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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20

D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.


DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Course Code & Title : ENSC 104 – Engineering Statics Wk. No.
Class Schedule :
Sem. / School Year
Prepared By
: 1st Semester / SY 2019 – 2020
: Engr. D.A.Belonio A.E., C.E. & Engr. I.S.Belonio
09

6 ANALYSIS OF BEAMS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Beams are structural members that are subjected to flexural loadings. These flexural loadings
develops shears and moments which are internal to the beam. Why then do we need to
determine the shear and moment? It is for the reason that once we know where the maximum
shear and the maximum moment are, we can safely size up the beams to carry such loads.
Furthermore, for some materials such as reinforced concrete, the location of positive and
negative moment is critical since the positioning of flexural reinforcements whether it is in the
top or at the bottom depends on that. For steel and other homogenous materials, it is only the
maximum value that would be critical.

Figure 1 – precast concrete components. Image source: www.vces-prefa.cz/EN/prefabrikovane-dilce. Date


accessed: 03/09/19

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
6.2 BEAM CONSTRUCTION
Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel, and timber are the common structural
materials used for beams. For reinforced concrete beams, since concrete is a material that is
strong in compression but weak in tension, steel reinforcements are added in the section to
carry the tensile stresses. RC beams may be precast (as in Figure 1) or cast monolithically with
other structural members such as the column or slabs.

Figure 2 – reinforced concrete beam showing the flexural steel reinforcements and stirrups. Image source:
https://debug.pi.gr/default.aspx?ch=53. Date accessed: 09/28/19

Prestressed concrete beams (see Figure 3) uses the principle of prestressing before subjecting
the beam to the actual loads making the section stronger. There are two methods of
prestressing: post-tension process, and pre-tension process. The some prestressing steel is
called tendons.
Beams using timber materials (see Figure 4) is often found in floor joist or roof rafters. Steel
beams (see Figure 5) can be found on various steel buildings or mechanical equipment. Steel
beams can be welded or bolted to other structural components. Plate connectors, cleats, and
other components may be present in steel connections.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 3 - a prestressed concrete beam. Image source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Prestressed-


concrete-PSC-girder-with-multiple-tendons_fig3_321933178. Date accessed: 09/28/19

Figure 4 – timber beams used as floor joists. Image source: https://www.instarix.org/tag/joisting. Date
accessed: 09/28/19

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 5 - steel beams used in heavy girders for bridge or skyways. Image source:
https://erkrishneelram.wordpress.com/2015/01/21/what-is-a-girder-bridge/. Date accessed: 09/28/19

6.3 DETERMINACY AND STABILITY OF BEAMS


If a beam is built up without any internal connections (internal hinge, roller, or link), the entire
beam may be considered as one piece of monolithic rigid body placed on a number of supports,
and the question of stability and of the determinacy of the beam is settled solely by the number
and arrangement of supports.

Figure 6 - schematic diagram of beam. Image source: (Hsieh, 1982)

If a hinge is introduced into the statically stable and determinate beam, it will obviously
become unstable under general loading as the result of a relative rotation between the left and

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
the right portions of the beam at the internal hinge. It is simply because the moment reaction
in the hinge is zero.
Referring to Figure 6c and d, we see that in each case there are three elements of reaction
supplied by supports, whereas there are four conditions of statics to restrict the external forces
– three from equilibrium plus one from construction. This means that the number of unknown
elements of reaction is one fewer than the independent equations of statics available for their
solution. Therefore, the equations of statics for the force system are generally not satisfied.
The beam is unstable, unless we provide at least one additional element of reaction, such as
the additional roller support shown in Figure 6e and f, which makes the total number of
unknown elements of reaction equal to the number of independent equations of statics needed
to determine the elements. If this is done, the beam will be restored to a statically stable and
determinate state.
Suppose a link (or a roller) is introduced into a section of the statically stable and determinate
beam of Figure 7a or b. We expect that this beam will be less stable than that of a hinged
connection because the link (roller) cannot resist both moments about the link pin and forces
normal to the link.

Figure 7 - schematic diagram of a beam with link. Image source: (Hsieh, 1982)

Geometric instability is most likely to occur whenever internal connections are introduced into
an originally stable structure. Consider, for example the Figure 8a. The beam is statically
indeterminate to the first degree. Now if a hinge is inserted to the beam as shown in Figure
8b, it seems to be statically determinate. However, when a load is applied, a small initial
displacement will result and will not be resisted elastically by the structure. In such a case,
the beam is unstable not because of the inadequacy of the supports but because of the
inadequacy of the arrangement of members. This is referred to as internal geometric
instability. Very often when this occurs, the structure will collapse. If collapse will not occur,
the beam will come to rest in a position such as that marked by the dashed lines.

Figure 8 - Image source: (Hsieh, 1982)

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
A criterion may now be estabilished for the stability and determinacy of beams. Let denote
the number of reaction elements and the number of equations of condition ( = 1 for a hinge;
= 2 for a roller; = 0 for a beam without internal connection).
1. If < + 3, the beam is unstable.
2. If = + 3, the beam is statically determinate provided that no geometric instability
(internal and external) is involved.
3. If > + 3, the beam is statically indeterminate.

6.4 INTERNAL FORCES IN BEAMS & THE SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAM
As with the members in the truss experiencing internal axial forces either in tension or
compression, beams also experiences internal forces not in axial forces, but in shear and
moment. Shear force is a force that acts parallel to cross sectional area. Whereas axial force
is a force that acts perpendicular to the cross section. Moment (or internal bending moment)
is a force that causes rotation about an axis simply because of the eccentricity of action.
Figure 9 shows a beam subjected to various external forces. If we make a cut along the beam
length, at any section there exists an internal force and internal moment. The value of
maximum shear and maximum moment as well as their location (either positive or negative) as
well as their behavior is what interests us as an engineer. For the maximum values determines
the size of the beam.

(b)
(a)
Figure 9 – (a) A beam subjected to loads. (b) Internal shear force and bending moments shown in the beam cut.
Source: (Philpot, 2008)

The shear and moment diagram is a graphical representation showing the values and behavior
of shear and moments along the beam length as a response to various types of external forces.

6.4.1 Sign Convention


A positive internal shear force (See Figure 2a)

 Acts downward on the right-hand face of a beam.


 Acts upward on the left-hand face of a beam.

A positive bending moment (See Figure 10a)

 Acts counterclockwise on the right-hand face of a beam


 Acts clockwise on the left-hand face of a beam.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
These sign conventions can also be expressed by the directions of and that act on a small
slice of the beam. The alternative statement of the and sign convention is illustrated in
Figure 10b.

(a) (b)
Figure 10 – (a) sign convention for beam cut. (b) Alternative illustration of sing convention for beam slice. Source:
(Philpot, 2008)

Shear and moment diagrams can be constructed by developing functions that express the
variation of internal shear force ( ) and internal bending moment ( ) along the beam and
then plotting these functions. When a beam has several loads, however, this approach can be
quite-time consuming, and a simpler method is desired. The process of constructing shear and
moment diagrams is much easier if specific relationships between load, shear, and moment are
taken into considerations.

6.4.2 Six Rules for Constructing the Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

Rules for the Shear-Force Diagram


1. Concentrated loads create discontinuities (or jumps) in the shear-force diagram.

Figure 11 – Rule 1 illustration. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

2. The change in internal shear force between two points is equal to the area under the
distributed-load curve.

Figure 12 - Illustration for Rule 2. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
3. At any point, the slope of the diagram is equal to the intensity of the distributed load.

Figure 13 – Illustration for Rule 3. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

Rules for the Bending-Moment Diagram


4. The change in the internal bending moment between any two points is equal to the area
under the shear-force diagram.

Figure 14 - Illustration for Rule 4. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

5. At any point, the slope of the diagram is equal to the intensity of the internal shear
force .

Figure 15 – Illustration for Rule 5. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

6. Concentrated moments create discontinuities (or jumps) in the bending-moment


diagram. A clockwise external moment cause the diagram to jump upward, and a
counterclockwise external moment causes the diagram to jump downward.

Figure 16 – Illustration for Rule 6. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019
6.4.3 General Procedure for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams.

Step 1 – Complete the Load Diagram


Sketch the beam including the supports, loads, and key dimensions. Calculate the external
reaction forces, and if the beam is a cantilever, the external reaction moment. Show this
reactions on the load diagram, using arrows to indicate the proper direction for these forces
and moments.

Step 2 – Construct the Shear-Force Diagram


The shear-force diagram will be constructed directly beneath the load diagram. For that
reason, it is convenient to draw a series of vertical lines beneath significant beam locations to
help align the diagrams. Begin the shear-force diagram by drawing a horizontal axis, which will
serve as the x-axis for the diagram. The shear-force diagram should always start and end on
the value = 0. Construct the diagram from the leftmost end of the beam toward the
rightmost end, using the rules. Rule 1 and 2 will be the rules most frequently used to determine
shear-force values at important points. Rule 3 is useful when sketching the proper diagram
shape between these key points. Label all points where the shear force changes abruptly and
at locations where maximum or minimum (i.e., maximum negative values) shear forces occurs.

Step 3 – Locate Key Points on the Shear-Force Diagram


Special attention should be paid to locating points where the diagram crosses the =
0 axis because these points indicate locations where the bending moment will be either a
maximum or minimum value. For beams with distributed loadings, Rule 3 will be essential for
this task.

Step 4 – Construct the Bending-Moment Diagram.


The bending-moment diagram will be constructed directly beneath the shear-force diagram.
Begin the bending-moment diagram by drawing a horizontal axis, which will serve as the x-axis
for the diagram. Construct and from the leftmost end of the beam toward the rightmost
end, using the rules. Rules 4 and 6 will be the rules most frequently used to determine bending-
moment values at important points. Rule 5 is useful when sketching the proper diagram shape
between these key points. Label all points where the bending moment changes abruptly and
at location where maximum or minimum (i.e., maximum negative values) bending moments
occur.

6.4.4 Relationships between the Diagram Shapes


If the shear diagram is constant for a beam segment, then the moment diagram will be linear,
which makes the diagram relatively straightforward to sketch. If the diagram is linear for
a beam segment, the the diagram will be quadratic (a parabola). A parabola can take two
shapes: either concave or convex. The proper shape for the diagram can be determined
from information found on the diagram since the slope of diagram is equal to the intensity
of the shear force (Rule 5). Various shapes for the relationship are illustrated in the Figure
below.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 17 – Relationships between shear and moment diagram shapes. Source: (Philpot, 2008)

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

7 ANALYSIS OF FRAMES
The difference between a rigid frame and a truss is that the members of a rigid frame are
usually connected by moment-resisting (rigid, same as fixed joint) joints instead of being a
hinged together as in an ideal truss. Thus a rigid frame may be defined as a structure composed
of a number of members all lying in one plane and connected so as to form a rigid configuration
by joints, some or all of which are moment-resisting (rigid) instead of hinged.

Figure 18 – steel structure. Image source: www.archiexpo.com/prod/union-living/product-148572-1655179.html.


Date accessed: 04/02/19

7.1 GENERAL STABILITY AND DETERMINACY OF RIGID FRAMES


The stability and determinacy of a rigid frame may also be investigated by comparing the
number of unknowns (internal unknowns and reaction unknowns) with the number of equations
of statics available for their solution. Like a truss, a rigid frame may be separated into a number
of free bodies of joints as shown in Figure, which requires that every member of the frame may
be taken part. When cutting a section of a member, there are usually three unknowns (axial,
shear, and moment). However, if these quantities are known at one section of a member,
similar quantities for any other section of the same member can be determined. Hence there
are only three independent, internal, unknown elements for each member in a frame. If we
let denote the total number of members and the reaction elements, then the total number
of independent unknowns in a rigid frame is (3 + ).

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 19 – schematic of a rigid frame. Image source: (Hsieh, 1982)

Next, a rigid joint isolated as a free body will generally be acted upon by a system of forces
and couples, since a rigid joint is capable of resisting moments. For equilibrium of such a joint,
this system, therefore, must satisfy the three equilibrium equations.
It may happen that hinges or other devices of construction are introduced into the structure so
as to provide additional equations of statics, say a total of . Then the total number of
equations of statics available for the solution of the (3 + ) unknowns is (3 + ). The criteria
for the stability and the determinacy of the rigid frame are thus established by comparing the
number of unknowns (3 + ) with the number of independent equations (3 + ):
1. If 3 + < 3 + , the frame is unstable.
2. If 3 + = 3 + , the frame is statically determinate provided that it is also stable.
3. If 3 + > 3 + , the frame is statically indeterminate

7.2 STEPS FOR ANALYSIS


1. Determine static determinacy
2. Determine the reactions at the frame supports
3. Select a member or a joint with three or fewer unknowns and apply the equilibrium
equation to the free body of the member/joint selected.
4. For each member of the frame, construct the shear, bending moment, and axial force
diagrams as follows:
a. Select a member (local) xy coordinate system with origin at either end of the
member.
b. Resolve all the external loads, reactions, and end forces acting on the member
into components in the x and y direction.
c. Construct the shear and bending moment diagrams for the member.
d. Construct the axial force diagram showing the variation of axial force along the
length of the member. Such diagram can be constructed by using the method of
sections.

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ENSC 104 – ENGINEERING STATICS / Sem 1 SY19-20
D.A.BELONIO A.E., C.E.. I.S.BELONIO A.E.
DATE PREPARED: 9/29/19
COPYRIGHT 2019

Figure 20 - other configurations of rigid frames. Image source: (Norris, Wilbur, & Utku, 1980)

REFERENCES
Hibbeler, R. C. (2011). Structural Analysis (Panama Edition ed.). Pearson Education South Asia
Pte Ltd.
Hsieh, Y.-Y. (1982). Elementary Theory of Structures (Philippine Edition ed.). Prentice-Hall,
Inc.
Kassimali, A. (2011). Understanding Structural Analysis. Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.
Norris, C., Wilbur, J., & Utku, S. (1980). Elementary Structural Analysis. Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc.
Philpot, T. A. (2008). Mechanics of Materials. John Wiley & Sons.

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