RelPo,rtii ng

Public Policy



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REPOR1~NG PUBLIC POUCY: A MANUAL FOR JlOUIR:lNAUSTS Center for Medl~a Freedom and Re5PGns~bf!ity

with su PIPO rtfro m Tin e Ford FOlullrlda,tion

COPYlright © 2004 by the C;enter for Media fre·edom and ResPQns~bmty, Phlllpplnes

A~~ rights reserved, No pel rt cpf tlh [,s re po rt may be re produ ce d l n ,8 ny 'for m or Iby ell ectro ni C CD r mschanleal means, 'iII"ilC'lllilcll~r1Ig information storage and retrieval systems, wlithout permission i n w riti ng 'from t hie p u bl is he r, except by a rev iewer wh 0 may Q u ate brief passa ges in a review.

Table of Contents


FOR1E\VORD , ~ ~."" ~ ~ ~!! ~ to j j ~ h •• " n _ ., •••• ., ~III ••• ~' 115! ~ '!O E ~ ~ ~~. ~ j ii ~ Iii i ••••••• ~I ••••••• roo ~I·II!. I. ~ ~ '" E! ~ 4

MeUnda QUlntos de Jes us




lowa rds a Fed eral Re pu b I lc of ttl e Ph'~ i P pi n es

with a Parliamentary Government by 2010 "...... 35

Jose \I: A bueva

Contributing to a Broader Understanding of the Impact of Mining

on Ph,illippine Human and Economic Development .. , "...................... 59

Environmental Science for Social Change

usapang Hlall'ig~n " ", ....•.... , .........•....•......•............ " "....... 65,

Dinfla Louise C. Dayao

REFERENOES •• " ".............................. 91


q q

Polley M,aking in the News

Poor governence continues to holld back d'evellopment ln the Phlllpplnes, A tradition of patronage polltlcs has dominated the electorel system, resulting in the election of public of1"li cia Is who la elk. qua lificatkms for pub I ~ c service. The ta Ie nt, sk i Ills and com m itm € nt of

concerned lFiHprliloo are consta nltly betrayed bya pol'ittical culture that retlects the structural lnequalltles in Ph~Uppine society.



The problem of poor governance calls for solutions on many levels. One approach focuses on the poUcy-mak~ng process and estsblishing a ratlonalframework for declslon-rnaklng that engages the pu bile.

I n a dernocraticenvl wn me nt,a free press p lays a crltlca i IrQ te ~ n tile form ati 0 n of so U no public policy, The press produces a forum in whieh policy ideals €lInd ~nrrtialtives are testedand formed in the arena ot pl~'blli:c opinion. This e~ehemge shou I'd engage a broad representation (If citlzens, a critical mass that will make the discussion representative of competmg interests at ndfnvolve the sa me in the esta Ibil ish rn snt of pu bl ic consens UIS.


Urrl'ortun81telYra free press does not always produce such coherent dr!scuss~on. Rather, news accou nts ten d to represent po Hey de bate ina battl €l betwEl€ n two OPPO! ~'rI g} see m ~ n gJly ~ rrecon ci 161 bl e pos ltl DHS 0 r o pt i on s, Aggressiive secto rs ca n so d om Ii In ate th € exc han ge or ilflltlimioate po.llicy oftlelals wirUl protest actlon. The lntensity with which proponents promote Ulleir campalfgns cain intlmldate and stall the policy process, wasting time and resources or Ileadl~ng to bad po~~clies.

IBeC8il!JlSe j ou rna llsm im poses tra d itiona I news criteria ,. th e m ed ia re po t1 em events a nd often tali! to report on poll~cy whlille it is stlll ,in the process of development.. Reportage does not hel p o ltizens to un dereta nd pol icy option san d the eonseq ~ ns a I1l d losses i nvo lved In the different chotces, The proponents (If cppostng sides use the press ~111 a personal battlethat trij es 5i m p Ily to ma ke the othe r side 1100 k bad. Engaged poll i cy propon ents d ef ne the po Hcy

arena as a "winner take all" game. The press then frames the, policy debate as a "win on lose" contest.

Journausts need training in reporting such palliey material as news. because these do not fa III with i n th e tra m ework of a news event They need to be co nvtn cedi to. i ncl ud e po Hey issu es in the news agenda even if these do not constitute hot [Items. They need to develop skills S,Q that these reports cain become more lnteresting and easier to understand. At the same time, an eo ucated citizenry is c nliitica II to good governs nee. Po Hc:y reportl rn g soh ou I d he lip the form atlon of sound public oplnlon. ln this manner. the press can bea source of continuing pclltlcal educatlon of citizens. ure of government

The policy process 'in ltselt is also liittle understood by government offlclals or leaders of eMI society. Government policy makiing is often haphazard, and may be trlggered otf by an ~n eldent or b¥ pu b~ lc protests a rn d otner form s of press u reo Gov"9rn me nt oiffi eta Is a IsO' refra rll1l hom communlcatlng the process of polley-rnaklng preferring to discuss the issues on Iy when the policy-making, community had made '1UIP its mirrd about what solutton to take up.

As polrcy-maklng usuarlilly involves several stakeholders, irt is difficult for government to centro I, th e flow of i nforrnetton abo ut th e 0 ngo ~'l1 g process, Com petl n g co rn m IIJ 111 ~t~es us ua lIy go to the media with one slde of the story, When one side gets. better media coverage than other points of view, rationa l polley ana lysis never gets the time ~t deserves: as everyone gets Involved in a "medial war." While thls may make interesting reading. it hardily promotes genuine public hea rl ng abo ut the costs and th eben eflts of (I ne ora n oth e'r a p p roa ch,.

The government, the press and civill society can benefit from al refresher/intrcductory course that willi help their members understand the policy-making process and media's role. It benefits th e p ress to be pa rt of a tri-pe rtlte lea rn j ng axe rc lse so' th ey ca n bette r !J n de rsta nd the co ntext and background of policy dlscusston,

ln democratic environments, policy formation tends to. be less unnorm and may be pomly orga n lzed, lit is UI nwise to hol d upon € model. But VI!' hi j'lle the system lis ltlI ot ra n dam, 1L~ ere are important teatu res shared by and fO'UIFliO in effe,ctrfve poll~cy-malking models, Critlical actors need to, share a framework of understanding models and the skills and techniques to enable each group to ,effectivelly Bind ratiionally partlcloate in policy formatton.

In the cnu'rs€! of the work of the Center for Med ta Freedom & Respons,ii:) ility (eM FR),analysis of coverage has shown how often the press reports on crlncal policy witlhourt any reference to th e probl e m that po ~ ~cy~s tryi ng to add ress .. Often th e fra m ework 'for reportl ng h i,gM ~ lghts the personalities engaged rlnl the, policy battle, and the story stays simply as an account of what "he said, snesald." Malny reporters asslgned to the dlfrffellent beats do 110t understand the frameworlK of policy. P.oHcy stories arr'€ dlfflcult to frame as event stories and SIO journalists

~gnme policy matters in genera I.

eM FR j n ~tiated a p rogra m w h ic h wou ~ d i ntred uce l 0 urn al ists to bot h th eo ryan d pra ctij ce of pollcy-maklng, One program cannot achieve long-term goa lis" but the model could eventually help to 1} create a new policy environment; 2} promote' a rationale policy approach in government,

Sp Be ific pro] e ct goals i II1C i uded;

a. To instruct selected leading joumehstsabout public policy formation

b. To engage members of the media in a series ot pol icy discussion as the issues arise in the news

A tri-partite view informed the weekend sem mar organized at the Eugenio Lopez Train lng Center lin An1t~polio far jou rnallsts working in print a nd broadcast a reas. Resource persons were selected to show the involvement of public officials and NGOs.

I nstru ctio Ii1I i II1d u dedi lectu re and dI ~SGUSS ion. Co ntent cove red theory as we III as p recti ea ~ case studies or models on media-policy lin ks and clvll-soelety interventions in pollcy-maklng. These cases also present the government as ,8 critical and primary actor in the precess ..

The flrst level of activity provides the trained comrnu n ~1Ly wit.hl a basic learn i'rlg experience in public policy. The same commu n ity then gets invited to a series of policy brleflngs through the year, The policy issues were selected according to the need for policy revtew and lts timeliness.

This manus ~ is 81 project output that is designed to extend the, tralning inputs to a wider comrnunity of [ournaltsts. As in all training endeavors, these can only start up the process of learning for working joumallsts,

eMFR hopes that the manual provides a basic lntroductlon to policy as a subject for news as well es a handy reference for those who decide to incorporate policy in their coverage.

Melinda Quintos de Jesus Executive Director

Center for Media Freedom & Responsibility


R,e':portiing Public Policy::

A GUli,de' tor Journallsts

Luis V. tecoxo

The ~wa1I.dlldog fu notion' ~sa role Ph i tipp: rre m ed la orga n tzatle ns and pm ct lti on e rs IN ide I,'ya cce pt. The ph rase is part of most mass media practltloners' voca bule ry, a nd refers to a prl nciple they regard as inseperable from the nature of the mad leas a 5El rvlce to the public.

In medla circles in the, Ph~~'ippir1les, in pu bllc toru ms a~s well a.s Ii 111 any ve n u e or sltuetlo n where the role of media in society ls discussed. and in th e overa h 'U nd red sc n ools th at offer jo UI rna H srn a rid b roadcast degree progra rns, th e co til ee pt lis assoc i ated with th e a dve rsa ria ~ relatlonsh lp between govemmentand the news medl~a: to the role of the media as the "Fou rth Estate~.

The watchdog function ls thus most commonly interpreted to refer to the media's exposing wrong-doing In government. Se'rving the public is widie,ly interpreted as provid ing readers, listeners and viewers of the news, Ii nto rmation (I n th e latest ca SElS of graft, sea ms, non-observance of mandated processes, sea n d a Isa n d othe r instances of bad governa nee of wh ich publ ic knowledge is pres u meo to be n ecessa ry.

I nterpreteo thus, the dlscha rge of th is

fu n etlo n has te nded to sa nctlo n ~ n n uen do and Ii rres po n s~ bl e ace usatl ons as m uc h as documented clatms and verma ole information from various sources, including the media's own i nvestlgstl 0111 of lssu es of IOU bl lc i nte rest.

Wrong-doing in government is certa inly a critical part of the news media's role in a democratic society. or in a: democratlzjng one. Tlh e' med ~a at re til n i nd iSJ}EH1Sa b le a rm of th e citizen ry i n exactm g a ccou nta bi I ity from govern m ent, as we H as a n a r d rn its exe rclse of the right to decide who its government leaders should be. They he,l p keep publtc attentl 0 n on th e iss ues of good gove rna nee, an deve n more cruc ia Hy he II p provide cltlze n s, Ii n those cases wh en s Ui'C h re ports are meticulously researched and professionally presented, a sense of what good government could be.

The media's fQCUS f:mgovernment wrong-doing has not been without problema. But settl n g aslde the issu es ot sensatl 0 na Hsm , ina cc uracy a nd sea nda l-rn onge rl ng wh ii ch nave burdened medial reporting on government and government figme's as much ,if' not more than thelr reporting on other areas of public concern, the watchdog function also lncl udes th e resporrsl bi I lty of exp I a Ii n i ng IN h at


governrnent is doing" has done, or ls atte m ptl n g to do on matters of pu bl lc i nte rest. Th is slso i ncll u des reportl ng pu b llc preferences on pubHc issues, the public's news as input into the decision-rna Ik in g of ,s lected and appolnted offida Is.

Matters of public interest ad m ltted Iy cover a wide field. lin developing COY ntrles, government-as the only entity adequately organized and fu nded, and explicltly me ndated 1t.o solve problems-is m~wessari~),r ~ nvolved ina I most eve ry a rea of socla I existence in which declsions have to be made.

lssues of poverty, education, and health care; child lis bor and women's rights; errvtronmental protectlon and employment are on lya f,ew of th e a mas of co ncern that dire ctly touch people's I lves lin a country like the Ph i Iii pp lnes, and wh lch therefore req u i re govern ment dec isli em-ma k ~ nrg and' actio n,.

In a democratizing society the making of such decisions req u ires th e in put of the citizenry, whose sovereign power includes the right to present to government, a nd to even de mal n d 00 m plla nee with tlh em, its view'S on the issues that affecttnern as well astheerrtlre nation. n~lis requlres citizen understanding of, a 11 d i nvo lve m ent in, tlh e processes i nvolved in decislon-rnaklng,

The media and ,dl,eci'$,ilon-makilng

The mass med la are among the lnatrurnents that can help make this happen, gJiven their reach and Increaslngly critical role in shaping, public knowledge, attitudes and values. The media can perform thisfunctlon through interpretation and commentary as well as through the basic role (If providing lnforrnation,

The activities of poucy-makers=tnerr


state me ntsas well as t hel r pu bl to a ppea ra n ces, a nd even the i r private II lves-d 0 rna ke' the news. Altho ugh opl n lo n pages ta ke up po I icy f ssues, news a ccou nts often lgno re policy iss u es, Rattle r news foe u ses on pol icy'ma ke rs, Po I iCy lssu es are not bel ng give 11 the crttlcal attention they deserve In the news pages where it matters most. Policy becomes tnterestlng in news only when the policy process inc I udes co ntll ct and controve my.,

A n u m be r of reaso ns have, bee n SIUI ggested to, expllali n this state of ,aHai rs, The most "obvious" one to eo ltors a nd beat reporters is that pollcy and pclicy-rnaklng are n-at something readers are especlally interested tn, These are contlnumg processes and not obviously exciting" wntch means that they wo n 't sell more, news papers or boost. raid i 0 and TV rat,i n gs,

The news media favor what's considered interesting, day-to-dey events that a re more easy to report, These may be related to poll icy and po I ley-rna king, butas long as editors think these are easily understood and appreciated by the pu hllc,

For example" a protest oy the international env,jron menta list group G reenpeaee at. me Department of the Environment meets that requirement, So. does the continulng debate an the wisdom of the death oena lty as a deterrent to en me, and the' govern ment's declartng-a nd later rescinding-a moratorium on its lm plernentatlo n. State rnents by government officials, lncludlng the President" on how the government willi deal witih instances and signs of rnlhtary unrest, such es thie July 27,20003 Oakwood rnutlrry.nre similarly of wide publlic interest.

Appolntrnents to government posts are in

- . ~ ~.

~ ...r- . ~.

the same ,eatleg(uy. as are re:signaMoril's a rid re plseernents. Rep 0 rte rs a nd ad ~mrsasslWllm e that th e pub He w~ IIII be iiinte rested i nwh 0- 'will 6SSU m,€ II €l61d fespolfllsi billy I~n ElrrTllvi rem menta nd Nlatu ralill IResew roes, IDef€'rlIse. Fl na nee, Ag)fiCu ltu re or Eol ucatlo n .a Ir~td th eye ccord i ngly 'focus O'~I the perS~)lIilaUIUes U1i18'1:. are be,~ng eensid ered, 11:1 ey a lso report . on who Ihla,v;e bee n rep laced and to r wtn at reason, wl~lo lIii as resigned to run for pub~lic O'ffh::€l'. and who has d eeid ed to go back ~~) the lPu b I ic sector,

There ls 'n,01i:h'~ng in herently wrong with th ese em phases, Ce l1a,i~lrili'lly a protest tsa form of pol icy itrlllPu[, a n d who gets to' be secreta ry ota d epa ritme nt d CH:!'S have ~rm pll cat'~on S 0' In po II ley, But while the inputs and the Iii ml[p I lcatlons are! reported me rei 0 r less adequatelj, ~1~ley are more ofilten neglecwdi,. 'he repents explaining pollcles, defini'ng them, or the dlscusalons of dll~H,ereltllt optlens a;\lBliil.a b ~eta ke a Ibalcl~. s€',at to ston~e's that are considered 'mom appealing,

Th ere a re of coarse topics Uu:lt are intrl nsl ea ~ ~y a ppea I i Ing. Th e jo u rn a I is~ who relies sollle~y on the inherent appea II of 8 su bject does not Ihi 81'118 to e>!ler1. himself. lit ~$ It,. h ~)weve r, to rna ke wlf1llalt ~s reilleva nit an dj or com plex U It1Ilde rsts nda ble and lnterestl ng,

The pollll~cy-malking process and much (If poll icy d lseourse ca n be very du II when it comes from experts, but thet's the reason why journallsts take courses in popular wrrrl1t'ilmig in coillege: to, rneke the unlnterestlng rllt1Itelr,est~ng" Uk,e economics. science, or even ilfore'lign affa i rs, po lieres alnd the' po[~mcy process ca n be made un d ersta nd a b'h~.! 'to reasena b Iy lnte Illiigent~. wei H nfo rm e d reede rs,

0111 ha n da re til us missi n gout 0:r;J til 'ric h 6'w,e:a1 of jou rna listlc enterprise. IS ut even rn 0 re lim porta Plitly" they a re a lsoa bdl~cailL~n g pa rilL of the essential role ofillll'ile press in a cernocranc seul~nlg lOy not provld ing the pu bl lc the Inform 8i1l!rOn it needs to exerc lse its sovereign Irigl'lt to nel p ,ch a rt. tlhe ccu rse o,f thel~r ceu ntry and society.

IRs'po rtl ng gove rnance a nd en rteh i ng d.emocluati:c dlscourse, ,o,f wh~ch pon,ey repo.rt!ing ts a crltieal part, is as rnucha part of the watch d og fu n ctlon of ttl e p ressas the Fou rth IEs1;8J~.e' as reporting, wn:mg-do~ngand exposing government anomalles ..


.AI. policy has bee n cilemi~Willed asa deeis ion thalt i m pi i!es,. and indeed req ILl ires, ani nts nded a,C1I1~:on or actions. Statements and speeches sllllike ca n express polllf:cy messages, Pol icy is expressed mon:;! f,o rim a ~my as a set ·o,t d'~rr'ectjv'es fro m po I itical a Imd aid m~ n istrat ~ve a utho rlties, or po I ley-make rs. These d i recttves are transmltted to imp~:ementing oHh::iais. t.oge1tJner with the goa Is th ey a fa mea nt to acl~lh~ve as wellas the means to achieve them,

Flol le les '~rm ply consiste:n cy avera period of time, built. not permanence. ~dealliythel[r period of efif.ectiviityas welll~1 as their lim ltsa re olea rlly defill ned. Illf m hey a re ifl'ot, po ncy-ma Ik.e rs are 8Jgs,U mad to b e mon ifWlri ng U~I€ JJ 0 !icy and Ifms impact, and should be' prepared to modify orr totally dr~sc8rd a policy ln favor of a new, or modified one'.

Pollcles chenge--or should cha nge-sas tbe envl ron m ent eha I'll ges, as p roblems evolve a nd m utate, and as the pol lc ies

th e m se lves be gii n to h eve am i m pa ct 0111 th e sltuation they were meant to address fn the first place,

It is i m pe rta nt to kee pin mind that policy formulation is a process and not an event. Policies evolve lin response to sueh factors as time, fu II1Jdl ~n g, and! th e exlgen cles of pol ltlcs in both it'S broader as well as partisan sense.

A change in government through elections, for example, brings with it not on Iy such obvious cha nges as a different set of offfdals, but changes as well in em phase'S and dlrectlon, fu nd i n g, support an d tern po ofi rnplernentatl 0 n,

Pn~1 I eye he n ges

On e exa m pie ora pol icy sh ltt was the "a I~oul war" policy of the Estrada sdmlnlstratlon in Mindanao which meant increased funding for m mtary needs in corn bating the Mom Isla m lc Li beration front (M I LF) in 20.00. An other was 1tJl €' sh lft (rff emphasis fro m a rt if Ii e ia I mea ns of birth co ntro I to natu ra I methods adopted bythe AnQ)I'O admlnlstration in m id-2001 ..

It wou lei be a mistake to assume, however, that po II icy-ma kl ng 0 CCU rs on lyat the h igh est levels of government. Th emu ltl pi lclty of government agencfes and unlts means that pollicies can be made at even the lowest levels, and lrnplernented wlrtlhin the competencies and a utho rity of the dec ~s~ on-rna kers involved.

A decision to provide bara'ngay lanoo ma rtie ~ 81 rts tra i n ~ ng, for exa m pie, ca n be made at the barangay ~evel by barangay oHicialls~ just as nile same policy cain be made at the level of munletpal mayors, the Metro Manila Deve lopm ent Au thcrlty (MI M DA),. or the Presldency, The complex of policies, decisions a ndactrons that make up governance ere o,ften the wor:k off rna ny actors.


The actors in policy-making, however, requ ire the Ilegit~macy o·f either electron or a ppo mtm e nt, Ttl at legiti m a r:y en d ows th e m with the a utho r~ty to ide ntify goa Is a 'I1l d a II at the reso U fees. n eeded to ac hi i eve th em, as we III as the bureaucracles mind lvldual employees who will implement them.

II n countries li~e the Philippines, however, elected an d a ppoi nted officials ~ n govern merit a re a nswe ra bl e to t h eir co nstltue nc les, whose votes elise! and tnd frect~y appoint them. These constltue nctes have certa ln prlontlesand i nte rests, Idea I ~ they ·9 teet offic ~a Is 0111 tne basis of the po Ilic)I" pll atto rrn s th eya gree witn, (I r whose form u latio n th ey lirllfl u en cad in the fi rst place. Once in office the assumption ls that th Else e lected offh'Ji a IS,a n d tne a cf min lstrators and bureaucrats thley appotnt, will Implement the pol lc res sa nctiorred by thei r co nstituenc i es,

On Ily C6 rtai n po lie res ce n be a ntlci pated en ouglh to s·e rveas basis 011' electoral ca m pa i gns, su ch po lleies may 1)8 press nte d as pa rt of po Hrtjca I p latforms beca use th eya re regarded as eructs Ij. have been the subject of intense debate, or are otherwise widely perceived as i nvo lvl nga n urge nt issue, So m e pol lcles in evlta bly In ave to be fo rm u lated 0 n the wl ng oy elected a nd a ppol nted dec lsicnmal ~e rs, th ough of eou me W IrliJll the perce ived approval of their constituencies in m~ncL

Addressing probteme: ma khllg pol icy

Poll i eles a re mea nttoa d d ress problems and issues. This means that the particular problem has to be denn ed as clea rly as possible, Does the problem still exist? lf it does, has it become worse? Are the same grou ps of pee ple, orga n lzatlo ns 0 r othe r e nHtfes affected? ls there a mea ns of determ l't1Ifng tneanswers to these Questions? The problem involved il1l understandlng the pro b lem is the need to d efi n e it elsa rly.

If tine problem has been understood, the, next step lis to determlne what attempts had previously been made to address or solve it, How successful were theseattempts? How much resou roes iimfundling and manpower were used? If' these attempts failed, why did th ey fall?

How then may the problem be addressed th f s time? Are rno re reso u rces need ed, 00 r is it a matter of emphasis? What programs and projects can be used to solve the problem? Are these progra ms a nod projects th e sa m e as the ones used eanier? 1D0 they need more ti m e to work?

FOllmer H ea Ith Un d e rsecreta ry Mia rio. laguiwalo {The Po~i'cy Process: Presentation et the center for Med la Freedom and Respons'ibility rCMFR], Wonks hop on Media and IPoUcy, NovemlJer 28-301 2002} vi,ews policy making as an extended process consisting of:

(1) ~denUfying the problem or problems (wh ich may be different from the public's pe roo ptlon):

(2) developing the pol icy responses to

these pro b Ie rns a nd pro pos i ng them:

('3) soliciting, the reaetlons of the stakeholders and other interest groups;

(4) lmplementing the solutlons as modified by th ose rea ctlon s, and

{5} addressing the problems created by the solutions adopted to elimlnate the problems.

What is important its that in all the stages of the process, the rn ed ii a ca n provi d e both the, information the public needs as well as the input declslon-rna kens need a bout the p rete rem ees of the peon I e til ey" re man dated to serve,

In that sense the media can €'nrich d ernoc ratlc d ecisl on-rn a kl n g by he I pi ng d eclslon-rna kers broaden th,€! process to mciude consultations wlith and more inputs from the intended benetlclaries. As Mr. Tagu iw.a 10 sa ld, ~t ls se ldo m t h 81t the w ~sh es of be neHc~ a ries are h ea rd in the pol icy p recess: this must be corrected, and the media can hell P corrs ct th is a nomally.



(l.) (2) (3) (4-)

l~den~I~ll1!lg t'tle prob~~em Sollutiol1l

P'ro bleml ,cire:a~eal by tlmu~ool utic," New Soh.lltioo

• Looa II gOV1eni1 me nt's

• Plnl!;UlmaOe~ll~call industry

~ DocllOt$' a~sociath:ms


H'osp,italls' association Heal~h lPf1ovid,ers'g)~o'"IPS Catl'i! Q~ it C:~y rt':tu

.' IO,i;s,eai$es,

• [lrllJlgs

~ IDoctors

~ ~ospi~als

• Costs

.' CI1iil.o~,aes ~ n IrHplroidlJljlotill1le' he .. Iltih

PlJblllic~s Under.s~an:dlns, (I~ the "~oblem

Gove rlnme n~ stliwioes IPrh:>e's a rldl ,q~la lity of drl.!gs IDoc~Olr 1m il$take$

&-hJsp,il:a1 rn istalkes alr1ld c!ll'a r~es ,Paymel1ltbu !'dens

Cl'lu rch \I',eW5'I1JIS, gQillle,r~mEl'n~


'DO'H dii5{lIi3SJe ,contll'o II pmgrams Nati@ nJa ~ d Hllg policy

Doeto r educ~Uolll. accred ilation py III h= hospiUllls and hospultal regulatUon

~ Hea ~tilMl~nsu raln(le

'. Falrn~lly pll:ann ung

Devo,l~t ~Q n Ge,rleril'c Drugs

f'mposed Imed lea ~ mal pr:actioo billl

NaJUOI!'1I;;! ~aln:d lcea II h~lpl~a ~$ Nail:li:oIMl!3 II HI!ealt~ I nSUirance, Law famlilliy plan nii ng priQgram·naIll!lJln\l111 andl artificial

Wea ikrnesses in pu till tc hea Ittl sy.ste m litue ilm pam!: Ol'lll drug prices

litHe im p~u;,t on quail it}!' of p rof'~ss 1:0111 a~ care

IbIU~e ImIP';H;,t on hasp Ilt:a! prjl ~e'$f qualiity

IILntUe impact on fi oarH;;ii·all bUlrdell'il1 Qf I~eal~h ca re

UUle p~(lgre~ i n ~ep~Qdlll ~Uve iii ei31lth


Journalists aware of the Constltutlonal Ilimits on what pol ides may be adopted by government would be pervQrmiing the important pu blie task of id€lnmy~ltl!ga poHcy's GrJnstitut,iona~ and other infirm ltles, But 1Lh is is only one of several roles the press ca n pl',ay in covering pol icy·mal k.i nga n ~ the pol ley process.

Some ten specific m ed la fu netic ns in repcrtl ng the po II f cy process have bee n Ii ci e ntlrled in the United States (E.,B. Lambeth. "Percelved lnfluence of the Press on Energy lPoliicy lMal~dng." Joumatlsm Quarrerfy, 56 (1) 11.-18, 1978).

Several of these function s a Ire ofte n pe rformed Slim u M n eo us Ily: l.e., re portl ng 81 nd' com m e nt very one n do not pe rfo rm the m s~ n g;ly. H oweve r" ij is possl bl e to J solate eerta incases as ern p na slz i ng ,0 ne or the othe r,.

These fu n ct~ ens Cl re sepa rated h ere o n Iy for the sa k.e of 8 n81 ~ytica I ell a rlty als d escri bed by Lambeth.

1 ... Anilici pat:ing problems hll adva nee, of publ le 'off~cials,.

" Suc h artl c les a re often 'In aid ofeglslatlo II,' In the sense that they ca n alert officials

to the need fo r leglslatlo n to correct existing pro blems, 0 r in anti ci patio n of them. "

A re port 0 n , sayfutu re en €fgy s h ortfa [[ Is is an example of how med~a can report on a pro b lamas a policy iss ue ,even tho u glh po [icy rna kers have not yet taken it up for public d iscussion or mal)! not eve n be awa re of lt, S IU ch energy shortfalls way ld affect the general p tl O'[ ic W Irt.h seve re i m p[1 lcatlon s to r govern rnent sconom Ie programs, Re'porti ng on polky ln adva n cegets a h S'8 d of news in a ntlc lpatlon of fut u re d eve I oprne nts,

An ed itorial or othe r opi n ion p~ €lee focus ~ng on the possl bile soelal repercussions of a divorce tim pending in Congress WOlU [ei S ~ m ilarly qua Hfy as an exa m pie.

Despite the seem lng paucity of pollcyrelated re in the Ph mppi n e m eel ia, r th ~s function is among the most com mon [y d lseh a rged by p ra ctft~on ers, a lith ough sto nes and commentaries lin this category, if based em ~ nterv~ews with a, P.Q Htica [[ pa rtlsa n, often co mea c ross as po I itlca I re portl ng.

The most outsta nidi ng exs m ples of the d ~scharge of th lsfu nctlon is Ii nvestlgatlve repo rUn g that >Q n its own u f1I cove rs the a dverse effects of a state of BJUa i rs=tor exa m p le the over-fish~ng and over-expjeltatlcn .of Ph~[ippine waters-ehead of ot:nc,ja[loom. Such articles are often "in a id off leglslatlon," in the sense that they canalert omc,ja ts to the need for legislatlo n to correct ex ilst~ ng prob[ e m s, or in entleipatlon of them.

2. Allertmng the public to problems on the basis of offi'ciall Wei rn i ngs,

WhUe seemingly ldentlcal to the 'first function, this functton is different from the first lin that ij is specitically focuseo on calling the public's attention to what offtclals 1thlemselves fear. A local official, for example. may be concerned over the depletion of potable water reso u roes in his Ju risd lotio n ,8 n d may exp ress hi's conce rn to the rned la in the hope of rnoblllzlng public SUIPPO.rt

IBy reporting the otflclal's warning, a Journalist could include ln his or her storythe offtcla l's recommendatlons to rorestall the disaster he Ih as a ntlcl pated, But th e sto ry most of all would be-alerting the public to an impend ing p rob lem a dectslcn-me ker has a nticfpat,ed. ArlJcl'es generated by the press ill fu rthe ra nee of th is role ce n rnobl I lze community support for proposed soluucns, or opposition to ongoing practtces that have created th e p robl ems .

One of the outstanding examples of such reporting, was the coverage of the wa rnings ~SSIJ ed by experts from the govern merrt's Philippine ~ nstitute of Volca nology and Sersmotogy (Phivolcs) in the wake oftne 19'90 e ru ptl on of 1Mt. Pi' n atu bo that Ce n tra I l.uzon, specified ~ Ily th e provi n ce of Pa m pa nga ~ a bout the continued lahar flows which wo'ulld place many communities in da nger, and th us requiring government action.

Pending the cornpletlon of such government attempts to shletd cornmu n ltles fromtne lahar flows as the construction of antilahar dikesand the permanent relocation of residents of enda ngered cornrn unlties, the stories sourced by the media from government officii,als provided many comrnunlties sufficient warning feu their residents to seek. safer ground.



"By reporting the official's

wa rn i ng, a Jo uraa I ist could inc ude in his or her story the offcial's recommendations to fa restall the disaster he has antic) paled I "

The same reports, however, also warned officia ls 0 n th e grou n d of th e need for proa etive in'!:,erveM.ion,and helped accelerate U11e dave 10 p m e nt of pro lects to add ress ttl e I a har problem.

3. Informing the public of the stakes co m petl ng grou ps Ih ave i n so~viin,g orobtems, and

4.Keeping varlcus groups and the pu bllic awa re of eomoen ng pro posa~s.

Media reporting on the debate over the Metro Manil'a. garbage crisis of 2001-2002 serves as an example,

The competing groups in the debate over how the problem could and should be solved were the govern rnent agencies concerned (1M MIDA, t he city govern m ents.the Depa rtrn e nt of Environment and Natural fN::!sOlUlroes" etc.): the ecrnmunjtles both in and outside Metro Ma,nila, including those in the provinces where th e MI M IDA had pro posed to tea nsp 0 rt M etro Ma n i la ga rbage: 81 nd no n-gove on menta II organlzatlone such as environmental advocacy groups ..

In th e repo rtage th at en su ad ove r th e crisis (as this was evident to both the' media as well as the Metro Manilla populace from the uncollected garbsJge iin the streets}, the press s ucceed ed j n prese rrtl rig to rea de rs th e competing viewpoints and interests of the groups involved.

Gov'e r n m ant dectsic n-rna ke rs were extsnslvely quoted, but the, press 811so solicited the views ofthe com m unities lnvutved, among these the residents of Smolkey Mountain in Manila and of Palyatals in Quezon Gilty, as w,slll 81S of environmental organlzatlons,

In the process, the reading public was informed on the cptions available in solving the garbage, problem, among them ioclneratlon, segregation, lal1rdfiJlls, ami even transporting the garbage to other parts of the arch i pel a go. But th e reports a ~ so gave th e public a sense of the sta kes of the various grou ps, such as, for example, the government agenclas' and offic la Is' desire to solve the

" In cide ntafly one of the 'stakes' ImplIed In some of the re po rti ng was the i nte rest of th e firms propos.1 ng

i Rei neration eq u ip m ent who had infl ue nced gove rn me nt o ffi cia Is. "


problem q u ick~y, tine reliance by most of the residents of Smokey Mountain and p.ayatas 0111 scavenging as a means of Iliveliihood; and the envl ron m ente I grou ps' focus on the ecole glca II i m pa ct of th e proposed so I utl CD n 5, and, the refo we, the ~ r p refe re n ce to r ga rbege segregatlo n as a sol ut ion.

Til e reoortl n gas we H as co m menta ry 1th ail: appeared in the press thus provided readers with a ra n ge of actions 1LO beta M n up as we ~ I as 1L:h e ij lffe rent i nte rests of the grou ps concerned, lncldentatly one of the "stakes" i mplled in some of the reportl ng was the interest of t hie 'ff rms propos i ng i ncl n e ra tlo n equipment who had fll'lnuenoedi government officials. The option of transportl ng Metro Manilla garbage to other isla nds, on the other ha nd, was cmrect~y pe rce ived as n 0 sol ution at all ~ because ~t WCHUlld not elli m lnate the problem ..

Th e over -a U effect wa s to d eve 10 p pu b He o pi n len in favor of the environ menta I!iist grou ps' sta nd polnt, a rnong ether reasons bees use it was perceived thai! the lr sta ke in e nv~ron menta I ~y~frlie rdly sol urti ens d ~d not seem driven byselfr-lin1!erest a nd gain, or by the usua 1 de m a nds for qui elk so I utio ns th at m ay ~ n tu rn create fu rth er pro b lerns,

- -

5. Contr~ b utl n g to th e co rrte nt of po~iicy ..

" I n those I nstances when the med I a soUclted' the views of expe rts, the resu Iti ng reporting could not help but suggest changes, fine tuning, Of differe nt emp h ases In eurre nt governm ent po I icy. "

Prl m a rily th e med la d lsc M rge th is f u Ir1I etion th rough opl nlon pieces 'I ike edltoria is and col u m ns, B ut re pcrtl rig ca In a lso he II p cont ri b ute to the conte nt of po I icy by presenting va rious alternatlves. and/or by sol lc ltln g the v~ews of expe rts,

This is svident in the m€d~afocus on the so-called Mindanao problem.fer €,xampie. The opl n ion pi sees 0 n the su bjf:!ct h ave focused on p ro posi n g po II ~cy content towa rds ,e n din g violence ln MinciaIMo;. through, tor example, res IJ m i ng pea ce ta I ks Wlit h se pa rat lst grou ps, re~n'ing ~rII the mllltary, and the lrrtplernentatlon of soclo-e co n om i c p ro gra ImS in th e POQ rest a reas of Musllim M rndanao.

lin those instances when the media sollclted the v~ ews of experts, tn e resu ltl ng re port i I'iI g cou ld not he. lip but suggest cha nges, fine tu n ing, Of different emphases ln c u rrent gave rn me nt pol icy.

On t h € basts of ~ ntervlews with ex perts .0 n lslarn and Mindanao, for exa mple, the following changes, among others, were either d' i rect Ily or in d i rectly StU ggested th ro u gh the media:

(1) At pol iCy foe us away fire! m "~In tegrati ng" the fili p fn 01 sO'! a m lc co m m unities, and towa rds recogrntlcn of UM3!ir distinct identity;

(2) Empha,sizill'llg civic rather than mllltary action; and

(:3) Educat~ng the majority population on Isla m to d €vel'op religlo us to Ie ra Hoe.

6,_ Helping dec~dethe pace of dec ls re n -rn a k. i ng,.

1. Helping lawmakers decide how to vote,


The media cain emphasize the urgency of add ress~lt1lg De rta,ij r1l prob lems .. But they ca n aliso argue in beha If of caution ~ n crafting and implementing poucles, and can th us fnfluerme the pace otdeclslon-maktng,

The media can do this by maklng lawmakers aware of publlc sentiment on title proposed so II uti ems to a pro blem, Theoretica IllY, el eete ci orne la Is pa rtic u la rly law m a ke rs are re p rese ntatlves of th e peopl e a nd are accountable to them, which implies that they a re ~ nterested in pu bHc S9 nume nt, IN h ether pro or eonva n d wH,I vote 0' n pend ~ ng m €!8S U res a ccorn ~ ng to the wishes ,af th ei r constitu e ncles,

I, rI the Ph ii~ i P pines" til e mass media have often bee n rem iss ~ In re po rtl ng p u bl lc se ntl m ents em al given tssue, except whe nth e res utts (If the usua I surveys by SoU eh organ izations as Socia 1 Weather Stations (SWS) or Pulse Asia are re leased to the med la,

SII; rvey res uns have ave r ti me 00 m em be regarded as 81 reliable gauge on the state of publlic opinion at a given time, but hEME! often been m is i nte rpreted, For exa m p le.~ the m ed ~a i nte rp reted th e Flu lse As la fill) cI i ng that 55 percent of res pon d ents to a n August su rvey tho ught th e' com p Iia lnts ot th e Ma gdaillo gro u p i nvo lved Ii n th e July 27 081 kwood m uti ny justified as the majorlrty',s favoring the mutiny itself.

In th e !Ph n ippiltll es, win ere a. ha ndifu I a.f med la organ lzatio ns have become ~ nil uentla i among omc la ldo m ,. su clh re po rts nat me lilly have an i m pact on the way Ilawma kers perce IV!! thel r consttuencles' state of mind, and can ili1~luence the '\III'ay th ey vote on, say, a 'til ew law that wou lid ra iss pena ltlesfor cou p attem pts, or j usit the holding of public nea nngs on the roots of m Ii I ita ry restive ness, The 00 m p llcations th at can arise frnm hasty and mistaken

Interpretations of survey results liUustrate the needl fur carefu II evaluation by reporters and editors.

The m ed is, to ells 0 n survey resu Its na s al lso led to th e med is's tenden cy to wa Iii: for the latest from SWS or Pulse Asia rather than conduct their own lnvestlgetlon on how either the public or sections of it rega rd certain pro posa Is. The m ed la so m eti rnes a rgu e that the public has no opinlen about most issues, and pojnt out that they don't have the means or the skllls to conduct public opinion polls.

However, there am thousa nds oil nongovernmental andothergrou ps in the country which are speciailly focused on certain issues, and whose leaders cain be interviewed. For sxa m pile, tn ese orga n izat ron s, pa rtl cu leHly the free exp resst on, m ed ia advoca cyan d access to. ilf1lform.a'tt.~on gro ups, alii most I!J n ito rm Iy oppose th e a ntl-terro rlsm b Ws pen din gin eon gress,

U In the Philippines, the mass media have often been remiss In reporting public

sent'i m ents 0 nag ven issue, except whe n the results of the usual surveys by such

o ganlzatinns as Soc al Weather Stations or Pu se Asia are released to the media. "

The med I a" howeve r, heve not both e red to get thelrvlews, lin theabsence of any SWS or Pulse AS'ia survey on the publlic's perception of these bills. the result is that the country's lawmakers have only a limited sense of their ~m p! icatlons, wh le h mea ns t!h e.'\}' re I i'kely to vote for passage of these bills because 0" media's deta u ltl ng em the i nfcrmatlon that CCl'U ld oth erwise gu ide, th em.

I. ' . ., ...

-oj... I.·

8 .. A~erting the pulbllic about how pollcies are imp~emen1ted,.


The mass media I n the

Philippines have frequently reported on these issues, but have only ra rely related them to thel r 1m pllcatlons on the prob.lems that a partlclIla r policy was meant to solve. "

Po II~ cles a r€l respo rises to certa i n problem s, But lmplernentatlen determines how well the poll icy d eclsl (HlI add resses th e pro b Ie m. Defrects i'n i m pi ernentatlo n, ~ nc Illudi i ng misuse .afa ppro p riated Willi rids, ad min tstrative shortcom lngs, and others are amen g the issues thalt the mass medial can report on as part of their watchdog function a.

The mass media ~n the Pin ~llllippines have freqlLll ent I:y re r:KI rted 0 n th ese iss ues, but have only ralrely related them to their lmpltcatlons on the probl ems that a oa rtic u 181 r po Hey wa s mea rllit to so live.

USIU a lIy the m ed la foe us on the SEl nsatlo I'iI a I aspects of these' issu es, esp ec iaillliy those that can suggest official wrong-dotng, While th is is a valid ecncern, relating the misuse {Jf funds (folf exa m pile} to ttl e w~ d er issu e ,of add ressl ng probll e ms th ro ug)hi we I l-crafteda n d effie lently a nd honestly Ii m plemented poliiicies wou Id provfd e read ers U In de rsta rid i ng of the contextual tm plicatlons of such peren n la I pro ble ms ii n governs n ce as eorru pll.~on .. Sue t1 read era wa r en ess co u hj ~I[ll tu rll1l en ric n democratic p.a rtlci patlo Ii1 as a n irrform sa, c ltlze rI ry d ema nos better ~ m p le m entation of poll leles,

'91• Evalll!Jlatiing pailley effeetiivenessand

10., Stjmu~ating policy Ireview,.

The rned la (:,61 IrIi h el p eva ~ u ate pol icy eRective ness th ro ugjhl~lrrJ'V'est~gative rep 0 rts as w,e ~ I: as i nfo rrned com menta ry. The resu Its .of sue h reports, as well es ed lterta Is a rid col u m WIllS! C:6I IFill stl m u late revl~ew.s of ex ~sti n g p:olwr ci es.

B.ut it sta nds to reaso n that th e m ed ie C8J n '0 n ~y eva I uate polleles if' ce rta i n co nd ilion s a re met. Amolliilig these 'Dom::lii~,iorils are the medial p racUU CD ners' tilWl3llrlS ness and kn Qwledg,e of the sublect, and the passage of 8 reasona ole amount of time to allow certain policies to p rod Lice th e i r i nte nd eel effects,

A jo UJI rn alll~st. eva I uatiag, say, the gpvernmenilt's pO~I[cy of all h) wing US troops into the 00 u ntry to tra i n Pfli ~I i pp ~ ne troops lin com bat 20 riles, fo r exa m ple, has tn have as nil u c:h of the Wlcts {In ha 111 das ea I'll beasee rta I ned. as well as ene ugh backglrc u nd mate ria:~ on s:~m ilia r underta kings be.ittw,€€1t'lI1 the ~ n lted States gOV'€ rn m ent 6' rid ot he r co u ntrles, a gras p of the h ~Sitory or th e relatl ens betwee n the two COU ntrles, the conseq ue noes of tli1l0S€ reiaUo ns pa rUclllIIlla.rly th ose in the ff[e,id ot m ~I lta ry colla boratl en n j etc.

At the sa me tl m e, Ihle or sbe m us! an swe r ~~Iefu II1Ida menta I Question of whetl1 e r the po~ icy has b eea i~n IP~'a De: 10 ng en OIUl gh for its SUC09SS or failure to b€fair~Y evaluated. This can be pro'b lernatic, WOliUl ~da IPO~ icy's h61vi ng been in place fora y'sar be "Iloing enough?" Or would "long en ougJhI" mea n tlve, ten, fifteen yea rs? hill every wrII,sil:a.ltllce th e jo I!JI m 8.USt m ust c(msll!j~~. peers as we,~111 8.S editors. and experts for a rell la ble gu ide on wheth er a pa rtl cu la r po !icy has been in place icmg enough for it to: have e lther had a n impact on the problem or probl'ems it was mea nt to' solve, h asfa ~II ed to d 0' SO~ 0 r h as prod ueed m ix.€d resu Its.


The media can help evaluate

po icy effective ness through Investigative reports as well as Informed commentary. The results of such eports, as we I as ed tor als and

co umns, can st"mulate "

rev ews of existing policies.

These media functions are espectally i m porta nt, th us ttl e ca re th at m ust be ta k,e fl. 11111 countries like the Pnilippim!!lI where resou rces a re sea FQe blurt p robl e mrs a b u nda nt, pollcles need to be eva IU81te-d period lcally. Whil,e if'!: ls the government's task to, dothis, otflclal inertia, lndtfference and pla in incompetence can mean the retention of a policy no matter hQW fllawed.

By evaluating policy effectiv.eness in terms ,af h o,w they h 81ve bee nab Ie to add ress th e problems they were' meant to solve, and find ling tin e reason 50 fo r tl~le Ii rfa ll u re or s uccess, th e mass m ed i a cal n stl m ulate govern m e nt agencies to conduct reviews towards modifying, updating, or even totally discarding policies and replacing them with those more Ilikelly to work.


Govern m ent po Ii cl as a re Ii d ea Ily based on ana lyses of th e situation in pa rtlc u la r areas of concern. They reflect-or should reflect-a response to a present condition that is as un clased a nd as ob] ectlve a 5 possibl e in the hope of' correcting that cone iet ion and creating a more ideal one,

Certain factors that can be labeled extraneous intrude into pol ley-making, however. Thls is not unique to the Phillpplnas, nor is it even limited to poor, Third World CO lUI ntrles, Whal may be unique, however" are th e speclrlcs of thesefacto rs, Am ong th ese are the political and personal" in addition to. cia 5S and secto ra I i nte rests 0 n the pa rt of th e poll icy-rn a ker,

Asformer ~ .. mde rsecreta ry of ilea It h Ma rio Taguiwa 10 points out (Presentation at the eM FR Wo rksh op 0111 M en r a and Pol icy, !November 28-30~ ,2002)., policy-makers tend toallow political calculations to dominate po llcy-m a king .. To put it slm ply, government offlclals usus Illy want to remain in offlioe, or aspire for hIgher otflce, If they are elected, many want to be reelected, Ilf appointed, some wa nt to ru nfor el ectlve offi ce, Beca use bei ng elected is the consequence of popularity. such officials tend to weigh their decisions on the basis of how wen-received they will be, not on how W[SI9 those decisions wilill be iin terms of benefit to the' publlc.andeven their long-term impact.

Per~laps because of UH~ domlnance of polltlcal calculation, pohcy-makers are often unwllllngto sacrifice short-term gains for longterm solutions to complex problems. Most of the time policy-makers make decisions on the oasis of their desperate need to be regarded as effecUve, or to project, themselves in the limeliight so as to enhance their popularity.

This rs especlany true during etecnon periods. However. as has been observed, even the periods between elections are usue lly not spa reel from po I itica I ca leu lations due to the country's ore-occupatton witlh potitlcs.

Ad d itl o n a III y,. decision-makers a re otte n moved by sectoraland class interests. They may cletm to speak for the poor and for the wholle of SOCiety, for exarnple, but are likely to make decisions and policies tnat willi benefit their huslness interests if they have them.

Outstanding examples, .oCClIIr not only in the Phillpplnes, where the eructs I poillicy of land reform has had disappolnting results among other reasons beca use, being associated with 119 n d II 0 rds, or as Iia n dlo rds t hemse ~\h9S, m est of those who passed the successive laws that would supposedly implement the long:standing soclal policy of agrarian rerorrn made, sure that there were enough loopholes in the laws to allow a multitude of exemptions.

In the United States lt is claimed that a mon g th e rea sons why th e U nlted States is not Ii keiy to leave II raq-a policy declsion, certainly--ere the interests ot firms close to the 8 usha d min lstration such as H a iii b u rton in the I uc rative co ntracts in th e re buill ding of that wen as of the oil cornpanles poised 11.0 exololt II ra q Ii oi I resou rces,

But it is the particular Philippine case we are interested in. The, ~lI1ltnJlslion of personal, political, sectoral end class interests has often resu lted in the mod lflcatlon or even tota I reversal of policies. The, policies "lJ1'us put ln place end up iii-defined, badly thought out, or even at odds with national and social interests.

HIllS fact is something the mass media often m iSS, a mo ng othe r reaso ns beca U~H3! of their focus Q n th e sensatlo na I a n d SIlJI pe rflc i a I aspects of issues that have policy limpllications.


As Atene-o de Manila University's Dr. Anna Mariie Karaos pointed out im her presentation in the same CMIFR workshop, the media tend to rep 0 ITO n ttl e "sq uattl ng" probll em in Metro Ma rula on ~y when violence breaks out, as d lUI ri ng demo I ilia ns and nth e r clea ri n g operations of squatters' areas, or when the Presldent or some ather officiall hands out land titles.

The angle most often exploited is the conflict ,9 ngle, forexa m p le between the po I ~ De and the squatters. At €motherr Ilevell, some comrnentators have made squatting 811i11 issue between the 'Poor a nd the rich, II n su ch Instances they tend! to identify with tne interests of the propertied, and to argue vigpmusliy aga inst the squatters, whom they ofte til d ep let as pa ras ites i nterested i ngettl n g sorneth i ng (ho ustn g) for noth i ng,

And yet the sq uatUng problem Ij:rS not as si m pie as th e m eel ,i a h ave' often presented it: that is, ,as a simple housing problem to which the solution is the reiocatlon of squatters to areas often remote from sources of Ilivelliihoodi. As Dr. Karaas pointed out, the media could enrl ch tn e i r cove rage a ind at ttl e sa me ti m e assist declslon-rna kers ln en ha nc~ng th elr un d 1& rsta nd j rig of the p rob lem by porntl nrg (I IUIt that squatting, itS pa rt of the poor's attempt to gain access to IliVelihood! sources and! jobs by squatting in places near those sources,

The solution is therefore not relocation, which moves poor people to places from where they are denied access to Jobs, and which leeds to sq 'UI atte rs' retu rn i ng to the places fro m where they h a ve been evicted.

~A rnore approprtate solutlon to, the problem," said Dr. Karaos, "would be to preserve this access to jobs, and livellihood while providing some improvement in living condltinns through community upgrading. ~


Another solution ls the expansion of mass tre nsit f'ac~llities that wi II ,811ow workers to con veil hent~y tr~rvell d lstan ces to places of work, as they do in other developed countnes.

Media reporting, however, has, remained focused on demolltlons. clashes between squatters a nd the pnlice, wn file med Ia commentary continues to emphasize the squatters' "stubbornness" [In returnmg to the a rea s th ey have been evicted from, and th e supposed need to repeal the Una lew wnlich compels govern me nt to p roy ide for the Ir,e locatl 0 n of sq uatters,

Hlle media have thus missedout on intluencing pollicy on ,8 critical social issue by failing to report on such developments ,81S the success of u pgradi n,g projects in squatter cornmunitles, Mid the existence of the Urban Development and Housing Act, which. said Dr. K.a ra os "is not bile i ng i m pi e m ented but provl d es,a good policy framework a FI d mandate f'o r LG Us to set aside la nd for snclalized housing. to

FQr his part, Mr. Taguiwallo points out that the meoia are etten lnfl uenced by vested interests ln their reportlng, This happens lUI nw~tt~ ngly. lEI ut ot hie r t;i m es, vested ~ nterests corrupt media coverage, As iin the squatting problem and in public health issues, the medial usually emphasize the, most sensational and scandalous aspects ,of a story. What's worse is that the reporting and tbe commentaries te nd W be s ke ptlca I to th e poi nt of cyn lc ism: i .e., th e rned la te nd to be ext re rnely do u btfu I about reports of suceess in, governmentand expect and bell i eve the wo rst mstea d.

While sksptlclsm can be a virtue, il1t. can be, carried to sucb excess that officials as we,ll as ordinary cluzens lose all enthusrasrn for doing good work and supporting such work. The resu It is the persisten ce of p robl ems poll ic ie,s


Most jQ~lrna lists kl1:ClW the usual lectin iq ues of flIIUaC1iilril,g,;lrll,t:I hoM ilng read,er int.erest IHuma nlizinga sUbject. by foc~sllng on em iindivid ual Ora grou p afl',ecte,cI is one of the most eom m QI1!I methods, Tell ~ng tlti! e~ r s.t(l'!1I,es as we,ll as, UlJestories of comm'Ultil titles ilis; a rlother.

Bellow a re others wil~~ Wlnlich Imost joumaHsts sheu I~d be f·amllilia r.

1. FOC:~15 0 r11 people.. N umbers and otlti!:elr data a re ~1'I1!lpo:rtan~,bu~ a re not interesting '1lJ1ti1less· tlhle~ r impa~t O'n peo,ple lis c~eelr •

. 2. EXlpla iin wi~IY a dec~sion 0 r pol~oyl:S bel!'1lg made. Te III you r t'eaiCI€MS ha,wa palrticull:alrr problem affec,1;s Ipeople.

3.1e~11 your reader.s what is· expected to !'eStJllt from tl~e pa,lioy.

4. Illnviteti'lem to make tltn.ellr ~et1l,tirlillnrts klnlown to po'lficy makers.

5. Don't exagger.ate falilu res, but don't sugar coat~hem

a r€l SOU p posed to solve ,. thai n ks ~ n pa 11 to the media.


PoUcy reporting should be regarded as al WI ecess~:Hy pa rt of repo rtl ng 0 ngovern m ent, and j (I urna llsrn's prefe rent! a :I! foces on good govern a n ceo Wheth er co nsc lo usly 0 r unconsciioUlsll:y,. the press does lnfluence poHcy in te rrns of rna kl ng it a ceepta ble to th e pu bll i c, or eneouragjng reslsta nee to at pa rttcu lar deels ~()I'Il. I n me ny cases, th is power ts exe rcised ca re less Iy-fo r exa m p lie, by focus i ng


,6. T:elll'yc}lL1Ir reaiders wnlose· i nt>ef1ests 11 re ~ ilke 1'1 to be affeC1ied by a decision. More importantly, tell them: hlow tlley wlili beaffec~ed,

7. Use uillustrations to Imalke you~ point,

s. Q~lote t~ e plrinciptalls invo,I\I~d,. but seek out the Ii nterestilng quote, tne statemernt thart expresses ideas. in a ·few wordl$,

~O. ~x~plaln what the !'!1l:!lmbe,rs mean, but dOln 't ~ nUm I· dale readers w~Jtlhla ba II1rage of'statilstlcs.

11. seek out the I m pOrl!~l,n aeta lils a nd leave eut the trivial.

12. IB,e who yo ~r readers are. ~em ember that UHliY Wlill! read you onlly iwll'oU 'reable ~o connect tim rollJlgh h:Ulg,ruage t~ley ea n :~Irnderstand.

on UH:l sensatrone I aspects of a po~icyj or em p hl8 si.zi n!§ 01111 e a speet of it, or by fa Hi ng to present al balancedand fair report. IBy far the most d a magin g of tin e press' ina d eq u a cles, however, 'IS po 0 r baekgrou nd i ng or resea rc:h into the pa rticu 181 r subject, w hi lc hi one II1i res ults in the pulbillfc's forming uninformed opinions. o n~l, and i of! iLI€ ncl ng the d ecislon s ·of poi icy~ rna kers on that bas ls,

PlaJn everyday reporting es much as the more speclalized forms such SIS lnvestigatlve or eX.pll.a natory reperti ng have Ii nfluenced po II r eles ~ n ttl is COUI ntry ,n at only lin th e· short term but over the long-run, by developing both


among pOllliicy-makers and the public a shared 56 n S8 ota given prob I em as we III, as 00 nsensus on sol utlo n .e

At least two critical issues confront U1€ joumallst reporting po~icy, These are whether oo ~ ~cy reporti n g req u i res spec la ,I competencles, and whether he or she wm strive for objectivity or choose te be an advocate,

Th ef rst lss I!J€! is eester to centro nt than tin e seeo nd. A jo UI rn a II lst cove rf n g po I icy needs as much oornpetence lirill and knowledge ora partie u la r su bj €let a's is req u ired j n covert ng other a teas ,of co nos rn an d beats, a tithe ugh he or she may decideto make, pcHcy~malk~li1g his or her speclal area (Mf COr1lC,9H11 througn further academtc study. Obvim.Js~y a journalist with a ba ckgro U' I11d ~ 111 pu bl lc a dI min istrat lo n, poll ltles, econorn ics, Blind any other socla ~ science car n theoren ca I ~y prod uce enl lghten ~ n g arid lnformatlve reports .. But tr('llinirlg via the us lU' 8 I wOIf~sho ps an d se rn i nars .c:allflllE! lso a, u grne Ii1t the kn owl edge oft the jcn .. ima II lst, or p rov~ de h ~ m or he r th e baekgrou r1I d neeessa ry to en han De h IS or he r ea pe city to com pre hend j a n ij therefo re rep 0 rt, P Q i icy.

Mieanwhlile, despite tine este bHslhed .] ifficu ltles of "objective" reportl rH~;j some [ournattsts elairn that thei r responslblllty ls merely to tell ft like it is rath er tha n s'lrgru e fo r pol icy cha nge or publ ie ecce pta nee and su ppo rt, G lven ttl e Ph i ll P P ln e sltu atio n, however, the need for responstbte and Ii nfn rrned advoca cy ils a responsl bi I lty lncreastngly being thrust upon journalists, as [eurnaljsrn becomes more' and more a power capable of informing and arousing the liinterest and enthusiasm of me citlzen ry more than government agencies are ahle to.

28 • REIP~TI~G PU8;LJ c Poucy:A MA~UAJ. FOR JOOllli.iAllBTS

Pol icy re po rti ng III as a lso been descri bed as "problem-solving' journalism. As in any area of press actfvi1ty, the same stande rds a p p,ly i n pol icy re po rtl ng, th e' m 08t tu nda me nta i bel ItliIg aid h e ren ce to ttl e facts. There is a special emphasis on the news vadlllH3 of sh~,li1Ilrfrca n cea n d releva nee in til is fie lid of reporting, however" 811though an €'Vent in the po II Ii cy-ma ki n g rea lrn with h u rna n i nte rest, or I nvolves prom I ne ntlnd ivr d u a Is, Is fresh, and concerns rna ny p,eople, IS stillnews. But provicifng background lin terms ofh lstorical reca ~ II, or locatl ng a n event or se ri es of events ViI nth pol icy reteva nee IN lith i n th e i r a p p rep nate context I!S specially relevant ~n poUey reporting.

Pod iCy repo rting, however, requ ires the ea pad1ty to po pu larize a nd to ma ke i nte rest! n g otten complex events a nrc! concepts. Th ~s requ ires translatlng the jargon of decisionrneklng and declslon-makers into ccrnprehensibte language for the reader who ls rte i~h€1r un info rmed n or a s peds list, b Ult who is reaso ria b Iy i nformed. The jou rna I iSI!: reportl n g on poll i cy th us r1I eeds to nl ~ rnse If or herself be informed, and to be suffic~entlly skilled.


Although elected and apponrted offlclals 81 re mandated to maJ ke d eeislons a nd pol icies, Phlllppine po:liicy-malking is circumscribed by constitutlon a II ~y·specitij ed I ~ m its, as th ese are set $0 rth ii n A rtlc le III (De·cla rat lon of P'rri n ei JJ les and State P,oi~ciie'S.) Arti'cle III I! {The Bm of IRights) 81 nd '(lithe r Articles of the .te8l Constitutlon.

The Constituf 0 n, h Dwever,a lso specifica Ily authorizes the passage of certain laws ln fu rth e ra n ce of the prl ncl pies fit ,en u me rates as, State po 11rc~ es,

The entire Co nstit utlo n may IJ e sa ld to be

a dec I a ration of pol lc les on the Wist ra nge of act lvltles re I ated to governs n c,sa n d sdrn lnlstratlon, but Article III and IIII a re of sp €cli,a I sign ltlca nee, Th e fi rst sets fort h the broad policy environ rnent in whlch governments must function, or risk censure by the puollc and the courts, whlils .A.rticle I U specltles the rights of clttze ns v ls-a-vts gove rn m ent,

For repo rters, IU ndersta nd ~ng of these policy parameters and of the enUre Phllipplne Constltuf on ls cru el a II, fo r exa m pie in entia,nclng CQVIE!n9,ge of certain emergent or already decla red pcllcles in terms of their eonslsten cy or Ii n co n s lsten C)I' with Constltutlon a I pri nc i piss.

Ih lsisof even greater rn 0 m ant in tine case of 0 p ln Ii em write rs, tlh e issue of Cortstltuti 0 na II comol la n ce be i ng 0 ne of the most Ii m porta nt in Ul€ monitoring of govern rnent activities. that m uc h of o pin lon wr[1~ ng is specla Illy man d at.ed to ccnc uct,

the protector of the people and the State."

Sec1i 0 n ,6 dec I a res thleft "the se pa ratio n of Church and State shatl be invlola hle. ~ On fo re lgn pol i cy, Secti 0 n 7 decla res th at "th e State sha I ~ pursue-an 'i ndependentforelgn poll Ii c:y, "a I'll d th at" ~ nits re lstlons with ather states, the pa ra m eunt consl d e ratl an sh a II be n atlona I soverelgnty, te rrito ria I i ntegrlty, national interest and the right to selfd eterrn ~ nati on. "

Section 8 ron the otn er he n d, edoptsas 8 state pol icy "freed om from n lUlC tea r wea pons in its territory ~

sectlons 9 to .28 d ecta re oth e r State po llcles fa n gi ngfrc m the state's basic respo n SI bi I lties to 131 ba n on polltloal dlyna sti es:

"Section 9. The State sha~11 promote ,a just and dynamic socla I' order that willi ensure the, p rospetrity and i ode pende nee CfUM;!' nation a tr1i d tree the people fro m peve rty th rough po I Ii eles that provide ad eq uate socla I: se rvlces, prom ote fu U ,e m p~ cyme nt, a rlsl ng sta 111 d a rd Clf I Ii vi n g, a nd an improved quality .of Illfe tor alii.

Section 1 of Article ~I decla res title

Ph llippines a democratlc aiM repu blican state. "Section 10. The Stateshall promote social "Sovereignty resides 'i n the peopleand all justice in 8111 phases of national development. govern me nt a utho ri~y erna nate's from the m. "

The following Section (2) declares it 81 state poll icy to "renounce wa r as a n instrument of natlona I pol rcy~alncl "adopts the genera Illy accepted principles of international law-as part of the raw o.f the land .. ." Peace, equallity., j ustlee, freedc m, CQQ peratlon a nd am lity w [iUl a H n atli 0 ns is a state' policy co ns lstent VII irl:.h th is prlnctpte, according to tf1l~s Section.

secnons d ecla res clvi I la n a uti) 0 r ity aver the m i~itary as supreme. But this Sectlion also conta ~ ns tn e by now 00 ntroversl a ~ statement that"Th e Arm eo Forces of the Ph m p pi n es is

~8ect~ol1l 1 L Th e State va II u es th e d lgn ity of eve ry h u mal n perso n a. nd gua ra ntees fu II respect for h IU rna n nights.

~Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of tarn illy life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic eutonomous social lnstitutlon. lit shall ,equaUy protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn fro m co nceptlo n, The natu rs la nd IJ rl rn a ry right and duty of parents in the rea ri ng of th e yo uth for civic emc~encyafl!d the development of mora ~ en a rscte r s he II rece iv€! the su p port of tin e Gave rn m ent,


"S,ectiion 13. The State recognizes the vital role of this youth in natlon-bullding and shall promote and protect their physical, mora II, splritual, intellectual, sind socla I w€U-be~ng. lit sh a Iii nc u leate i' n the youth patr r otlsm and nation a I ism, and en eou rage' the iir i nvolve m e nt in pubhc and civic affalrs.

"Section .14. The State recognizes the role of women in natlo n-bu til d il ng, and sha II ensu re thefundamentalequality before the Ilaw of women and men.

"Section 15. The State' shall protect and promote the rig)ht to health of the people and instill health consclousness arnongthern.

"Section 16. Tile State sha III protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and heelthru I ecology in acco rd with the rhyth m and h a rrno ny of natu re,

~Sectfcm 17. The S1:ate shall give' priority to education. science and technology, arts, culture" and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote tota I h u mal n II ii be ration a nd d eve lop m e nt.

"Section 18. The Stelte affirms labor asa prhna ry soc ial €co nom lc force, It sha II p rote ct "the rights of worke rs and p rom ote thel r welfare.

agrarian reform,

"Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the, rights of ii nd lgenous cultu ra I communities within the fra rnework of national un itya n d develo p me 1111.

"Section .23. The State shall encourage non-gove rn menta II~ com mu 111 tty-based. or sectoral organtzatlons that promote the we If a re of th € natlo n.

"Sect i on 24. The State recogn lzes the v ita I rote 01 cornmu n lcation 0 nd mfcrmatlon in natlon-bu lldlng,

"Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments,

'''Section 26. The State shall gua rantee equa I access to opportu n ltles for pu b I ic se rvlce, Olin d p roilm ilb ir1t. pol ltlca I dynasties as rn ay be detined by law.

"Sectio'n 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the pubjic service and take posltive and ,effectilve measures age lnst graft a n d co rru ptlon.

"sectlon 28. Su bject to reasonable condlttons prescribed by Ilaw, the State adopts and imp leme nts a pol icy of fu II pub He disclosure 01 81111 its transactions lnvclving public interest,"

"Sectilon 1'9. The State sha II daVIS lop a self-

reliant a nd independent national economy The IBiII of Rights. effe.ctivelly co ntrelled by Fi lip i nos.

"sectton 20. The State recogn izes the i n d lspe nsabl €I role oil' tile prlvatesector, encourages private enterprise, and, provldes incentives. to need eel i nvestm ents,

"Section 21. The State sha II prom cte co m p re hens lve ru ra II cl evero p m ent a nd


ArUche: II ~ (The B~ II of Righlts) si mila rly defines the para meters for dleciision,-making. The sections under Article I ~ ~ speclflce lIy prohibit the passage of certat n laws and speclfles what rights are inlVIiolable, although they limply in some instances the need to pass laws to lrnplernent specific policies.

The basic principle in Article l1li1 is in Sectiion 1" which declares that "no person shall be deprived of II if€~ I i be rty or prop e rty w ithout d us process, of i,8W, nor sha II any perso n be cI e n led the equal protection of the laws."

Sectlons 2' too 22 go on to specify such rights as that of be~ng seeu re in one's home, and prohibits the passage ,of bills of ana lnder;

~ Sectli (I n 2:. The right o,f th e people to. be secure in thelir persons, houses, pa pers, and 'effects a gal i nst un reaso na bll e sea rc hes a n d seizures of w:hatever nature and for any purpose shall be lnviolable, and no search wa rra nt 0 r W2HffiI nit of arrest sha II iss ue exce pt upon probable cause to be determ lned personally by the judge after exa m inatton under oath or attlrmatlonot the complainant and th e witnesses he may prod IUIce. a no pal rticu 11.61 rlly d escrl bing th e p la ce to be sea robed and the persons Of things to be seized.

"sectton 3., (1) Tlll'€ P rivacy of co m m I.U'l i catio n and co rres po nde nee sh a II be invlolable except upon lawful order of the court" or whe'n pu bllc sSlfety or order requires otherwiseas p rescribed by law.

(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the, preceding section shall be, inadmlsslhle for any pu rpcse in any proceeding,

"Section 4. No law shall be passed a brtd g~n g th e treed om of speech, of exp resston, or of N., e p ress, or th e right of the peopte peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances.

~.sectfon 5. No ~aw shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohilbitingtn,e free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious protession

and worsn lp, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No rei lglo u s testsha II be' req u i re d to r the axe rc ise of civill oar polhical rights.

"Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same w~thill11 the Ilimfrts prescribed by lawshall not be lmpalred except upon ~aMILII order of the court. Neither shall the right. to travel be impaired except in the interest of natlona I sec urlty, pu blic safety, or pu b I lc hea It h. as. may be provided by law.

"Secti'on 7. Tile right of the people to lnformatlon 00111 matters otpublic concern shall be recogn lzed, Access to official records, and to documents, ano papers perm inlng to -offici,al acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basts for pOll icy develop ment, sha II be afforded the citizen, subject to such limltatlorrs as may be provided Itry law.

"Section 8. The right of the people, 'ilnducHng those employed in the pubuc and private sect-a rs, to form un 10 ns r a ssoc i atlo n s, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged ..

"sectlo n9. Private prope rty s he III not be taken for public use without just com pensatlon,

"Section 10.. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed'.

"seetio n 11,. Free a ooess to th e co u rts and q uaal-] udicta II bod les S nd a deq uate lega I assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.

"sectlon 12. (1) Any person under i nvestiga:tion for tne CoO m m isslo n of a n orfe nse shall have the right to 019' informed of his right to remain sllentand to have competent and


independent counsel preferably of his own choice. lfthe person cannot afford the services of counsel, he, must be providedl wi:th <one. These rights cann ot be wa ilved except in w rift i ng and ii n th e p resen ce of ecu nse I.

"(2) No torture" force, violence, threat, lntlmldanon, or any other means wlhich vitiate the free will shalill be, used against him. Secret detention ptaces, solitary" incomm u n icado, or other slrnllarforrns of detention are prohibited.

"(3) A[nry contessjon orr ad mlsslon obtained i n violation of th ls or Sect [on 1'7 hereof sha II be in ad m iss fbll e in ev iden ce aga i nst him.

"(4} The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as we l1li as com pen satl on to .8 n d re ha bilirtat~on of v[h::ti ms ottertu re' or sl mila r practices, a rid thel r fa mil les,

"Section 13 . .A,III persons, except those cha rged with often ses pu n ish-a ble by rectus ion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong. shall, before conviction, be ballable by sufflolent sureties, or be released on recognizance 81S mClljl be provided by law, The r[lght to ba i I sh a II not be ii m pa i red even wh e n the pniv~ll€ge ofr the writ of habees corpus is sus pended. Excessiive ba i I sha II not be required.

"Secti[on 14. (1) INo person shall be heidi to answer fora criminal offrens€ without due process of law.

'"( 2) II na II erlm i na II prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shalill enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against hlrn, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, a nd to have 00 m p ulsory

process to' secu re tlh e atten dan ce of witnesses and the, production of evidence ln his behelt H oweve r, afte r a rra ~gn me nit, trl 8 I may proceed notwlthstand rng the absence of the accused provided that he has been dully notified and his failure to appear !IS unjustlflable,

"SecUon 15. The priivile,ge of the, writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of lnvaslon or rebellion when the pu bl lc safety req u i res it.

"secnon 16. AH persons shall havethe right to a speedy d isposmo n of th elr cases beto re all Judicia I., quast-luclcla II, or admtmstratrve bodies.

"Section 17~ INo person shallbe compelled to be a witness against hrmself.

~Section 18. (1) N·o person shs II be deta i n ed sole Iy by reaso n of Ih is lPolitic~d bell lets and a spl ration s.

"(2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as punishment for a crime whereof the pa rty sh a III be duly convicted.

,; Sect~ on t9. (1)< Excessivef nes sha ~ I n ot be Imposed. nor cruel degrading or inhuman pu n is h me nt i nfl lcted, N elth er s h a IU th e death penalty be lm posed, un less. for compelnng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already im posed shall be red uced to reclusion perpetua,

~ (2:} Th e' e m p~ oym e nt of p hvsica I, psyc hologii cal, 0 rd egra d [i ng pu n ish rn e nt agamst any prisoner or detainee or the use of substa nda rei or lnadsq uate penalfacllltles under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by Ilaw.

"SectJon 20. No person shalll be lrnprisoned

"Seetlon 21. No person sl~\U'llllm, be tWh::18 put ~n je(~pardy of pu n ish ment fOlr the same Mmens€l. lran act is pu n ish ed Iby a Ilaw 6i n dan ordinance, convtcnon (Dr aequlttal under either she H constitute a ba r to 8 n other prosecution fo r the sa mead.

~.sect~on 22.. No ex post faete law Olf bill olf .attai~der shalml be enacted .. ~·

As the fundsmentel law, HIIE! PtiJ,ihppine Oonstltution until amended makes Ilalws in vlolatlo n of its provlslo ns ~ I legs I. wn lfu I vlfob3rl:.iolfil of the Cons.mlil1Lut~otl! is a groundfor the impeaclh.men1L olf the President, Sind for lesser afficiadls lis a grou rIl dl for d ism iSSEi I, Th € Constit.Mrt~on is 1I:Ihi Il!]S a erltlca I factor ~lrJl polilcy~ making,

Of equaljnterest to poll icy reportlngare its othe u Artic!l,es.fnr exa m pte, AI1I~cl'e XIII II {NarUona I Econamyan.clIPatr~mony) WhO!:Hs provisfcms on W~,I) may pl!Ilrlchase, ecntroland own Pihiilip'P~ne natu ra,'l resourcesa n d pa1!Ji mo rill' have be,€! n the, subject of so metimes intense debate.



The foNowing papers wer,s p.r,ellared rO.r and/or presented at the Center for Me{.tia Freedom and RespO<fUsibi1ity's ,(CMFR) series of po.licy fora ,an federaUsmr mining, and the Clean Air Act.

CM'FR's Media and Publ.ic .P,olicy Program was support!ed by Tne Ford Foundat.ion ..

• Towa rds a federall ReplUlbll~c of the Ph~1 i pplnes wirth a ParHa mentary Gov,ernment by 201cO Jose V. AbU€M3,

• Contrl butl ng to a Broader Understand i ng of the 1m pact of M irnmng on Ph i Up,piine H u ma n andi Eoonom~c Dev,elopment

E nvl ron me nta I S cie nee for Soc ~a I ch a nge

.1 Usa pa ng Ha ngi n Dfinn8 Lou tse C. OayaQ


Towards a Fedelral

Republic of the Phlllpplnes wlth a Parllamentary Gov,ernlme'nt by 2101,110

Jose .\./:. Abueva

~~A Federal Republic wttna parllamentary government wUl [improve governance, empower our eeopte, and hasten the development of our country,"



W ~e. rl.1 we r. egaln .. e~ . OU~ .. inde ... pen~enc.e ml 1.946, the Philippines was ahead

of many other new nation-states ~n the pro cess (If de-co ~o Ii1I izati 0 n, d evell op m ent and democratization .. In Asia we were perhaps second only to Japan in social, economic and polltlcal development. But from 197.2 to 1986, afte rave r 13 years of th e M8ircl)s dictatorship, crony capitalism, a pclitjcized mHitary, instfmuUofllalizedi corru ptlcn, economic protecti 0 n ism ,. a In ij h elghten ed reb e IIII lo n by the Com m un lsts a nd Mom secession lsts, the co u ntry retrogresse d.

In th e la st t h rEH~ ceca dies th e Pin ill ~ pp i nes

has fallen rajp~dly behind the ~]iger economies' or newlly industria llzlngcou ntrles {Niles) in Asia-South Korea, Taiwan, Silngapore, Ma laysla, and Tha ~Ialnd-~n eco nom lcand human and social development. At the same time, China and Ilr1idl~al have been rnaking giant strides in their lndustrlalieation and socialend econom ~c develo pme flit d es plte the i.r en CD rm GUS population,

After the EDSA R,ev'olution w,e were able to restore om democranc institutions and restart our eco no m ic recovery, but ou r se rlously wea Ike ned! econ omy, po ~ It~ ca I i nsta b i I ity, una bated corruption, and we pid pOPlJ Ilation grn\lVtlh h ave co nlti n u ed to stu nt OH r efforts to achieve progress, Poverty, unemployment and U rII d ere rn p loyrn ent, ho me lessn ess, i nj ustice, low I eve Is of sue la I se rvlces, e ride m ic corruption, rebellion, and criminality are still very much w~ith us. Ou r [leaders nave not pus h ed for ba sic reform s to add rese t he mot of these problems ..


"G·o,od G OV,e·lm1l81 n ee: ~ A Crltlea II Fa ctor Ii n Social I ,a nd Economic IDev,ehJ.pmetrilit

Accardi i ng to Freedo rn IH en use, the Ph ~lllipp i riles. ls "h ig.h in poll ltlca II freed om and civl ~ Hbe rties,' a 10 ng with _Ij apa n, So uth Korea, ledwail1l, lndla and Tha llarrd. However, the Phil lppines is much tower in ~hl!Jlman developrnent," as measured by the UNDP, compared to democratic Jaoa n, Sout'h Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, Bind teauthorltartan 51 nga pore a nd Ma I avsla, Wh i I € th e Ph~ ~ i P p~ n €s ranks h igJher in "human development" v,is"Iavis ~ ndlaand Clh lna because of their much larger popu IlalUcm, both countries halve fa r larger and more dynamic eeonom les that wm better enable them to respondto their soclal and economic problems.

It a p pea rs that th e si n gle most imp 0 rta nt fa etor 1Inlat hasset us beh ~ n d th e so-ca II ed "tiger economies" Ii n East Asia is not the degrei9 oil' pc HrII.~ca I freed om per se-d emoera cy V'S a ruth orita ria n is rn -but th e press nee or lack of~gQQcI~overna nee." fhe latter may be def~ ned! es resp Q nslve, effi ci e nt a nd effective· pol icy-ma kl nga n dim pile m entatio n u nde r t 11 e m le of law, Good governa nee d epe n dis cruc~alily 0111 effectlve polltlca I lnstltutlons (especially the executive and legislaltive), the pol itlce I will of a determ i ned leaderrsh lp, effective a, n cia ceo U rrta b lie po I it~ea I pa rties, and th e supp ort and cooperatio n (Jf a, dyna m ic bus ~n ess seeto r a Itll Ii] civic s p rrrited c flt~zens,. O~ r "Soft State" pr,ev€ nts us from govern Ii ng eff,ectivelly to solve or a llevlate au r baslc problems.

Wea,!:\: a nd II neffectlve Po II ca I lealdlers and Iinstmtlutions,

Our lac k .of good gove rn a nee f s traces bll e to our weak. and lnetfective pollttcal leeders and po litfcal ~111 stttuttorrsves pecially the prssiden cy 81 nd the Co ngress, the j ud ~cia ry, tne


bu reaucrecy, and local governme nts, Our rell ative ~Y' de moe ratlc electlons en a bll e us to change our leaders hom time to time but this has not rna d e rn uc h d line re nee i rI gove mal nee b eca 'lU'se electlo ns ca n n ot ma ke ou r lea d e rs accourrta b Ie to th e peo p lie ~ n th e a bse nee of effecnve a rid a CCo. lUI nta b I e· pol ~ti c a II pa rtii as that offer the people rrreaningtul poUey a lte r natlves, S 191 f -servl n g po I ltlca II lea d e rs encourage lawlessness and cyniicisrn among many citizens.



Under our presldentlal system, our onete rm Pres hj ent can n Q1t be heidi accou nta b te tor his or her perUl)rmatrl!C€ since he or she ca n not run for reelection. Due 110 separation of powers. a n d cheeks a nd ba la noes, personal listie pol lncs (politics based on personalitles not on policy alternatives a nd performance). and the lack of co hesive polltica I pa rtles focu sed on iss ues a nd poll icy, th e Pres~de nt a nd tin e Gcmgressa re often engaged ln competltlona nd conf let based on th e ~r perso net I interests ~ n in e making of pollcles and decisions.

The Preside nt al nd the Congress are ofte n lee ked in al 51.8 Ie mate or grl d II OC ~ ~ n poll icyrna ki ng. lhey b 1'8 me each oth er fo r fa il i ng to enact needed leg;rlslalt~on. "0 pass the ann u a I genera II appropriations bilill and other major In litiatives of th e President, he orshe has to agree to a, tot of patronage, co rn prom lse ,a nd wastefu I con gresslon a i pork M, fret But eve n wh en go od leglslatlcn ~$. passed it may suffer ho m lack of fu n d ~ ng beca use of ina d eq uate taxesa nd tax. collection and the lack of polltlea II WliU and su p port to raise taxes an d collect them, The President and the congressalso halve Ci Irff~c u Ity in e nsu rl n g effie le nt and effectlve lm plernentation by the natlonal and local IOu rea uc rae res.

: • • ~ .... r _:. I •• • L -_ • • ••• ~:. : .~

A on e-te rrn P'reside nt is often tem pied to seek a second term by amending the constitutlon. President Quezon did it in 1939. Presid,ent Marcos who had ,a second and ftnal term was not content; he extended h,ils term mdetlnltely by becoming a dictator. President Ram cs tried to II itt the te rrn I im it on the presidency.

TO remove the d lctato r Me rcos the c ltlzens resorted to the extraordinary, spontaneous mea ns of "PEl'Op le power" revolt know n as th e EDSA Revol'ution. lin its wake, the Aquino government was threatened by several coup attempts by mWtary rebels. To remove anomer corru pt preside nt, Joseph Estrada, the people Qlgad'n resorted to "people power" known as EDSA II" whlch has resulted in an unstable presidency by Gloria Mac,apaga~ Arr,oyo.

In other words, a presldentlal system is linherentlly unstable. This lis the conclusion drawn by polltlcal sclentlsts who have studied the orea kd own of rna ny d emoc ra cles wlitln a presidentiial system, On the other hand, they have also concluded that democracles with a parliamentary system are more stable and productive. They have observed that the U t1J lted stetes lis. vi rtua lIy the 0 Ii1I iy 0 utsta nd ~ n g example of a successful democracy wirth 61 presldennal system.


Another major problem of governance is that in OUf unitary system the national government ls hlghty centralized, slow, i nefficli e nit and ill n resp Q ns iva to the needs of tim e peo pll e ln th e va rl 0 us regto ns and Iloca i governments. Naticnat government i nstltutlons a In d agen cies located in th e Nation a I Ga p lta I Regi,o n do rn Ii nate th e governance of the whole country. Although

local governments are supposed to 'enJoy loca 1 autonomy under the .1'981 ConstitLltion and the 199'lloca ,I Govern me nt CCKJ.i! r in fact they are tightly co ntro II Ie din m 81 n y walYs by th e national govern ment on wih ilClt'il many of them have become habltualty dependent for gu ida nee 211 nd resou roes, Stilf~ i n,g controls by the national government inlhlbiit localmitietlve €lInd resourcefulness and yet they are ineffective in curbing corruption at either levels of government.

With most of the taxes preempted by the natlonal government, the, local governments lac k revert UI es to r th el r operatlons and services. All1tholLlgh many of the industries and b usi neeses a re located in the d iife re nt regions, businessmen usually pay their taxes to the national government in the National Capital Regi'on and not to the local governments in the regie ns IN he re th ey de r iv€ the i r wea ith. Local officitals have to beg for their share of th e natio nadl taxes.

In sum, there are serious structural problems lin the relstlons and functioning of the executive de pa rtrne nt a 111 d the legisl,ative department in our presldentlal system. There a re a lso eq uel iy sertous problems in the retattcns and worklngs of the national governmentand the local governments lin our unitary system, given our far-tlung stein lpelago in which travel and communlcaticn are difficult, tlme-consu m lnga nd increasingly more expensive. ~ n both lnsta nces, the mediation between the state and soctetv is weakened by the a bsence of cohesive and functional pclltlca I parties, ofan informed and! polilitically orga n lzed cltlzenry, and the tragrne ntatlo n ofelv i'! society orga n lzations ..

Structural Re,forml ot the Fmpilllo Polirti,ca~ Sys.teml

To deal with our serious structural and


system lc problems lin governance, we are develop a civic culture that values responsible proposlng major changes ln our 1987 leaders and! responsible citizens.

Constitutio n:

{i) a vertlca I restru ctu ri ng-hom the present centralized unitary system to a decentralized federal. system;

(2) a borizenta I restructu ring-from the present prssldentla I gove rn rnent wlth its se pa rancn Oof powers between the executive and legis~ative to a pa rllarnentary government that would uniiiiy a nd coord lnate those two fu notions in the parlls rnent, a rid this princi'ple will also apply to, the new States otthe federal Republic:

(3) stru ctu ra I 81 nd fu n cttona I refc rrns affecting the political party system and the ell ectora I system;

(4) structural and functional reforms lin the constinrtiona' com m lsslons concern ed with the clvll servtceveleetlon ad m in lstrstion ~ and auditing;

(5) structural and furrctlonal reforms in the federa II a nd state b urea u oracles.

We believe that these stru ctural and systs m lc reforms will in d u ce ee rta i n dest red changes. in the values, attitudes and conduct ot our polhieal leaders and citizens and in the perform a nee of the affectedgovernrnenta II institutions, as well II as the pol itical parties .. However, we ea n not eve rem p ha s~ ze the n €l,edi for ou r fa, mil ies, sch 000 Is a nd coo I leges, private b usl ness, the church and rellglous o rga n I zetl ens, c ivi I 50 C lety orga n lzatl 0 I1S., til e media .• and cultu ral institutions to do much more to- help the people improve thetr overall weill-being and welfare,. to, develop a collective sense of national community and the common good, and to participate effectively in the democratic p-oll ltleal process. We need to


Lack of time and space compels us to p resent on Iy the rna ina rgu merits and teatu res ot the proposed changes to federalism and to partlamentary government which 0 re elaborated in various papersandertlcles written by schols rs and advocates.


To summarize the theory of fed era II iZ81Uon underlying our proposal to transform the Filipino polltlcat system from its present ce ntra I lzed U III lta ry st ru ct u re to the decentraiized structure of a federal system, let me restate (I U r lh ypotheses as fo llows:

1. The Philippines has achieved sufficient natlonal unity and democratization, lncludlng a rneasu re of d ecentra I lzation and IDea I autonomy, as the basis for establishing a federal system. The latter willi follow about. a decade's transition of ~ regkmallzatlon'' and increased loca I a uton omy i nvo I vi ng both th e natlo nail govern me nt and th e loca I gave rn ments,

2. S pee if Ii ce I.IYt 11 h as bee n ttl e grow i ng difficulltiesand frustration with the country's h igl1lly centra II i zed u nita ry system tn at culminated in the 1987 Constitution's design to r the d eve 10 p m ent of pa rtil ci patory de m cera cy. loca I a uton omy, an d a n active ro Ie for c;iv~1 society in governance. (The latter was pa rtly al reactlo n to th e extreme ce ntra I lzation d u rl ng th e aut ho rita ria n regl m e that bega n in Se ptern ber, 1972 and ended at the EDSA revolution lin February 1'986).

3.. F'ed€lr.all~sm wi'll respond to the demands of local leaders for their release from 'the costly;

tlme-oonsurnlng, st~fliing,a nd dernora li.z~ng efffects ot excesslve ce ntra I lzetlona nd centro Is by the nattenalgovernrnent ln the present u n ~ta ry system.

4. The structures a nd processes and res-pons ~bil i1t.~es of the ;Jfe~ eration w~ II c'ha II le nge a nd energ;[ze tne peopteand their state and I()cad, govemments. Such fu rther de m 0(; rati zat.i 0 n will te [1iiI1(;O U rage c men ivity, inltlatlve, and innovation. spur inter-state co m p eU1l.~on, a ndtoste r state a nd II neal selfre I'ia nee lnstea (j of eontl n ued cI epe nde'f1l cy.

6. By rerrroving the centranzed structures that r m p ose a 111 d s usta ~ n toea I de pe nde n ce and gUff11 e loca lin ltlatlve and reso u rcefu I ness, and thus provijding greater freedom and home rule, a, tederel system wl~1111 greErl!lty increase the ca pa elty of the peo p le and th e govern m errt to d ea ~ w~th th eco u ntry' 50 prob lerns. Th ey w lll be more interested instate a in d local gave rn a n ce CIOS'f:H to th em til at will d ea I Wliith ~ oca i pO\Ierty., IILU'lJemplloyment,. injuistioe, inadequate social se rvlces ca n d i nfrastructu re. al nd I,ow prod uctivity-the man lfestatlorrs of underdevelopment,

6. In 81 fed era I structure that wi I ~ corm! sell date 0 u r 8.0 p rovi n ees into 8 to 10 lerger, i~ntegrated and more effic~ent a nd viable regions celled states, substantial, faster and eql!.JitsJbllfe development tor the, whole cou ntry jls more like Ily to be a ch ~ evedl.

7. By partlcl panng tn mea rrili ngflUll and ci~aH€tngjng poHuics, 81r;J dg_aveima neeat the state and laca~ levels ~ha1l: impact dIrectly on 'thei r ,I iVes, the people wH! be mom empowered than If they contn ued to be a lienated from thei r wea k loca~ govsmmenll:s andspectetors in the affairs oHar awel)!' national government lnsti1tulUons !iiltll the nadon's C8lpitaL Moreover, the people's '1liMmy wi II be pro];E!c'tJed by tn e fu rtner d ispersii 0 flI of power in the govern m e n~ amj the s.oc~ety ..

8. By go V ern i n2 th e n atl em th ro u ghl lnterdependence ,8 nd lnteractlon with the states as regi ona ~ gove rill me II1t8o. lUI s ii ng t h,e national la nguage and al gJoba~ Ilanguage {such as EngHsh), the federal government willi be bette r a tb lie to ac h leve a [rlld susta iirl!1 nalt~O'na II unity and i,d,entity.At the same time the states willi be able to nurture, protect anden hance their re.!5li 0 n81 I cultures a nd lnstttutions a nd also co Ii1itr~'b ute to natlc na I C lJ n~1 ra I develo p m ent. Tcgetne r til e federa I government and the stetes will be a ble to develop a nd sustai n the nation 's cultu ra I diversity and SOCial pluralism.

9. By strengtheni ng Ul,,9 nation-state's ce pacity to Olea II with its crit,~caill i nterna I prob'l'ems a 111 d to deve 10 P. a federa I sy:ste m will a 1105,0 be better a bll'e to respo nd to ttl e exte rna ~ threats to nano na I secu rii1t.y a nd the c ha llen ges of gl oba I lzatio n.

10.Asa s pee la I metropolitan Ilocal,l govern m,e nt, Metro M a [riJI[ita, Ulle present national capltal, will have the, structure of a state a, rJId wi IIII be a b le to deadl more effe ctive'l]I with its problems as the nation's principall metrcpolls. A planned new 'fed era I' capital at tn e former C~ a rk. Ai r Base in centra I Luzon w m en a b Ie th e 'f,ed era II' gove fn me nt to fu ncti on more efflcte ntly by h av[~ng the p rl nci pa ~ i nstltutlons and offlees o,f the fedetratron located ln proxi m ity to one a noth e r air! d accesslbleto Mietro ManHa by rapid translt;

The re are more ecnd itio ns c~ted that wou Id t19 nd to tavo r the co nve re,i ~)n ef th e un ita ry Flll p ~[n 0 po I itical'll system to ,8 feds ra i system .. 11111 this regard, it is ln order to recall the conclusions drawn by two other FHiplino advocates a,f if€deral~~sm ln the 19808.

Reiferniltllg to K.C. Whea re's theory in his book, F.ederat Gove mment, R iZClI II G.. B uen d ria rea chad tin lis cone! JUlSi(U11 W hi lch I quote w iltho nlly

As fair as the pre-co nd ltions to r fed era llsrn are concerned, the Ph ~111~pp~riIes has r€!llla~liv€!liy satisfted these! to Wilt:

(1) SJ prevlous existence o,f the federaUng state a So a fo rrne r d lstl net IC!O 10 ny a n da nationstate with a d lstl net govern me nt et its ow n;

{2} a d ~verge nee (Df econorn lc interests wuth the f,ederat~ng unrta ry state leading t() the desl rei ()f th e (X) m pon ent lcca Igove rn me nts to rema ln autcncmoue TCH certal n econornlc, polltlca II and c I!J ltu ra ~ purposes;

(3) geo gwa p h lea I obsta c I e·s to effe etlve un ita ry gove m me nt, i.e, Ilarge areas sepe rated by bod Ii es of waite r, m au nita i ns or other plf1:ys~ca I Q bstacles, poor corn rn UIIi1 lcatio ns, ete.:

{4o) d ~Ue rem ees of cu ltu re, ria II lglo rII, la ngua ge or matron a II ity,;

{5) dlssl m ~ I a rlty of soelal ln stltutlo ns: and

(6,) existence of dffferen1t. laws, norms, pra etlces, and ways.Qf 111~fe.

Ci1t.~ngGabriel U. Iglesias' paper, "Ihe Adva ntages of 81 IF,edleradllFo rm of G OV€l rill! rnent, " Buendlfa addis:

lglesi as aptly descrl b es the advalll"ltage of a f,ed era ~ structu re for th e cou rntry W~I lch are as follows:

(1.) it accords E!QU81 i status a nd treat me nt to ... th€ needs of a ~I parts ~)1f the, country r,sga Ira less of th ei r eth n ~ C, re I igio lUIS, II~rn gu ~s.[ll c or ge ogra ph lea I cond ltlo n;

(2) ut leads to less press u re for sepia rati on from UH:! nation .. etateas peculiar needs of va rlo I!JS GU ltu ra I gro ILl ps a re d€if~ flied in

accordianc,€! with their own customs ry and rel ii g'iiolliS D ra ctlces, 61 n d en ha n ces the d eV€lIQ pme nt of ;JtIhe ~Ir reSDU rces based on th,eii r ide ntified p rio rllt~es;

(3) it serves as a neq ua liz! n gfa eta r als it promotes a more ba lanced soclo-economlc a no pO~it~C.8 I' development attuned to the It1! eeds of tn,e r,egr 0111, en a Ib ~I~ ng grsate r 1013 IriIr ~c'~lPat~on of the peopl e .... i n the declsionmaking process;

(4) lt bri ngs the govern me nt closer to the psop,le81 nd rna kes ~t sensitive to th e i:r p roblems and needs; and

(5) it enhances natjonsl lntegration and ~nlrity.

fi n a ~ ly, B uen d la 51h:;;31 rplly co ntrasts fed erailliism wlith centra II lsrnth us:

"As fe d era ~ ism

de rnoeracy, ce ntra I ism fo roes un due obedience .. As tederalism en nances F ~ Iii pi no nationh 00 d, cent ra nsmfcrces u II1l fl1.ya n d no rncgen i zatl on. As federalism expresses corrfldence in the idea Is Q·ff I ib,erty and freed om, centralism remains 'tne refuge of fea r,' ~

We should not go as tar and overstate, the ca s€ to r fed e ra II Ii SI11I. Certa ~ n Iy, it is no pa n a cea for so lvlng 0 U r preble rns of govern a nee. However, redsra lisrn otters a higher proba blllty tha n Q u run ita ry svste m of en a b II in g.~ he pe 0 ~ I e and the natlon-stste to realize the advantages and benefits stated above. A f€d€ral~ R,epubllic wi III ii m p rovegoverna n ce r ,e m power the De Q ple, and hasten our country's. develooment.


The case for a shift from ou r presldentlal syste m to a pa rl ia me nta ry system is sum rna rized by IRepresentaltive Horenclo ~ B utc hi" Abadas follows hi! th 9' study caned Shlft,. pu 01 lshed by the Ateneo de Ma nl lal Un~versity in 1997.

"Pol it lea I ii nstttut!o n s a re crhlca lin strengthenl nggovsrn mental eHecUven€ss. particularly iin developing countries like the Ph ~ lili pp i nes.. For th ls reasc n po I iti ca I lnstitutlonal reforms ca nnot be, a nd should not be taken for granted" but must be made part and parcel ofa comprehensjve ... social, eeonom lc and pDHr1t~ca I reform program.

"A strong case can be made that a parllarnentary form of government is a more su p portive eve I uti on a ry fra m ework fo r deve~oping effeCitiiveness in governance and for consondatlng democracy. From both the standpoints of theoretlcat prsdlcta birity and empirical evtdence.the pa rtlamenta ry form of government has shown:

(1) better ability to prevent grldlockand promotea cooperative relationship between the execut i ve and legislatu re in po I ii cy-me ki ng;

(2) greater eapacity to ensu rs stability and contl n u ity Ii n governa nee and prevent m lllta ry cou ps and extra co nstitutl 0 na I actio n by th e executive;

(3) better capacity to ensu re accountablllty lngovernance:

{4-} greate r pro pensityto create 81 poll ltlca I envi ron m e nt co nd ucive to the growth of coherent, disci pi lned and strong pol ltlca I pa rtles, and

(5) greate ra b mty to. en coura ge a rn u II1tipa rty setti ng and promote a mo re ope nan d pi u ral pol ltlcs, "

We sho uld c ba n ge the wea kened IP res f de nt under the 1.987 Constltuucn witha m ueh stronger Prime Miiniist,er as the combined exec utlve and ~eg~sll at lve Head of G overn me nt in a parliamentary system. In our constdered j u cI gme nt, co rrtra ry to the i nte rrt of the if ra m e rs of the 1935, and 198"7 constitution So and to pop U 113 r expectation, the President of the PhiUppfnes ls no longer a strong Chief Executive and Chief o·f Stalte. Fi rst of a II, the pres r den cy has bee n wea ken ed by constitutions I restrlctlone 0 n lts powers, ~ nsntuted in reactt on to th e gra ve a b UI S€! of presldentiel power by the dictator ferd lnand M a rcos, The blata ntco r ru pt i on of M a rC08 and President Joseph Estrada wh leh led to their ove rth row by a "pee p 11 e powe r" revolt na s brought down th 61 prestige of th e highest office ~ n th e la nd. M 0 reeve r, beca 'use of th e m u ltl p I lc i'ty 011' pol ltlca I pa rtl €lS Pres ldent Ramos and Pres~d'ent Estrada were elected by a, ptu rality vote, not by a majority vote of the citizens. Unlless a. dynarnlcand stable tw.o·,palrty syste m emerges, pres ld ents will not obta i rl tn e mandate from a majority of the electorate,

Furthermore, as we struggle to consolidate our d em oeracyatte r the Ma, rcos d lctatorsh i p, the President has to reckon wirth the power of a po I iti elzed and assertive m ~ llta rya nd p 0 ~ i ce thai! pll ayed c ru e,i a ~ rol €s in the E DSA revo Its that deposed Marcos (lind Estra da, Th e seve ra II cou p attern pis by m lllta ry rebels a ga inst the AQ u lno admlnlstratlon a nd the various threats to th e sta b mty of th e ,A rroyoad rn ~ n lstratlon, vls-a-vis the active role of the military and the pol lee in rna lntaln ~ng Ilaw a nd order in UH3 midst of rebellion a nd crimi na llty, tends to weaken the presidency. These also d~vert huge amounts o·f scarce resources away from the ad ministration's development programs.


With 0 ut th e d epen dab le a nd sta 0 le su pport of the President's pclitlca I party and coalition in tine Congress. she or he cannot gave rn stead Hy a nd effect~ve l'y. 1 h e se pa ration of powers a. n d oh ec ks an d ba la n ces between the Prssl d e nta n d tine Congress often resu It i rl 0 bst ructlo nand die 1103 ys t halt ha m pe v leglslatlon a nd pol lcy-rn a k fng. Thefact that the Senators are elected nationwide I lke the Pre's ~d e nt makes the m feel that til ey too have a nati ona ~ man d ate a nd the potentia I to be President someday, and th is rna kes them a ssertlve an deven ell a II ls ngs th €l Preside nt to enhance their pclltlcal statu reo The President must a lso cope with the power of the House of Rep rase ntatives a n d with the pa roc h la I concerns of ma ny of tn e I eglslato rs, lit wou I d be better to have a un leameral Parllamerrt,

With so rna ny i m poveris heel vote rs and th e fiina nc ia I dema nds of hi un d reds of othe r ca n d ldates, the ell ecti 0 n of th e Preside nt by the people natlonwide is becomlng excessively costly ana corru ptlng, 11 takes billions to mount a n effective preside ntli a II ca m pa ~gn a If1l d this makes presldentla I cane ldates beholden to b IU sl ness 'tycoons a nd .se lf-seekl ng Ii nan cie rs, U Mew-is€', th e natlo nwide sen atorle II electl ems a nrc! the eongresslcnal and local elections diem and la rge sum S ot ca m pa lgn reso u rces .. Conseq ue ntly, elected offlela Is a re u nder press u re to U se t h eli r p owe r to recove r ttl eir he1avy ex pe nses al nd re pay th eli r su pporters ...

II n order to Improve governs nee w,e need to reform the structure, powers and functions of th e· exec utive a nd th e legis I at lve a nd aliso reform the polillca II pa rty system a nd the electoral system. To beg)in with, we propose to se pa rate t h e ro les of th e Preside nt as Hea cI of Govemment and as Head of State', and then fuse the powers o'f the executive a nd the leglslative ln a u nlca mera I pa rl la menta ry system.


Unlike under the 1935~ 1973 and 1987 corrstltutlons. the Ph i Iii pplne Preside nt or Presuieme. ln ou r Draft Constitution for a Federal lRepubl~c of the Phil~ppinesis not the· H e·a d of Gow'! rn m e nt 0 r CI'I1'i ef Exe cutlve a n d H ea d of State wh 0 is d i re·ct'ly e leered by th e 'fa I e etc rate natlonwld e.. Ins h 81 rp contrast, a Sin the pa rtlamenta ry systems of I ndla (lind Singapore, the PresicJente is only the Head of State, a la rgeiy syrn bolica nd cerernon lal Pres ldent, b lUlt stl 1161 n i m porta WIlt gove rn III ent otflclala nd natlonal leader. He is elected dire ctly by til e me m b e rs of the ParJame n to (Pa rl i a III ent) and th e me m be rs of the Batasang Estados (the State Assernb I res) sitting together as one body, the A.sembfya Efektoral (Electors I Assembly}.

The com bined Ilegi$laUvs, executive and ad min lstratlve powers of th e Fed e ra II Government a re to be vested in th e Par/amenta (Po rliament) and the Punong Ministro (Prime Minister) wiho forms Mid heads tine Ga:b.inete (Cabinet) and the Gobyemo (the Government). We believe that th ~s u nifieda nd dyna m lc pa rl fa me nta ry govern m ent wI I!I greatly fa cilfr1tate: (1) th e exe reise a In d co em] ~ nation of govern m enta II powers ~n pursuit of the desired pellcles and progra ms of the Government; (2) the change of the top governrnerrtalleadershp whenever necessary; (3) the development of pu rposef u I a In d effective po Ilitii ca I pa rties: and (4) the ern powe rment of the people in choosi ng U~ ei r I egis latlve-executive Par/amenta ryos or members of Pari la rnent, The accorn pa nying ella nge from 0 U run lta ry syste m toafe de ra I system wm further empower the cltlzens,

The contllct betwee n th e President a nd the Co n grass 81 n d th e gr~ d loc kin po I lcy-m a k i ng and declslon-ma King that often ma rs the p resl de niia,] syste m wo u ld be min i m ized In th e partlarnenta ry system .. The relative ease in changing the Head of Govern manti n the Pa r I la m e nt th rou gh t he ~ n [~.iat~\fEl of th e Pri me

1M! iin later or 8, vote of no co nfid e nee in him or her, unlike the extreme difficulty of removing tlh e P resl dent by ~ m pea c1h rn e nt, s'h ou I d ,8 lso rna ke iit UJ11 neCEl'SSi:UY tor the peopl e to resort to the extraordlnary means of "people' power" and its consequent instability.

After reviewing the dtscusston uno references en the subject in a natlonal eonterence em pa rllamentary govern merit in 1991, Ch ay FII orenti no Home Fl;3J S LJ m rna rlzed the' a,dva nta ges of a pa rl is me nta ry governme nt in her pal pe r, "Trac king th e Cha rter Amen d rnent De bates (1995,-Mii d March 1997)~ as foilows:

."meaner elections. The 'astronomical expense' of winning a presidential election is tn e root ca III se of pol itica I co r ru pt ion. Beca use elections in a parliamentary govern rnsnt are h el dat the district. I eve I and bees u sea pri t1I1 e minister who, may be removed from office at any time has, no guara ntee of recovering the cost of his election, such expenses will be lessened considerably.

• "Stmn,ge'r and more ettecttve

go\(,ernlment.. Without haviil'1lg to contend with lnstitution a Idea d ~ ocks, th e pri m e min lste r ls assu red of more legi.sllativ,s su ppo rt ln 'h is program of government.

• '"M,o,re reaponslble and stable government. The 'impeachment of presidents in a, presldentia I form of govern ment has 'never worked in practice': that is why coup d 'etats have always been resorted tel-thus underrnln ~ng sta bility.. A prime minister who may be re m ovedtro m otflce oy a vote of no ccntldence by 81 majority in parliament is under constant preSSIUI~€ to listen to' 'Inforrned public opinion. I

• "Co nslste ncy and contin u ity of econom lc pollcles. The reign lng rna]o rity

party is responsible for economic policies and even if the pnrne m inlster and his cablnet are replaced, the po I nlca I pa rty rema i ns in powe r and lsable to continue [Its pollcles ..

• "'Strelilgtha n dI eoheslon of pol ltlca I parties through the control of the cnref executiee. Thle pOll lit leal party elects the prime minister and mamtelns its control over hlimj her while he/sh,e is in office, The prime min lste r is el ected by a 111 d lea dis the m a j ority party. Pelriy dlscipllne ls cruclat to ensuring, the parity remains in power.

."'D'evo,llutiolil of polltlcal power to, the people .. A. prime mlnlster 'must at all times comply with the wi'ill of the public,' or otherwise face replacement amy time. A president is protected by the 'constltutlonally prescribed te rrn of office' eve n uf he has lost the man date of the people,

• "'Strengti1enling, of' the bu rea ucraey, The' prime mlnister is responsible for the efficiency and independence of a pamamerrtary government. F,sillUlfe iin these departments means resignatton of the prime minister and his/her Cabinet. lin ,9 preside rrtia II syste m iit is us LJl81 ~ Iy pel ople ~ n the II owe r ra n ks fur'ed, while the president and 'h i:sjher Ca blnet . hang 00II1 to offtce.

.,'''Politicalization [empowerment] of th,e' [people. Publlc opinion can upset the ma ke-u p and stru ot u re of a pa rlli a ment eve n before regular elections. People's participation is part of the government dynamics of the sys-'tem.

,."Promot.ion ot social justice, Socialized economies result from devolved political power ina parliamentary form of government, thus ensuring equttable distribution of wealth. II til a presidential system, 'the electorate and po lltlca II pa rtl es become powerless after

elections' whue those with politlcal power become weallthy or wea lthler,

."Erillhancement of values and national diiscipll lne, Govern rnerrt ln a pa rl iamenta ry system is based on public confidence. Without th at co ntlde nee. a govern me nt m a 'if be changed", unlike in a presldenttat system wherein a government may contlnue to stay in office even after losing its legttlrrtacy. Alii beca use of a fixed te rm of office." (See Refe ren ces)

In vliew of the proposed shift to. a federal system a nd to a pa rl la me nta ry gove rn me n t, some basic cha nges in the structure a nd functtons of the Judiciary a re likewise proposed. These include the dlvlslcn of the courts into F,edleral courts and State courts, the decentrahzatlon of the Court of Appealsren a m ad the Fed eral Co u rt of Ap pea Is-to the Stalte capitals, and the establishment of the Tribuna~ Kons tit,usyonal (const it u tion a I TrH::II!ma~) to decide on cases involving the, constitutionality of laws and official decisions and actions. and confllcts among the federasyon and the Estados1 between and among the Estados, and between the state and the citizens.

At the same time, time-honored principles and practices ensuring the rule, of law and independence of the judiciary. Ih uman rights and due process of law, and the selection of j ustlces a nd j udges a rs' prese rved in th e revised article 0 n the j u d lc fa ry.


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The pro-American Filipino Federalistas in the early years of American colonial rule advocated tin e an nexatlo n of the lis I a n ds as a State lin the Unirted States of America. However, the new colonial power did not like the idea. The Americans ret a Ii ned the centrallzed unitary system under Spanish colcnlst rule, which had been the system e mbodied in the Ma loins. Constitutton, Th e America ns a lso ada pted their presidential system In the' Islands and governed thro ugh their resident Governor General u ntl II 1'935. To ensure the a pprova I of 1.11113' 1.935 Constltution in Washington, the Filipino framers adopted the fa milia r unlta ry system and presldential system.




! i



Some leaders in Mindanao. among them Udtog Matalam a.nd Reuben Canoy, would later advocate independence from the R'epublic of th e Ph ll i ppi nes, or a fed 8 ra I system th at wou Id grant Mmdanaosubstantial regional autonomy, The Moro National Liberation Front and the M oro ~ s la m i e Lib e ration Fro nt wou ld ad vo cate secession from the Republic ami, alternatively, rea I reglona I autonomy, In 1981 Salvador Ara neta p u bll is h ed a. d raft co nstltutl 0 n for a federa I republic which he calten the Bayanikasan Constitution. The provisons In the 1987 Constitution for creatjn g th e a uton 0 mous reglons for Musltrn Mindanao and the Oord ~ lleras an d fo r stre ngthe n Ii ng loca I autonomy responded to the increasing demands against excessive centralization and to r tedetahzatton. Towa rds the 1992 presidential election, Senator John Osmena tne Laban ng Demokratikong and the Lakas-NUCD-UMDPadvncated a shift to 8 federal system.





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At the S81me time, the ehange from the and adopted! it as 81 common workrng draftfcr p resldentla I syste rn to a pa ril ta me nita ry syste rn the moveme nt's 00 ntl n u in gad voca cy.

he So been ga i n i nggrou n d , in the 1986

Co nstttutlon a I Commisslion the The main Iederaljst and paruamentsry parriamsnta.rists II ost to the p residen Na lists by te a t u re s of th e "D rs ft Cons tit uti 0 n to r a only one vote, Spsakier Jose die Venecla ami Federal Republic of the Ph iIii pplnes Wlith 81 the Ph ~II ipp lne Constitutions I Assoclatlon P:Eul la menta ry Govern rn ent by 2'010 '. are (ph llconsa) are push ~ ng fo r eha n ge to a SL:I rnmarlzed below,

pa rll ia rn e nta ry govern me nt,

II n the last th ree yea rs a grou p of gr.assm 015 leade rs con nected with the NGOs .Kusog Mfndanao (M indanaoForce) and Unuk Pid,era' Mindana 0 {M india na 0 Fed era I lst Movement), lied by Rsy Magno Teves, Lito t.orenze na, Ga ILIIO enclo sosrnena, Jr. and Michael MSlstu ra among others, and Senator Aq uillno Pimentel, Jr. have spearheaded a fe de ra H st move m ent that ts sp rea ding to th e vlsayas anal som e pa rts of Lu zon. With resea rch su p po rtfro m the Ph ll i ppi ne office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation of Germany, through Dr. Wimbolld iFrehner, the movement ls wi nn ing su pporters across the cou ntry among. oth er NGOst loca I lea ders, and a eadem los. By jo ~ n i ng advocates of pa r I ~ a menta ry gove r n m ent, the F ede ra I movement prom [SElS to become a broader, n at~ Q nw ~d e co nstltuti on a ~ refo rm m oveme nt, the Kilusang Pidend Pambansa' (National Movement for a Federal IPhmppines).

As 0 fie of t n ea dvocates of fed era lism in t h e a eade me, the author beca m e involved in th e moveme nt, In Se pte m be r .2 0 0.1 he was tasked with the writing of a "Draft Constitution for 81 Federal RepubHc of the Phillpplnes w[ith a Pa rlla mantary Government by 2010." M chal r of the Comrm lttee on constltutlona ~ cont!n u ity and Cha n ge of the Ptll ll lpp lne Political Science Assocjatlo n fo rmed in 1:998., he has i nvolved Com m lttee rnern bers and

Mia i n Feat u res of the po re pose r1 IF e die ra I RepuD'liC off the Phillipp~nes with a Parllamentarv Gov€rnm,ent in the

Dratt Co n stU,ut.i on

Gene.ral· nature

1. A co nstltutlon a Ide moe racy a nd a re p resentative de m acmcy or repu bl ic, with 8 fed e ra i stru ct u re 8J n d a pa rllJ a me nta ry government.

2. Retains most of the slats principles and pollcles a nd the bill II of rights in the 1987 CQ nstitutlo n.

3 .. Adds a 8m of Dutiiss and Re'sponsibillities of citizens.

4. Ad d san 8J rti cle 0 n prometl ng the development of a mean lngful, responsive, ste bl e, and a ccou nta b Ie pa rty syste rna nd a mo re lJ'ie prese ntatlve.eff ele nta nd res po nsi ble electors ~ systs m.

5. Directs the voters to vote for the political pa rty off t h el r ca n cH dates, rstne r tha n d lreetly for the~r cand ldates, to ernphaslze IPQlit~cal party responslhillty a no accountabllltyfor their pa rty ca n dl ~d ates 81 ndtor the pa rzy' s poi icy ldees.

Federa.'-state re'atiolls and im!er~sl.ate

othe rs ;i n th e d lscuss io nand ~ m prove m e ntof reo la,trons the d raft, Co nve no rs of the K Nusang Pide-rai

Pambansa (KPP)ti1en reviewed the document 1. De·f~nes the respective powers of the



F:edera.syon (the Federation Bind Federal Govern m e nt); of the Estados (States), a nd tim e i r co neu rre nt powers.

2., consoudates the, local governments iin the existing 16 ad mi 111 lstratlve regions, Metro Manilla" and the AutonomolJ!s IRe~ron of lMusllim Mindanao Into 11 Estados or autonomous regiona I governments" na mely; (1) lNIorth,em Luzon; (2) Cordilleral; (3) Central Luzon; (4) Metro Manila; (5) Southern luzon; (6} Bieoll; (7) West Visayas-Pa~a'Wa,n; (8) East VIsayas:; (9) North and West Mindanao; (10) Central and South Mindana.o, and (ill' Bangsamoro,

re I iant com m un lties, and to DO llaoorate wiith the Estados a nod the Federasyon (the Federati-on) in aehleving commongoals for the i r rn utua I benefilt.

3,. Authorizes. the Batasang Esuuio (State, Assembly) to frame a State constitution that shall be ratified by t'he people ill the Estado in a plebiscite.

4. Favors the consolldatlon of lees I governments over thei r fragm entation, in 0 rd e r to make them effective and viable ..

5., Authorizes the E'sfac1'o and its local 3. Upholds the supremacy of Federal ialw over governments to create their own sources of Stat,e Ilaw in case of conflict, a nd vests residua I revenues and collect the m.

powers in the Parlamento (parliament).

6. Autho ri zes th e Es tedo a Itl d its ~ oca I 4. Obligalt,es th,e Estadosto comply wfr1t.ilr and governments to have their just share of national enforce the Federal Const~tut~oll and help taxes.

m a i nta i n the i nte'grity a nd ~ nd e p e nod ence of

the Federal Republic. 7. Auth ortzes t h,e Es teao and its 10 car II

governments to have an equitable share in the 5,. Directs each Est:ado to respect the public utilization and development ot the national acts, reglstries and judicial proceedings of alii wealth within their respectlve areas.

the other Estados.

6. P rovldes for the F,edierad ea p ltal to be II oeated and devel 0 p ed in tlh e a rea of th e Cia r[~. S pecia I Economic Zone (the former Clark Airbas,e in Pampanga),

1. Defines the consntuent loca I governments of each .Esta oo (State) as th e cities, rnunlclpahtles and barangays w~th~ln its territory. all d the provi noes i n th e Estado as its adrnln lstratlve su bdlvlsions,

2. vests local government with the authorlty and autonomy that wilill enable them to pe rto rrn th ei r fu n ctio ns effi ci e ntlly a 11 d eff:ectiive Iy, to a tta i n th eii r full pote ntia I as se If-

8. !Enjoins the B,B'tasang Est:ado to enact a State and Lo C.9 I Grove rn me nt Cod e.,

9. Ca Ills fo r a lib e ra II con stru ction of th e powe rs a. n dI if U nctlo ns of ~ oca II govern me nts,

Th,e Batasang Estado ,(Stat,e Assembly)

1. vests both legis latlve a nd exec utive powers in the un lcarnera I Batasang Es'tad() (Stat'e Assembly), the Estado having a parlls mentarv syste m I i ke th e Federasyon (IF e deration).

2. Pwviides for the election ot as many Diputaoos or members of the Batasa'ng Estado as the number of Pa.riamentaryos or members of the Pa'fiamento elected lin all the cities and munlclpaltttes com prisingtl1e provlnoes in the Estaoo.

3. PmlVlidesfor tine electron of the Dipurados in the same I'egislative districts where the Pa'flamentaryos or members ofthe Parl'amento are' e lected,

Bise Go,bernador, the Secn~taryos who will head the various executive departments, and a permanent or career Director General for ea eh executive d epa rtrn ent of the State clvi I service.

4. Allows Diputados a term of office otfive

years unless the Betasang Estado is sooner 6. The term of office of the GobernadorEstado dissolved and new elections are h,eldl. shaf end on the date of the election of his or

he r s u ccessor by th e Ba tasang E stado.. 5. Proh Ii bits th e Diputados from Imld i ng any

other office and prevents conflict of interest 7. On his or her own initiative, the, Gobernador in th e ira cticns, Estado may d isso lve the Batas:amg Es,tado and

CEil II to ran ewell eetion of Diputados.

6. Authorizes the Gobemador Estado (State Gov,ernm) as Head o'f Government of the Estado to approve or veto bills passed by the Batasang Estado.

Th,e Goberna;dor Estad,o, San,gguni,ang E:stadu, an,d Gobye'mo £stado (Tile State GO've'mo(~ the Sta're. CouncHi :and the State Government)

8. If the Gob'yerno Estado lOSE!'!) a vote of confiderrce in the B.atasan,g Estado,tne Batasfmg E's:tado shall be dissolved and a new election of Diputa,dos sha II be hehl

Th'e Pres.fdente ng Pilipinas (Pres.ident ot the Phmppi.nes)

1. Th e Presiaen re as the H ea d of State 1. The Gobernador Estado is the Head of symbol lzes the sovereignty of the people and Government of the State elected by 'the the unity and sotldartty of the nation; no Di'puta-dos or rnem bers of th e Batasang Pmsidente shall serve for asecond term. Estado.

:2. Th e Gobemado.r Estador u pan a p po i ntm ent by the Presidente {President of the F ede ra ~ Republlc), shalll constitute the Sangguniang Estado (State Co u n c i I or Ca bin et) at n d form the Gobyerno Est'ado (State Government).

3. The Dip utados sh a III make u p at lea st th ree fourths of the Secretaryos or members of the Sanggunia'ng Estado;the rest may be individuals who are not D/putados.

4. Th e Gobernado r Es uuio an d the Sa nggun fang E's tado sh a U be res po n s~ bl e to the Batasang Estado for the program of the Gobyemo Estado.

5. The Gobernador Estado shall appoint the

2. The Presidents is elected fora term ot five yea rs by the mem hers of the ParlameMo {par~iament) and alii the Go.bemadores Estado sitting together as the Asem.b/ya Elektoral (Ell ecto ra I Assem bly),

3. The, Presidente shall appoint the Punong Ministro {prime Mrn ister)foillowing the letter's election by the Pariamento (Parliament),

4. The Presldente may address messages to the Parlamento; he or she receives the annual re po rts of the Kataa's~taasang Hukutnen (Supreme Court), the Tribunal Konsti:tusyonai (Const,itutional Trihunal), the Mataas ne Estedo, and the Federal Co nstltutio na ~ Co m miss io n s.


5.. The Presidents- s ha II 81 P polnt the GDiJe.rnado.r Estado f(~·1 lowl ng h ~SQ r h EH election by UI e Batasang Estado (State Assern b M; and sb a 'I'll accre d lta m bassa d ors and speela I envoys a nd receive a m bassadors a no d i P lornatlc envoys dI u Iy ace reel lted to the F soera ~ Repu b II~ c.

6 .e Upon the advlce of the' Puncmg Ministro, a no not with 0 ut S I!JC h advlce, the .President-e s!hJ a II also exercise the fa I low ~ ng powers a nd fu ncti ens: dec~ a re a state of we r air natlo nal emergen cy; corwe ne th e Parlamsnto folll(IW ~n g tlh e e Ilec1!j D'Ii1I of ~ts Me m be rs: d lsso IV8' ttl e Pa ria menTO' on the ~ n it lative of the Punon g .M in istro, or wlherll th e Punong M in is t'ro loses a vote of 00 nfide nee; ca,III~, th e ParJamento to. a special session; promulgate all laws, treaties and lnternational agreements; appoint the regular mern hers of the J udlcla la II1id Ba r Cou nel I; a ppoi nt th e .Punong Mahistrado {Chef J ustlceja nda ~I Members of the iKa:taastaasang Hukuman (Supreme Court); appoint the Tagapangu.lo (Ch alrperso n) 8, rid a I ~ M em bers of the Tribunal Konstitusyunai (ConsUtutions I frib una.i); a p po ~ nt the e~ a ~ rperson and m em bers of Fed era II eonstlitutio nalll 00 m m issf ens: a p po~ nt the Ch ief of Staffa nd th e hea ds of a III tlh e arm ed serv lees; a p pol nt othe r Selin lor office rs of the Federasyon.

Punong .M.rnistmJ Ga,binete,. andGob~rno ,(thePr,rme Minister, the Ga binetJ an d the Governmen't)

1. The PunDfig MinistrOr the IH ea d of Governmerrli. of the Federal Repulbl~cof the Ph lllpplnes, shall be elected bya major:ityof ttl e Parla menraryos or me m bers ,of the Par1amento, (Pa rl 181 m ent).

3. The Pun ong MiniSfnJ may 81 p poi IIl1i 81 Dipufado Punong Ministro (Deputy P r ii m e Min~ster) from among the Parlame.nta(vos; anda Permanent Secretary for each ministry;

4. The MinistrOr Diputado Punong Min istro or any m em b e r of the Ga'olnete may resign from his 0 r h sr posltlon without vacati rl g his o r her seat in the Pa rlamento;

5. 7:he .Punong MinfsUo shall have controland su p e rvisio n: of ,8 II Fed era I min lstrles, bu rea US~ agen eles, and o:ff~ ces and sh a II recorn mend to me Presidente the .8 p poi ntme nt @Hhe j IU dges ofa III Fed era: II eou Ins be Ilow the Su preme Co I!J rt, th e heads of F,ede ra II bu rea us, a gen ci es and offices, tn e otfice rs ,of the armed fo n)9S oil th €! Ph i ~i~ppi n es from tin e ra n Ik. of b:rigad ie r ge ne ra I or commodore, and a~11 other Federal officers wlnos!E! appointments a, re not erh e rw lse provided tor, and those whom tine Punong Mi.n (siro may be a uthorlzed by· ~aw to a p po ~ rrt,

6. The Punong MinisUo shatl be the CQmmander~iirll"Cln ~ef of atl armed forces of tine Phill~pp~rne's. ~ n case of invasion or rebelhon, wh en th e pu b'l ~ C s8rfety requ ~ res lt, th e P!irlong MirHstro may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the prMlege ,of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Plh~lilppin€s or any pa rt the reof I!J nd er rna rt I a I law. WliU~ info rt.yeigrt1: no urs from the procla rnetlo n of m a rtla I II aw 0 r the susp e nslo 111 of the pr~vi lege of the writ of habeas corpus, the Punong Minfstro shall slUlbrn:it a report in person or in wrll!rng to the P,ariamenf.o.

The' Pa.r/amenlo ng PUip.inas (Pa.rl.rament of the PlliUppin,es)

2. The Punong Ministn)'a nd the Gabinete 1. H'Ie legis~atjve·al1ld executive powers ofthe (Cabinet) under him or her shallbe responsible IF,edleral R€publl~c of the Phli~ippines are vested to the ,ParIs menro fo r the Progra m of lin the unlcamera II Par~·amento ng .PUipinas

(Pariliaimentof the Phmppines) wlhfch shall be and the Estado or 8tate' courts, composed of not more than two hundred and fifty Parlamenta.rYrJs (Me m bers of Pa rl la m e nt arM Ps}, !!.JI n less oth erwise nX€l d ijy Ilslw, wh 0 sha ~I be elected from ~eg~sllatiive ci lstrlcts 81 PP ortlcned ,8 mo ng th e Estados (States) a n d their constituent cities and mu nlclps lttles, Me1i:.rc Mani~a" andthe Federal Capital,

2'. The Parlamento shallexercise its exclusive a no concurrent legislative an dexeeutive powers vested in the Fedem's¥on {federation) by tin e consntut ion,

3. Seventy percent otsll the Par/ams.nt,,a,,yoo shall ~ be ell ected ~ n th e l,sgjs~artJve d lstrtets from a party list of the reglstered polltlcal partie'S a nd tim lrty pe rce flit sh a II ~ b € ell €lcted tr! at ionwlde fro rn asecon d p~uty II ist of reg~stsred poll ltiea I pa rtles othe ~ tha n those i rI the f rst pa trW list.

2. The Ka' H'u.kuman, the Tribun,al .KonstiWsyona/, the Fed era I: Court of Appealls, the Sandiganbayan, a nd the Court of Tax Appeals sire unde r the Ju risd lctton of the F€lderas,Yon (Federatkm). The KaMi'81:~Haasang Hu'k-uman sh a ~ II have ad m ~ n lst rative s u pervisi on ove ra U Fed!e ra I co urts an dI t hi e pe rso n ne I th er eot, except til e lHbuiIl il'1 KonsNtu5_yDnal..

3. The lR!egional TrtelOourts, the MlUIlrIiic~pallriall Courts, the M u nlcl pa ~ Circu lt Tria! Ccu rts, M u n iei pa l Trla I Courts ln t he Cities, the Sharia ctreutt Trial Courts and other inlferim courts are under the Jur~sdl~ction of the EstadDs (the States) .. Alii State' courts shall be u rider the admlnlstratlve supervision .of the Mataa's na Hukumang Estado (State High Court) [located lin the capital city of the Estado.

4. The term of office of the Pa ,'a menta ryos

sh,aH be five years, which may be shortened 4. The' Kataas-t.aasang Hukuman shall have incase of th e d lssol ut ion of th €l Par./amenta the sa me powe rs vested ~ n th e Sup reme Co urt an d U, e ca lll ng of a new election for tts ~ n the 1987 consututton except that th e me m be rs; j u risd ii ctii on of t:h e lower .00 U rts wf~ I be vested

in the Estados, and the TribunaJ' Konstitu:syonal

5. The Pa riamento m e,y be, d lsso lved by the Presldenteol'll the initiative of the Punong Minlstm, or by 81 vote of no, confldence in the PUnong MinisUo delivered b.~t a majolrity ~)f the m € m bers a,f ttl e ,p,t1rJamento; €lith er event sha i,l be followed by the ca ,III of the Presfdente for a new election for PaJament,a'ryo$.

6.. iN 0 Pa.rla mentaryo sha II serve for m ore tin a n a tota i oil fif1lieNE! n yea rs,

7. Th e Parla mente, l!.m less soon er d lsso lived, shalll continue for five years from the date of lts ilirst meeting and no II'orilger ..

1. J ud ~cia I power is vested in the fed era I cou rts

{ConstiitlUltionalll Trtbunal) assu mes jlUlrisd letlen on cases i nvo lvl rig val r~OIIJS lssu €lS of 00 nstitutlo nalll tty.

5., The Tribunal Konsfitusyon.;a'.f shall have powers: to resolve CCHln lets between the .red'er:asyon and th e Es f ados, betwee nan d 8ilmon,g the Estados, between a citlzen or c rl1t~zelt1ls or an Estadoa n d a In ot her Estado a n d between government ~fl!strumeli1rtaJllii~lies~ and to rule 0 n the CQ f1I stitutto n a ~ lty of the a cts of Federaland State ottleers.

fL The Me rn bers of the .Ka taas-teasa ng Hukuman and the T(i:bunal Konstitusyonal amd the judges of lower Federal courts shall be a pp Q ~ nted by the Pliesidente fro m a ,I lst of at least ilt.nlree nominees prepared by the Judicial

,andi Bar Councill for every vacancy.

7. The ragapangu~o {Chaiirman) and Members of the Mataas na HUc~HJm'iimg EstadQ {State High Court) and the judges of other Stalte co U rts slh a II ~ be a opel nted by til e 'Gobemador Estado {State G CM9 rn or) fro m a II lst of at least th res nom i nees prepa red by th e judi ~cli:a II and Bar ccunctl ror ,every vacancy.

8. W~th i nfnve yearsfrom the pro m u lganon of th is Co nstltutlon , U1J1e! Kataa's·taasa ng Hukuman sha I~ supervise the full decentralizatlon of the Federal Court of Appeals to the capital cities of the Estadosand the complete transfer of jurlsdlctlon otthe various lower courts from the Kataas-ta'Q,sang HUKU'm,SH1' to th e Ma'taas ne Hukuma ng Estados (State High Courts).


Our present constttutron was b;arely slx years old wnlen w.e heard the flrst proposals to a me nd ~t. In 1'99'7 ~ it WEllS pro posecltMlt we lift the eenstltutlcns II term llrnltsand al~iQw elected oflficia~sr like Pr,esJdentRa mOB Ihlimself. to Sleek re~e lect i on in 1998. A w€ H orga n lzed oppositlon to the s€~f·s€rvirilg amend rnents that cou ld open ttl 8' door to oth er UI owe nted changee blocked the ~nmrjaIUve. Then President Estm.d a suggeste d a me nd me nits that 'WO ILIld llberalue time economy or open it further to to re ~gn pa rtlc ~ patio n in ou rage of glo ball lzatlon .. Th is too was shot down by pop u la r protest, 1111 both lnstan ees, 'IN hat prevailed were the' peop:l~e's good sense against changing the Constlr1LuUon too soon, and for dub lous rea so ns, a nd th ei r ls elk of bust in th e ir national leaders.

Reca II i ng 0 m In atlon a II expe rl e nee, the best

ti m e to wr~e e. new constltutlon f,sat a mlltli ca ~ juncture, anepoebal event, in our poUtiC811 history. The Fill lplno Revoluti~)ln led' to UI,e Malo ~O$ Con stttutlo n. T hie 19'35 Con stttuti 0 n (legal n 0 u r decade tra n sit~ em IU, n der the Com m on wealth to regal ~ n pol ttlca I ~ n die pen den ce ~ n 19'46., Ttl e 1971 Constltut i ona I Con vent ilol11 was I~m pe ~II ed by OJ pu bl lc outcry for basic reforms. Th is was u nde rl ~ n ed by th e res UI rgence of the commun 1St movement with its !New People's Arrnya nd the rad lea II ~a bcr and stu d e lilt movement, in tne walke, ()f the u n~f~cation and a Sloe nda ncy of tn e Peopl e' s FN9 p U bl lo of Ch i nSI under Mao .. The 1'9'87 constttutlon W81S of cou rsethe fru it of th e 1101ii g stmgg)1 e aga i nst the Mlcm::os d ~ ctatorsh ~ pa n d th e nee d fo r a new constltutton 11:0 replace the illegitimate Mamas 1973 Constltutlon ..

Ou r contmulng economic crisis a nd the pOll ltiea I turmoil that led to EIDSA III aMI the siege on Mallacalna ng on May 1, 2001 have aggrava~ed our chron fo proo~ems of poverty. 1.:1 n ernployrne nt, ~1r'lljll!Jlsth:::e, rebel ~ len, and crim i nail iitYfEi nd dieepe ned our 58 nse M pol ltlca I i nsta bi I ity and lack of gO(lo. governance. WhUe these may not sdd up to another "best time" to rewrite the eonsUtut~on~ th ey may very well suggest th at Wf~ are approaching "a gOQcI tlfme"for it. Meanwhile~ bas] e con 8.11: nutton a i reto rmse re be Ilt'ilg pro posed, SU clh as clh (li, ngl ng from p nesli d e ntlal to parliamentary govern rnent and from the un lts ry to a federa I system. Fu ndamenta II reform of our mean ~nglless poll~tica I parties a nd our eleeterel system is also becoming i:mperativ€., And there are rnalli1ly more good iideas being proposed for change ..

~ n1i 0 ur co n sl d e red view r howeve r! we s,n ou 10 be very def be rate ln rewriUr1Ig the 1987 Constitution. We need ume Tor our people to st udy 0 UI r expe ri en ce UI nde r it, Ti me to study, d lscuss .a nd debate the many ideas f~)r

c h,a ng€. We sh ou lei III ot Irsp earl th € haste u nde r pressure ~Irll makhllg our present Constitution. T~lere isa lso th 9' IP ra etlca I re81S0n that IPreside II1!t Anr(IYO and her political coall~li~l~on wm o~jlecili. 'to eha ngi n g tlfn e Co nsututlo n b etore 2004. 'for they would not wish for I~,er to f,o re go U~le, oppor1tuiJlity of winning a 'flUl~11 term of six yea rs in tlhl at yea r.'lid 'IN hoeve r Ii sell ecte d f'res~dent in 2.00'4 will serve until 2.010. Just aswell,

Let us th erefore aim to, wlrit,e anew oons1!ijtuUonto tsks effect by 201;() €lIt U~ e latest However, tin e process of 'DO nstltutlon a ~ stu dy, d lseuss lon a n ijI c ha nge sh OU ~ d be i nte nSlif~ eel and CEI rrled out n ajlJ,iion VII ide . For the fl~rstti m e in a cilecad,e! a slim maj,ority (62 percent) oif ttl e pee pile ina natlo na I su rvey by flu lse Asia in December 2001 ifavored c~'a WilI~iing the 1:987 Constltution. Th is ls a sign ifici!:H'It sh in 1~1tll1 PIIJI blic e p ~Ifil ~ en n til at ,m·ay be exp ected toga ~ n SIUlIPPO rt in ttl e com i ng y:e.a rs ..

Va rlous groupsa rOlllJln01 the am nhy am DO n(juct~m1J,g sl~id ~es on IDonstit~rl:.iolml!al~i cha nge and proposing and discussing speclflc cha nges, Ttl! is pa rtteular ,en deavor o'r the Pamban.s,Ci'ng KUusei'og Pid,erai at Parla.mentaryo (tlhile Naltio na I 1M OiV'S ment 'fa r ,8 Fe dera I Phillippines) is oWillly one of tnem, pomica I leaders and pa rties s no u lei be a sked to declare thei~r posltlon on the emerging issues of a men d ~rII.~. or revising the 1987 eons.titu~;j em.

The KUusang Pid,eral Pamba',nsa (KPP) advo cates UM3' ad 0 pti on ()if anew constltutl on mer ,8 lFediera II Repu btl i co of the Ph iii P P ~ nes with a pSllrl lame nta rygov,erln m ent by 2010 a,

TowBlrds '~I~~~s vil,si,(m and ,ga,al, time ,KPP' will 'COlriliUrilil!.~e to he 1101 rneetin gs and worksh 0 ps in

va r~OIUlIS pa rts of U1J1e 00 u ntry to em, su It witlh ~€B d ers an li nil e m tIe rs of c ivl I socii ety olrga'lli1ll~zatioIr1l5 and ecademlc linstiwl~rons on the lssues and ideas f'or revlslng our 19'87 c.~)nstit!Jjli11ion. KPP w~l! 81~SO consult more polltlcal, buslness and religjiaus leaders al~ld me d la practltio ne rs a.

To hel p ,t< PP focus its onge i ng COI1lSU ltatlons Olrll con smli'IILlIJltio na I refo rm, it asked th e a uthor to prepa re a ~iDllfaft Comlstitutii on" for a F edera I Rle p u 1)1 lc ,~)t the Ph w 111~1P1P lnes IN lth a p811rl la fill enta ry form ofgovern me nit. We· have exa m i ned ii n th ~s pa pe r the rna i n featu res of the "Draft ConstllWtion" a nd the baekgrou rid 81 nd r€laSOWllI'~lmllg bell i 11 d til 6' pro posed eha nges,

The "Draft ConsUtUlition" draws, o,n UH~ 19'87 ConstitlUirtio n, {I n the 8, rtlc le on citize ns' dI utles (lIt th e .t913 (::0 nstltutlo rli., and on ma ny oth er DO nS1Utut~ons a rou n d ttl e worl d. It reflects th e con S1l:JltllJUO na I reform ~d1ea s of th e a uth 0 r. a few consu Ita nts, severa I co Ilea gues in the KP'P' and in various un lverslttes, and the cumu~la1l:rrv!e thinlking 2md refteetlons o'i malny more scholars and pclltlcsl leaders in the cou InJlUy a nd a broad.

As. a, "O'ralf1l: Consti~'lLJItkmj" the document is no more th a mill a workl ng dra'ft subject to continual change and refinement SiS more 811ri1d more people are lnvolved in the celleetlve process of reform ~1'iI go u r p 0 ~ it~ ca I system,. Mo're than in the mak~rllg ()if the 1935, 1:973. end 19'81 DO nsti!1t.iUltio ns, ma'lrJ(y mo re Fill i p'i 11"100 i 111 the com ing yeal rs 'wm have oPP0r111!J1 n lties to I!ea rrn why 'We need a IlfIIe'W co nstlnnl Olflll and wham c:~lalng8s and innovations it might have. We hOlPe·~he study and iimr:mJ,vement of the ~D'raft Constitutlionj~ among. various other proposals, w~llli create some oiffthose opportunrttes,

tea,im i n.g a be ut pol ltl ca I dew IloJ)ment a nO! ccnstltutlona I eha nge ow r five d eesdes, 0 rte is h u mlb lied by th e' gineat i nte lleetua I and mora ~

debt mcu rred and grateiiul 'for the enduring hope a n ci opt im is m 8J bo ut the rut u re d es pite the past. We can surely look forward positively ifj tra nscend i ng 0 u rse lves, we ca n ~ea rn from the experience, ot more p regress lve nations and politlca I systems around the globe,

IJlr • .jI(I:l<~AJbuev01 se:f'!(ijda!S p:residenil o~ the UI niversily ,of the Phlinppirn,e<$ ~Ulp) from 19'87 tD 1993. He is prr,e5el1r1lly ,professor e:meifill:!$ of UP Polilica'i Scienl;e <lmi! Piublic .Ad'lIIlilillstraUolii andl ,c1nairma 1'1 of the Comm~Uee on Co nstrililJ~I0I1'i3J1 C~)lMltllillJ rrlyslild Ch<!n!:jE! ,of the Phili:ppitnle Po~~tr,al Solenoe Associafiolil,

11111 ,210'0'1, he' foundedl Kalayaal'l College .a.~. Ri\le!'IDanlts C'll'~U~r, Mari'kina, w,'h;e:re he I'IClW se,rve$ ,as pres.[dll:~l

This paper f,s· ri!'art .oliIe ora puDii$,ned researeh ri~port oUhe Celllier fo:r Social ri!lolilcy and Govemarnt::e of IKalaY!I!an CoUeg'e! HUed "Towatr(!ls a Fedlera.1 RepublH: of th PhiHppi1fles with II [POIufiamentary Governtme;l1it by 201{1: .A Draft CQn$li~ul!iorn."

Tlh~ $8ml); p:aper JWaS p:~sen~edl dluring the' forum on "!",ed,erallsm:

A Phil~ppiilile Option?" h.eld on JunE! 11,. :2002, spen5or>e(illl:>yllh,e Celilte;rk!r Medi!1 Fr~~d(mll~Jld ~sponsibilily;



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P.hiUppin,e Federal Republic: Progressio.n or Sharing or the Spons? [pp, 1 ~8.]1 R'etrogression. pp, 1-14.

sosrnena, Galudioso C. Jr. (n.d .. ). re'n "tears oHhe toca.i 'Government Code.. pp .. 1·13 ..

SUZ;8 ra, f ructuoso. Decem be r 23, 2001- Time to go pa rll tamentary. DaUy inquirer.

Taagepers ~ Rei n, (n .d.). The ra~lofof Mar.rakesh: Western El,ecf!orai Sys:tems Advice to Em'erging Dismocro'cies. pp .. 1-1:0..

Tal n goo, Pabllo. (n.d.), A. Gulde to Adoption of a ParJ'iam,entawy Gov,ernment for the Phmpp.ines.. nal Conteren ~)e on th e Constitution Reforms. pp. 1-1:0.

Ttl ngco, Pa ble, Ja nuary 9, 2002.. What Mal kes th s Pa rl ta me nta ry System a FeU SIUI peri or gove rn m e.r'lJt th € n th e Preslde ntla I system? pp, 1-0.

Ca rn em n, Dav ~dI. (n 0 date). Structures of lnte~governme·ntal H,e/at/oos. [pp. 1-1.]

IDa h I by, IBev. (n o da1Le}. Choices~ [pp, 1-6.]

1FII'ei ner, Thomas. (no date). Mode's of C.itizenship Rights .. ,[pp .. 1-8 .. ]

Hetche r, Chi rlstl ne. (1l1Q date). Does FederaUsm S~fegtJ,a·rd indigenous Rights? [pp, 1-9.]

,Kinca ld, JOII'U'll Robert 113, a:rlJLi Helen S.

Meyer. (no date), F€deraUsmcmd Economic P.o~·icy M'a king. [pp ... 1-8.]

lucas. A.d etoku 111 100. (n o dab3-).. Reoo rile ~II ~ ng Deoen1tra~izati(m and I5quity Health, [pp.1-14 .. ]

Mli~r,a, subrata, (no date), Language and Federal;sm: The MufU-.Ethnic Challenge.

Tayae, IEdmund S. (n.d . .).. To Federalize; or [PIP.· 1-9.] not to federalize. p p, 1~ 7.

Opeisk~n, IBr~al1l R:. {no date). Mechan,sm Teves, Rey Magrll(l. Apri I 23, .1999. :for In·tergovemme.ntai Relations. [pp ... 1~.10.] impasse-Break.r:3r? An IS.fa m fc Stats' wi:thfn a

Federal Philippines. pp .. 1-8. R,equ:ejo, Fernalrll. (tri1odate).lFedfHa~iism and

NaJtionall Groups .. [pp .. 1~8.]

Teves, IRey Magno. (no date), A Federal .RepubUc of the .Phmppines. pp. 1~ 12,

Teves, Rey MagJrllO. (no date). FederaUsm:

An Idea Whose Time Has Come! pp .. 1-7.

56 .. REPOHlilNG IPUBllC IPoLlcY; A MMltlAL lFol'lJ OIlJRrwlSTS

Sp,~r(l, Peter J. (no date). Federadllism and lm rn ~g;rati(.1 n. [pp. 1.-6.]

Tayalo'r Edmund S, January 18, 2002.

ConsoHda,tling !Ph ill.i pplne Dernoera cy Befa re II rs

Too Late, [pp. 1-5]

Watts, RO't'lJ.sld L. (no date). Mod,els of Federal Power She,ring. [pp, 1-9..]

Weinstock." Daniel. (no date). Towards a Normative Theory of Federalism [pp, 1-9,]

Proceedings).. Man il,s: Koma d Adena uer 8t,ftun g and toea I GOi\Je rn ment, 1'995.

{N 0 a uth 0 r), Second I Con feren 00 on P'a'rUamentary Gov,ernme.nt (Summary of Conference' Proceedings), Man i la.Ko nrad Adenauer Stirftung, 1999.

WMIlley, John. (no date). Globalizatiolf'i1 and Legislativ,e Billlls/R,esolutions the i noe of the Natio n State. [p JJ. 1-6.]

Ho use of Rep resentatlves, am Abstra'Cts Whiite1ford, Peter. (no date). Reconcmng Volume IINo. l.mA. Ffrst Regular sesslon, 12th Equity and Decentrallzatlon in lncome Security. Congress.


Conference Proceed ings/Sou rnmary

K.or1 rad Ada naue r F ou n datio n (KAF). East And So !Jrf1east Asia Nos'twork for Better t.ocs I Gov;emments First In't,erregiona'l ContererJce (A Summary). Manila, Phi lip pines: lace [I Gave rn m ent Deve 10 p m ent F OU 1111 cat! on (LOGODEF), 1997.

Local Gov,ern ment Development

foundation. Local Gov,emment Capability Building in The TransmiUennium (A Summary). Malkati City, Phil i ppl nes: Ko n rad Adena uer Stitt u n e .1998.

Tlngsabedh, Piruna (ed), Law~ Justice' and Open Society in ASEAN (Proceedings of fh,e . Reg.ional Symposium 6-9 October 1997, Bangkok, Thailand),

(No, author). A Code for Better Governance (H~'g h fig.f'Jts oHhe National Con suit ,a ti v e ConfeferJC€on Refhl ing the 1991 t.cca I Government Code)" Quezon C~ty, Ph llipplnes:

Local Government Center (CPA-UP), DSIE-lGC Alumni Foundation, and the Loca I Government Academy (DILG)

House of Representatives. aill Abstracts Volume I No. 1~B. First R~egular Session, 12th Congress.

House of Represell1l'taltives. House Bill No. 7845 (An Act Amendl~ng RA 71'60). Sec 0 n d Regu lar sees lo n, 11 ~ Co ngress, I ntrod u ce d by Rep. Romeo DC Ca ndazo.

House of Representatlives .. Concurrent Resolution No. 02 (Constituent Assem Illy to Introduce Amendments to the Go nstnutlon), Fi rst Regu la r Sass ion, 12 COin gress, lntrod uced by R-ep. Henry La not.

IH 0 use of R,e p rese ntatlves, 140 use

Resolut.lon No. 04 (Conetltutlonal Convention to. Propose Amendments to. the Constitution by Adoptilllg A Fed era II System of Go-vern ment) . First Regula r g,essiol1. 12t Congress, I ntroduced by Rep. Soraya C. Jafaar,

House of R € pres€! ntatlves. Ho use' R,eso'uNcm No. 72 (Co nstltue nt Asse m bly to I ntrod u eel Am e nd me nts to the Corn st it ut i on). Fi rst R egu la r S,essi on j 12th Co ngress, Introduced by Rep. Conrado M. Estrella 1'111.

Senalloe. Senate BUI No. ,6 {Constitutional (No author) .. National Conference on the Convention to Propose Amendments to the Philippine Co.nstitution (Summary of Conference 19'87 Constltutio n), F ~ rst Regu la r sesslo n r 12th

Rie:P'OImt-lG PU6!.1C P'QLJC'( A M;!I.NUAL FOR JOUi'lNALlS,T.s • 57


Congress, Introduced by Sen. Juan MI.. Flavier ..

Senat,e.. Se·nate am No. 8'26 tAn Act Amendhllg Germi Ii1I Previslone of RA 7160). First R,eg1J12H Session, 12th Congress, I ntroduced by Sen. Aqufllino Q. Prmentell Jr.

Senate, Senate Reso'ut'ion No. 1250 {Constlitllent Assembl'y to (1) Create a

fed e ra I Syste m of G.ave rn rnent, and (2) A.dopting a Pa rltarnertta ry Form of Govern merit}. Fifth Regu la r Session, 8th Congress, Introduced by Sen. AqufUno Q .. Pimentel Jr.

Senate. Conc.u·rrent ResoluN'on No. 26 (Constltutrona II Convention to Revrse the Constltutlon by Acloptling a Federal System of Govern ment), Second R,egllilar Sessicn, lltll Oongresa, Introduced by Sell. Aquilino Pfmentell Jr.






Oontrlbutlng to a

Broader Understanding of

the lmpact of Milning on Phlllpplne Human and Econo'mic Development

Environmental Science for Social Change


The milling ...• irlld. ust.ry .• in t.· he P.hl.illiP.p.:.ines .is cu rrently bel n g revived oy the

. prese nt aid min lstratlon despite the ac knowl edgeme nt in th e M eci ~ u m Te rrn Ph Ii I i pp~ ne Deve lopme nt Pial n th at th 1$. sector is not expects d to co nt rl but€- su bsta nti a lIy to tin e cou ntry' s econ amy, as it h as do ne so ~ n tin e past. Th e i nd ustry is high Iy vall atile a n d subject to the g~oba~ market's ups and downs. Major investment players see the Philippines as a high-risk a rea, yet these a re th every investors that the ceu ntry wa nts to invite .. However long-term yet, the government ls'ki ngat a maximum of .12 wo rld-c lass operatl n g m i nes an c! a ppea rs to be not kee n on tim e m i no r i nvasto rs, Th e re are sttu su bsta ntl a ~ arnou nts of rni ne ra I resou rces that, if proper,ly developed a nd rna n aged. ca n provide a major boost to th e eco no my.

HI ls revlva I ls ·8 ga ~ n ra ~s ~ ng P81St iss ues ags i nst m ~ n i n g. precisely bees IUIse th s re were no suf1fiide nt levels of reso II u tlo n rea ch e din

the past, Communities. in past affected areas, e nvi ron me nta I a dvocates, some c h u rc h personallttes. some NGOs, and other C:Q ncerned gro u ps and in d li'vid ua Is are vole ~ n g concerns, especially through the media. Govern m ant, es pecia Ily the Mi n es a. nd Geoscliences Burea U' (MGB), [s also responding effic~ent~y to the questions and sometimes 8 cc usatl ons lh u rl ed at the m ,.8 lso th rou ~h th e pr! nt m ed la, I he tetters to th EJ· Ed ltor sectio n is transforming into a mining dlscueelonarena as I ette rs an d staterne nts fi rei to a ndf ro m the opposing views.

Among the more vocal crltlcs are some NGOs and same sectors in the Church who. have ta Ike n the C udgels to r poe r com m unities ina reas win ere 181 rge-sca II e min i ng i So op €! ratl ng or where Flna nclal or Techn leal Asslstance Agreement (fTAA) and Minerail Production S ha ri ngAgreeme nt (M PSA) have been gra nted, Baslcal Ily, this is reftectlng a II!IOmlnlng stance and O! basic lack of trust.

In the Ph lllpplnes there is a deep suspicion



of tn e state d U El to the fact th at the State has fu nctl oned v'ery poe rly.. Th e State has fa i led to prom ote th e com m on goo d. Til ere ca n be, nnie' a rg!u me nt a bout t hls. IH oweve r, the fa ct that the State has f u nctlo ned bad ~y lis not an argument agslnst the State as such. But it is a good argument for improving the way the, State fu notions.

T h Elsea re d imcu It an d tryl ng ti mes for a [II con cerned and wh 0 a re ts king a kee n ~ nterest in how PhiUPPline society willcope and rna na ge. it IS a testtor Phi i I[ ippin e society.

The Church a nd NGOs

The i nvolverne nt of th e Cath 01 lc Ch ureh in the camps ign against m in~ng is well-known, In 1998 anum ber of bishops issued, lin the na me of th e Cath 01 ic B ish cps Conference of the Ph i I tpp i nes, a docu me nt e ntltled: A Staternent of Ccmcem On the Mining Act of 1995 ..

Th is state m entasked for the re pea I of the 1995 Mlinin,g Act The document named and a sked 'for the closu re ofslx m ~ n ~ ng operations ln the country .. This has made dialogue on mining more difficult because some en u rch gro u ps. we re confused by the positlo n ta ke n by these bishops, while other groups wiith d Iffe rl ng 81gen d 8$ we re a b Ie to ita keadva ntage ofit.

The 1998 statement seems W have a lot to do wirth po I[ [fresa n d dleta, ~ I ed econom ies'whe re ttll€! C h u ron eta ~ ms no pa rti cu la r rna n date 0 r expe rtJ,se----a nd very ~ ittle to do iN [t[11 th e moral d ime ns ~Otn ot d eve lopme ll1It wh ere the, Church does have a mandate. As one, expert on the Ch urch's soctsl Teaching PU'!S it: "lhe Ch urch has 1"10 competence in the technlcelitles oif sociology, nor in polltlcal or econ 0 m lc th eo ryan d 0 rga n ~zatio n.eec h has lts own legitimate autonomy under reason and


the natura II ~8W. Her co rnpete nos ls i nglv i ng gu i da n ce 0111 th e rno ra la nd s pii rltus I consequences of the decisions and IPQllic~es made in these spheres. ~(Roger Oharles, SJI:An ~ ntrod uctlo n to Catha Ii C Socii a I lea en i ng)

This 1995 Act dea Is with 1[61 rgs-scale mining. lit is in fact a reasonably gOQd piece of legislation l udged agal nst lnternatlona I standards. If it were faithfu 1'lyfoUcwed, the environment would be protected.and loca I and lndlgenous cornmunltles hosting a min lng ope ratl 0 n wou lei ben eflt, I hie pre b lem is not so much with the 1995 Mining Act itself, but wilth its lmpjementattcn and how sure are we that it wBI be 'faiith'fllJl~y followed, However, to a bol ish lt wo u Id m a k:e matts rs m uc h wo rse.

It isto be greaUy regretted that the bishops' statement of concern drd not include a warning rega,rd~ ng srnal l-scale mi riling. Small-scale mining is srna ~II only in name. Dlwalwal lis hardl[y small, Pockets ofgold-rush a reasare occurring lin many areas in the country. es peels II y those I[eft be h ~n dI by ttl e la rger min e operations. A,IImost always, these are aliso poe kets of seve re poverty wh e re pea pll e a re exploited j C Ihd'id la be r its ecce pted a ndexpected, the environment is severely degraded, and safety precautions nil, Almost always. these 1501 d-rus h operatlo ns occu r with loca I govern ment to tera nee or con In tva n ce or ill na nee. Th e Ch u rc h p la ys a s ~gn ifica nt role in ca Iling attenttcn to stories of minfng abuses.

The focus of the ern u rch ts onme transtormatlon of society, which u ltl mately m e'a ns the tra nsrorm atl 0111 of' tin e ~ nd iv i d ua Is that make up society.

In Phmpp~ne clvll society, the, consultative role of NGOs a rid POs is co nstitutlona Illy recogn lzed and th at "t[h e r~ght of th € pea pie at n d the iir orga n lzations to ettecuve a nd reesona ble pa rtici patio nata lllevels of social,

pol itica I , and eco no m lc dec lsto n-ma k.i ng sha III not be a bridged .. The State shall. by law, facilitate the estabushrnent of adequate consu Ilatio n mecha n is rns." (Article XW, Section 16, Philippine Constitution 1987)

Ora nted ttl at corn su ltatlo n must be mo re than a flippant engagement, there are su bsta ntl a I red ress mec hal n is ms wh ere NGOs do. nave 8111 important role and government is. mandated to hear their comments and reeorn me n d at ions, Gove rn me nt may accept or reject pa rt of the i r ~ n P uts, because gove rn m ent ass u rnes tlh e greatest responsibility and aeeounta biliity, but irt can not reject alii, wuthOlUit runn ilng the Ile.gjt~malte risk of rallroadtng an agenda of national. but not loca I, coh eren ce.



The issu €'S of 00 m rn UI n ity must be d e·a It wii1th, but not in a romantic way.. The issues of government need to be tackled, but not lin an idealistic way. The issues raised by the Church must be' given due weight, but not without being reviewed with more co m prehensive information from a III perspectives.

Th us, whlle the consntunon provides a bas r s to run ity in ensu r~ ng responsi b Ie mine ra I development and utilization, recognltion of ancestral dornaias, and the consultative rote of NGOs and POs, the laws and policies that '19 merged gave 81 p rofusio n ot i nte rpretstlons, 81111 with their own justification with in the Constltutlon.

The major laws and policies are:

• 19B1 Small Scale Min ing Act for smallscale m ineral development

• 1'99,2 National lntegrated Protected ArEN3S Sys'tem Act for protected areas and biodiversity

• 1995 Mining Act for minera I d evelo prnent

• 1997 Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (I PRA) for lndlgenous cultural com rnunltles

• and the rna n elates of the different govern rnent agencies tasked to lm plernent these laws ami pclleies.

Own ersh rp ,of eorpo ratto ns ~lllIvoh,ed in m i neral reso u rce extractio n. deve I opme nt, and utllizatlon

The constttuuo n p rev r des that the State is ma ndated to dii rectly u nd e rta k.e Ire-sou we extractlon, development, and utilization or enter into co-production or joint venture agreements wiith Fill i pi no c ltize ns or with corporation s at I east 60% of wh ose ca pita I is owned by Filipinos.

The M lining .Act allows for 100% forejgn ow ned GO rporatl 0 ns to 0 perate in tn e Phi Ii pp i nes and a re dee rn ed "q ua lifl eci persons" in the grantling of exploration permits (EPs). and fT.AAs ..

The ubi q u fty of UH~ te rm" CI ua I ified persons" in the Mining Act certalnlv provides the impression that this ls a law crafted to allow opportunltles for fore i gf'l investors, with HH:'! real ity that large-ecale B no susta i ned mining is beyond the flnanclal and technical capability of Filipino investors and compames ..

Th e m is a Co nstltutl 0 na I q u estlon lodged • 1:991 local Government Code for lecal with the Supreme Court in relation to this

government devolution contradtctton.


Free IprliOIl a no ~njh::mili1,ed consent (fIPIC) and seclal ac!ce'lPtalbil~ty

Th e Mi:n ilt'ilg Act clea rlly states that no a ncestrs I II ands may be 0 pe ned Tor m ~ n i n g Q peratlo ns witho ut th e prio r consent of the concerned indigenous cultural communltles,

The I PRA expa n d ed "prior co nse rrt" Ii nto FPiC ofthe conC1lFHI1IEld indigenous peoplestnat must be obtained prior to alny project "Hact,~vity' ex1i.ernallliy initiated in the a ncestrsl domain. I n fact, they h ave a r~ght to stop or suspe n d 81 n y pro] ect th at trI als not sattsfteo the cons u lit,at~on process whl ~ lie secu ri ng tlhle FP I C. AndllFPI C ~n t he II PRA m ea ns th e consen sus of allill rnern be rs of th e i nd lgen DUS CU ~W raj I! com m lUI n ities/i nd lge nous peo piles (IIIP') ln a ecorda nce with c ustorna ry laws 81 rid practlees a no free hom any coercion ~ interference, external rna n i!J u latlo n, F'PI C ls obta ~1f'!led ette r full dlrsdosure ofthe project's intent and! scope an d in a la n guage and process understands bile Ito the concerned co m m u n lties ..

However, ifthe IPs or communltles reject a project, what does the government or company do or resort to ccnsld en ng su bsta ntla II mo ney was expended during exploration stage? Wi:ll the governrnent's power to expropriate be Jmposed or exercise emlnent domain?

There is a pending case in the Commlsslen on !Elections (cornelec) where the registered voters of a loca I gove rn me nit unit (LGU) utilized tine prevlslon in the Local Govemmelrili!. Code to r 110 ca II in wUatlrve a nd rete ren dum to pro POs€!, enact, andamend any ordinance. The people of Kasi bu, IN u eva Viizcaya resorted ito a "peep les ~ MI ltiative" a n ~ de m a nded a reterendu mas a means to determine the people's choice in relatlonto the FTM of Climax ArimclQ. Up till now, the Cornelee has yet. to lssu € nrs d €leis ion.



U the Com ell ec aH~i rrns th :~s petitio ria nd a llows a referen dI u rn to ta ke place, th en wh at d oes that retlect on th e INlarUO na I Com miss ~on on II nd lgen ous Peo p les {N Cli P} a nd the FPI C process?


Win at otte n ha ppens is ttl at t h8 curtura ~ co m 1m unity is etten d ivlded by th e process wiith CHlle' grou p accepting the operatjon wh lle othe rs a re left fl ght~ f1l g for what tn ey may see, as the rough end ()f the deal.



The Nla, Minerals Pollfey (N MP) recommends Deep Sea. Taillings P~aQement {DSIP} if th is demo nstrates th € least environmerttal ami social impact ina particular areal. However, oeCaliUIS€ of shalHow i nte r~ isla nd waters, th is IS n at always poss lbl e nor in many cases desirable, as ~ mpact is unknown. TaWng:s dispcsal and management should not be dealt with ~n :8 way similar to ttre MalfC.opp,er tailings tmpoundrnent con st ru cted :810 ng th e' coast of Cal ~a n ca n Sal)!, The-government dtsallewed the practice yea rs later.












As ah lgh Iy extra ct lve 81Ct ~v ~ty that uses certa lin 11 a za rdo ILlS su bsta It'iIICeS, such as cvsnlde, ln tts ore recovery operatlcrts, this partjcular aspect in mineral extract ron and development has yet to provide sufficient I'ev€ ls ofassu ra nee of non-lea ~age and s pi II.age into a re as. En ha nee dam! butte red ta iii ng da rns a nd taill~lI1g ponds are needed to a ccom m edate the wastee nd mrne ta i ~Ii ngs a ItlI d areas ma!y be se~ ected for th eSle p urposes,










.. -



P.ayments and taxes


I'll €, Loca I G cvernme nt Code of 19'9.1 provides that local governments. can have a share of 40% of the gross collection by national gcvernment from royalties and m fning






, -

taxes fro m th e uti II lzation and d eve Ilopmen! of resou fees of th e nation a II wea lth wiitlh~1tii th ei r a reas, sha re .e IIIII ocatlo ns are 20% to r provinces, 45% for component cmesl 1TlI1!.J1rll'icipadlities, and 35% for barangays.

If natu ra ~ reS(IU rces are located ~ n two 0 r m ere of Hie a bove loG Us, S he res w~11 be com p uted 0 n the basts 011 po P u latl 0 n (70%) and land area (30%).

lit ls rna i nta i ned that the govern men! sta n cis to ga i 111 from taxes 81111d fro m the profit ~ sharing scheme of the FiAA. Yet one issue many LGUs raise against mine prolects is not tim e project itse Iff but w hat they sta nd toactua Hy ga ~ n from th es€ tax rem ina noes,

The national govern merit's "(me fu rid" po I icy has mad e it d JHT CUi lit for 'LG Us" pa rtlc ILJ 1'8 rliy the ba ran gays who are the dlrectlly affected com m u n ities, to get th ei r s hal re of the pie.

The Mining Act has clear provisions on areas where mlning activiit~es are aillowed or disallowed parttculerty on proclalrned W('Iltelifs beds, Th e Protected Area s a, nd WMd Ilife Bureau (PAWIB) is mandated to delineate new p rotected a reas an ci th ere lsa preba bii i ity that


Oin, 13 A,il~ gJlst 2003, P res: idlen~ Arro,yo sig!ned 'Presid'Emtial P~ocla m ation IN "1m oe'r 442 declaring tile SanlHl'llf Islandl F~ml:st R,~s~rv'" asa prot:ec'tea erea under the category Qf natu ral park and to be know,nl as U11eSa mar Island Nlatlulralll POI rik: (SIIINIP)., n:e M iWlle ral Prod uetion S:hlari~lg Agree m elnlts i5- suedto Ba U1X'it.e R~sour~s Inc;.!:! nd AI IWm~ na Min~ng Ph i Iii PlPi nes 1111 c. in pecem belf 2002 rem 1;1 in valid. lhe IPro~lla.matlon alisQ sta~ed tlhatalll 'exilst" wng sustai rlab ~e IUiU Iliz:at~@ n @f natu ra i rsseurees wi~hiiin IJu~ SINP not oornuary ~D law nor inc>lJmpat· il ble with tilM e M i3linlage:ment. Pllan wi III be re!>pect~d. .

the's€! newly id enNfJ ed p rotected a reas halve been apptled with mineral claims. There are a lso so rna ny p rotected a reas a Ilr,ea diy and fu H proteetlo n ea n In ot be ensu red wlit h the CUI rrent HmilaUnns in govemment, flnances, capacltles of Protected Area Ma n a ge m ent 1B!j rea lUI (PAMB).

Exa m p lie is the Ba uxite M i nera II Fhaservation ~ fTl Sa mar, a lse be i ng proposed 1Lo be the Sal m:EU Naltlolr1l8 ~ IPa rik.. Th e p revlo us Be partrn ent of Env,f ro n m ent and Natu ra II IResou roes (D EN R) Secretary, upon MGB's endorsemerrtand reco m m elli'l dati 0 n, gra nted an MI PSA 110 1th e min i ng com pal'li1I}!, Sa uxlte Heso u rces, II nc .. ;a nd th IS, is bel ng contested by IPAWIB an d th e NGOs.

Does corrgreesronel procla matlcn of ,8 protected a rea provide to r stron gerr a rglLI me nt ~ n relatlo nto dec lsi ens 0 n wh eth er to pu rsu e or halt mineral development plans ln the-area?

The proposed N M P P rovides that "the economic and strategic signifiicance of the rnjneral potentlal of an area fn question before m ell k i ng dec ls lon s i 111 the creati Q nj esta bllsh ment of resou rce conservatlon/ protected arees."

Haw are trade-otfsessessed then in terms of pctentlal losses in tcrest ell rea! and b lod lvers ~ty Ihl8i b ltat, wste r so ILl rce dI isru ptlons, and soil loss d ue to '9: roslon?

Protected areas i nel ud e prjma ry forest and crltlca I waters heds of ~ nfrastructu re co ncem. Crir1l~ca I waters heds have pro ba b Iy not a III bee nl identltled and there is no immediate threat. What has riot been co m plr'e he ns lve Iy secu red are th e water so urees ~f'll terms ot SUI rria ee ru nems a n d u ppe r catch menta reas ~1t1! th e cou ntry For soils, a managed mh1i€ site does haveits tailing ponds and managed operations a rid is not continuously using humus soil. What gets wash ed o ut 81 re th e fresh bed rock with s u Irfii d es

••••••••••••••••••• IREPORTING IPUB!IC IPOLIcY: A MimuAL Foo. JOORW,t.,ucSTS. 6,3


Oln ,27 Jam,lIalry 2004, the SlJIpreme Court finalll}" decided on a 8-5"1 vote that certam Ilrclvisli,ons o,f the ~Hni rig; Act are Im(mnst:itutiona~ a nd are thus mJ11 an d void r s,pecifica~!y thelr~filanda I <)lInd Tee h n h::al Assistance Agr.eements (FTAAs). The chaUe'l1ge posed before the SlJIp'reme Co,u.!rt is tlhe constltuticrtaljtyof the Minl,ng Act, specifiGalJly on the 1.00% 'f'Q,reigJn ownership clause for FTAAs. file DENA thereatter fl,led a, m etlon for recc n.s~1 deretlon th rough tfi'leOff'i ee of tlh e SolicitOlf Ge na ra I and U1,e Ch iet P~es,i;dential Leg:a I Cou!1Isell.

This occurs as the President SigJlfled ExeclJitive Orde'r 270 Ilast 16 January 2004 outllining the guidelines by whi,oll a national mlnerajs paliley wi'll be ,crafted, the prlnctples of which wer"e assumed oonnrmed dl:lring the N'atio na I Mi nl ng Conle renee in lDecem ber 2003. A Mi F'Ienll:S Ac1tlon plan ls so !light by the present IOIEN R admlillistr:atiolr'l ba$ed on file j,2 gUlidillg prilllcipies in ExeclJitiive Order (EO) 2700. Ilnte,r-agelloy working gmlllps" spe.arheaded by II!) ENA ;]I Ild the MGIIll, are pre p,ni Ilg, the imp !ementation pia ns and the bu dgets for presenla11ion to, civH society i In Ma,rel1 an d to the Cabi net by .A.prU, before ttl e May elections.

and not tile topsoil. This is not the sameas sol I erosion and the effect en strea ms ~s differ,ent. If mining opens in a n upper catc h m e nt ,8 rea. til en the re r s the trade-off, as there are water needs downstreamand also. for the mining com panv's operations.

Monn.'i),ri ng!reviiew

The Mul1ti-Partite Monitoring scheme should be fu Illy lrnplernented to enable concerned stakeholders to participate in the d ec lslo n-ma kii n g IJ ro cess,

Some mining com pa n les in Sur~gao have shown that better relations with the church a nd host com m unity ca n be ac hleved by having, effective and sincere monitoring teams. T n ls involves a se ri 0 us and su bsta ntla I engagement including, capacity building,

Acco u ntab i I ity an dI responal bi lity' in mining incidents and accidents

The Ma rinduque lneldent is still a past eve nt that is ~ n th e eve r -present and rece nt government efforts by this administration airs showing levels of government commitment to finally take strong rehabiliitation measures, w~th govern ment p rovld ing for substa ntla I amount of funding. But the tediousness by which this situation has stretched out, the accounting ot the money paid by Placer Dome


for precisely the reha hllltatlon and recorn pe nse, the i n volve m ent of loca ~ politicians in the negotlatlons for the rehabl lltatlon fun cis provide som e of the cornplexltles that dragthe complete resolution of this unfortunate incident.

How is civil society assured that such an incident does not occu r. but that ~f company accountability iis called into question at a ce rta i n poi nt the n gove rn me nt will act swift'ly this time and ta ke corn mand of the situation mere strongly? We 111 €l>rE!d greater a coo u nta b i I ity and res pO Ilisi b ilJity coming from the government and the ind ustry in cases of accidents.

-Ii '" ' ... if! .. r .... i ... ' .Ii ill 'I !Ii .' 'I! ... J ..... -II .. ill -I iI- '.' " .' 'I! '" , '" I~ .. oj ill -Ii

The' El1lVironmel1tal SCil:nilCe' fQr Social Chang:e jl1:.SS,C) lis an in'smllte tlhat seeks impf'oved s,01:11311 conditiiQI19 through sciientilic and oocia~ resean::ha:nlil has s~Lldiedlti~, mulltl..secm'ral ~)I;rrspecti;re onUlle IS5:lJes of miJJ'Iingl, Inl:l:udin,g iIs prQ$ !lnd cons. E,SSC actively elilgages willi commll nitl es, Ilocal g:OIl(lrnmen'ls, and nalioi1lal and ~ntemational institllltions ln exp~oliili'lg betl:er ,options fo,. resolllroe manag,elrI!Ieoilf, Inew and impro,ved methods in Mtte~hedl Ireha.Du Ililation, and! creatlll'Q social v~nJUes tJhat provide spaee for pOlicy discussi.Qns, pMQlralil11 implenn9'l1itltIJono, anc! community co,ncems in re-hlliion, to, tile ,ellvil'\(Illmellt ,ali'lll lIIall)lrnl r'e:;soorce malf1lagemelit

This paper ViaS drafted as part of a ,proce~$ to illform Philippine society about Imining!. ilts, ~liI1lpads;l!llld o1heiF relMed,

This di$lcussioll paper\ws IIrcs'ented to, me:milers of the mediia during the poilicy fORll1ll It'!Ill;d "Impact ,of Minillg" organ fizedJ by lli(l C;ameirror Media Freedom and R.esponsibilily oil Ju,~ 11, 2'003.

Usapang Hangln

Dinna Louise C. Dayao

Wli'nIY 511 ou Idl we lb e co neemed a DO ut fli lfefU'E!s?

I" W. hen was the tastnme you saw

. ...~ilf,efli:S mlm the ~ illy? ~ Til is is the

quesilrilion posed on the Web sjte nf the Fi refliy Br~gade. a 8ECre~sterecl ,cit~ze ns' actien group that promotes tnik:~ng for dean air and sustainable c,fIUes.

lit is no flippant query.The fiireWes nl8rV€ all ifl ed beca use they cOlllII'di nat sta n d th e d i rty alr, notes th e site, Alnrd bees IWI se we cant lin L:I € to IPol1 ute 0 U ra i r, "a II of us=cycl lsts, lPedeSUilfisJlilS., '00 m m ute rs, even th Dee ,o,f us W'lho ride cars-e II of us who, live" work, and ra lse farnllles in 'the city are in danger of sildferring tn,€' same fate. BSC8IU;r:H! we are d ~rt.yin,g au r eiit)/, So 8 i r wlth po IIII uUrlg ca rs a nd facto rles, we are i:JiI!SO' ~Irn danger of diisalPpear~lnrg Illike the '1ftjlr,efll les, "

The loss of fireffles m Metro Manila bodes m 'for aH ~J.f us .. It is a portent of ho'w (jleaci~y the aiilr is. A University of the Phillippine,g, studly revealed that 81t the rate VIlle ewe polluting the

ali r, the u rban center wou ld no longer be haloirtt81ble by 2011.

The slgnsare everywhere: EverydalY, smog Bind smoke-belching C(ilrs,. buses. 8 Inl 01 factory cFllimneys endangeir~he Iheall~lh of city dweUelfS .. Conslde r the fi nd ~ rlI gs revea led by a n a na,liysis of the costs off hea lth l m pacts of PM 10 (pa rtlcu lates sma Iller than 1:0' m ierorrs) ~ n M,eHo Ma n lla, Dal'Vao~ Cebu, and Baguio u nde rta ken for the PhUippinss Environment Monl't()t .200.2, a World Sa n k re port.

The anelysls com puted the numbers of excess dearths an dl in cl d en ce of disease due to' th e impacts. of po ~ ~ uta 111'18.. ~ t showed th at tne year~y cost ,of PM10 in nne four cities results i 111 the tollowl ng;

• Over 2,000 people die psematurely, Thls loss lsvalued at about US,$140 mr~,I~i(H'1 {at 1 US$ ~55 pesos" about PhP7.7 billl'lion).

• Over 9,000 people sutferfrom ehronlc bro ndl itls. These deaths are va, 111U1 ed at 81 bout US$120 mllllon (about PhP6.6 bi~lliion).



Table 1, Estimates of Health Impact and Costs by PMI0 in Four Cities

TOW 2001*

I, I ----

I Ch - - -' - Resplr"atQry I

ilf\OniC "

, ~ symp~oms

,:bronchitis in liIll'p.nion

Costm mill lion US$

Cfrty' ,annual IPopullation Ex.cess
a/'I,IIerage' in miUio1il deal!1hs
Metlt,o 65,8 10.014 1,9151
Davao 3,91,8 1,0118 83
~_73 I 1170
Cebu 45.0
IBaguio 75.2 0 .. 26 491
Total -- I '12.111 2,211 8.43S1

ex posu re to' pa rti cu late 43.2" m atter Ii n these four cities alone adds up to over US$43.0 mi Ilion

(Ta ble 1). Tih ese cosma whopping PhP2'3.165 bllllon-ars equivalent to 2:.5% to 6.1.% o,f the per caplta incomes lin these citles,









• INearly 5.1 million cases of respiratory sym ptom days in Metro Ma nl la (averaglng twlce a y,ear in Davao and Cebu, and five to six times in Metro Manila and Bqguio)i" costs about US$.170 mnllon (about PhP9,.35 bilillion). This IS. a 70% increase, over a decade, when compared with the findings of a similar study done i'n199Q for Metro Manila, w'hic~l reported 33 million cases.


cain cause eye, nose and throat irrltatlcn a III d othe r n ea Ith problems, PM 10 are of special concern beca use of the ~ r a bmty to pen etrate dee p i nto the lungs and cause maier health lmpects,


The total cost otthe

Th e' resl d errts of the to u r cltl es represe nt 28..4% of the PhlillilPpines' urban population. If lit is assumed that the rest of the country's pop u lace lis exp osed to' I eve ls sj m lla r to th ose in the four cities, then the urban health cost may be extrapolated to be over ,a staggering US$1.5 billion {about P,hP82.5 billion) for the country per yea r,

Pi;u1,1 cu ~ ate matter ~ nc I ud es dI ust, soot and other tiny bits of soud materials that are releas ed i nto a rid m ave arou rH] in the atr, Particulates are prod u ced by rn any

sources, lnclud ~ng Indicator 19981

burning of diesel fuels II-----~--- .......... -----_t_~-----t_-----__I

by trucks and buses. Mortal'ity 660


incineration of ga rbage, Morbidity

application of fertilizers ~---~-----+-----~+-------ir-----~~

Cost of work loss days '11

and pestlcldes, road 1--~~-------il---~~-+-------t--~-------1I

construction, industria II Cost of Irnediica.tiQrIl 854


processes such as steel I Chronic brQf1£hitis, 441

making, minrng~--------~-----~I-----~+------~

operatt 0 ns, a nd IFL~O~·IMi"l_,_r _re_!S_p_iral_o_r'Y_iI_lh_·es_s_. _"IF 8_1 0...,· I- -I='~ ",..

agriculture II bu mingo li,Q'ta1 1,5,1'5,

~_~ ~_~~ __ ~ b-~~~~_~


Table 2. Projected Health Damages Associated with PMI0 Exposure Baseline Level (I.e., with no action, in millions of pesos)

--- --- -

2000 2006
8210 1,794
2 I 31
1,388, '6,442
77' 332
1,316 6,110 I
2~209 8,239 S-oorre: ~jmprollifflJ Air Quality if) the Philippines:

Particulate pollution liInYQ BeneJits and Hem?" by MS. Delo$ Ang-lj!les, C.M. Rufo. Jr., t=..M Grbela, A Inda-b, and L. fMo


And 1m noactlen is ta ke,n, th e sltuatl 0 n wiH worsenas Tabl'€! 2 shows.

more ski n ca ncer a n dcata tracts (ey,e da mage) in people.

While health i m pacts a re tine most compelling reason to combat air pollution, Ul1ereare tine non-health costs as well Cfalolle 3). A~r po UILIIUon ca n da mage property. lit ca n en rty bu ~ lid i n gs 611 doth er st met u res, So m e co m m on pall ~ uta nts eat away stone, damagl ng bu i ld ~ri1 gs, rn on u me nits a nd statues.

Ai r pollutlo 11 t h reate ns Ion g-te rm produetlvlty, PC:K~r air qua !~ty damages trees a rldl pia nts, red uces q UBI llty of Illife. and disco u ra ges tourism a nel to re lgn ii nvestme nts,

Ffna~iy. dirty air "knows no barriersand makes no class distlnctlons-whlte affecting the poo r d isp ro po rtlo nate Iy. ~ Th liS was noted by Robert Vance Puilley" World Bank Country Di redo r for th e Phil i ppl n e's, in h is a rticle, "On IFmpinos' 'Most Wanted' lUst: clean Ak~ Lowincome citizens often live in the most polluted a reas an d a re exposed to the wo rst 8J lr

Ai r poll utio n also ha rms th e envl ron me nt, da magin g trees, la kes 8. nd 81 n lma Is. Ai r poll! uta nts have th inned th e protective ozone lalye ra bove UJ~e Ea rth. Th is loss of ozon e 00 uld C8U.8;le changes in tJtM9 environ ment, as weill as

- - --- ----

103 ble 3. common Aur Poll uta nts: Thai r Sources a rl(~ Effects on Hea ~th

and the Environ rnent _ .

- ---- ----------------- ----

Criterial PlQUuta nt"


Burning of wood, diesel 8100 @toorfue~5; iti'ldll$trial pla.nl5;aiglriC1.Jlltl,lr~ (plowing, burnlng of f~eldl$): IU~pave{j roads

Ashe'S, soots, Sirna kef> and dusts COl n dli r1.y am d~sGo~or strum ure s anci other prope~ty, ino!udingl clothes and flLimiture.

I P.Micul~te Mlat~er

I Particulates are the rna in

I Nose' and thr-08!t. iriri~ationl, lung source of haze Ullail

damage i brono'hiitis, eariy death

red uoosvisibilily,

802 is an ingredient in aeld rain, which can dama:Q'e tree s and lakes and reduce \fisibUiil.}'\

I Burnfngof coal .and oil; Sulfur D iO)(id~ industriaJl processes (paper, meteds}

Acie! ra~n can ea& away stone used in buildi ng,s, statues, monumews, etc,

Breathing probtems, mall' caese p~runanerrl d.amageliO ~ungl$

l,,OO g~$Omne (w hich hiliJS been phased Qui), paint (houses, cars), smelters; !1Ililu'Iuf·a;otur-e off Ile<lic!slornge, batteries

Brain alld other neniOILJ!S, sys.tem damage; chilare:r1I are at sipedall risk. leaJd esuses digestiv€ andl 'Qthe:r h.eC'llth pro:b'lerns..

teaccan harm wi'ldnfe,

I ...

I Burning 01 g~asolil1e, t1atma~

gas, DOEll i 011, etc, Cars are an importa.nt source O'f N02"

N02 is an inglTF.;ldient of acid ralilil, wliiidl c~n

, dam~g'e trees and hlilkes I and reduce vi~ibtlily.

!LIUng darn~,Q:e!,itloo'Sse~ of bfeathing paS,SElQles and ~lI"'Igs {ms:r:dratory system)

Nitrogen D['Qxide (IN02)

Add! rain ca n eat away stone used 01"'1 b,ui'lclings, statues, monuments ,e~c.

Red uoosOlioi luty of blood to br.ililgl needed oXygel1l to body cells and tissues, CO may b e parlicula.rly hazard.O!!.J1S to people who !hav~ h~~r~. olfciroul<1!tory problems andilpeople 1;'11 ho have damaglecl lungs, Olr breathi~ passages.


I MOl)iOxld€j (CO)

Buming af'gl8iSo:litne'i nah.J[·a~ g~I$, OQa~. (Jill, etc,

So.!!fce: U. S. Efl\!'lfOl' PfDIeCl/Dil' Ag,!mC}', ~VWlv_,~_g,ov

• u. s.. EPA oaBs t1Jere pollutarrls fYi/Mit air jJ&.lu,laIltS b€CllrJse r.!:i~ .ag€fwy nilS regulated tlJem by frrsl.oovrMopiog /l€Jal,rfl·baSifd crire.ria (SCJ'&lC>i.f·4:JlIsed guiI)f.$M.i:le~)' .~ (fie' J:lOiSis fOf permissibfe lelte/s,

pollution, As a. result, they suffer the most from exposure to dirty air.

(19'78). mandates, that environmental impact stateme nits be lssu ed for a II new i nvestrn ents u ndertaken by the govern ment and the private

CII ea rly, we a II have much mason to be secto r. eo nee meo a b Q I!.JIt the d iS8 ppea ra n ce nfflirefl les

in Metw Manila, Their absence indicates that Executive Order 192 (1987) establlshed the alr is toxic and harmful to our health. the Department of El'lvir,onment and Natural property, environment, productlvity, and poor Resources.

fellow citlzens.


The Phillpptne Constttutton (Article II secuon 16) of 1:986, specifies that the State "shall protect and advance the flight of the peop,le to a balanced and healthful ecology in a ccord w~th tlh e rlhyU~lm and ha rmony of nature." The Phlllpplnes has whjl,e-ranging envlronmenta I laws that provide the legal basestor programs related to, air quanty management. FollIQwing are the Ilaws llsted in the Phil.ippines. Environment Monitor 2002.

Presldentiel Decree 984, the Pollution control Lalw {1976}. provides gutdeltnes for the co ntro I of a ~r and water pollution from ind ustrla I sou rces a nd sets penelnes for vlclations. ~t requires etl polluters to secure permits from the environmental ,agency.

Prestuential Decree 1151" the Environmerrtal Polley (1978)" recognizes the "right of the peopl e to a h ea Ithy envi ron me 01.

ReplLJitlllrc Act 7160, the Local Government Code (19'91). devolved functlons of some natio ria 'I age ncles to loca I govern me nt units. On e of these is t he roads ide e nforce m e nt of vehlcula r emlsslons standards.

Republiic Act 8749, the Clean Air Act of 1999, alrns to achieve healthy air through a com prehenslvs a lr poll utlon ma nagernent program.

its very comprehensiveness has resu lted in an Act thai! "appears to be unlmplemerrtable," noted Ma. Lourdes N. Tlquia in her a rticle, "How to mfluenee the dlrafting of environ menta II legtslation." Even the Act's principal author, IRepres,entative Nereus Acosta (first District; Bukldnon), admitted: ~ its policy probJematicpJ'e is too dau nting," wrote Tiqu la, (The' French term rete rs to five bas i e IH in eli pil es i II1i i m plern entation: 1m U lflple goal Is , m u ltl pile sta kss, tee h n lea I expert i se or req U i remen ts, blldgetary/fil1ancltal requirements and time frame. The higher a policy pmbfemat/qu6' frs, the harder it is to implement the policy)

Presldentlal Decr,ee 1152., the IPhilipp[ne' ,An Overview o,t R.A. 8'749' IElt1lv~ron me nta I Cod e {197 8), prov ld es

guidellnes em 18 nd use, air qua llty, wate r qua I ity, waste rna nagernent and n atu ra I resources management.

Preside ntia I IDec re'€! 1586, the

Environmental Impact Stat,ement System


R.A. 8749'5 unique legisl,ative language centered on the coctrine of sustalna bile development and the "poltuter must pay" prlnclpie, noted Tiquia. This pr1ilncliple places the b LI rd e n of a ctlo n 0111 th ose w ho are responsible for alr pollution ..

Sect~on 4 of th €l Act reeegn fzed rights of citizens on the issue O! clean air. The fullowing rlghts ot citizens are "hereby sought to be recogn ized a nd the State sh a ~ i see k to guarantee their enjoyment":

(a) The right to breathe c lea It1l air;

(b) The' rlig!h1t. to utilize and enjoy all natura I resources according to the principles. of sustainable neveloprnent:

(c) The rlght to parttclpete in 'the tormulatlon, planning. implementation and man rtorl n g of envl ro nrnenta II pol tcles and programsand in the decislon-maktng process:

{d') The' right to participate in the decisionrnaki ng process concern i ng develop ment pollotes, plans and programs, projects, or actlvitles that may have adverse impact on the environment and public health;

(e) The rigjht to be informed or the nature and extent of the potentlal hazard of any activity, underta ki n g 0 r project and to be served timely notice of any significant rise in the level of polluti-on and the accidents II or oellberate release into the atmosphere of harmful or hazardous substances;

(1) The' right of access to public records which a citizen may need t~) exercise Ihis or her rights effectively under this Act;

(g) The right to brilng actlon in court or quesl-ludtclal bodies to enloln all aetlvlties in violation of environ mental Iaws and regu I atl 0 ns, to com pe II th e reh a billtati on and cleanup ofaffected area, and to seek the imposition of penal sanctions against violators of envi ro n m € nta ~ laws; and

(h) The right to bring action in court for compensation of personal damages resu I,ling frcrn the a dve rse envircnmerrtal and public health impact of a project or activity,

lin Section 41. R.A. 8149 empowers clrtti[z:ens to file "a n appropriate clvll, criminal or aid minis1Lratiiv,eactioltill in the proper cou rts aga lnst:

(a) Any person who violates Of fails, to

com p ~y with th e p rovlslo ns of th is Act or its lmplementlng rules and regulatlons: or

(0) The Department of Environment and Natu rail iResou rces or other lrnplernentt ng agencies with respect to orders, rules and regulatrons issued mconslstent with this Act and/or

(c) Any public officer who. willfully or grossly neglects the performance of an act specifically enjoined as a d uty by this Act or its lim plemennng rules and regulations; or abuses his 81 uth or ity i In the perform an ce of h ls duty; or, in any man ner, improperly performs his duties under this Act or its lrnplementmg rules end regu II atio ns: Provid ed, however, that no SUI iJt CEl n be fi led u ntl I th i rty-day (3.0)0 notice has been taken thereon,"

"The institution of a citizen suit is further enhanced by the mandatory exemption from th e paym 9'l11t of f II i ngtees to exem pt! ng th e plaintiff from the filing ot an injunction bond for the issuance of a preliminary in!juncti:on," Tlquia noted .. "The court is also taken to task to ad o,n the complaint wrthln tihe 30-d'ay determination period . .Alii these are reform measures on sou bstentive as we III as p roced IUirCI II law,"

Rep. Nereus Acosta, Phillpplne civiil society organlzatlons {CSo.s,), and the oil cornpa nies all played a role in the clean Air Act's e nectrne nt i nto law, T he fj rst two we r,e i nstru menta 'I ~ n h avi n g the Act passed, wlh ile the latter and tts lobby efforts delayed IT.

Rep., Acosta, the Act's principal author, has degrees in political science and internetlonal pol ltlca II stud les, He bad a II!:;() stu died poll i cy and leadership and environmental economics, He was elected in .1'998 as member otthe 11th Co ngress, wh e re he pr i nc j pa ~ Iy a utnored a It'll d competently sponsoreo five major



envlronrnental laws Including the 113 ndrnark Congress (Box 1). Another factor ls the strong 1999 Olean Air Act-sa major feat fora lobby effort against the measure, conducted freshman lawmaker, accorulngtc Kongreso ng by ell companies and foreign embassies who Bayan. In Congress, he passionately advances were agalnst the adoption of a total incinerator his advocacy interests which lneludes ban. Fortunately, by the 11th Congress, th,e €leo loglce II susta i na bi I ity" 'e nvi ro n menta I CSOs were a ble to get their act together and protectlen, agrlculture, good governance, a nd work together.


On the other hand, the CSOs organized themselves into a Cllean Ai'r Coadlit~on, wndch lobbied to i nel ude major advocacy i 55 U es i nth e tln a ~ ve rsl o n, (Th e CQa I it~ on is com posed of Harlbon Foundation, Mother Earth Un limited, lnc., Phi~ipprne Greens, IEcoIlogicaI Society oHM Philipptnes, Womanheallth, Phiilippine Rural Reconstruction Movement; Southeast Asia R:egionall nstltute for Com rnun ity Ed ucatlon, U.P. Med leal students for 80Cl811 Responslbllity, Green forum, Sagip Paslg Movement. People's Task Force for Bases Clean-Up, l.akay Ka I lkass n, Concerned Citizens Aga i nst Po I'I utio n, Recyc I i ng Move m e nt of the PhiHppill1le!s, Damayaln.11 MA Foundation, Mliriiam P.E.A.C.E" Vis,ayan Forum, Linis-Ganda Ballkatan Mnvement. CEID-Ee, Bantay Kallkesa n, Envl ron menta ~ Lega II Assistance Center and Ba lik K.a llkasa n.) These issues included environmental rights, the tncloerator ban, the "polluter must pa~l prlnelple, citizen suits, and the concept ot eco-proflllng, (The CAA defines "eco-protils" as "the geographic-based instrument for planners and declsion-makers whi:ch present an evaluation oftlhe environment quality and carrying capacity of an area.")

Because the eoalltlon was able to get these s ~gn ii'fica nt con cess i ons, Tlq u la co ns ~d ered its en ga gem ent Ii WI the Cle8i n Ai r Act a sou ccess, lnterestl 11 gly,. what she described as "the d lso rga n lzed effort of th e clvl I soci ety organlzetlons (CSOs) to speak in one voice" was one ot two factors whiclh caused the clean AJr leglslatlen, first proposed during the eigbth ccngress, to be enacted on Iy in the 11th


(:I!e.a!1! a~.r leg~:slation stall1edl a5eal'~ asthe 811> Congress wlhenroulr m easu res were filled on ai r po lIIuUon.. House BiUi No. 308~Ji!) by Rep. C2Ilrmenciia IPcuyaH~eyes was 0111 iii! i r p ollilitii on from motor v,e h~cl,es. The b ~II was ~e'ferred to the Corm m~tt:ee on lira W1spor~a;tion and Co m m 1.11 n Iloat ~oll'l ail!ild ~e rna i ned pend II rig unttl the adjou rn m e nt of 'Co,ngll'e.s'5 in 199:2. H., use BII H N'o. 22420 by IRep,. Eth.laJra 0' Pi la P ul, a lse on Uii e sa me $ub~ect, Wa$ rererred to U11e salme ,oommittee. House 8,m NJo. 781.5, aut~med by Rep. Reyes, wih Ittl prroposed te ii m:m<iliSe pena!Ues 'for poiliutlon,. we:$; referred to I h e Ho Wi'Se SUllilld iing Com m iU,ee on l~e'vi5ion of LaWS<:Il1ld was neve r weported 'CIUll:.. lastly, House Bi III No. :33931. or the Env~ron men~Codle",u.l~hored by Re'p$, Gasooln. Webb, Alrmario, Jabar~ etc. ~ refer;redi to the Staf;'Jd~ rItril:

Co m mriiHee' 0 n Nat!l.l ra[1 Aeso u roes and re ma in'edi un acted. Thus, durin g tlnl!! 8th Co Ilgre'.5S, not m uc nl lhi appel!"l ed to push U11e measu reo

IEly the ope,n~lnlg Qf the9~nCon.g]ress, House Bill Nlo. 14489·;ilIUlt[h,ored by Riep. So corro Acosta (IRep. lNJereu~ A:colSta's mother) was refil,ecl. The House StandIng Co mmriUee (l'n Ecologyapp roved the measure iimd was reported out. tn ph,malry, t~e' measure was approved orverwhelmli nlgly and was tr~rli5lm iUed to the Sel'!a!tle fo~ (;0 ncu rte nee. Tlhie' 9th' CiO nglress, e nded wit.nlolLJIt the Se'nate's .apPi'oval.

TIl e ::I!O~h Congress saw Sp sa ker De Ve:neciaag1a i ril d ir,ectly hand Ii Ii'Ig thre level'$ of the leglslat,live min. The Acosta melaS!!.Ill\e was .aga~n refi ~ed as ,",0 ~se mw No. 86\2,2: a nld was ee-autnerad by the' Spea kelr lhi imself. The bil ~s reactH~d the Bicameral Cotilference CQ mmln,~ee • .or! Jalnuary .19, :t99S, the' Senatu approved the' Conre'renoo Com m ittee Report. but ~he I.:IIQllli:se sat on the repOIr1;" thereby kin~ rig UI'~ measure,

(I,rli October r, 1998, the CQ!1I1lm uUee.$on IEnviron men! and Na[!l.IIr:a~ Resol(j rees, 1I"IInance andWalY·S. and Me'aliliS ilssued C:omrmiUe,e R:e port. No. Scm Senate Bill N Q. 1255. lhle Com m iUee reeommended ilts applmval i nl :SUI bst'ltl~ tli 0 n of Senah:! Bill t/Jlos. 9 (F 1jj)\I' ie r)., 864 (Jaworski), and 9'1'2 (lbgalrd~le\l'is1:e).

On December 29, 1998, Ulle Corm m iUees o.n lISco rogy, Ap p roprlatiol'lls and Way:sa nd Means re po,rt,ed out IH[o !!.lISe fIUU tI,I e, 62.16 recommendl ngth e approva I In sl.IiJstftution of HI 0 use 19i1ll Nos. 129, 730, :1016, 1.ll21. lH[ol.i'Se 8iil[1 Nos. 129, 730., lOlLS <.'lInd 1121 introduced by Reps" Acosta, saem tente {Rt M entem aytlf, Basc:~g. Vill'amsa, etc.welre ~I mil a rily titled a nd tin ell r 'co ruents welreve'ry identic<1l1 00 0 ne' an other.

18y May 12, 1999't theBi(;:amera~ Co rlfer~filce Com m iUee a ppmlfed it'$ ~eport and su bmilUedto t h eh res,peatuYe cham be rs tih.e reslU It of the' eonference, 1I"h e Se nate applrow~d tlh,e Co nlrel'1en ce Co m m it:l:ee Report on May 1,3.,. 1999' wh ile th e ~[Ol.lS<~ of IRepwes1el'1ltatives approved lit Im~lc:h ea~~~er, on May 1.0, 19'99.

The, House of Re preSoentarUves~nd thie Seln ate passed me Clean Ai r Act irn MaiY :t999dt was tbem s~gned i nlo 19ow by fo rmer pre.sildent j[ose ptl Est'Fi:lI,dal on Ju ne 23, :19'99.

lhie factors that delayed the passage of U, e measu re 1111 the Slil to tne 10lh were both p 01 itica II in naltu re as we II as the di$oo rgal"l i~ed effort of theCSQ5' t.o speak itil @nlevoice. Polit loall in the sensethat there were's.trong Io.bby ,efforts cenducted by oth er Slakehlold ers, prifllci paUy the o.i,i cern p~,n~e5, against the' meas u re, Th is beca me eve n mere i nten se at the b j,o.;unera II leve~all'"lldatthe level orrormer president Joseph Estr:ada win en foreign em bassles were' 10 bby!i ng aga~nst the adoption of a total Iincineratoir ban, On the other In a rid, consensus was nO'l: read ily aoh I,eved firom a n1Iong 'CSOs bec<1IlL:lseof other contend itilg nss!l.IIes each CSO was. a,dvocatin~ fo f. Th e issue mana!rilement: anda(i\l\ocacy effolrts were- sporadic and fa r In I:mWioon.

lhre toa lition S'~ron!:llly pushed ror envl ronrmenuill !1lghG. In e ~noinelratm ban, the IP() II~tel'S m lJi$·t pay p rl n,c I pile. cit~z:en s U iffi, a no tlhe concept of eee-p rofi~ I,ng,

S;CII.lroe: M.t Lourdes N. l,guia in tmrartic{'ill, ~H,ow to fnfluenoo the drafting of e:nvifonmental legislation. ~



St i III. the benefits {red uced 11 osplta I adrn lsslons, reduced deaths, and improved prod u etlvlty) a Ire II ~ ke Iy to fa r exceed th ese costs, as the 1TD,lIowing figures. ln Table 5 show. (The Am €H~Ga n experience, ~ n BQX 2, a lso

The B,enefits of lrnplementlng 11tH:!! Clean A,ir Act Ifar Orll.W1l.weigih Jll'1I,eir Costs

No arne rn pt has so fa r

been made to fully cost the lmplernentatton of CAA, or the assoctateo €leon om tc benefits, noted

th e PhUiPP'ines

Environment MOrlnor MMAQISP

When extrapolated to cover c u rre nt and futu re

reo ulrements and expanded to underta ke shows th at th e imp rovern ants ln hum a n countrywide a ctlvitles , UH3 costs of welifare and health and a cleaner environment implementing the GM are estimated to be at resulting from limpllementing clean a rlr leest PhP25lbimon between 2000 and 201.0, legilsh3tion are worth it.)

2002. However, "prolsctmode" estimates h eve been made for a limited number of actions (Table 4). (Some are to b1e fi na 1111 ced by t h,e c om p r e hen s lve Metropl()11 lta n Ma nl 1181 Air Qu a I ity 11m provern ent secto r Deve loprn ent Project, or M MlAQ I SUP, supported by ADB.)

Interestingly, M.S.

Delos Ange les et. a I. has conducted a study on "'Impmvilng Air Qua~~ty in th e· Ph i I ippl n es: Wh 0 Be neflts a rid How?" T he ~ If flnd lngs show that "the cost of air quality improvements are worth ILUlI d erta k j ng: hea lth benefits are high."


Table 4. Costing the Implementation of the GM

Lil9radlirgl ,atl'biern ;aill"' qual ity nlJl1itoringl nemork

Cost (IPhP) miUion


Outsourdrg stadk emission testill1g

Iintensive ·enlbrcement of industrial emissiol1S

ErlMr~ing an:ti~srroke belching 1 program

Other estimates

Iinstallation of corninuollS emssoos monitoring systems. by industry

Emission m-ed!l.DEi.on by industry through polltltion abaterl'l6l1t equipmenl

Corwersion to cleaneJr fuels ( by oil irdusllry)

Motor vehicle inspection system

Saurr:;e; PhiJ(ppines Environment Monitor .2002,. published by The '~d Bank Group

noted the .Phmppines Environment Monitor 2002'. This is a staggerlng sum.









Table 5. Overall Social Net BenefitS of Reducing PM10 and

Banning Leaded Gasoline·" ~

Net Present Value", in millio'ns of pesos 1(12% social discount rate)

IRed uctio n of PIM1 a

Srucce·ss,fruilianti-smoke, belching program

1 855

IDies'ell desulpherization


Dmese~ tax restructurinq

Ban on leaded gasoline


I ncluding ~Q e·ffects


Excl ud ifilg II Q enects

Total with 110 enects.


Total without I Q effrect:s

So.uroe: "Improving Air Quality in the Pl1Uippfnes: Who. Benefits and How?" by M_ S. Delos Angeles, G.M. Ruto. Jr., E.M, OrbMa, A. Jodab, .and· L.

These figur·es show that the overall social net be nefits aceru i ngfro m Ired uc in g PM 10 and be n nl ng lead ed gas .a lone (ra ngl ng from P'nP40.7 bllllon to PhP117.1 bilillion) surpass the PhlP:25 bllllon cost of Implementing HI,e e nti re eM! II ndeed ~ th e Ph P2:5 b i ~ IIh:moost of lrnplernentmg the CM pale in comparison to theastounclng lIS$1.5 billion a year (about PhP825 billion) in lost wages, medical

treatment, and premature loss of lIife polluted air currently costs urban residents.

IFn.uth,ermme. M.S. Delos Angelleset. al. co ncl ude that "the poor sta rid to ben eftt most fro m better air q us II ity (ra ble 6}. Th is is certainly significant as 28% of 19' .. 9 m illion lFillfpinos I'ive below the national poverty line (, 2002 figures).


- -

Table 6. Value of Health Damages from PM10 Exposure by Income Decile, CY 20.00, Baseline Level (in rnllllons of pesos)

Health Effect.

1st 5th
.26 6.2
01 o I
15,3 153
8 8
145 145
179 215 0 1
82 1,388
4 I 72
77 1,316
341 2,209 Mortality'


Cost of wo~k loss. days

Chronic bronchfis

Lowe r respiratory iill ness





Source.' wlmproving Air Quao/ity in the Philip'pines,~ Who B'enl3fits and How?" by M.S. Delos Ang6les, GM. Rufo. Jr.,

E. M. Orbeta, A tndab, and L Rufo .

The report: eSltim,ates the ben,efits,arl d costs ,of hist@rical air lP'olhFti on control p rogr,a:ms IJnder the CI,ea n Ailr Act by cQmparling tile dlifferences between two scenarios: a seenano which refilects hlsecrlcal economleand ehllvinlrnmenhll! eenetttons observed with the Clearl Air Act, in p'lac"!! and a nlYlPothetlical scenario wh ~clhl projects the ecenoml e and ,etllvilron mental co nditif 0 ns wlhl IeI'D would have prevailled without t~e federall,. state, and local programs developed pursuant to, the goals of the, 1,970 and 1977 Cllealn Air Acts,.


Us ing a sop i"listlca.ted a,rrayof ,computer models, EPA found that by 1;990 the dlff,er,enc,es between the scenarios were so grreart that. under the so-ealled ~nocentrol" case', an add~t~cmall :;N)5,OOO Americans would have dll,ed pre mature[lyand m jll[ions more W()U lei have slJffelred nil n essea ra n gi n g 'fro m mild res p i rate ry .symptoms to heart disease, chronic bronchiltis, asthma attacks. and other severe re!j'llirntory problems •.

I n additioln, the lac k of Cllealn Air Act centrole on the use of i,ecad ed gaso,li ne wall Id i"lave resulted In m;aJor lnereeses in clli lid I'Q' loss and adult hYlPelrtensioh'l, heart dil$el8lse, <lInd stroke. Other benefits which could be

q]1J ii.mtif~ ed a ndexpressed in dollar terms iin e lu ded visilbi liity im plrovements" imp I"Ov'e m e nts II n yoil ell ds of some agriculltillral clrQPs" ilmproved wo,rlk,er attendance and productivlty, and reduced household soili nlg damage.

When the h uma n [h'ea Ith. hu rna n weUare. and enviroOflimelntal effects which c'olllid be expr,essed[ in dollar terms were add,ed upfor the entire 20-)"ear period. the rota I ber1lefirts of Clean Ai r Ad programs were estlma,ted to ran,ge· from a bo wit ruS:lMS triHkm to aeeut US$50 bi 1100011, wflU'I a mean estimate of a bO'l'u US$22 t~ililion. These ,estijm;ated benefuts represent U'le es,timart.ed value Americans place on avoiding the dilre aii r qua litycond itio'hlS and d rarnattc increases j n III ness and prematu re d eat n wh ieh wou Id have preva i Ie d w~t!nol~t tin e 1970 a no :1!:917Clea n AI r Acts and '0, eo r associated state and Ilona II programs. IBy eompartscn, the actual costs of achi,eNing the pollution reduction05 observed over th;e 20..;yealr pe ~Iod were US$ 523 billie n, a sm a II fraetten of the estimated monet<illry benefits.

Source: .http://www;

Transport's Costs 011' Oompl,ilall'llo8' and Ttlleiilr Benettts

Mobile sou rces, like ca rs, jeepn eys, and tricycles, generate 80% of alr pollution natlo nwlde, Am d mo re Fi I i pl n as wi II own veh i eles as thetr i nd ivi d uadl i ncom as ln crease. However, more vehlcles, combined with 'low turnover, ccntr iuute stgntttcantly to air pollution, Therefcre, the transport sector's ccrnpllance wIth CAA requirements would greatly impact air quality,

In 2001, there were 3.9 million regij.ster,edl veh i ctes in th is Phi i I, i p p in es-a th reefo Id increase from the past two decades, according to the Land Transportatton Office. Nationally. utl i ity vie h loles eutn IU rn ber ca IrS, wlfth a 2:~ 1. ratlo. These vehicles make up 39% of the total, whil'lle cars comprlseonly 19%. Beginning in 1994, motorcycles and tricycles ha,ve su rpassed cars ,as the second-fa rgest grou p of veh ~ cles, These two~wh,ee'l e rs comprise 35%, of 'the total.

p u b Iii c tra nsport d rivers and op e rato us, beca use they me ke up the bigge,~t group of transport users, bear most of the costs i nvolved to com ply with eM. requlrernents, These investments payoff in fuel and engine efficiency, lower m a i nten a n ce costs, lowe r ernlsslons, and, as a resu lit. ease in passl ng em isslo ns tests.

These compliance costs willi aliso res ullt in decreased h ea lth ris ks, to r the d rilversas we,i II as the co m m uti n g, Pili bl lc, The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (001'0.) is h~ghest among jeepney d rivers. in 2002, alffecting 325% of them, revealed a study of the tln lve rsny of the Ph iii P P ~111 es' Gollle'ge ,of Pu till ic Hea lth. Eve til bus drivers, in their elr-conditloned buses.

cannot escape the effects of air pcllution. They ranked no. 2 among those affected by COPO at 1'6.4%. Commuters, on the other hand, had the lowest prevalence for COPD a;t 1.4 . .8%.

Victims of COPD suffer from chronic Dough with ph legrn, wheezing, Sind shortness of breath. They also sustain irreversible damage to tin e lu ngs, Docto rs say that COPD, SLU eh as emphysema a nd chronic bronch itis, can be aggravated by alr poltutlon, Those wirth COPD a re also more susce ptlble to PIlJ I mo nary tubercu losls, which 'is ca used by atrborne bacteria.

The data in Tables 7 a ndl8 show that public transport's costs to comply with CM make economlc sense:


Table 7. Private Costs and Benefits, Two P UJ Pi lot Cases

Case A: Operator

IPhP 12, Sl6D/month


I ncrementa I monthly benefits


Payback period

8.6 months

Repairheha b cost


Inclrementall monthly benefits

13 months

SO,Urc8: 'rdlnit:e Progressions' Corporation'. D,ecember3, 2003 ss oited by Bryan WiNson, "'on R'etrofit Program for Two-Strvke TrJoyoJes in Metro Manila': .November 22, 2003




Ta ble 8. Economics of Conver ting a Two-Stroke Ca rbureted Tricycle ~ nto a Two-Stroke D i rect I njecti Oil Tri cycl e

~ nsta lled cost Onclludes new hesd, senaors.elect nlnics, i n:stanatli an, and warranty)

Fooll savings rangitng from 20%

(compared to a carbureted fOUlr-'strok:e) to I 36% (compared to, 8" ca rb'uretied twestr,ak"e)

S1lboUl PihlP401day

, IPhP11 ,000 to PhP112,5(lO


I Flue,l cost: of Ph'P 125 a day I

I Str8~g n.t .. !p,8JYbad. (itnstalled cost of I' PhP11" OOQ/PhP40)

Stra~g ht payback: (ins.ta,~IM cost of PhP12,500/PhP40)

275 days

S'ouroe: ~Direcl' In)ec1km Retrofit Program for Two-stroke Tricyc1~s in M~ Manila, n'.by ,Dr. B'ryaf:l ~ffson

Prlvate veh lcle owners a no the govern m e nt 81 re not s pal red th e costs

oif co m plyi ng witlh eM req u i rem e nts, Priva~e Cos~:s

as the data ~n Table 9 shows: 1--------------+------------1

labile 9. controlung PM10 EmJssifons

Cost of en torcernent a rid com p ~ la nee w~th a ntt-smoke bel ell i ng, progra m. 1998 (i n millions of pesos)

I Governmernt Gosts

Cost of tune"up


Foregone [naome



I Fine colecnons



Source: NJm,orovi~g .Atr QuaW!y in rim' PhHfppines.' ~ Sene/its and H('Iw?~ by M.S, Deffi).~ Anger~s, C,M, RlrfO, ,Jr.. c.M. Or:tJ!!Jfa, A, fndab, and L ,Feufa

H,iglh CompUa.nce Costsfor Oill Com pan les

Based on data provided by Petro n Co rp, and Ca ltex Philippine's, Inc. complying with the eM willi cost them Php'6.3 b ill I ion (at Octo be r 2002 rate) and PhPl.57 billion (at March 2003 rate}, respectlve Ily. Ia b les 10 and 11 detail the requ lred ~ nvest m e nts and co rrespo nd in g pump price increases.

- -.

labile 10._ Perron's eM Cornptlance Costs

-- - -

I nvestments in Com,pli.ance wirth the,

eM, '

EsUmat,ed Pump P'r:ice I ncrease

Gasolioo speciflcafion

PhP2-b,j;IMn is,omerizat i on unit

PhlP 1 " 12/1iterr (ga,so,I'i ne) for 5~ to' 1 D-)Near payo,1.1t

PhP1.32l1iter (diesel) for 5- to 1 D-year psyout

Automotive diesel Iii pecificaiiorn

PhP~. 3-bililion, oil hyd rotreater unit


I Tob.11

PhIP6 .. 3 b~lllIo n

I Source.' Petron Corporation, quoted in Congffl's:${ona' Planning and Budge' Office A:Jflcy Advis'Or)l No,. 2003'-109

2003 (3asoline specifications

Investments iin C,ompUance with the CAA

Estimated !Pump Price Inc rease

2.001 Diesels pecifica,t1i ons

IPhP 159 million

PhP. 20~1 its r

PhP. 80/1iiter to PhP1.50lliter

Naptha splitter

PlhP205.2 mimon

PhP: 06llit,er for 5-year payout

Any irn.te$,tments required fo r service stations or CP'I tanks

Planned investment's to meet LSD :specificatio.f1Si in 2004

Php 12.9 ",6 millH,on per year to replace 1,200 o,l!d steel tanks (retail: level)

PhPo. 1 5I1it.,error 5- y,ea r payo'ui;

P:hp18:9 million fortermnels and depots,

IPlhPO. 27 fliter

PhP29'1 million tor di~sel desu'l phuri!Zaltion unit reactor

PhP(l,.1 ~ Iliter for !!i-year pay'out

IPhP8 1 m~Uioinl for COmll nuous ernisslon monsors for furnace stacks

IPhPO.03/1itelr fo r 5,ysar payoUl:

.source: Gaftfm' Philippines, ino .. Qooted in Congressioneal Planning and Budget Office Policy Advisory Mo . .20Q3~09

PhP1.57 b:iUion



These high costs of compuance have led oil companies to increase their prices to cover the expense's of purchasing new equipment so that th elr prod u cts cou ld meet strln gent eM standards. The resulting Increases have prom pted oil com pa n i es an cI the lr sym path lzers to decla re ttl e eM a n "a ntl-poo r" bilili.

If! owev'S r, su ch ·8 cil a,i m has been prove n beseiess by the study presented iln Table 6, which shows that the poor stand to benetit most 'from better air qlLlaHity. lndeed, the poor, not the rich, experience the worst air pollution daily as they take public transport" bike, or w.a I k .. An d wh en the r rhea Itlht suffe rs beca use of the dirty air, they a re the least financlaliy capable to pay medical costs,


Remain illllg Obstacles

The Phmppjnes Environment Monitor 2002 described the challenge of irnplementlng th e eM th us: "'1 he en a ctme nt of CM after eight years of debate and discussion is the first bulldlng bloch in the long-term integrated approach to air qua lity rna nagernent, The challenge now is its lmplernentatlon. Thus far, actions have bee n 51 ow an d sea tte red J' and have not met expectations .. Governm,ent agencies lack the capacity and the budget to lmplernent the law and nu merous regulations. IMa t'ily strategic pial ns have bee n drafted b ut not implemented." The report cfted the s hortages ~n person ne I~. eq IU i P m ent, tech n i ca II know-how, a no the woetu I lack of funds as Obstacles in the Act's rmplernentatton progress,

Sadly, not much has changed in the past two years. !Even today, there is still a need! to strengthen the capacity of core agencies


res ponsi ble for air q Ula'~ ity rna nalgement-EM S/ DEINR, DOH,. and DOE. Although PhP750 m i IIUon has been s·et aside for th e i niliial lrnplementation of eM, the, amount ls yet to be allocated in government budget a pproprlations.

As a result, except for the provlslons for air qua I ity mal nage me nt, poll utlo n fro m motor veh ii cles, and the Naltio na I Ai r Q uS11i fly Status Repa rt, little has changed since'thePh;lippines. Enviro.nment Manit'or 2002 scoreca rd' (see Box 3 on next page). F ollowl ng a re u pd ates, from the IDENR brochure, "Mobilizing. for Cleaner Ai r: M lleston es ~ n I m pi eme rrtl ng th e Clea nAir Act," on ttl ese p rev,si ons:

A~r QU8111ity management: To date, 10 a lrsheds have bee n designated in Metw Manila., Metro cebu, Geothermal arS;8JS, Davao CUy, the Cordllleras, Agusan del Norte, Naga Oity. Cagayan de Oro Cizy, Zamboanga City, and No rthaastern Pa n gas i na n. Th e lnterl m Govern i ng Boa rds of these a ~Irs heds have been constituted. Airsheds for Reglons 1, 6, 8, and 12 are currently being evaluated, The criteria on th e ~ nteri m d eslgn atlo n of atta ~ n ment/ no nattainment area for airslreds are aliso being fii n a II i zed ..

Pollutlion from meter vehicles: Exhaust em lsslon sta nda rds have bee n set for new an d in-use motor vehicles .. Test procedures for measurement of exhaust ernlsstons are defined in the I mpternentlng Rules and Regu,latiions (IHR).

Em iss-ion sta n de. rds to r hydl mea rb on s from motorcycles and trtcyoles are set in DENR Adrnlnistratlve Order No .. 2:Q03~25. Emission stands rds for in-use motor vehicles equipped with spark-ignition and compression engines are revised lin DENA: Administrative Order No. 2003-51.

Box 3. lmplementation progress of the Clean Apr Act. Hl'9'g.

- -- - - - --

The CleaJl'iI Airr .AnI w,as pas;s,edl by too IHouooof Reprresel'l~.aJtivesaM thle Senate in May 1999', :arid! sig~ into ~aw by t~ President onJ Ui'iIe 23, 1999, with too aJim (if prol!/id ing a oOl1lilprehensilleair poD~iofl ,oontroll p~licy lor Ulle oounlJry. The ImptemenlYIiI;g 1R,i.llesandl Reg,lIlations (I RR) Woe~e publ~11led on No!:i'!lember 10,2[10[1 and (hie la,w thus becart1le etJ"ective '01'1 N'oiVember 2cS, :mml The scorseerd bellow a:sses5eslihe progress mane to dale.

1 Appmpr'/a:tfol:!5: ImiamV. PhP75'CJ1 million wililbe app;ropriated ~or tli1!e ~mplellflenlatijon of the Act, of which Ph~OO mmion, will go to

D.eNR, IPhP2QO miiliol'l! to [nfll, PIMP15C1 million t,O DOrC, and! - None' OllklC(3t~ $0 fiilL

PhP100 mi ImOfl to [l.a E- T.he. reaUer, tile a mQ~,mrl need!s to be I

inelooliid illlthe Gene-rOl! .Ap,proplri~.tions Act-

StrategiC PMliliit:lg nama'worlr To rorl1l1u'1Olt13 an .fnlegr~ts(j Air Quamy,v,!1Imelll Framew,o.rlr, whic!h w~U set emis;sio:rlS red u etlan goa I,s us illgl p e;lrmin ib I:~ st anda rdls a nd co ntr 01 iStratE:gi~ w[thin Oil Si,peooifiIed period_ VVithir! Si)l months D:ENR aMI LG lB are r~ulred to prWlaro: .Air Q u;;Ility ;;dicl'n P,lant!L

.04 ir QoaFi.ty',t. [nErr.4R w,ill de~iigna!:e air.s:heds, Each a~r.'loodl will bl3 I'ifl3nag€:d Iby a: mutlli's@ctQrall g'ollleminy bea re, w hio'h ls las, ked wi~ hi imml.l10l1li I1Ig PQllicies, p.rep,a ring CQmmon action plans, .and puibtishingl Annl!JBI Air Quam)! ,Sta(1J.S Afjport of 1:00 airshed. Ar,ea5 wreN~ arlrlbrenllev.eis of :speaific'IPolilltants, are exceeded ma,y Ibe declaredl oof'lt",9.ttairllnem. a rea,s by ,DEINFiL lin '1lOOse erees. mew polllJlionl SlOll'reS w'oUt] re prohibited ILillieSS 'Iilere ~s a CoOirireSpondJiilQ ~,edoctiOi1lfmrnl e)(ls~ilfl9'sourc:es._

Nat;'cu'laJ Air Quallty S:tii:f1JS ,Rep on: DEMIR will prepaiFe an <lJ11If'MJ,il report on the e"x':ent of po'lilJlhrm [rUM country, and evaluate curren~lr,ef'lds a 00 projections, identify oriHcal 8, • 1 acll\;'ities. Of' ,Pwjeots, and make rooommeooa~.iaJlS for neoossary OIJCtion aM of her ~nforf'l'iMiiolf'l on the exil>eint at <'l1r pollution and atf cl,I.!a!I[ty pertormanoeof it"ldusU[es.

Amb.i"eII:~ A.i'Qtlalf~y Gu.idetioe Value-sllnd Sta.lJdams 111'2 ,Act es~.a:b~sJ~s na:tionaJ arn'b[elfll: air q,uarily gtldelioos for critenla pollutants., alld a i~ q'l.!aJ~iW staJM a n:!l's fa r :$,OlJ ree .speciflica i r pol]urta~ 1!FOr;! iii'!duslrial S()IlJJ"~es.. These may be lre\;,jewe<l and revised by D!ENR. in OOll$ultatilOlil w iLh conoenned aget1!Oies.

Emls~lon ChargeSY5tem: IDENR: ,and DOrC can collect ernissien tees from industrial aoo vehicula~ d i5chargcers, ,based on !!te wlume at'll:! mtlll"e of pollutants,

"ru .. enll'w.s: IlooentM3cS, soo'h illS tax credits andlor aQce:leJ,a~ed depreciation dedlJiitioos wm be granted to ioo!dshlles that irll5ta II, poll~io!'i! control devices or~'I1Iose that lretmfrt their 'racilil1es.

PolltltlO!R from Stat,{ona~ S'oaroe5: DE~Fl is aUlhorizs,d to tsSUi1l' oPe rmit$. lQr the preven!ion ,am abatement of ,air pdluti()n. lhe!l<e permiliS will sel'l.leOlS management toots.ror LG Us in too developrmmt of tooi~action plan,

NOl.t iQ !iliiliF r am@work alld! .Aet 10 1"1 P 111 n was I pr€lpcared by [)ENROiI rd pii,blk:i~ In Nov_ 2.'000 wit h Ule iRR The Actio n pran was '~cI:oied aft~r ill ye01l'L NO· LG U plan aI the local Ilgwt

FOl,llr Olirsh~s (MetrQ Mani!a, C~bu. COigIOly~ n I de .aro, and DOiIvaQ) have Deem initially d,e,sigrHl.ted .. Governing Bo,9J.ros. for these aitsihedls h8JVe 001: reel'il es.~l3ibli5hed.

No Na,tionl!il Air Q u1iI!ityStmus Reporl MS been published yet

IPreviolJslly i:55ued G'lJide,lline Values and Staooards itlave' been adop~ed.

No em iss i on fe es col le'cted ye l. at udy te I establlsn a foo .system has been ool1t'li"l"lisioned

I oy D.E:;INR. .

II ncenrlive.s pro\ilided oRy for those registered with ttE IBoard of l'nveSlments am loover,ed by the ~ noontMils P,rio~1t[es pm.gram.

Permits being lssued.

PoUuUonm:.m Mort,o,r Vei:lic~e's< oor-c willlim,plemerll motor vehicle eriS$ijorlS~landards established by the Act. 100 Act also manda,teo:; the tm, IOOTC and DENR. formu1ate, and implement a mti'Ornal Motor Vehicle II t'lSipecliionan:j M ait1!te~ooe Program to el"lSUlfe ill! stibst.dial redUJ!;tiOn! in! e:mis,$!ions fr,om mo,tor vehicres,


I Staiildan:ls not yet pubnshed, Piri\r.u~atjol"l ot

MOlOr' Vehide I nspec~io.n Syslem (MVlS) was ~eceif!lly approved! by NElDA,

Af:r Quat/~y Management Fund: An Air Quality Manag,emelrt lFurKi, aJdminis~ered by IDENH, wi~1 be established as a spedal h.'!d in the Naliol'l<l Iln~asU'y, ·Ths. Fund wi~1 support ,a wrlsty of activiliesaimed at imprQvi~ a[r qualily.

~I'! '~d!!'ler.lfilO.~; 1~~a1io!'l, which is defined as the buNllAg of municipal, bie-med i call and haza rdouiS w a s;t:es t hal em it j)aisol'lOus 300 toxic ]!LIl'iIE:S, is bal'lJ'led uneer th8Act

GuldeliruesFor the Foo:J drafted,

I Sa n wm take effecl. in Novemnbe r 2003, But 00 I , a l~erna~li\l'e$ ha,ve IbeelllfoWlrtdfo'F disposal of

.1 irnectious rnedtcall wa$~e,.

Sooroe; lMiljppif1~~ E!win;lI'tm~1 Monir,ar 201TZ, pu.Oli~J'jM ttyi'l'Je WDf1a1 J3alr.\~ Grou;p

Th,e lTD requlresa valid certltlcate of emission com plianee with emission standards before the an nus I rein ewal of regii strati on . Em lsslon testing ls cone ucted oy the lTO through the Motor Viehicle lnspection System (MVIS) and accredited Private Emission Testing Ce nte rs (P ETGs). As of Octo be r 2003, al tota i of 15,8 P ETCs h ave b ee n accred ited nationwide.

Nlaltional Amr Quality Status Report: The fi:lrsN:!V€r re port, th e .. 20'02 Natia na II Ai r Qua Hty Status R'e port," was ira ns m itied to tlh e Office oftne President, the Senate, and the House of Representatives. in Dece m ber 2003. Th,€! report documents the qU81lirty of air, from 1915 up to 2002, sources efalr pollutants, and trends, based on available data. lit likewise discusses the policies, programs and projects implemented by th,€! government and other sectors to prevent air poi! uuon, th e issues and concerns, and recorn rnendstlons,

Aside from the challenge of implementing 'the, eM, the PhWppines Environment Monitor 200'2 deta Us six oth er pd 0 rities the C:Q U ntry needs to address: (1) reducing partlculate matter in Metr,o Manlila; (2) requiring cata lytic conve rte rs in galsoli n e veh i eles: (3) i m proiV~ n g public transport and traffic management; (4) strengthenl ng enforcern ent th rough incentives and penalties; (5) improving air quality management; and fa} moving from pu blic awa ren ess to pal rtlc i patio n.

.of the above six prlontles, the government has achieved the most gains in reduclng pa rtlc u II ate rn atter ~ n Metro Ma n i la. IRed u ced PM ca n be ac h leved through improved fu e I quallity, shiftling,to four-stroke motorcycles, and improved rna i'nten,ancefor high use cornmerclel veh lcles, Arnongtnese th ree control rn €las u res, the govern me nt Ih 8 s achieved the most Improvements in phasing


out 01' towering the pollutants in gasoline and d lese II fue Is.

Leaded gaso II ii ne was. phased 0 ut natlonwlde in December 2000, nine months

ahead of schedule set by the CAA .. l.owerlng of

an) m atlcs in un leaded gaso II~ n,e to 45% maxllim u m took ,efte et in J a nua ry 2000 and to 35% in January 2'003. Lowering of benzene in unleaoedgasollnetrorn 4% to, 2% took effect in January 2003. UJ,werrng of SUlfur content of lndustrlal and automotive diesel fuel was scheduled to take effect in January 2004. Furthermore, five oill players, l.e .. , City Oil, lEalstem Petroleum, Jetty, SeaQil and Unioill, 'i ntrod uced th en rst GM com pi la nt d f sselt u el (w~Un O.(}5% sulfur) starting September 2.0003.

Still, PM levels continue ito exceed guidelines at most locattons iirn Mietm Man!ila. Th is ha s lied DEN R to, tocu son 00 ntrolli ng PM pollution as a top priority.

Re,colm rnendattons

The Philippjne government has, made little headwey in addressing tile problem of diirty alr .. 'G,eert van der Linden, vice-presfdent for knowled ge management and sustai na ble development at the Asian Development l8ank, sumrnarlzed these trnprovements lin his opening address to the Better Air Qu.a I ity 2003 WOlrksh 0 pi ast Decem be r. "After in irtia I de Ilays, th is. project [the M'IMAQ~ SDP] is sta Iii ng to show results: only unleaded gasoline is now for salle lin Manilla, the quality of diesel fuel sold in the city had improved, air quality is now better me n ltored, a n d meas u res a re bel n g te ken to, reduce e misslcns hom both vehicles and factories."

Stlj II~ m uch rernal ns to be done betore M etro Mia Ii1I ~ 1:8 a iris sate enough for everyoneto breathe. Following a re some reco m men d atlons:

Release the Ph PT50 1m i;1II ion budget R,esDuree Management Project, Ru ral Farmers needed to implement the Act. Although this and Agrarian Reform Support Or,edit IProject, amou nt has been set aside tor the ~ n ltla I and various flood control projects. tmplemerrtatlon O'f eM, the amount is yet to be allocated ln government budget approprlettons beca use of budgetary co nstra i nts. As a resu It. accord i ng to Congresslona II Pia n nl ng and Budget Office Policy Advisory No. 2003-09; not a single centavo, has been released to the DENR and

other implementing agencies.

lnvestlgate the posstble misuse of offiiciall develepmentasststance (nDM fOlr clean air program. Another factor that 'has delayed GAA's lrnplernentatton is the OIDA gra nted for ~1L ln no n-c I ea n air p raj ects, reported the Policy Advtsory, aDA total [ng US$603 million has been granted fertile CAA The bu'lk Qf the ODA is a program loan from the Ash:m Development Bank and the, Japan Bank for lnternational Cooperation under the MMAQIISDP {Ta ole


However, data

from the M ultllatera I Investment Divisi,on of the DENR showed that til e fi rst tranc he of th e progra m loa n amounting to US$250 mllllon (released in 19'99), lnel ud i ng the GOP counterpart fund, has been spent 011 pro l €cts not direct Iy connected to clean air. These projects in cl ude the MalituboglMa rldagao Irrigation Project,. M,a riit~ m e Safety lm prevenient Project, Flishing Ports Project. Flsherles

lEx pedtte fu liniment of' program loan's second tranche eondltions, Meanwhile, the second tranche of the program loan, the $250 m ~II ion balan ce, is sehed uled to r release su bleet to fu Ilfilil m e nt of eight eond ltlons, w hie h tnclude release and full use of' GOP counterpa rt fu nds. Five of these eight condlttens have yet to be fu!ly complied with (liabls' 13),

Spread the gospel of preventlve matntena nee (PM) a nd lila n the sa Ie of taKa'l oR The drivers and <operators Man estimated 2 m i iii on tricycles nationwide are under pressure to reduce their tricycles' em iss ions and do their share in cleaning the air in the rnetropolts, reported CylberDyaryo" In 200.02, the mayors of 17 Metro Manila citles


Table 12. Clean Air Program Cost (in thousands of US$)

Amou nt Rie,leased

Total Program Cost




1. ADS, Program Loan lneestment Loan TAGram

Air Poiliution C.ontroll Cred ilt Facillity


100,000 (Malrch 1999)

31,49'1 ,8,80


200,000 71.000 1,500 25,000

2. JBIIC Proglram Loan



I nws,trnent Loan TA Gra.l1t

150,000 (March 1'99'9)

4,500- 600


4. USTDA TAGrant


890 (December 19'9'8)

I Tota.l GOP Counterpart



I Soutc:e:" Program coord .. i~atiofl' ~nd .... Mor;itofing Unit, MMAQ'SDP; ql10ted in CongrecS.$i(Jna-l Plannlllg and Budget Office Po/ICY AdVisory No . .2003-09'


Table 13. Condttions for the Release of the

I Program Loan's 2nd Tranche

- - --

Status (as of Dec 2:0'02)

1. Enact 8! CI'ean Air Act and estae hsh anci nary reg ula ticns


2. Com rnenoe the phased introductiorJ of the motor vehicle inspection system

3,. Strengthen the ca pacUy of DENR's P,o,lIuli:c:m AdjudicaUon Board


4. Demo nstrate effectiveness of an upgraded ambia nt a,ir qua lity

mo nitoring unit

15. I mplement an intensified public awareness program


of moto rcycles and trlcyc les, A two-stroke motorcycle costs 64,000 pesos; a to u r-stro ke tricycle goes for 68tOOO to 70,000 pesos.

Two-strokes emit

slightly less CO and more thanfou r times the hydrocarbons (He) than al four-stroke. A four-stroke" on the other he nd, emits tou r ti mes the n ltrogen oxides (NOx) than a twostroke does.

According to the IRR of the C I ea n Ai r Act, trlcyc les registered before JanU.fHY 1, .2003 should not emlt carbon monoxide (CO) mo re t ha F1 6% of the englne's total exna ust votu me during idle state. On the other hand, tricycles registered on 01" after th e sa me date

snou Id not emit CO more than 4.,5% of the engine's total exhaust vclu me during ldle state. Many two-stroke tricyctes are expected to fa III short

of these stands rds,

6. Cease sales of leaded gl8soline in the Metro Manila area.

I _


7" Cease normal operations of Sucat and Manila olil='fin9,dI powe:r plants 8.S base load f.acillities


8. Provide adequate bud'gletary resources and tak.e'ancillary measures to imp!emern the program


Source': AD.8 and PGMU. quo.fed in Ccmgre.&sJonai PfanrJ'ing and Budget Office Policy Advisory No. 2003-09

Sind m u nlctpatltles approved MMDA Resolution INo. 0.2-3'6, which prevents local government untts Trom granting new tranchlses for two-stroke trlcycles. And Section 2:2 of the Clean A~r Act, which concerns the regulation of adll motor veh lclesarrd engmes, states that" no mota r ve hi Ie lie, reglstratto n sha II be liSSIUI€d un less such motor venlete passes the emission testing requirement promu lgated in accordance with this Act."

Two-stroke engines d om i nat,et he motorcycle market, powering more than 7'5%

Why?' Because, says Mark Santos, a trainer for the customer su pport divlslon of Kawasaki Motors (ph ils.] Corp., many trjeycl e d rivers and 00 perators cut come rs to keep costs down. And m a my rna ke do wirth taka' 0 j II-m a d e of used engine ,011 or petroleum wastes from four-stroke engines. of cars, jeeps, trucks and other heavy equipment-instead of quality 21 oil.

These poor m a Ii nte n a nee practices ca use


ma ny tr~cycle$ to fl u n k 8m oke em lssio ns tests. Furthermore, t.ak:al contains non-cornbustlble materials such as zinc, ehromlurn, cadrnlurn, lead. a ndlHn €l asp ha lit m aterla Is. Til es€ materia Is dla mage en gJnes a nd prod uce d loxl ns that ca IU se ea n cer,

T rl cycle d rive rs and 0 perato rs ca n II esse n their veh lc lies' harmtu lfu mes, passe m iss lon s tests, a nd he i p dee n th e a ~ r by practlc ~ ng PM and using quality LloU, sald Tess.a 01 ~va, program manager of Usapang Trike {~nicycl'e· I a! k ~). The progra m a ~ m eij] to a ssist trieyc lie associatlons in the vlichlilily of Mirfanl Oolillege ad d ressed the pro b ~e m of aifr poll! utl 0 n.

II n additlo n, othe r cttlesahou lei follow IMMDA's Ileac! and implement a moratorlurn on ~h e registralliJo Ii1I of new two·stmlke tr~cyc les .... A!n d Ute sale ~)f used 2T (I~II shoutd be made Hlle·gall.

IlEsta 011 ish Gity IEnvi~ ro n rnent and Natural Re~HH.Jlrc!es Officie:s (GIENIROs)'. line eM provides for the establishment of "an envli ron m ent sind natu ra I reso UI roes office ~ n every province, clity, or mIL,U'll~c~pa lrty," reported Cybe rDy,a ryo.. Amo ng the d uties of this om ce is to mon ito r the com p Ilii a I1l ce of th e rna ny factoriesand otfices ~ocated in lts envlrons WUU1, the provisions o,f tne CI,ean Air Act.

Sad Iyo Pas.ig is the 0 lilly city in th e NaUo naill Capimdl R,egion to have established a CENRO, And it is slhow~ng the local govern ment units off hi iiglh 11~1 i nd ustr i a llze d 8J reas ln Metro Ma n lla that it is possible to flight air pollution while n u rtu ri,itl! g i nd ustry,

REHlu,ell Na.cfong.ayo., head of Pasig's CE.N RO, has a staff of 18, i ncl u dli ng an e ngi neer ':'H1Jd] a blo iogist, S h €lEI n d heir tea m see to lit th at a II com me reia I €sta b lilis.h me rrts in PSlslig hav·€! Envi ron menta I cempua n ce Certificaites (IEee) from the DENR. This ensures that they have u ndergcne envl ron mental

lmpaet assessment, II n adcitlon, the' CIEN RO also makes sure that businesses have Permits to Operate Em lssl em Sou rce In sta III atl 0 ns f ro rn the DIENFt The permit ensures that even ilf an establishment is air pollutants, the·s€! airs wflUlin sta noams set by law,

NaiCiongayo said that since the CENRO was establtsrred in .2001, ilt has imposed PihP5jOOO fines on some 100 establlshments, lnclud ilng big lndustrles and condom in lums. The office has a lso closed e ig)nt facto ries and i nd ust ria II esta tI ~ lsh m errts prove n to Ih ave vii elate d the Clean Air Act. Among these were a n oil depot, a soy sa u eefa dory ,2::1111 CI a junk s'h op.

Pasig's ClENRO helps buslnessescornpjy with the sta nda res, Th e e r ~htfac i II ltl €s ha ve si nee rtl()pene·d,after com plying with the sta nda rdlsa n d sec u rl rig the necessa ry permits.

Crack. t~e wh lIP on poU ut~ng factories a WI a buslneasea, Stabo na ry sou reese lectrlc ity gene ratl ng pia nts, processi ng pia nts, rna n uta ctu r~ng: p I'a nts, m i lls, and ehe mica II ~ n d ustrt €S-C'CI ntri bute s~gll1i 11ffi1 ca nUy to air pollution (Table 14).

Yet rna ny of these fi rms do busl n eS.5 w~thout th e necessary perm its to operate (Ta ble 1o}. lit lis sfgnMica nit that 75% of a II Mietro Ma n lla firms monitored (1,022 out of 1,361) were po~llulting the al~r,. and that 46% (471 out of 1,022) of 1tnese alr poltuttng tlrms in M etro Mia n i lie had 111 0, pe rm it to operate. lit is urge nil: that tn lsd iscre pa n cy be add ressed tn rough strict enforcemerrt of the ~aw.

The Worh:i Bank recommends the i m pleme ntatlo n of th e tol lowi ng co ntro I meaSILIIPes. These measu res, noted Ro bert Va n ce P ILII! ley, Co u ntry 0 i rector for U'e Ph ~I lppl nes, a r€ low-cost, have rl egll igible· impact on government expend lture, and plaice


Table 14. Estimated emtsslons in the lndustrtal sector, Metro Manila, 1997 (in metric tons)

- -

Fllel I
Industry Cons I PM PM10 SO NO voe CO
- - 2 x
(1000 lit. )
Food products 78,370 1 68,11 eto 5,184 52B 2, .. 89 49
Textiles 56,348 489 I 4391 3,727 S80 2 .. 08 I 35
Paper products 24,173. 2.10 I 188 11,599 163 0 .. 89 I 15
Industria II 11,675, 101 91 772 78 0.43 7
Other chemlcals 10,332 89 I ,80 6fm 69 0.3,8 'I 6 I
, I I
Imn and steel 45,784 398 I 35'6 3,,028 3.08 1.6'9' 29
1,970 1 1,76'6 8.3611 1441
TOTAll 226,'682 14,,9'9~ 1,529 Source: Philipp#Uf~S Environment MOfl'itor 2002, published by the W(lffd Bank Group

the b u rde n of actlo n on th ose resp 0 ns i b Ie for al lr pollution:

Requ i ri ng cata lytic co nverte rs ~1111 gasoline veh lcles, Expe ri en ce wo rldwl d 8 has shown th at usl ng cata lytic converters in gasollne ca rs d rastt ca Illy and most cost,effectively reduces harmful CO. NOx, and 03 emissrons. However, the lalw does not mandate the u se of cata Ilytic conve rters,

Enfmc~lI1Ig th e ban Ol1'II was',e bu nil i n g. Th ere is 81 n U rge 111't need for local goverrtrnents to promote waste recycling, cornpostlng, and sanitary land filling of solid wastealong with public education (lind fines to' stop open burning.

I mpn)vi ng pubUc transport all1ld 1trafHc rna nalg,e m ent. Gett ~ n g a ro U nd Metro Mallml~llat whether by public tra nspo rt or p rlvate veh lc le, is challenging at best. chaotic at worst. In 2001, the two LlRT lines recorded 550,000 daily users, accounting for less than 5% (If the trips made dafly in Metro, Manila. The three existing un lines

serv,€ a r,eported160,OOO daiiiy users, still only a traction of the trlps made dally in the metropolis .. As for va rlous traffic management schemes, one only needs to be Cal ught in ro lUI n d -t h €-cll oc k gr ld IOClk to see th a t these, €'Xp e rl me nts fa i l to dleco ngest th e' roa ds,

Siltn3:ngth enl ng enfo rcement th rough incentives and penalties. CUfIr,ent enforce m e nt pra ctlces are wea k and i rreffective. !Effective im plementatio n may

"fable 15" Number of Metro Manila Pnll uti ng Fi rrns

II No. offil'ms that pollute air only

,I With permit to operate (PO) 329


VVitho'Ut PO 2.91

No. of firms that pollute bO'lh a if and water



VVith PO fOr air

lIV'itho:ut PO far air

No. of oofli-air-polluting firms

, ToIsl number of firmlS monUored

Total no. of IPolluting filnns 1,022

req u lre toughie r pens lties not Just for th e offenders but also for the regulators, Options that cou Id be considered inc tude: p u bllc d lsclosu re o'f know n poll uters, po I ~ uted a reas and perform a nee of regu lators: fu nd i n g sanctions for lGUs not acting to control polluters in their jur~sd letlons; and a ppllcation of rna rket -based eco no rn ie in stru m ants. These approaches nave proven effective Ii n other cou ntri es,

I mpr(rv'~nga ilr quatlty management. A syste matlca p p roa eh ls need ed to I ntegrate m on ltorl ng and ana Iytka II ea pac ity with decision-making. Monitoring ls spotty and unreliable, analysis of rnenltoring data is very lirnlted or non-existerrt, and conseuuently is tentative.

iMoviWIIg eltlzens and the private sector from awareness to partleipatton. Civ~1 society and the private sector have an important role to ph:!yt but must have access to the necsssa ry inform at i on. With out rella b le info rm atlo nan d active i nvolve me rrt, the pu bile assumes a.~'r q ualliity management to be purely agovernment function .. They do not know and recogn lze th e n sed and utl I lty of th e i r pa rt i ci patton (Box 4).

lin $U m ma ry, there IS In 0 si ngle "magic bullet' to address the problem of dirty a~r rn the PhWppines. Much remains to be done to improve the cou ntry's alr quality management record. At the Usapang Hangin forum held on February 26, .. 2004,. Rep. Acosta. ~den'tr.ine!] the flve ~'s thatencapsutate the prospects and pltta Us of ~ m p leme ntl ng th e G~ea n Ai r Act~

I~ nform atlon ,. The re is a, c rY'ing n eed fo r state-of-the-e rt eq u lpment C111r1 d tee hn lea ~ expertise to generataaccu rate and timely ~nformat~on on elisa n a if lssues, And th is Jinformaltion must be d lssemi nated to the pu bl ic so th at cltlze ns are awa re of th e health impacts of dirty air and how they can help

solve th e prob lem of P DII uteo a i r;

I nfrastructure. Aside, hom road

mal ntenance, thts lncludes decem gestio rl pia lI1iS, traftlc management progra rns, and publlic transport development.

I nstltutlonet a rrangements . On paper, DENR is the lead agency responslble jor air qua Ilily rna nagern ent in the eQU ntry, It is supposed to Implement the CAA act, together with the DOTe, no, DOE, on, IDOH,. DOSi, PAGASA, LGUs, (lind MMiDA. tn reality, though, cooperatlon 81 m ong thesed iffereltil1!. agencies remains II o«.

Ililstru ments,



lrn pl e m entat!o n req u ~ res ln centtves to r complying stakeholdersand penalties for the offen d S'f'S. The former can Include nne nclal asststa nee a rid tax b rea ks, Th e latter ca n ta ke tn e to rm of pub Uc d lsclosu re to s h a me po ~ Iluters into c h;euygi ng th el r ways.

I dedogy. Glea! n i rig th ea i r requ ires m u Iltisectors ~ and stro rig pill 0 ~ lc S 1lI P port. Yet there is no comprehensive and integrated publ lc information campatgn which effectively and creatlvely com m u n lcates the co nte nits of th e Clean Aii r Acta n d what a ~ I 8M keh olde rs can do to com IJ Ily with the law.

. . . '. . .' . . .. .' . '. .' . '. . . .. . . . . . . . '. '. [)inniS. [bold,e C. Daya:o is lihe advocacy alii!:! cal'llpa~!)ns effi~Qr of

ti'J:iiJ Filrefly 'Brigladle (liIIII!, a ,eiitiz.ern's <Ii~·~i@lrl groupwh~ch prQlillme~. the bicyc![iefor ,e1ealil iilf~ alild5~.Ii6tairnable ciiti!l1s. Sil!! i$ o1l$llili cOIilWblJloor m tille CybenOyaryo Clean Air J!Dum~~ism [Prn.~ect~www:,cyberdiyafYO\,coml'

"l1hiis po['icy IP<lJper VilIS ptrepa1refil[ for "'ilJs;a:pa:ng Harnglin," ,!II l1!iledia <linli p:lJiblic pol~c.y 'fonllnn on Uile cr~11l Air AC'I'~RA :8749') orga:!il~OO hyth.e Celil~e,T for Medlallli'r,eeti)OI1f1I arnd R~SPOIiIS~Dilrty (CMFR) wJ~h ~h,e F·ol.mdaUo!n for C<lIlilI1f1,ltIn~ca1io:r1 ~rnltuat~ves, CyberDya~, ~liid the Departmel1lt ,of [I: IfIV~rOl1lmlelllt and INah!!lra ~ RJiis.O'l1I'Cle.S 'D'1iI Febmary .26, 211M

Oata a:ndfiig,lt!res; for~his' pa~per M~e b1i$ed (In lIilaterla:[s i3Jva~[lab~e as Il~ MitUlfIg, alllleng tIiJ,e!1'Il ~he Ph~~iPirilil!ei E~iW(llilllilent [MoliI~klr 20012 plJlillisihied by TIiIe, World Barn!\' 'G~Ol!lp. Re'.adlers $hQIiI!d refer to,e,:mUy .i3JV3i~albr,e dlata 'forr u~dated versiorn.


FilipinoiS are becQm ~ng more aWllIlf,e: of the dan~ers of dirty ai r and are die rna nd ing clelane r air, Five mill io n citi2!ens nl<ltionwid eS~SB1ed a petition lied by IBantey Ka liko!lls:su1i to suceessfu Uy p rffSSU re' ~egns laton, ~o pass, a I!ong·o\le rd W1! C~ean A~ r Act

Peala ~ Y()Ulr way' a'l'Ou nd lillie city. A. Un ird of U11e tripstake'n Ii n the metrQPOl1 isa reshcrter t hia rI two killom~ler$. aCCQrd~ rl!~ to tlirl e Phi.iipp{nes Envlronm€!rl't MOrJifo,r 200'2" fir, esesh 0 rt trl ps"wh ilch oontribllJl~e sigtn ifiioa,ntly tlo both tlrafrfic cOlnlgest.i on and lPo.[II~'t IOinl, a rei deall for biC'yclle naveL

Ask ~lo(la~1 Qffh,1~lalls~Q d'esmgnatle cfllr·ifre·e Z'O~et, andl day,s. Red uein g om re Iii a nee e nca rs willi Ilessen a~ r pe I~uti(m. ~etiit~,on oH'icia.l$ to' declla re m a lin rOISJds, pli:ilms, Or playgro l.Ilrndscar·free on ,ceriailn d<llYs, Asi~:hl;flrom dean ung the' ai~, ti'lis wau Iidena ole happy ffamWes, bike~s, jog~er$. a nd sen iio'f citizens to bii iole: :a nd sboU to~ethler witho.ut fealr that mdl{less drivers woulld hut the rn,

Use you r ,~~ .~eS$. W:a~ k, bilker ta ke public transPo.rtation, Ow carpooi to work IlrliSI() doing, yo l.I will ea use less poilluiion and avoid stress, YO~1 wn~ aliso save monev, ener,gy,.arld time!

KeelP you r ,oor ~n tiptop stu'lpe. F 0 liIow you r owne r's m .:mual on rElearn m e ndations for maxi m ~m e 00 no m ic efficiency_ IReplace you r C;illr',g aJilrfill~er and ol I regu Iia Fly.

Repo'n smoke-belch ing vah icmes. Sel,le nty-fiive percent of Metro Man Ua 's air Po.lII utllo I'IJ com es from, meteri2:ed veil icl es, You cam repo rt srno,ke-belcili ng veh ucl'es to Ba ntay llsok by tex.ting ~Uso k (space) pl<1llte n IJ m ber (spaoe) locaUon sighted (spac'e) vehlele descriptiorlt to 236,6 or by logg~ing on~iifle (http://www.allJsc;bnf;oufiH:jlation.(lom/lkiil~ukasan!clealilair.htm). I~ra vehh::le' Is reported at Ile6Jst fi\le tlln'u~$; t'hle LiliO wW requllre tlf1,e owner to bring un In is velrn lela for em isskm testi ng.

Th in k g~een .. 'Ia nt trees, shw tis. a rid grass In 'lIo~lr area. Experts e$Umate that it te kes Me treeto ·albi$Q rb the aaroon monoxid,e prod "ced b¥ one oar. [)'lIJlring p h,otos)I'nitihlesi5" trees prod uceoxy~e~nl, w'h lch we alill l'leedtD ~,reatlne:. ihiey abs,orboarbon aioxidle, aetas natural barlrie'ffi to dusr, wind, and Slmr<1lI)lS",;)r10 beautify the' ,Iandlscape, WI'! Ue yo~ 're garden ilng, com post: you r ~'ard a WId o.til1 ew b~odegradla bll,e wa~~es irns~e<ilJd Qf bu m iing them.

IBIDw~~e, whl5~me en erring public officials wl~iIIo viollalte elmlvirOmnelrltaI ~aws .. An agreem~;mtOln Fe!m,lI~ <1uy3, :2:004 behveen the Offl,ce of th,e {)om bu dsm an and tlhle I nt~gn'ated IBalrQr U11e IPhllU ppi nes (11.8 P) created th,e ~irst~vew OO~ce @f the' Envif1anmenta~ Om b w:lsm am (OIEO~,. Under U~,e agireeme'nt, th e IBP UllfOlljgh its iN~tlional [n~ifQlnmenUH Action leam, wHi accept citiZiefl\S' oomlpllainm and repcrts of vlelatiens of envi,rom1l1ienll.~lIIlaw$,

'~f thG' conoorlledl o,ffi ci ails do not act On the eernpla ints, trlle I SF' encilOlrses thl e case to the enl,li ro nme nita I 0111- Itll.!dsmal'il, iI/tty. G~llbett L Candlellii'ln'll!l1. lhe OEO may be reachied via the Ombudsman's office,~el., 9269032 hJcal 4"54 (dilrec:oor EvelYri Balipo'~l's offioe) orU'IrQ1ugh IBP's national off+ce (tel. 6311158) or its 87 ch,apf:ets nencnwlidie.,.


Con gressto n a I Pia n lI1I i In g a n d Budget omC€!

Polley Advlsory No, .2003~09.. http:// loa dl12th/ a dvisory_9. pdf

EnvirQnmental Management Bureauj Department of Environment and Natural Resources. December 2003. "Mobilizing for Cleaner Air: M llestones in implementing, the Clean .Ai'r Act."

Dayao;. Oi n ne Lou iS6 C,. Ja n. 7, 2004.

"Tricycle d rivers get tips on preventive maintenance to pass ernisainn test." CyberOyaryo Clean Air Journalism Project. u res/ f2004_0107'_01.htm

Del!os .Angeles. M.S. et a I. December 2003. ~II mprovtng Aiir Quality in the Phillppines: Who Ben ettts and How?" http://!baq2003/1496/article~ 5785,3.ihtml

Kongreso ng gaYfln.. J u Ily 2002 issue.

P's,culan, Ned la R. Dec. 15, 2003. ';Pasig City fights, poll utlon wh lle n lUI rtu r~r1Ig lndustry," CyberDya rye Clea n Air Journal ism Project, http://www. Cy be rDya ryo .co mjfeatu res/ f2003_121.5_Ol.htm

Pulley, Robert Vance. Novemb,er 29, 2002.

"On Filipinos' 'Most Wanted' Ust: Clean Aiir."

Tiq u ta, Ma. Lourdes N. 20.00. "H ow to lnflu e nee th e d rattl ng of envi ro n menta II I eglslatlon. or http://www .eld ls.o rg/statlc/ DOC 10901. htm

Va n Der Unden, Geert. Dec. 17 r 2003.

OfJening Address at !Better Air Quality .2003. menta/Speeches/ 2003/ms2003106.asp

Willson. Bryan." D~rect Injection Retrofit Progra m for Two-Stroke Tricycles in Metro Manila," Paper presented at "Usapang Trike Fcrum" Nov,ember 22, 2003.

World Ban k Tea m, Philippines

IE n vi mn m e nt Mlo n ito r 2002:.. http://



Glloss81ry ot Terms

Abatement: The reduction or enmtnatlon of pollution.

Acid ratn: A~ r polll utlon prod uced 'When acid chemicals are' incorporated into ra in, snow, f:ogor mist. The "acid" in acid rail1 comes hom su Ilfu r oxides and 11 itroge n cxld es, products of burnlng coal and other fuels and from certain industrial processes, The oxld as a nd In ~t.m,g,en oxides a re rel ated to two strong acids: sulfuric acid and nltrlc acid. Acid rain cam damage the environment, human health sind property,

Airshed: An airs'n"ed has similarities in climate, meteorology, and topology that could affect the interchange and diffusion of pollutants in the atmosphere, or those areas, wlh i ch Sl~ a re com rnon i nterest or face s iim i 18 r development programs, prospects, or problems.

. Air pollWuUon: Degradation of air quality resui1tJlt11g from unwanted chemicals 'Or other materials occurring in 'the air.

Allir qua I i~ monn,o;ri n,g: Sa m pli ng for and mea su r~ ng of poll II uta nts present. in the atmosphere.

Ambient air quality standards: Healthand welfare-based standards for outdoor air 1tJhi at identify the maxi m urn a Dee ptab'l e avera ge concentrations of air pollutants during a spectrled period of time.

Attainment area: .Ageograpihi,e area in wh lc h I evels of a criteria air poll uta nt meet the health-based pr~mary standard (natlonal ambient air quality standard) for the pollutant, Ar'I area may have an aeceptabte level for one c rite ria air po'l II uta nt, but may have unacceptable levels for others. Thus, all area


could be, botllh attammerrt and nonattalnment at the same tlme,

Henze ne: AII'1II a remat lc h yd roca rbon th ail: is produced by the bum ing of natural products like ceal and petroleum,

C.arbon dloxide (C02): A colorless. odorless gas that occu rs natura Illy in the earth's atmosphere, Sign incant quantlties are also emitted into the air b,y f'Clssiil fuel combustion.

Garbon mnnoxlde (CO),: A colorless, odo rl ess. poison 01.1 s ga s, prod uced by ii ncornplete bum lng ot carbon-based fuels, including gasollne, oil! and wood. Carbon monoxide is aliso produced 'from Incomplete burning of many natural and synthetic products. FQr instance, cigarette smoke contains carbon monoxide. When carbon mnnexide gets into the body, the carbon monoxide combines with chem lcals in the blood ,8 n d p reve nts the b lood from b ri n gi ng needed oxygen to cens, tissues and organs .

Cirtizen suit: lin Section 41. R.A. 8749 empowers citizens to file "an appropriate ciivil, cnmlnal or adrnlnlstrative action in the proper COU rts aga i nst: a ny perso n who vlo I ates 0 r fa ills to comply with the provisions of this Act or 'its ii rnptementlng rules and regulatlons; or the De pa rtment of Envi ron rnent and Natu rail R,esourc'es or other implernennng agencies ViI ith respect t'OO rde rs, rules a nod regu ~at~ 0 ns issued lnconslstent w[it.h this Act;' and/or any public officer who willfully or grossly neglects the performance otan act speclflcally enjoined as a duty by this Act or its. implementing rules. ami regulatlons: or abuses hils authority in the 'Per~;o rma n ce of' his d uty; or, ina ny rna n 111 er, improperly performs his dutles under this Act or its lrnplernenting rules and regulations,"

Cleanfuels: Low-pollution fuels that can

replace ordrnary gasoltne. These are alternatlve 'fuels, ;ill'ilc~udfng gasohol (gaso'line~ a lcoh 0 ~ m lxtu res h n stu ra ~ gals a n d LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).

Co ntrel tech n 0 IrJ'gy; control mea s u res:

Eq uli prnent, procesees or actions used to, red Uc€ air JJ 0 llutlon,

E,~)o,-prome: The geogra ph lc-based i nstru m e nt for pia n ne rs a nd d eelsion-ma kers wh lc h p resent 81 n eva I uatl on of th e e nviron m ent qua lilly a fII d eel rryl ng ca pacity of an areal.

Emisswon: Re~ease of pollutants into the a~r from a source,

Em lsste n sta nda rd: If hie maxi mum amount of a, poltutant that is a llowed to be discharged from 81 polluting source such as an 8Jultomob[lle' or smoke stack.

E:qlOSWI re: The co nee ntratlo n of the po III uta n1!. ~1t1l th e a ~ r m u mpl led by the pop u ~at~ 0 n exposed to that 00 ncentratt a nave r a specified time period.

Hydroea rbons: Com pou n ds conta ini ng various ccmbtrrattonsot h~{dmgen and carbon atoms. Th Else may be em ltted i nto th e air by n atu rs II SOIUl rces (e .g. t trees) an dI as a resu It of fossil Bind vegetative 'fuel combustion, fuel vo I atl I izat i;on, an ci SO,IV6rl1t use. Hlyd weal rbons are a m.ajor contributor to smog.

II nel n eratiio n: in ci n eratlo n, wh lc h is defined as the bu rn ing of mu n lcl pa I, blom ed lea ~ and ha za fda us wastes th at em it toxic fumes. is banned I:J rider the .Act

Mohil~e g,O'U rces: mov [ng objects that re leess poll utlon; mo b i~ e sou rces i He ~ L:I d €lea rs, trucks, buses, planes, trs ins, motorcycles ano gasollne-powered lawn mowers. MobUs

sources are divided into 1!.WO groups: mad vehlcles. wh ~ch in eludes ca rs, trucks and buses, and non-road ven icles, which lneiudes trains, planes a nd lawn mowers.

Morbi dility: Rate of disease in clde n ce,

Mia rtal ity: Death rate.

Nitrogen oxides (IN Ox) : A crlteria air pollutant, Nitrogen ox~dles are produced from burni ng fuels, lnclud ~ng gasoll ~ne and coa II. N ltrogs n oxides are smogto rme rs, wh ~ en react wUh volatile organic com pounds to form smog. Nitrogen oxides 81 rea lso major co m po ne nts of add rain ..

Nonarttainment area: A geogra,phic area in w hi ~cln the ~ evel of a trite rli aa i r poll uta nt ls higher Ullalrli the level allowed by the federal standards, A single geogra ph lc a real may have accepts b~ e leve Is of on 8' crite ria air po II uta nt but u naccepta bl e :1 eve lis of '0 ne arm Of€' ott! e r crlte ria a rr poll uta nts: tlh UlS ran a rea ca In be both 8 tta ~ n me nt and non etta i n m ent at t hie semetirne,

Ozone: A ga s wh lch ~s a va rTety of ox)rgen.

Own e con slsts of 1Lh me oxyge nato ms stu ck togeth Sf into an ozo ne mo lecu le .. ozon e oce U rs in nature; it produces the sha rp smell you notice near a Ilfghh1 lng strlke. High conce ntration S of ozon e gas a re to u nd ina layer ofthe atmosphere, tine stratosphere, h,igh above th e Ea rth .. stratos p h eric ozone sh i,e I ds tne Earth agalnst harrnfu I rays from the SUrI, pa rtl GU la rly u ltravl 0 let B. Smog's rna i n co m po ne nt is ozo ne: tin is gro u nd-l eve I ozon e ts a product of reactions among chemicals prod lUI ted by b lUI rnl n g coa II ,. gasol i n e a nd other fuels, and chernlcals found in products lncludlng solvents, paints, and ha~rsprays.

Pa rtieu I ates, Ipa rtlcu ilate matter: A crltertaa i r pollutant. Pa rtic u 'I ate matter


~lt1lcludes dust, soot and other Uny bits of $olilid materials that a re re leased ~ n to and move around in the air. Part~clUI~altes are produced by many sources, ~nciud'~IIfiI,g burning 01f dilissel fuels by t rucks and buses, inc i ne rat lo nef ga Irbalge~ a p pl lcatlo n of tertl I lze r:sa nd pesticldes, roso constru etlo n, lndustrlal precesses au ch aiS steel rna ~jltllg, rnl n ~ng ope ratio ns, a nd a gr lc 1:..11 ltu ra I bu rn i ng. Pal rtleu late po ililutiolrl' ca n ca useeye, nose and til roa,]: i rl~it.eltio nan dl otlnlelr hea ith p roblems ..

PM! .10: Pa rtlculates sma !Iller than 10 m lerona, Sm,a~ Ii particu lates are ,of specla II con cern beca u se of tlh elr ,8 bHity to pen etrate deep 1~Ir1l~O the Illungs and cause major hea,lltlh impacts.

"!P,G,II uter m ust palY" p'ri nejple: lh is prindpie places the bu rd e n of actio n (H11 t hi ose who are respe ns ~b lie to r air poll uno n.

SlI:.ationa ry source: A place or o'b]e'Ct. from wh iern poll uta ntsa re released and wh lch coes n ot move (.lilWU lni,d .. Statio na ry so lUI rces ~ n cl ude powe'r plants, gas stations, incln erators, houses, etc.

Su,llll:U' dioxidl,e: A crttene a~r ,DolllutanL SurrfllLDi" dim;Hde isa gals prodlL:llced by burn1i~lfllg coe II, most nota Diy in power plants. Some ~ rII d u stria I processes, such as, prod u ct,j on of pa per a nd sm eltl ng of meta Is, prod uce sou lfu r (no.ldde. Sulfur d loxlde is c~oselly relatedto sulfurie aeld, a stw"OIrlig scld .. Sulfur ciioxide pl1ays a WI im po rta nt role Iii n the IP rod u cl: lon ,o,f a c~iid rain.



1...- RePORTlHG POOI.~C POLlet: A MAt'J1JIAL F'Clti! JOU~ALISJS., 91

IThefoH0:Ving r_esou me . per~ons were. in.-. volved m policy form u latlcn, plannl ng

and development in government and are experts in the ~r res peetlve fi e Ids i' n 'fii n a nee and commerce" economics, educatton, hee lth, environment, etc. They were invlted during the Media and Public Polley sernmar the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibillity (CMfR) organlzed for joumallsts on November 28 to 30,2002 in Antloolc City.

Ma. Cecllla G. Dalupan ls currently Legall and Poncy Specialist of the USAIID Office of Envlronmenta II Ma nagement, She was the 2001 E.I Paso Energy Fell-ow of the Natura II IResQu roes Law Ce Oler at tne Un ive rsiity of Colorad 0 in B Q U lder w he re her 'Work focused I) n .multilaltera I environ menta: agreements and

th ei rim pll i catio n son the m ~ n ~ ng sector.

Her a reas of concentration ln law and policy have been energy, climate change, (lind min iin g. SI~'i1 e ns s served as co n sulta nt to va rious orgenlzatlons lncludlng the Department


of Energy, the UNDP, the US National Renewa b le IE ne rgy La boratory, it h e Asi a IriI D ev,e 10 prnent Bank, the UN Environment Programme. Phlllpplne Business for Socia! Pmgress, and the Mining. Mineralls" a nd Sustainable Developrnent Project,

A cum laude graduate of the Atenso de Manila University, she was among the leading 20 graduates of her Unlversity of the Ph illppines law class, and ~11 the barexams of 1994. She was an associate at the Carpio, vmaraza and Cruz law offices, after which she joined the Department of Environment and Natural Resources from 1996 to 1999, serving primarily as an attorney and briefly as Officer-incharge of both the Offices of Assistant Secreta ryan d Un d ersec rsta ry for I ega I and I,egislat~ve ana irs.

Arm; V. Fabella

Armand V. Fabella has had extensive experience in government service, which has drawn from 'h is background in commerce, finance, and education, He was a member of

the Ce,ntral Ba,l'11~ Monetary Board' and at lhe sa m e ti m e the Acti ng Sec reta rry of Co m me rce and Induatryend Acting Secretary of finance in 19'63" From 1992 to 1994, he served as secrets ry ,of the Department of !Education. Cu~Wlr'e and Sports under the Ramos. adrnlnlstratlon, He is now ln the prlvate education sector, in which he serves 81S chair of the Board of T ru stees .of Jose IR lza I un ivers irty, formerly called jose Riza~ Co~lege.

Fabella received the Ten outstandlng Young Men Aw.ard in 1962 and was an Else n howe r IF el Ilow to th e Un lite d Sta tes in 19'69.

He did his postgrad uate stud ies et the London School of Econornlcs in 1955. He recelvec his M.A. in Economics from Jose, R:i'zal College in 1953; and graduated cum laude (AB Economics) from Harvard Unfversity. Massactl U,setts in .19.51.

Anna, Marme A. Karaas

An na Ma rle A. Kcua as is the exeeutlve d irector of the lnstrtute em Clh ureh and So,ciall Issues based at the Atenec de Manilla Univ,efs [rl:.y. Her a reas of s peel a llzatl 0 n are soelo Ilogy a nd tin e politlcs of u rba n poverty, soela I movern ents (pa rtl cu la r IIY u r ba n soesa I 1m oveme nts), low-:income housing, urban development, and the po I ltlcal econ orny of d evel 0 p m e nt. Her professtonal experlence goes back to the early '900s when she, began working as a member of the, technical working group identifying the basic sector age nda in the to rm u latlo n of th e NilUon.a I Pea ce Confere nee.

cum la ude (BS MBll1Iag,ement E'r!.!~;.iInee r~ n gO) from the Ataneo de Manila University lin 1979.

NarzaUna Z. Lim

N a rza I ~ n a, 2.. lim served as Secreta ry of Tourism under President Corazon Aquino and President Fidel Ramos. IBefore her appointme nt as Ss'c rem ry, she was Un d ersec rets ry fo r PolicYf Planning, and Deve'I()pment at the De· partrnentot Tourtsmfrom 1986-1:992 and was largely 'responsible for the preparation of the ,20-yea r to LJ rlsrn master p la n of the Ph i~ i ppi nes,

Sh e is cu rrently Presl dent of As la Pa citlc Projects. lnc., a management consumng company which speciallzes in tourism strategic plain n~ng, rna rketing representation, and teasibility study preparation for tourism projects. She is a lso Director of the Asia Pacirfic Tourtsm Training Institute, ,8 skills tra ilniing center w'h ich she founded lin 1995 which preps res you n g p eopl efor work hll the to u r ism in d ustry,

Lim has a Master's degree in !English Uterature from the Un~versi1ty of Callifomi,a fn Sa nta Sa r ba ra, S he co m pl eted th e Manage· rn e nt neve lopm e nt Progra m at the Asla n II nstitute of iMlanagement in 1974.

She ls eu rre ntly Clh a lr ,of th e Freed en m to Fly Goa lition • an NGO advocating the fu III Implementation of Executive Order 2t9 wnich I i be ra lizes eiv r I 81vi at lon r n th e Ph i I lppi nes to be nem the use rs of a ~ r service.

IErlind,a C. Pefianco

Er~inda e. Pefianco is the director ot the,

She received her Ph.D. in Sociology from southeast Asian Ministers (:Jof Ed ucaticn Orgathe N,ew School for Social Research iin New nlzatlon Reglionall Center for Educational lnYork in 19,95 and her 1M. Phil. in Economics novation and Technology (SEAM EO and Pnlittes of' Development at Ca,mbridg,e INNOTECH) .. She has had long expcsure in eduUn lvers ity in 1984.. Sh,e grad u ated sum m a cation, Ih av in g served 81S the unde rsec reta ry

of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports from 19'9'0 to 1995 and then becoming education secretary in 199B. She has also been ln the fleldof privateeducation, serving as dean of the 00 II liege of Buslness Adlministranon, Universlily of the East, from 19'88 to 1990.

She has a Ph.D. in Edluc.atioll1l (Honoris Causa) from Wonkwang University in Korea (1995). She received' her master's degree in Business Ad mlntstratron from the IJnli'versity of the East ln 1987 wh ere ah e aliso. graidl uated cum laude for her bachelor's degree in Business Administration in 19f:l3.

M.a rio M. Jag,uliwa 10

Marlio· Jagulwalo CIU rrently serves as, lndepe nde nt consu lta nt 0 n va rlous projects to r goverrtrnent agencies I(U~,e Depa rtment of Health, the Department of Education, the Population Cemrrtlsslon, the Nationalll Oornrnlsslcn on culture and Arts, and the House of IRep resentativesn ~ ntern atlona lagen el es (Tih € World B,ank~ Asian Development Bank, United Natlons Population Fund, World Health Orga,n lzatlon, II n lted States. Age ncy for I r1rl:.enli1laltio n a I Developrn e nt): no n-gove m m ent 0 rga n izatlons: a nd private 00 rporatlo ns .e

He is. a former undersecretary el,f the Depal rtme nt of Hea lit hi (19186 ~u 1992).

Taguiwalo completed his bachelor's degree ln economics at La Sane college in Bacol:od City in 191'6 an dI wa san Eis,e n hewer F,€! Bow in 19,89.


Peter We I pole, S.J. has put togethe r as d lrecto r th e Envi ronm enta I Scf en ce' for S ode II Change (ESSe), an institute based in the Pihii~ippines that seeks lilmproved conditions j'n soci ety th ro u'gh scientlfle a n d soci a I resea IrC h. He I~ as been i nvolved in resea Ire h (31 nd d ia 10gll.J e· on .(1 iffererrt oo nee rns relati iii g to C u ltu res and ecosystems <over the last 25 years. On the p,ollh::y level, he has been involved in both intern ana n a I a n dI nat lo n a ~ resou rce rna n a gernent efforts. He co-directs the A$i.a Forest N,etwork that brfngs together various stakeholders in community forest management eftorts lillil th e· region, He co-cha i rs th e e lusts ron Envli ro n m ent a nd II nd no us Peoples of the Bishops-Businessmen's Conterence on Human IDevel~opmell"lt that identified the mining situation in the Ph,ililippines as a work prlority ·8 nd national concern, With the Phi llppine Workb'lg Group on Commun ilty-Bas,ed Nalturai Resource Management and Asststed B·iodiversity IRe~emeratioli1i, he steers the work dire C"UO nan d lUI nd e rta kes actlv ltles that p rovlde options and lnltlanves for government to consider lnftarnlng pnlicy and programs. He has also been part of national reviews in for€strya nd co m m u r11lint.Y-1oalsed natu ra II reso u roe management



1:987 Pf1 ~Hppine Constitution 1991 Local 'Government Code

Draft constltuuon for a Federa~ ReplUlollJc of the. Philippines with a Parliamentary Government by 2010


1987 Ph lllpplne Constitution 1'995, Min Ing Act

199'1 local Government Cod,e 19'91 Smalill Scale Mining Act

19'92 Natlo na II ntegrated Protected Areas System Act

1:997 Indigenous Peoples Rights Act

Cllean Air Act

Clean Ak Act of 1999

Philippines Envlronrnent Monitor 2002 (pu bUshed by The World Bank Group}

Best Practices: Paslg's City Envirorrment and Niatu mil Resa u rces Off~ce (CEN RO)RaQuel Naciong"aIYo., Head


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