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OBJECTIVE

1. To identify the type of cell respiration in the yeast.


2. To interpret the results on yeast reaction by using blue methylene as the artificial
hydrogen acceptor.

INTRODUCTION
Cellular respiration is a process of food molecules oxidation to produce energy in ATP
form; it includes aerobic and anaerobic respiration.An aerobic respiration occurs in the presence
of oxygen and the oxygen act as a final electron acceptor.An anaerobic respiration is also known
as a fermentation process,which occurs in the absence of oxygen that uses an organic molecule
as a final electron acceptor.
In yeast cells,the fermentation process produces 2 ATP,carbon dioxide and the wasteful
product,ethanol.During this process,NADH will donate the atom hydrogen to keep generating of
NAD+ and continue the fermentation process.

MATERIALS
 Blue methylene 0.5%
 Fresh yeast 10% + Glucose 1%
 Test tube
 Water bath (38°C-42°C)
 Measuring cylinder 10 cm3
 Beaker 250 cm3
 Rubber stopper

PROCEDURE
1. The test tubes was labelled A,B and C
2. 10 cm3 of fresh yeast was poured into the test tubes.
3. The Test Tube C was placed in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
4. 10 drops of blue methylene was dropped into each of the test tube and were shake well.
5. All the test tubes was placed in water bath (38°C-42°C) for fifteen minutes.The colour in
each of the test tube was recorded (Column X in Table 3.1).
6. Then,the Test Tube B was placed into a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
7. A rubber stopper was inserted into each test tube and shake the test tubes.The colour in each
of the test tube was recorded (Column Y in Table 3.1).
8. The rubber stopper was removed and the test tubes was placed in the water bath for fifteen
minutes.Then,the colour in each of the test tube was recorded (Column Z in Table 3.1).
RESULT

Table 3.1 : Yeast reaction

The colour observed


Test tube

X Y Z

A Light blue Navy blue Navy blue

B Light blue Light blue

C Blue Navy blue


QUESTIONS

1. Explain the biochemical process that happened in the test tubes based on your
observation.

2. Does this reaction controlled by enzyme?Give your reason.

Yes.Because many aspects of fermentation require enzymatic reactions in order to


proceed.Extracting fermentable sugars from grains are critical to the success of yeast
fermentation, and production of alcohol could not occur without the work of amylase
enzymes to break down starch into simple sugars that are usable by yeast. Also, many
steps of the metabolic pathways used by yeast are enzyme-dependent. Without enzymes,
fermentation would not be possible.

3. Give one example of structure or substance in living cell that is represented by blue
methylene.

Nucleus.

4. Name the process that involves the activity demonstrated in this experiment.

Fermentation.
DISCUSSION

The purpose of this lab was to identify the type of cell respiration and to interpret
the results on yeast reaction by using blue methylene as the artificial hydrogen
acceptor.The result was determined by observing the colour changes using blue
methylene.Firstly,we poured 10 cm3 of fresh yeast into each of the test tubes that labelled
A,B and C.The test tube C was placed into a beaker of boiling water for 5 minutes and
was well shake.Then,we added 10 drops of blue methylene into each of the test tube and
put in a water bath (38°C-42°C) for 15 minutes.The colour changes that we observed is
Test tube A and Test tube B turn from blue to light blue.Test tube A and B obviously turn
to light blue because of the respiration meanwhile Test tube C remain blue.This is
because yeast cannot be having an effect as the boiling water would kill it,so it must be
function of the heat involved in boiling.
Then,the experiment was continued by placing Test tube B into a beaker of
boiling water for five minutes and then covered with rubber stopper into each of the test
tubes and shake well.
Besides,we observed that many parallax error that effect on the result.For the
precaution,the test tube must be shaking carefully.Despite,the time taken must be precise
when we measure the volume of substances,the eye must be perpendicular to get an
accurate result.Although there is a lot of inaccuracy between the steps,the results can be
determined.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the data supported the hypothesis. We can conclude that, the type of cell
respiration in the yeast was identified and the results on yeast reaction by using blue
methylene as the artificial hydrogen acceptor was interpret.

REFERENCES

1. https://www.whitelabs.com/sites/default/files/Enzyme-Catalog.pdf

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation