current. This issue of incline flow will not be covered in this chapter.5.9. For example. In general. Stratified flow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid flows on the the liquids flow is very slow. The flow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits flow regimes not much different from the other two. Thus. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). the flow is referred to as open channel flow. For example. the limits between the flow regimes are considerably different. -9. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. . two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. horizontal. the counter–current flow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical flow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. and annular flow.5. the co-current is the more common. Open channel flow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. It is common to differentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). Generally. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 247 materials flow in the opposite direction.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal flow are stratified flow (open channel flow. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric flow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. the counter–current flow must have special configurations of long length of flow.

liquid flow rate. At some point. . If the heavier flow rate is small. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. choking occurs relatively Fig. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. all the flow is wavy. -9.3). This kind of flow regime is referred to as annular flow. -9. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratified flow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this definition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. thus it is arbitrary definition. all the two phase flow are categorized by wavy flow which will proven later. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost fill the entire tube. If the heavier liquid flow rate is larger6 than the distance. At this stage. Plug flow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid filled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). Thus.248 CHAPTER 9. The slug flow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous flow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The superficial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. the flow that starts liquids flow is faster. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. when the lighter liquid flow increases. liquid level is higher. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. The plugs are flowing in a succession (see Figure 9.4). Plug flow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. Thus. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. The configuration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid flow when the flow rate is above a certain point.4. as a stratified flow will turned into a slug flow or stratified wavy7 flow after a certain distance depends on the heavy flow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. Further increase of the lighter liquid flow rate move the flow regime into annular flow. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is significantly larger than the stratified flow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) flow rate increases (superficial velocity). Fig. the possibility to go through slug flow regime depends on if there is enough liquid flow rate. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. and other physical properties of the fluids but also on the material of the conduit. In fact. the friction between the phases increase.3. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a different configuration (see Figure 9. the flow pattern is referred to as slug flow or plug flow. The “average” viscosity depends on the flow and thus making it as insignificant way to do the calculations. Kind of Stratified flow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree.

The buoyancy . The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high flow rate and the flow rate is decreasing. There is a difference between flowing with the gravity and flowing against the gravity. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. the return path is not move the exact same way. with the gravity or against it. other parameters can affect the “near. In engineering application.5.2 Vertical Flow The vertical flow has two possibilities. As in many fluid mechanics and magnetic fields. e. liquid–liquid flow has a maximum combined of the flow rate (both phases). Besides the length. Qualitatively. flow that had slug flow in its path can be returned as stratified wavy flow.1. There is even a possibility to return on different flow regime. as in compressible flow. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. After a certain distance. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. However.9. 9. in normal gravitation. etc.g.5. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Hence. -9. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. the flow become annular or the flow will choke.5.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. Modified Mandhane map for flow regime in horizontal tubes. For example.5. the vertical flow against the gravity is more common used. As many things in multiphase. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal flow. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 249 this category is accepted). weak to strong surface tension effects (air/water in “normal” gravity). The choking can occur before the annular flow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid.

Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. The choking can occur at any point depends on the fluids and temperature and pressure. they create a large bubble and the flow is referred to as slug flow or plug flow (see Figure 9. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular flow. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. Further increase of lighter liquid flow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. it can be noted the difference in the mechanism that create annular flow for vertical and horizontal flow. For the flow against gravity. there are different flow regimes for these two situations.250 CHAPTER 9. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. the flow cannot start as a stratified flow. When many bubbles collide. Thus. Flow Against Gravity For vertical flow against gravity. After additional increase of “super slug” . the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this effect is opposite for the heavier liquid.6.6). The flow is less stable as more turbulent flow and several “super slug” or churn flow appears in more chaotic way. is acting in two different directions for these two flow regimes. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can flow because of the gravity forces. Notice. the different mechanism in creating the plug flow in horizontal flow compared to the vertical flow. Thus. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. see Figure 9. The opposite is for the flow with gravity. The main reason that causes the difference is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. -9. Again. the flow regime is referred as elongated bubble flow. . the flow starts as a bubble flow.6. The increase of the lighter liquid flow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide.

the regime liquid fills the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this flow referred to as bubbly flow. and Weber numbers. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. In cases where the surface tension is very important. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the flow against gravity. As the gas flow increases. The liquid flows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled flow that only partially wets part of the tube. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. After the flow has settled.6.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Definitions Since the gas–liquid system is a specific case of the liquid–liquid system.7).7.5. Here.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. When the flow rate of the gas increases further. Pulsing For example. -9. the initial part has a larger section compared to the flow against the gravity flow. At a higher rate of liquid flow and a low flow rate of gas. Liquid Flow Rate 9. Figure 9.Reynolds. The flow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude .3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 251 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed flow in a vertical configuration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. The liquid–liquid (also . the flow continues in a stratified configuration. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9. The ordinate is a combination of flow rate ratio and density ratio. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this configuration with the stratified flow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. The initial part for this flow is more significant. However. In the medium range of the flow rate of gas and liquid. the points where these transitions occur are different from the horizontal flow. there is pulse flow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. However. the vertical configuration.1. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9. While this author is not aware of an actual model. respectively. The transitions between the flow regimes is similar to stratified flow. A dimensional vertical flow map considered as the “open channel flow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. A good example for this flow regime is a water fall. out in space between gas and liquid (large density difference) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is different. In the literature. this flow can starts with stratified flow.9. both will be united in this discussion. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist flow.

2) Where A is the entire area of the tube.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). the volumetric flow rate can be considered as constant. some variables are defined so that the flow can be described as a one-dimensional flow.6) GG = UsG ρG (9. The volumetric flow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the flow rate and it is defined as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9. and with time. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase flow pressure drop and other parameters. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the flow.4) mL ˙ A (9. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) flow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the flow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. Perhaps. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the flow along the distance of the tube.252 CHAPTER 9.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Definitions The total mass flow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass flow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.7) . The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass flow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9.1) It is common to define the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. over its cross section. 9.

it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.9. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. Also. The gas superficial velocity is therefore defined as UsG = The liquid superficial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is defined as the following SLP = UG UL (9.6. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 253 Ratio of the gas flow rate to the total flow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9. a superficial velocity is commonly defined in which if only one phase is using the entire tube.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant.8) In a similar fashion.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase flows is dependent on the other phase. . The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9. Thus.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup. The average superficial velocity of the gas and liquid are different. The ratio of the gas flow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and defined as α= AG A (9.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. Thus.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.17) can be simplified by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average specific volume of the flow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9. thus equation (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric flow rate.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9. The average density of the material flowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the definition of density.254 CHAPTER 9. The density of any material is defined as ρ = m/V and thus.17) Equation (9.1) and (9. for the flowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9. the mixture density is defined as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.7) into equation (9.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.21) .15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times infinitesimal thickness of dx). Substituting equations (9.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.

9. Initially. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the flow.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.26) .22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisfied as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.24) or modifying equation (9. it was assumed that the flow is continuous. this assumption has to be broken.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. For the construction of fluid basic equations. Thus. Furthermore.1: Under what conditions equation (9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9.7. Now. The average velocity (see also equation (9. and the flow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 255 9.23) Example 9. it was assumed that the different flow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer).13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. the different flow regimes are examples of typical configuration of segments of continuous flow. these segments are not defined but results of the conditions imposed on the flow. In fact.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. the simplest is to used it for approximation.

acceleration.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase flow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase flow. 9. In that case. Yet. for small distances (dx) and some situations. However.256 CHAPTER 9. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress.25). .7.28) Where S is the perimeter of the fluid.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the flow regimes (turbulent or laminar flow).7. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. the pressure loss is affected by friction loss. For laminar flow C = 16 and n = 1.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. For turbulent flow C = 0. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9.1.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube flowing upward in incline angle θ. acceleration must occur.079 and n = 0. from equation (9.25. this dependency can be neglected. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For example. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single flow is used. In fact. since there isn’t anything better. and body force(gravitation).29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9.

dA/ dx = 0. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 257 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity.7. dX/ dx = 0.1.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9.9.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula.36) becomes   pressure loss due to pressure loss due to  density change   area change 2   =m  ˙  1   1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9. For example. Equation (9.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9.37) a There are several special cases.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. The first case where the cross section is constant. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. . In second case is where the mass flow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. 9.7.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9. dρL / dx = 0. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. For the last point.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9. the friction loss can be estimated.

Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. private communication with Y. there are two parameters as shown below.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9.7. 9.1. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.258 9.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). Lockhart Martinelli parameters are defined as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. φG = dP dx dP dx (9. Thus.7.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase..41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. Taitle . Equivalent definition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx ( and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9. 8 This method was considered a military secret. The density in equation (9.38) The density change during the flow can be represented as a function of density. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase flow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .40) 9.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.

The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. .45) For the gas phase.9.” Therefor. In solid–liquid. etc). 9. dP dx = SG dP dx (9.there will be a discussion about different particle size and different geometry (round.46) Simplified model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. Different combination of solid particle creates different “liquid. For example. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. 3. The flow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. in this discussion. cubic.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. 2. it is assumed that the surface tension is insignificant compared to the gravity forces. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical flow: 1.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. The flow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. Thus.8. analysis of small coal particles in water is different from large coal particles in water. the effect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. To insert the Diagram. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change significantly and it is far from the choking point. The flow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 259 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. and geometry. distribution.

The first regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9. The first set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). The force balance of spherical particle in field viscous fluid (creeping flow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid flow experience several forces. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. the Newton’s Law region.52) . The Reynolds number defined as Re = UL D ρL µL (9. Re.8.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coefficient and is a function of Reynolds number. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. The flow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles.260 CHAPTER 9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. it can be approximated for several regimes. When the liquid velocity is very small.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9.49) Equation (9. However. The drag coefficient. possibility.44 (9.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid flow has several combination flow regimes.50) For larger Reynolds numbers. 9. All these possibilities are different. CD ∞ . MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4.51) 24 Re (9. there are two sets of similar characteristics. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “floating” to the liquid and particles properties.48) into equation (9. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.48) Inserting equating (9. However.

Consequently. the function f (α) is not a linear function. When the velocity is lower. particles flow the particles are what some call fixed fluidized bed.8. For the first region. This slug flow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. Yet. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully fluidized bed. For particles. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the fluid solid fluidized velocity.9). Additional increase of the fluid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. For small gas/liquid velocity. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . the particle will drift with the liquid. Thus. So far the discussion was about single particle. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. further increase will create a slug flow. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. Increasing the fluid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix fluidized bed. US|avarge . SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 261 In most cases of solid-liquid system. 9 It be wonderful if flow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the fluid applies to them. Additional increase in the fluid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type flow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. the particle will sink into the liquid. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the fluid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. For the case of gas. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction.8.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. If the velocity is larger. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density difference is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the fluid velocity. -9. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be floating. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the case of liquid. Thus.9. in many cases the middle region is applicable. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at different rate. In that case. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. Further increase of the fluid flow increases the empty spots to the whole flow. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. Thus. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “floating”.

9. Nevertheless. In the gas phase. -9. Furthermore. The flow is fully fluidized for any liquid flow rate. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. One of the main difference between the liquid and gas flow in this category is the speed of sound. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. The flow patterns in solid-liquid flow. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid flowing down (with the gravity). this limitation does not (effectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid flow. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). However. There is no known flow map for this kind of flow that this author is aware of. the fluid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). Thus. Hence. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no fixed or mixed fluidized bed.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist.9. The flow can have slug flow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime.8. Hence. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas.262 CHAPTER 9. the length of conduit is very limited. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn.

9.10. However. physical properties) positive while the pressure difference in the other phase can be negative. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug flow. In short tube. Flow The inertia components of the flow. Annular Extented Flow In that case. for example. This kind of flow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. for large velocity of the fluid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. opening a can of milk or juice. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. for a small fluid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular flow does not appear in solid–liquid flow. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 263 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. the possibility to have counter–current flow is limited to having short length of tubes.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). UL /US → 0. The solid–liquid horizontal flow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid flow. The pressure difference in the interface must Fig. The flow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in different points. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. In most cases. the pressure difference and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the flow. Counter–flow in vertical tubes map. Otherwise. But in most cases.54. For example. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient.9. In only certain configurations of the infinite long pipes the counter–current flow can exist. The affective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. the or Dripping Flow pressure difference in one phase can be f (D/L. -9. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. the counter–current flow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. the flow will be in a pulse regime. However. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure difference. be finite. when cavity is filled or emptied with a liquid. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top.54) 6 8 From equation 9. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. For example. the liquid will flow in pulse regime. The counter-current flow occurs. Liquid Body Foreces . Thus. Hence. 9.

For example. The name pulse flow is used to signify that the flow is flowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. If there are two holes. elongated pulse flow was observed but measured. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. Initially. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas flow.264 CHAPTER 9.11 depicts emptying of can filled with liquid. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. The first flow pattern is pulse flow regime. The upper compartment is filled with the heavy phase (liquid.12). Then. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas flow when almost no pulse was observed. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. liquid flows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the flow will be continuous. Figure 9. due to the gravity. the pressure in the can increase. -9. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. the phases flow turns into different direction (see Figure 9. .).12. There are three flow regimes10 that have been observed.11. In this flow regime. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. in some cases. The container is made of two compartments. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping flow. Picture of Counter-current flow in liquid–gas and solid–gas configurations. water solution. Counter–current flow in a can (the left figure) has only one hole thus pulse flow and a flow with two holes (right picture). or small wood particles) by rotating the container. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (orifice) and a long and narrow tube. Fig. This field hasn’t been well explored. -9. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to fill the vacuum created thus forcing pulse flow. There must be other flow regimes that were not observed or defined. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig.

The duration the cycle depends on several factors. -9. 9. Example of such flow in the nature is water falls in which water flows down and air (wind) flows up. As opposed to the co–current flow. However. Extended open channel flow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not effect the heavier liquid flow. the volume flow rate of the two phase is almost equal. the counter–current flow has no possibility for these two cases. the pulsing flow will start and larger diameter will increase the flow and turn the flow into annular flow. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension).7). At this point. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig.” In the vertical co–current flow there are two possibilities. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). Horizontal flow is different from vertical flow from the stability issues. Probably. Annular Flow in Counter–current flow The other flow regime is annular flow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature.9. A heavier liquid layer can flow above a lighter liquid. In horizontal tubes. The driving force is the second parameter which effects the flow existence.9. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 265 and some heavy liquid will starts to flow. flow with gravity or against it. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. In many situations. Further increase of the body force will move the flow to be in the extended “open channel flow. . one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). The analysis is provided. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point.13. no counter–current flow is possible. A flow in a very narrow tube with heavy fluid above the lighter fluid should be considered as a separate issue. Thus it should be considered as non existent flow. When the driving (body) force is very small. there is an additional flow regime which is stratified .7) page 119) it can be considered stable for small diameters. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. Additional increase of the diameter will change the flow regime into extended open channel flow. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). the flow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular flow. Consider the can in zero gravity field. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter flow can start.9. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current flow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. The heavy liquid will flow with the body forces (gravity). Flood in vertical pipe. no counter–current flow possible.

2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current flow regimes. that is stratified flow are discussed here. the fire can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will flow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out).13. A flow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. is unknown. horizontal counter–current flow. etc11 . Further increase of the flow will result in a single phase flow regime. The stratified counter flow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). -9. it is assumed that the entrance effects L can be neglected. the fire could melt or damage the boiler. Thus. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. physical properties) from the vertical flow and is shown in Figure 9.266 CHAPTER 9. this increase terminates the two phase flow possibility. mass transfer. wavy interface. coexist. -9. closing the window of this kind of flow.Fig. Thus.15. Additionally. The change to pulse flow increases the pressure loss dramatically. the pressure difference in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. It is assumed that both fluids are W ξ x y flowing in a laminar regime and steady state.15. The flow will change to pulse flow when the heavy liquid flow rate increases.14. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Fig. The steam will flow in the opposite direction. However. In some situations. .9. The flow map of the horizontal flow is different f (D/L. When there is no water (in liquid phase). A simplified model for this situation is for a two dimensional configuration where the liquid is D flowing down and the gas is flowing up as shown h in Figure 9. QL . the flow will be stratified counter–current flow. 11 The circular configuration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. both conditions cannot flood in a two dimension geometry. A flow map to explain the cal flow unless the angle of inclination is very small. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the flow rate of both fluids is very small.14. The liquid flow rate.

The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change significantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno flow chapter.9.59) (9. The liquid film thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.63) . On the liquid side. Assuming the pressure difference in the flow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. the liquid flow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 267 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current flow.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. Thus. C1 . can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .55) The integration constant. [U (x = 0) = 0].62) Uy = (9. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change significantly the results.). τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian fluid relationship into equation (9.61) (9.9.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9.58) (9. Hence.56) (9. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9. is zero and the integration coefficient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity profile is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.58) to obtained µL or in a simplified form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.

The first two solutions are identical in which the film height is h = 0 and the liquid flow rate is zero.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid film thickness.268 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.69) It is interesting to find the point where the liquid mass flow rate is zero.15).67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity.70) .69). The point where the liquid flow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial flashing point. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9. the flow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.69) is equated to zero. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. But. Integration equation (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed flow.65) The solution for equation (9.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the film in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. also. There are three solutions for equation (9. This point can be obtained when equation (9. The flow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the film. h.



This critical shear stress, for a given film thickness, reduces the flow rate to zero or effectively “drying” the liquid (which is different then equation (9.67)). For this shear stress, the critical upward interface velocity is

(2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The wall shear stress is   τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx

 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1  B0  = µL  2¨ x  µL ¨ − h + 3 µL 


Simplifying equation (9.72) the direction)


becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3

τL |@wall =


Again, the gas is assumed to be in a laminar flow as well. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9.74)

The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. For simplicity, it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible flow. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Here, for simplicity reasons, the linear equation is used. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). Thus, equation (9.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9.75)

Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the flow and ∆P is the pressure difference of the entire length. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship, the differential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L
12 Also


noticing that equation (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.



Equation (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.77)

This velocity profile must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.C. (9.78) into equation (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9.80) (a) (b) or (9.79) (9.78)

Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.81)

At the other boundary condition, equation (9.79)(a), becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant, C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.83) (9.82)

With the integration constants evaluated, the gas velocity profile is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.84)

The velocity in Equation (9.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9.64) when (x = h). However, in that case, it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). The difference in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption, of the equal velocities, cause this assumption to be not physical.



The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface, condition (9.79)(b). This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9.85)

The expressions for the derivatives are
gas side liquid side

2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result, the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity profile is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L




The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9.89)

This gas interface velocity is different than the velocity of the liquid side. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. The shear stress at the interface must be equal, if no special effects occurs. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface, different thing(s) must happen. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. Then if the interface becomes wavy, the two conditions can co–exist. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG

∆P 2 x + µG L

2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L


or in a simplified form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9.91)

The Required Pressure Difference



The pressure difference to D create the flooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. However, as ρgLh L first estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. The estimation of the pressure difference under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. Fig. -9.16. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure difference can two dimension geometry. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure difference is larger. However, this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry, the total balance is needed. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. Figure 9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as
V olme/w

FgL = ρ g



The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9.16)


f orce due to pressure

FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the different terms into (9.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3

D ∆P



g h ρL + D ∆P 3


Simplifying equation (9.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9.96) (9.95)



This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. The interface between the two liquid flowing together is wavy. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong, this analysis equation (9.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel flow).

9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion
For the first time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on fluid mechanics. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. There are many flow regimes in multi–phase flow that “regular” fluid cannot be used to solve it such as flooding. In that case, the appropriate model for the flow regime should be employed. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a specific model is required. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important, the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with different viscosity are flowing.



APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics
In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to fluid mechanics is presented. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic fluid mechanics. Hence without additional reading, this book on fluid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. Furthermore, some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order differential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.). There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order.

A.1 Vectors
Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A.1)

z U
Ux Uy



Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi- dinates system. nates depicted in Figure A.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction, Uy is the vector component in the y direction, and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. Thus, the 275

Fig. -A.1. Vector in Cartesian coor-

5) . The “cross” product is defined in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U .2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. h2 . U + V = V + U 3. V )) (A. The right hand rule. A. V . regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. multiplication of U × V results in W .276 unit vector is APPENDIX A. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat different meaning in a scalar operations. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A.2. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U .4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. Then the following can be said U U V 1. U .1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. V )) n (A. The first multiplication is the “dot” product which is defined by equation (A.4). The following are vectors.1. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. -A.

these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system).6) (A.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. etc. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction.A. . The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division.1. However. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. For example. The reason that these current combinations. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did find any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. or vector with the angle. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V =  U2 V2  h2 U2 V2  h3 U3  V3 (A. VECTORS 277 where θ is the angle between U and V . The multiplication in vector world have two definition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. is that these combinations have physical meaning.7) (A. The previous experience is that help to define multiplication help to definition the division. One of the consequence of this definitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. Additionally note that order of multiplication is significant.10) (A. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.

and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. respectively. y. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.z). Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3.y.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. and z directions. j. divergence. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements.11)   V2 V V2 V2      U2 U3   U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the fluid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as finding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors.” This operator is a differential vector. Many of the operations of vector world. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. the gradient.278 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. the curl.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. derivatives of different directions can represented as a vector or vector function. A.1. such as. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar field. i. For example. More differential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function.2 Differential Operators of Vectors Differential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. The following combination is commonly suggested   U2 U3   U1  V V1 V1   1    U  U1 U2 U3  = (A. In multivariate calculus. For example. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor.13) . It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning.

Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar field again. A gradient acting on a scalar field creates a vector field. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in fluid mechanics) and it reffed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example.1. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. y.18) . This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.A. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla.15) (A.16) Note that the result is a vector. y. y.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . and it defined as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. z)ˆ + Ny (x. z)ˆ + Nz (x. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. z) = Nx (x. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be defined for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. VECTORS 279 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the differential operators. N . The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. y.

x2 . The notation is a bit different from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. x2 . The cross and dot products when the come under differentiation can be look as scalar.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal flow analysis. to a balance of the fluxes through the surface.html . This theorem is applicable for a fix control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. x2 . · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . For example. Thus. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. x3 . the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. Special case of equation (A.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. x3 . A. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . y.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. x3 . In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. If N is a gradient of a scalar field Π(x. This results reduces equation.fullerton.19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24.280 APPENDIX A.21) Since the definition of Φ = N . normally for steady state.1. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A. 1862). · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . 1801 – January 1. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. The basic of these relationships is explored.3 Differentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855).

the chain role is applicable.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in different orthogonal coordinates system. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. and acceleration. Oblate spheroidal coordinates.3.25) (A. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles.1. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. Yet. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 281 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. Similarly. velocity.24) (A. Ellipsoidal coordinates.A. Parabolic coordinates. Cylindrical coordinates.1. it can done for the cross product.23) The first part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. A. Elliptic . Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. Spherical coordinates. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in fluid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates.

ac. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. Toroidal coordinates. . In Fig. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates.282 APPENDIX A. Three common systems typical to fluid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.29) 3 Coolidge. r. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. -A. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions.mcs. the figure shows that the coordinates are r. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. The meaning of − r and r are different. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates.html. in this case. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. in most cases. These three different rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. Julian (1952). The new concept here is the length factor. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. http://www-history. The first one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. Bispherical coordinates. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. This kind sity uations occur in pipe flow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. θ.3. Historically. and z.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. θ.3. → and z. The coordinate θ is angle. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use Polars. Cylindrical Coordinate System.

30) (A.37) . In fluid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics. boom explosion. The first angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.31) (A. Note that the first angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure ?? The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. Spherical Coordinate System.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.4. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. sound wave propagax tion etc. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist. -A.1. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is defined by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 283 (A.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modifications of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.

The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. For example in cylindrical coordinates. -A. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coefficient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. the proper notation for these coefficients.5.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. The coordinates distance coefficient is in ase cre in e2 the change the differential to the actual distance. The general Orthogonal is r. and z .2.284 APPENDIX A.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coefficient in this case Fig. However. While the θ is the same the meaning is different and different notations need. As in almost all cases.42) . the unit vectors are: r. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.3. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. there is dispute what with unit vectors. θ.

VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .6.45) The following table showing the different values for selected orthogonal system. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender.A. -A.1.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. . 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 285 (A. 2 φ= + + Fig.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.

It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area.2 Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . Note that the derivatives are integers e. If the highest derivative is first order the equation is referred as first order differential equation etc. The first order equations have several forms and there is no one solution fit all but families of solutions. . it is possible to define fraction of derivative.286 APPENDIX A. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe.g.1 First Order Differential Equations As expect.1. However.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 .t dt =0 (A. second derivative etc4 .2. The most general form is f u. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A.47) 4 Note that mathematically. first derivative. du . A. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations. the first ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. Ordinary differential equations are defined by the order of the highest derivative.

49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1. u) = X(t) U (u).2.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).d) (1.47) can be simplified to the first form as du = F (t.I.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.c) Equation (1.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .I. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.A. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.I. u) dt 287 (A.I. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.I.48) A.2.b) (1.e) . Example A. (1.I.I.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.48) can be written as F (t.

.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A. This family is part of a linear equations.54) Using the differentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.2.53).54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.55) (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full differential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A. Thus equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.52) (A.2.1 APPENDIX A.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.288 A.58) (A.

This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.62) Example A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 289 Example A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods. .2.2.III.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in fluid mechanics (the problem of Stoke flow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.A.

v) − v (A.III.e) private solution u= e e  t3   3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.III.c) (1.III.IV. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.63) for any real positive a.III.3. t) = f (a u. a t) dt (A.d)  (1.63) into t dv + v = f (1.b) equation (1.2.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.65) Example A.290 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A. v) dt (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.b) Using the definition (1.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is  t3  − 3   −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1. For this case.III.a) .64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.III. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.III.

End Solution 291 (1.d) (1. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.3.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.A.e) A.67) g(u) Example A.2 Variables Separable Equations In fluid mechanics and many other fields there are differential equations that referred to variables separable equations.IV. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book. For this sort equations.b) (1.2.IV. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1. In fact.2.IV.V.IV.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).c) (1.b) . it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.V.IV.IV.

292 APPENDIX A. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.3.2. transformation (like Laplace transform). There are additional methods such numerical analysis. variable substitutions.V.d) End Solution A. the second order ODE is transferred to first order by substituting the one linear operator to two first linear operators.4 Second Order Differential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into first order ODE.V.72) .3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. A.71) (A. Practically.V. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coefficients.2.68) In a way.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1. and perturbation methods.c) Rearranging equation (1. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.V. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1. The simplest equations are with constant coefficients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.

This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.VI. . and −5.2.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A. where L is Linear operator.VI. Thus.4.VI.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.2.b) (1. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 293 (A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.VI.74) Example A.c) A. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.b) are −2.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.A.

˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.VII. Hence.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.2.VII.VII.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A. u.5.a) (1.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (first order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.79) .78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).d) A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.VII. A.c) (1. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1.2.294 APPENDIX A. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.78) then the equation (A.

first with initial integration and second with the second integration.VIII. Example A.VIII. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 295 The integration results in a first order differential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.a) becomes u du = sin d (1. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.b) After the integration equation (1.VIII.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.A.d) Equation (1.80) Using the first order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du     2 3 3 arcsin  u0 2 −u 2  + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.2.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII. 6 This . The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong effect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.VIII.VIII.VIII.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.

88) . u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.82) where a is constant.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two different constants because the plus minus signs. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.2. d dt u du dt =0 (A.296 APPENDIX A.85) + c2 (A.5.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.86) A.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order differential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A. End Solution A.5.2.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.

Solving Third Order Linear Differential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The .91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium.A.IX. The general form for constant coefficient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.6 Third Order Differential Equation There are situations where fluid mechanics7 leads to third order differential equation. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 297 (A. the linear third-order differential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order differential equation. This kind of differential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.IX.c) A. Thus. The solution to constant coefficients is relatively simple and will be presented here. 1999.2.b) (1.IX. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coefficient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .2. Example A.90) +u=0 (1.

From a mathematical point of view.298 APPENDIX A. When the characteristic equation solution has three different real roots the solution of the differential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A. all the roots are real and unequal.94) (A.98) (A.95) R+ √ D. if D > 0. In the last case where D < 0. all the roots are real and at least two are identical. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. θ. For the case D = 0.96) T = and where the D is defined as 3 R− √ D (A.93) (A. (A.99) (A.101) . one root is real and two roots are complex. Thus.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the definitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.92) (A.

A.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t



Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots. For the case of only one real root, the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A.103)

Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.


Forth and Higher Order ODE

The ODE and partial differential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. Generally, for constant coefficients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations. For example, the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.104)

The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.105). Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.107) (A.106)

are the solutions of (A.104). The solution of equation (A.106) and equation (A.107) was discussed earlier. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.109) (A.108)


APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and different e.g. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.g. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some different e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots, are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and different e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots, are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi , roots are similar and some real and different e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Differential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t

Example A.10: Solve the fifth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0



With the roots of the equation (1.X.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1,2 s3,4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1.X.c)

The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t))
End Solution





A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation
dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt

The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A.110)

To be continue

A.3 Partial Differential Equations
Partial Differential Equations (PDE) are differential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. Example of such equation is F (ut , ux , . . .) = 0 (A.111)

Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. For example, ux = ∂u . Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. Many situations in fluid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. Generally, the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. Partial differential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. Normally, this characterization is done for for second order. However, sometimes similar definition can be applied for other order. The physical meaning of the these definition is that these equations have different characterizations. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the flow (the solution). The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.112)

The coefficients axx , axy , ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. Equation (A.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A.113)

In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classified are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy , the same can be done for a second-order PDE. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. Generally, when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. One example of such equation is heat equation. When the discriminant



is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations. In fluid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic flow or in supper critical flow in open channel flow. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal flow and subsonic flow and sub critical open channel flow.


First-order equations

First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + ... ∂x ∂x (A.114)

The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated. However, the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book. An example of first order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.115)

The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.116)

Rearranging equation (A.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.117)

A possible way the equation (A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant. Hence, the constant is denoted as λ and with this definition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. The first equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.119) (A.118)

Equations (A.119) and (A.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.



A.4 Trigonometry
These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modification 1. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. tan(α + β) = 6. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β

tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or - by finding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2

α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6, consider the triangle with sides of length a, b, and c, and opposite angles α, β, and γ, respectively 5. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. sin2 α = 4. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c), a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2

β a c

γ b


Fig. -A.7. The tringle angles sides.





Subjects Index
absolute viscosity, 7, 8, 11, 12 Accelerated system, 81 Acceleration, angular, 83 Add Force, 198 Add mass, 166, 198 Add momentum, 166 Arc shape, 97 Archimedes, 3 Atmospheric pressure, 66 Average Momentum, 155 Average Velocity Integral Analysis, 166, 168 Averaged kinetic energy, 181 Averaged momentum energy, 181 Cylindrical Coordinates, 199

D’Alembert paradox, 3 d‘Alembertian Operator, 279 Deformable control volume, 128 Density ratio, 75, 112 Differential analysis, 197 dilettante, 11 Divergence Theorem, 280 Double choking phenomenon, 249

Energy conservation, 175 Energy Equation Accelerated System, 191 Linear accelerate System, 191 Rotating Coordinate System, 192 Energy equation Frictionless Flow, 189 Steady State, 189 Euler equations, 197 External forces, 152

Bingham’s model, 11 Body force, 63, 64, 66, 76, 78 effective, 65 Boundary Layer, 141 bulk modulus, 21, 23 buoyancy, 3, 101, 103 buoyant force, 76, 109

Co–current flow, 247 Compressibility factor, 71, 80 Concentrating surfaces raise, 29 Conduction, 176 Conservative force, 191 Convection, 176 Convective acceleration, 210 Correction factor, 75 Correction factor for averaged velocity, 181 Counter–current Pulse flow, 264 Counter–current flow, 247, 263 Annular flow, 265 Extended Open channel flow, 265 Cut–out shapes, 95

First Law of Thermodynamics, 175 Fixed fluidized bed, 261 Flow first mode, 234 Flow out tank, 178 Flow regime map, 244 Flow regimes in one pipe, 248 Forces Curved surfaces, 94 Free expansion, 76–78 Fully fluidized bed, 261

Gas–gas flow, 246 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem, 280 Gravity varying Ideal gas, 78 Real gas, 79

197 Neutral moment Zero moment. 118 Piezometric pressure. 246 Local acceleration. 146 small picture. 225 kinematic viscosity. 226 Moving surface. 223 Minimum velocity solid–liquid flow. 218 K Kinematic boundary condition. 162 . constant of integration. 250 H Harmonic function. 90. 261 Momentum Conservation. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Moving boundary. 225 Moving surface Free surface. 1. 265 Horizontal flow. 63. 138 Divergence Theorem.306 APPENDIX A. 286 Liquid phase. 151 Momentum conservation. 247 Orthogonal Coordinates. 70 Isotropic viscosity. 226 Multi–phase flow. 210 Lockhart martinelli model. 258 P Pendulum action. 247 Hydrostatic pressure. 70 Mass velocity. 176 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 280 Rocket mechanics. 224 Non–deformable control volume. 187 Linear acceleration. 153 index notation. 217 N Navier-Stokes equations. 71 Return path for flow regimes. 110 Micro fluids. 98 I Ideal gas. 81 Linear operations. 66 Pneumatic conveying. 121 Newtonian fluids. 91 pseudoplastic. 109 Neutral stable. 287 Integral analysis big picture. 243 Multiphase flow against the gravity. 247 Real gas. 198 Inverted manometer. 128 Non–Linear Equations. 11 Pulse flow. 119. 289 Normal stress. 252 Metacentric point. 120. 71 Inclined manometer. 138 Limitation of the integral approach. 210 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 70 Initial condition. 11 M “Magnification factor”. 146 Integral equation. 234 Polynomial function. 215 R Radiation. 188 L Lapse rate. 249 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 109. 78 Leibniz integral rule. 25 Interfacial instability. 78. 281 Oscillating manometer. 231 Concentric cylinders. 261 Poiseuille flow. 264 purely viscous fluids. 73 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 11 O Open channel flow. 99 Pressure center. 8 No–slip condition. 280 horizontal counter–current flow. 260 Mixed fluidized bed.

189 Second viscosity coefficient. 211 symmetry. 212. 246 T Tank emptying parameters. 187 Total moment. 12 U Unstable condition. 94 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 209 Superficial velocity. 253 Liquid holdup. 77. 259 Solid–liquid flow. 225 Solid–fluid flow Gas dynamics aspects. 97. 260 Thermal pressure.SUBJECTS INDEX 307 Wetness fraction. 64. 101 cubic. 85 Transition to continuous. 247 Stress tensor. 253 Quality of dryness. 276 Vertical counter–current flow. 262 Solid–fluid flow. 222 Segregated equations. 76 Unsteady State Momentum. 66 Variables Separation 1st equation. 246 Spherical coordinates. 151 Triangle shape. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 161 V Vapor pressure. 265 Stable condition. 266 Slip velocity. 76. 294 shear stress. 117 stratified flow. 259 Solid–solid flow. 76 stability analysis. 253 . 80 Stability analysis. 275 Vectors Algebra. 279 Westinghouse patent. 104 Turbomachinary. 214 transformation. 19 Wave Operator. 291 Vectors. 6 Slip condition range. 211 substantial derivative. 222 Thermodynamical pressure. 264 Vertical flow. 169 Two–Phase Gas superficial velocity. 253 Reversal flow. 247 W Watson’s method. 212 Cartesian coordinates. 248 Sutherland’s equation. 253 Void Fraction. 185 Terminal velocity. 109 Stability in counter–current flow. 253 S Scalar function. 222 thixotropic.

Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 280 N Navier. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 4 Martinelli. 297 C Cichilli.I. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. Jean Louis. 119 Reynolds. 197 Nikuradse. G. 244 Meye. Simon-Denis. Hermann von. 4 Blasiu. 4 .308 APPENDIX A. 4. 119 H Helmholtz. George Gabriel. 197 Prandtl. 4 de Saint Venant. 4 V von Karma. Barr´. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 4 Westinghouse. 4 Stokes. 4 Nusselt. 197 G Ganguillet. 4 D Darcy. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 244 Taylor. Osborne.. 4 Blasius. 187 F Fanning. 280 Poiseuille. 257 R Rayleigh. 244 M Manning. 244. 138 Lockhart. 4 Gauss. 235 O Olivier Vallee. 138 Rose. 280 T Taitle. Carl Friedrich. 257 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. 4 W Weisbach. 4 Froude. 246 L Leibniz. 231 Poisson. 4 S Stanton. Claude–Louis. 197 e Duckler.

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