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FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANTS

Safety Requirements in accordance with


IEC 60335-2-24, IEC 60335-2-40 ed IEC 60335-2-89

UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2016


INTRODUCTION
Speaker – Stefano Traversi
Engineering Leader HVAC

Background
Stefano has been with UL for over 14 years and is currently the engineering team leader
of HVAC team located in Europe.
As soon as he left university (Electrical Engineer) he started working in UL as a product
safety engineer dedicated to Heating, Cooling and Refrigeration products (household
and commercial refrigerators, ice makers, beverage coolers, ice cream makers, room air
conditioners, dehumidifiers, large-scale cooling).
Stefano is also an IEC Quality Auditor in CTF Programs for compliance of laboratory
operations to ISO17025, the Standard for the competence of testing and calibration
laboratories.

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Global Refrigerant Standards and Codes
Under Revision No Activity
Revisions to Support 2L, 2 & 3 Refrigerants Complete

Refrigerant Safety Standards


Standards/Regulations Equipment Application Building & Other Codes Local Codes
Montreal Protocol/Kigali UL60335-2-40 3rd ASHRAE 15 IMC/UMC - International
(GWP Phasedown) Heating and Cooling Safety for Commercial Mechanical Code
(Developed) Equipment Refrigeration Systems IRC - International
UL 471 ASHRAE 15.2 Residential Code State, County & City
SNAP Building Codes
Significant New Alternatives Commercial Refrigerators Safety for Residential IBC / IEBC - International
Policy Program & Freezers Refrigeration Systems Building Codes
State Regulations UL 621 NFPA 70, 90A, 90B IFC - International Fire
(i.e. California ARB Code Insurance Company
Ice Cream Makers HVAC Applications Codes Rules
Proposition 32)
ASHRAE 34 NFPA 1 - Fire Code
Designation and Safety ASME Section VIII DOT Transportation
Classification of Refrigerants Pressure Vessels Standards
NFPA 101 - Safety Code
U.S. SPECIFIC
on-going 2016-2017 2018-2021 2018-2028
INTERNATIONAL
Montreal Protocol/Kigali IEC 60335-2-40 6th B52 (Canada)
(GWP) Heating and Cooling Safety for Commercial
(Developed Developing) Equipment Refrigeration
IEC 60335-2-89 ISO-5149 Local Building
F-Gas Regulations Commercial Refrigerating Safety & Environmental Country Specific Codes?
(GWP Phasedown) Appliances Requirements Building and Fire
Codes
IEC 60335-2-24 EN - 378
Country Regulations Refrigerating Appliances, Refrigerating Systems and Insurance Company
(i.e. Switzerland, Australia) Ice-Cream and Ice Makers Heat Pumps Rules
Pressure Vessel
ISO-817 Designation and GHS Transportation
Standard
Safety Classification Standards
(PED, JIS, etc.)

on-going 2014-2018 2018-2021 2019-2025


RISK WHEN USING FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANT

Hazard due to ignition of leaked FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANT by


potential ignition sources associated with the appliance

Appliances shall be constructed to avoid any fire or explosion hazard,


in the event of leakage of the refrigerant from the cooling system

CHARGE CONSTRUCTION

LEAKAGE TEMPERATURE MARKING


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Charge - Refrigerant A2/A2L/A3

PRODUCT STANDARD GRAMS

Household Refrigerators IEC 60335-2-24 150 g

Commercial Refrigerators IEC 60335-2-89 150 g

Air Conditioners, Heat-Pump,


IEC 60335-2-40 Annex GG
Dehumidifiers

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ANNEX GG (IEC 60335-2-40)
The total refrigerant mass (M) of all refrigerating systems within the
appliance shall not exceed:

m1 = (4 x m3) * LFL m1 = (6 x m3) * LFL


m2 = (26 x m3) * LFL m2 = (52 x m3) * LFL
m3 = (130 x m3) * LFL m3 = (260 x m3) * LFL

A2/A3 Refrigerants A2L Refrigerants

Propane R290 (LFL 0.038 kg/ m3) Difluoromethane R32 (LFL 0.306 kg/ m3)
m1 = 0.150 kg; m2 = 0.988 kg; m3 = 4.94 kg m1 = 1.83 kg; m2 = 15.9 kg; m3 = 79.56 kg

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ANNEX GG (EN 60335-2-40)
Depending on mass charge amount there are additional requirements for ventilation of the location or
the appliance and the space (area) where the appliance functions

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Construction
Pressure Test on refrigerant containing components;

Vibration Test to verify effects of vibration during transport (IEC 60335-2-40);

The construction of the refrigerating system shall comply with the requirements of
ISO 5149-2 (Refrigerating systems and heat pumps -- Safety and environmental
requirements -- Part 2: Design, construction, testing, marking and documentation);

Refrigerant tubing to be protected or enclosed to avoid mechanical damage not


to be handled or used for carrying during moving of the product (IEC 60335-2-40);

Mechanical connectors shall comply with ISO 14903

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IGNITION SOURCES
Electrical components which, during NORMAL OPERATION, or ABNORMAL operation,
produce sparks or arcs (IEC 60335-2-24, IEC 60335-2-89)

Electrical components which, during NORMAL OPERATION, or IN THE EVENT OF A


LEAK operation, produce sparks or arcs (IEC 60335-2-40)

SWITCH PRESSURE LIMITING DEVICE


THERMOSTAT RELAY
BRUSH-TYPE MOTOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL
THERMAL PROTECTOR BOARD
THERMAL CUT-OUT SPARK GAP
(Automatically reset) LAMPHOLDER
IONIZER LEAK DETECTOR
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IGNITION SOURCES – A2L IEC 60335-2-40
The following electrical components are not considered a potential ignition source when
used with A2L refrigerant:

Annex JJ defines the maximum size of openings in relays


RELAY (or similar) and similar components that prevents flame propagation to
outside.

the device is capable of 100 000 cycles;

SWITCHING DEVICE the switched electrical load (Le) in kVA is limited; it


depends on the “Su” burning velocity of a refrigerant in
centimeters per second (cm/s).

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CRITICAL POINT
Critical Point in the refrigeration system

is a joint in the refrigerant system tubing (including the gasket of a


semi-hermetic motor-compressor);

a bend on refrigerating pipes;

other point judged to be a weak point due to the thickness of the


metal, exposure to damage, sharpness of a bend
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LEAKAGE TEST
Appliances shall be constructed so that any leaked refrigerant will not flow or stagnate
so as to cause a fire or explosion hazard in areas within the appliance where IGNITION
SOURCES are fitted.

LEAK SIMULATION TEST

Location Critical Point

Method Injection of refrigerant vapor trough capillary charge defined

Appliance OFF or ON whichever gives the most unfavorable result

Measure Concentration of gas surrounding component

Pass and Fail Concentration shall not exceed X % of the LFL of the refrigerant gas

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In case of failure
1 – Move the ignition source outside the potentially flammable zone;

2 – Increase the air flow and/or mantain a permanent air flow to


reduce the potentially flammable zone;

3 – Locate the ignition source in a suitable enclosure in


accordance with requirements of IEC 60079-15 (Explosive
atmosphere) or in accordance with Annex NN of IEC 60335-2-40 for
A2L refrigerant only;

4 – Replace the ignition source with a suitable device device in


compliance with IEC 60079-xx (Explosive atmospheres) Slide 14
TEMPERATURE
Temperatures on surfaces that may be exposed to leakage of FLAMMABLE
REFRIGERANTS shall not exceed the auto-ignition temperature of the refrigerant
reduced by 100 K;

Refrigerant ignition
Refrigerant temperature
Refrigerant name Refrigerant formula
number
°C

R32 Difluoromethane CH2F2 648

R290 Propane CH3CH2CH3 450

R600 n-Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 360

R600a Isobutane CH(CH3)3 460

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MARKING
Appliances which use FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANTS shall be marked with the
symbol “Caution: risk of fire”.

Instructions shall include information pertaining to the installation, handling,


servicing and disposal of the appliance; for IEC 60335-2-40 there should be
dedicated:

installation requirements (heights, refrigerant charge, minimum room area);


qualification of workers (maintenance, service and repair operations) Annex HH
information on servicing, repairing, charging procedures, decommissioning, refrigerant
recovery;

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HOW UL CAN HELP

UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2016


STANDARDS
UL is involved in HVAC and appliance standards development worldwide. It has technical
staff participating in leadership and expert roles on national and international
committees In the U.S., UL is the principal standards developer addressing
electrical appliance and HVAC equipment

Most of UL Refrigeration Standards are harmonized with IEC ones

IEC 60335-2-24 UL 60335-2-24


IEC 60335-2-40 UL 60335-2-40
IEC 60335-2-89 UL 60335-2-89

1 CERTIFICATION UL – CSA – IEC – EN

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FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANT LEAKAGE TEST
We have facilities to conduct flammable refrigerant leakage test

Equipment needed:

Dedicated Rooms explosion could happen;


Gas Bottle to be kept at determined temperature
a) 32 °C ± 1 °C for leakage simulation on low-side pressure circuits;
b) 70 °C ± 1 °C for leakage simulation on high-side pressure circuits.

Sensor The instrument used for monitoring gas concentration, should have a fast
response, typically 2 s to 3 s and should not influence the result of the test.

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FLAMMABLE REFRIGERANT LEAKAGE TEST

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HAZARDOUS LOCATION SERVICES

Hazardous locations or Explosion protected equipment intended for


installation in the European Union must comply with the ATEX
directive, European Directive 2014/34/EU.

UL is an accredited Notified Body and IECEx Testing Laboratory


(ExCB) for equipment based on the 60079 and 13463 series of
standards.

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Questions?

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