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DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

Course Code & Title : ENSC 104 – Engineering Statics Wk. No.

Class Schedule :

Sem. / School Year

Prepared By

: 1st Semester / SY 2019 – 2020

: Engr. D.A.Belonio A.E., C.E. & Engr. I.S.Belonio

09

6 ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

Beams are structural members that are subjected to flexural loadings. These flexural loadings

develops shears and moments which are internal to the beam. Why then do we need to

determine the shear and moment? It is for the reason that once we know where the maximum

shear and the maximum moment are, we can safely size up the beams to carry such loads.

Furthermore, for some materials such as reinforced concrete, the location of positive and

negative moment is critical since the positioning of flexural reinforcements whether it is in the

top or at the bottom depends on that. For steel and other homogenous materials, it is only the

maximum value that would be critical.

accessed: 03/09/19

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

6.2 BEAM CONSTRUCTION

Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel, and timber are the common structural

materials used for beams. For reinforced concrete beams, since concrete is a material that is

strong in compression but weak in tension, steel reinforcements are added in the section to

carry the tensile stresses. RC beams may be precast (as in Figure 1) or cast monolithically with

other structural members such as the column or slabs.

Figure 2 – reinforced concrete beam showing the flexural steel reinforcements and stirrups. Image source:

https://debug.pi.gr/default.aspx?ch=53. Date accessed: 09/28/19

Prestressed concrete beams (see Figure 3) uses the principle of prestressing before subjecting

the beam to the actual loads making the section stronger. There are two methods of

prestressing: post-tension process, and pre-tension process. The some prestressing steel is

called tendons.

Beams using timber materials (see Figure 4) is often found in floor joist or roof rafters. Steel

beams (see Figure 5) can be found on various steel buildings or mechanical equipment. Steel

beams can be welded or bolted to other structural components. Plate connectors, cleats, and

other components may be present in steel connections.

Page 2 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

concrete-PSC-girder-with-multiple-tendons_fig3_321933178. Date accessed: 09/28/19

Figure 4 – timber beams used as floor joists. Image source: https://www.instarix.org/tag/joisting. Date

accessed: 09/28/19

Page 3 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 5 - steel beams used in heavy girders for bridge or skyways. Image source:

https://erkrishneelram.wordpress.com/2015/01/21/what-is-a-girder-bridge/. Date accessed: 09/28/19

If a beam is built up without any internal connections (internal hinge, roller, or link), the entire

beam may be considered as one piece of monolithic rigid body placed on a number of supports,

and the question of stability and of the determinacy of the beam is settled solely by the number

and arrangement of supports.

If a hinge is introduced into the statically stable and determinate beam, it will obviously

become unstable under general loading as the result of a relative rotation between the left and

Page 4 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

the right portions of the beam at the internal hinge. It is simply because the moment reaction

in the hinge is zero.

Referring to Figure 6c and d, we see that in each case there are three elements of reaction

supplied by supports, whereas there are four conditions of statics to restrict the external forces

– three from equilibrium plus one from construction. This means that the number of unknown

elements of reaction is one fewer than the independent equations of statics available for their

solution. Therefore, the equations of statics for the force system are generally not satisfied.

The beam is unstable, unless we provide at least one additional element of reaction, such as

the additional roller support shown in Figure 6e and f, which makes the total number of

unknown elements of reaction equal to the number of independent equations of statics needed

to determine the elements. If this is done, the beam will be restored to a statically stable and

determinate state.

Suppose a link (or a roller) is introduced into a section of the statically stable and determinate

beam of Figure 7a or b. We expect that this beam will be less stable than that of a hinged

connection because the link (roller) cannot resist both moments about the link pin and forces

normal to the link.

Figure 7 - schematic diagram of a beam with link. Image source: (Hsieh, 1982)

Geometric instability is most likely to occur whenever internal connections are introduced into

an originally stable structure. Consider, for example the Figure 8a. The beam is statically

indeterminate to the first degree. Now if a hinge is inserted to the beam as shown in Figure

8b, it seems to be statically determinate. However, when a load is applied, a small initial

displacement will result and will not be resisted elastically by the structure. In such a case,

the beam is unstable not because of the inadequacy of the supports but because of the

inadequacy of the arrangement of members. This is referred to as internal geometric

instability. Very often when this occurs, the structure will collapse. If collapse will not occur,

the beam will come to rest in a position such as that marked by the dashed lines.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

A criterion may now be estabilished for the stability and determinacy of beams. Let denote

the number of reaction elements and the number of equations of condition ( = 1 for a hinge;

= 2 for a roller; = 0 for a beam without internal connection).

1. If < + 3, the beam is unstable.

2. If = + 3, the beam is statically determinate provided that no geometric instability

(internal and external) is involved.

3. If > + 3, the beam is statically indeterminate.

6.4 INTERNAL FORCES IN BEAMS & THE SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAM

As with the members in the truss experiencing internal axial forces either in tension or

compression, beams also experiences internal forces not in axial forces, but in shear and

moment. Shear force is a force that acts parallel to cross sectional area. Whereas axial force

is a force that acts perpendicular to the cross section. Moment (or internal bending moment)

is a force that causes rotation about an axis simply because of the eccentricity of action.

Figure 9 shows a beam subjected to various external forces. If we make a cut along the beam

length, at any section there exists an internal force and internal moment. The value of

maximum shear and maximum moment as well as their location (either positive or negative) as

well as their behavior is what interests us as an engineer. For the maximum values determines

the size of the beam.

(b)

(a)

Figure 9 – (a) A beam subjected to loads. (b) Internal shear force and bending moments shown in the beam cut.

Source: (Philpot, 2008)

The shear and moment diagram is a graphical representation showing the values and behavior

of shear and moments along the beam length as a response to various types of external forces.

A positive internal shear force (See Figure 2a)

Acts upward on the left-hand face of a beam.

Acts clockwise on the left-hand face of a beam.

Page 6 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

These sign conventions can also be expressed by the directions of and that act on a small

slice of the beam. The alternative statement of the and sign convention is illustrated in

Figure 10b.

(a) (b)

Figure 10 – (a) sign convention for beam cut. (b) Alternative illustration of sing convention for beam slice. Source:

(Philpot, 2008)

Shear and moment diagrams can be constructed by developing functions that express the

variation of internal shear force ( ) and internal bending moment ( ) along the beam and

then plotting these functions. When a beam has several loads, however, this approach can be

quite-time consuming, and a simpler method is desired. The process of constructing shear and

moment diagrams is much easier if specific relationships between load, shear, and moment are

taken into considerations.

6.4.2 Six Rules for Constructing the Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

1. Concentrated loads create discontinuities (or jumps) in the shear-force diagram.

2. The change in internal shear force between two points is equal to the area under the

distributed-load curve.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

3. At any point, the slope of the diagram is equal to the intensity of the distributed load.

4. The change in the internal bending moment between any two points is equal to the area

under the shear-force diagram.

5. At any point, the slope of the diagram is equal to the intensity of the internal shear

force .

diagram. A clockwise external moment cause the diagram to jump upward, and a

counterclockwise external moment causes the diagram to jump downward.

Page 8 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

6.4.3 General Procedure for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams.

Sketch the beam including the supports, loads, and key dimensions. Calculate the external

reaction forces, and if the beam is a cantilever, the external reaction moment. Show this

reactions on the load diagram, using arrows to indicate the proper direction for these forces

and moments.

The shear-force diagram will be constructed directly beneath the load diagram. For that

reason, it is convenient to draw a series of vertical lines beneath significant beam locations to

help align the diagrams. Begin the shear-force diagram by drawing a horizontal axis, which will

serve as the x-axis for the diagram. The shear-force diagram should always start and end on

the value = 0. Construct the diagram from the leftmost end of the beam toward the

rightmost end, using the rules. Rule 1 and 2 will be the rules most frequently used to determine

shear-force values at important points. Rule 3 is useful when sketching the proper diagram

shape between these key points. Label all points where the shear force changes abruptly and

at locations where maximum or minimum (i.e., maximum negative values) shear forces occurs.

Special attention should be paid to locating points where the diagram crosses the =

0 axis because these points indicate locations where the bending moment will be either a

maximum or minimum value. For beams with distributed loadings, Rule 3 will be essential for

this task.

The bending-moment diagram will be constructed directly beneath the shear-force diagram.

Begin the bending-moment diagram by drawing a horizontal axis, which will serve as the x-axis

for the diagram. Construct and from the leftmost end of the beam toward the rightmost

end, using the rules. Rules 4 and 6 will be the rules most frequently used to determine bending-

moment values at important points. Rule 5 is useful when sketching the proper diagram shape

between these key points. Label all points where the bending moment changes abruptly and

at location where maximum or minimum (i.e., maximum negative values) bending moments

occur.

If the shear diagram is constant for a beam segment, then the moment diagram will be linear,

which makes the diagram relatively straightforward to sketch. If the diagram is linear for

a beam segment, the the diagram will be quadratic (a parabola). A parabola can take two

shapes: either concave or convex. The proper shape for the diagram can be determined

from information found on the diagram since the slope of diagram is equal to the intensity

of the shear force (Rule 5). Various shapes for the relationship are illustrated in the Figure

below.

Page 9 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 17 – Relationships between shear and moment diagram shapes. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

Page 10 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

7 ANALYSIS OF FRAMES

The difference between a rigid frame and a truss is that the members of a rigid frame are

usually connected by moment-resisting (rigid, same as fixed joint) joints instead of being a

hinged together as in an ideal truss. Thus a rigid frame may be defined as a structure composed

of a number of members all lying in one plane and connected so as to form a rigid configuration

by joints, some or all of which are moment-resisting (rigid) instead of hinged.

Date accessed: 04/02/19

The stability and determinacy of a rigid frame may also be investigated by comparing the

number of unknowns (internal unknowns and reaction unknowns) with the number of equations

of statics available for their solution. Like a truss, a rigid frame may be separated into a number

of free bodies of joints as shown in Figure, which requires that every member of the frame may

be taken part. When cutting a section of a member, there are usually three unknowns (axial,

shear, and moment). However, if these quantities are known at one section of a member,

similar quantities for any other section of the same member can be determined. Hence there

are only three independent, internal, unknown elements for each member in a frame. If we

let denote the total number of members and the reaction elements, then the total number

of independent unknowns in a rigid frame is (3 + ).

Page 11 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

Next, a rigid joint isolated as a free body will generally be acted upon by a system of forces

and couples, since a rigid joint is capable of resisting moments. For equilibrium of such a joint,

this system, therefore, must satisfy the three equilibrium equations.

It may happen that hinges or other devices of construction are introduced into the structure so

as to provide additional equations of statics, say a total of . Then the total number of

equations of statics available for the solution of the (3 + ) unknowns is (3 + ). The criteria

for the stability and the determinacy of the rigid frame are thus established by comparing the

number of unknowns (3 + ) with the number of independent equations (3 + ):

1. If 3 + < 3 + , the frame is unstable.

2. If 3 + = 3 + , the frame is statically determinate provided that it is also stable.

3. If 3 + > 3 + , the frame is statically indeterminate

1. Determine static determinacy

2. Determine the reactions at the frame supports

3. Select a member or a joint with three or fewer unknowns and apply the equilibrium

equation to the free body of the member/joint selected.

4. For each member of the frame, construct the shear, bending moment, and axial force

diagrams as follows:

a. Select a member (local) xy coordinate system with origin at either end of the

member.

b. Resolve all the external loads, reactions, and end forces acting on the member

into components in the x and y direction.

c. Construct the shear and bending moment diagrams for the member.

d. Construct the axial force diagram showing the variation of axial force along the

length of the member. Such diagram can be constructed by using the method of

sections.

Page 12 of 13

ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.

DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19

COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 20 - other configurations of rigid frames. Image source: (Norris, Wilbur, & Utku, 1980)

REFERENCES

Hibbeler, R. C. (2011). Structural Analysis (Panama Edition ed.). Pearson Education South Asia

Pte Ltd.

Hsieh, Y.-Y. (1982). Elementary Theory of Structures (Philippine Edition ed.). Prentice-Hall,

Inc.

Kassimali, A. (2011). Understanding Structural Analysis. Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

Norris, C., Wilbur, J., & Utku, S. (1980). Elementary Structural Analysis. Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc.

Philpot, T. A. (2008). Mechanics of Materials. John Wiley & Sons.

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