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Home - VMware - VCP 4.0 Preperation - All in One

- VCP 4.0 Words of gratitude
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday, 15 February 2010 11:32

This guide did not form itself. I would like to thank:

Resource Rent The test environment used to test all settings and create VMs to toy around with was provided by Resource Rent. A cloud computing provider using VMware as default (and of cause reliable) platform! FastOne - IS My web hosting provider.. for helping me out when the site (SEO part) was broken once again.. My Girl.. For not complaining when I was working again.. (or studying.. accepted better ;-0 ) All who have replied and contributed to this guide!

How to read / use
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday, 26 October 2009 14:59

I have written this study guide based upon the VCP 4.0 blueprint released by VMware. This blueprint outlines the study objectives to master before going for the VCP exam. In the blueprint consists of bullets with objectives. I have used those bullets and placed my answer directly below the objective. You will find that some fat text and colors are used: • • Fat test after a bullet – This is a objective / question from the blueprint Orange text – this is a hyperlink to a site with more information about the subject

All other text is (supposed) to be written by me or in some cases (minimized) copy / passed from a VMware whitepaper or Internet site. If another source then mentioned under “Tools” at the bottom of the objective is used, this is mentioned. Hope you learn some.

Hope you learn some. Regards,

Matthijs

VMware Certified Professional on vSphere 4 – Learning guide
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 10:12

Hi All! I haven’t even finished my Design Expert certification yet but couldn’t wait to start with my VCP 4.0 any longer. There is huge demand for VCP 4 professionals and vSphere is being deployed all over. Since I did not wanted to take the training I did my exam before the 1st of January 2010. I passed.. but for all of you out there I finished the parts of the learning guide that i did not finish before my exam date. As of today, valentines day 2010 the 14th of February, the guide is done! Of cause, when comments and improvements come in, I will adjust the guide! So keep them coming, I have received many responses via the commend system as well as e-mails. Please keep them coming! Really motivating! If you have any comments, feel like helping me out of are just in the mood of dropping me a line, please feel free to do so. Enjoy reading and I hope this helps you guys out there! Regards,

Matthijs

PS Use the menu in the upper right of the page to navigate through the items of the learning guide! PS 2 on advice of Mike I have published a preliminar version in PDF format. Download it here. Only Chapter 8 is missing (dd 23-11-2009) Working on it...

Objective 1.1 - Install VMware ESX/ESXi on local storage
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 09:31

Knowledge
Identify minimum hardware requirements The minimum hardware requirements are stated in the Installation Guide or the Best Practice Guide. In short these are for: ESX 2 x 64 bit processor 2 GB RAM For vCenter Server the specs are: Processor – 2 CPUs 2.0GHz or higher Intel or AMD x86 processors. Processor may be higher if the database runs on the same machine. Memory – 3GB RAM. RAM requirements may be higher if your database runs on the same machine. Disk storage – 2GB. Disk requirements may be higher if your database runs on the same machine. Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express disk requirements. The bundled database requires up to 2GB free disk space to decompress the installation archive. Networking – 1Gbit recommended. Download, prepare and validate installation media You can download the ISO files from the VMware website if you have a valid log in ID and are authorized to download vSphere ISO files. To check you can use the MD5 checksum and during installation the verification step in the wizard. The ISO files can be mounted using tools like iLO, Daemon tools of the VI Client. When physical installation media is required the ISO file needs to be burned to a CD / DVD. Native support is available in Windows 7 and Mac OSX. Other OSes require a third party tool. Determine appropriate ESX/ESXi configuration in a given situation Obtain required information for environment Obtain information on the following aspects about your environment: System compatibility I/O compatibility (Network and HBA cards)

Storage compatibility Backup software compatibility Verify hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide Before purchasing hardware it is best to validate against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide (HCL). This ensures the correct function of the ESX OS on the hardware and ensures VMware support. You can find the HCL here. Perform a custom installation Customize storage layout for given situations ESX hosts have required and optional partitions. /boot and vmkcore are physical partitions. /, swap, /var/log, and all the optional partitions are stored on a virtual disk called esxconsole-<systemuuid>/esxconsole.vmdk. The virtual disk is stored in a VMFS volume. You can read all about the required partitions here. And all about the optional partitions here. Configure ESXi from the direct console You can log on to the console the manage the system (if that is what they mean here…). Configure ESX/ESXi NTP Both ESX and ESXi can use an NTP (Time Server) for the time sync. This ensures that the ESX clock is always up to date. GUI The configure a time server change this in “Time Configuration” in the tab Configuration when a ESX server is selected CLI Edit:
/etc/ntp.conf

and add the time servers you deem necessary. For example:
server 0.nl.pool.ntp.org

Manage ESX/ESXi licensing Compare/Contrast VMware vSphere editions VMware has two lines of editions. One for Small Business and one for mid-size and Enterprise. Both lines combined this leads to 7 version of the product, 3 aimed at small businesses and 4 aimed at medium and enterprise corporations. These versions differ on the amount of resources supported and the supported functionality. You can find a schematic overview here. Manage license keys License reporting and management are centralized. If you upgrade all your hosts, you no longer need a license server or host-based license files. All product licenses are encapsulated in 25-character license keys that you can manage and monitor from vCenter Server. Each host requires a license, and each vCenter Server instance requires a license. You cannot assign multiple license keys to a host or to a vCenter Server system. You can license multiple hosts with one license key if the key has enough capacity for more than one host. Likewise, you can license multiple vCenter Server instances with one license key if the key has a capacity greater than one. When you apply a minor upgrade or patch the ESX/ESXi or vCenter Server software, you do not need to replace the existing license key with a new one. If you upgrade the edition of the license (for example, from standard to enterprise), you must replace the existing license key in the inventory with a new upgraded license key.

Tools
VMware Hardware Compatibility Guid VMware ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guide Configuration Maximums Guide Product Documentation VMware Virtualization Toolkit

Objective 1.2 - Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 13:26

Knowledge
Plan a VMware vSphere upgrade Backup/Restore ESX/ESXi host configuration Back Up ESX Procedure Back up the files in the /etc/passwd, /etc/groups, /etc/shadow, and /etc/gshadow directories. The /etc/shadow and /etc/gshadow files might not be present on all installations.

5. While migrating the underlying ESX hyper-visor backing up you VMs is essential.0 Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi Described at the previous bullet.x as an intermediary step.0 is not supported. Understand upgrade roll back options When an upgrade fails there are roughly two way to go back to the previous situation: .5 to ESX 3.5.5 to ESX 4.0. run the vicfg-cfgbackup command with the -s flag to save the host configuration to a specified backup filename.0.com/resources/compatibility/search. Back up local images. This ensures the correct function of the ESX OS on the hardware and ensures VMware support. The utility includes a wizard that guides you through upgrades. These options depend on the current version of ESX / vCenter you are running. and .php. As an exception. Having a decent backup is an essential step here.0/ESXi 4. You can update the VM’s by hand (right click the VM and select Upgrade Hardware) of use the update manager to automate this process. To ensure that each update is successful. exported virtual machines. Patch. use the following strategy: After each update. Orchestrated upgrades can be used to upgrade the virtual machine hardware and VMware Tools of virtual machines in the inventory at once. I you fail to upgrade the VMware Tools you might loose network connectivity. however you cannot validate if the VMware tools install was successful before upgrading the Virtual Hardware. You can find the HCL here: http://www. use the tools provided to upgrade ESX. While an upgrade is in progress.” on page 106.x/ESXi 3. in-place upgrade from ESX 2. Upgrade virtual machine hardware After you have upgraded the ESX server you VM’s are (probably) not automatically updates. Upgrade VMware Tools Upgrading VMware Tools can be done by hand (use the VI-Client of from within the VM using the existing VMware tools) or automated using the Update Manager.5 to ESX 3.vmx files. or Upgrade. you can use either the vSphere Host Update Utility or vCenter Update Manager. Some back-up options are: Use VCB to back-up your VMs in combination with you back-up tools for File level backup Image level backups Use back-up agents in you Virtual Machines Shutdown the VM and copy the files Determine if existing hardware meets upgrade requirements Verify hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide Before upgrading ESX it is essential to validate you hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). This restart can be combined with the reboot / shutdown needed for the hardware update. Upgrading hardware requires the VM to be down / reboot. Remember that before upgrading the virtual hardware you MUST UPGRADE VMWARE TOOLS FIRST. The default ESX 2. if you have a non-default ESX 2.x requires the use of one of the following methods: Graphical upgrade from CD Text-mode upgrade from CD Tarball upgrade using the service console Scripted upgrade from CD or PXE server using esxupdate Scripted upgrade from CD or PXE server using kickstart commands Perform upgrade to ESX 4.5 to ESX 4. user the CD or a scripted install from a PXE server.5 installation on which at least 100MB of space is available on the /boot partition.” on page 83 and “Uninstall a Bundle from a Host. Orchestrated upgrades allow you to upgrade all hosts in the inventory using host upgrade baselines. The new VMware tools version holds new drivers for the upgraded hardware that are essential.vmware. Updating the VMware tools requires a restart of the server.iso files. such as templates.0. cannot access the VM’s any more of cannot use them any more you need a valid roll-back scenario. Besides wiping the system and starting over again with a fresh installation (what I think is not meant here) VMware provides several in place upgrade options. Verify success of upgrade Follow best practices when you install updates on hosts. test the system to ensure that the update was completed successfully. If for any reason your ESX hosts dies.5. The upgrade of ESX 2. the utility provides visual status.5. using baseline groups containing the VM hardware and / or VMware tools that match. Host Update Utility This utility is intended for small deployments with fewer than 10 ESX/ESXi hosts and without vCenter Server or vCenter Update Manager. perform a fresh install. revert to the last good known image. Direct.5. If the installation was unsuccessful.Back up any custom scripts. In the vSphere CLI. Understand VMware ESX/ESXi upgrade scenarios More info here. When you upgrade from ESX 3.5 installation creates a /boot partition that is too small to enable upgrades to ESX 4.0 you can perform orchestrated upgrades of hosts and virtual machines. you can upgrade ESX 2. There are several options to back-up your virtual machines.x and then to ESX 4. Example: vicfg-cfgbackup --server <ESXi-host-ip> --portnumber <port_number> --protocol <protocol_type> --username username --password <password> -s <backup-filename> Understand Virtual Machine backup options You can find more info here. even if you upgrade to ESX 3. There are several way’s to upgrade you existing ESX infrastructure the vSphere / ESX 4. Back up your . Update Manager With Update Manager 4. Back Up ESXi procedure Install the vSphere CLI. See“RollBackanESXiUpdate.

All changes to the VM are also not rolled back. To open additional. Read the upgrade guide for detailed instructions.com/pdf/esx3_backup_wp. you need a pre-upgrade snapshot. Outgoing ports not blocked by default. Opening/Closing ports in the firewall using the vSphere Client The vSphere client can be used to open and close ports on a ESX host. You can restore this backup using this procedure for ESX (http://www. from the command line and from the vCenter GUI. In the screen that opens you can select the ports to open. ports you need to use the command line. Low Outgoing ports not blocked by default. More info can be found here. High Incoming ports blocked by default.3 – Secure VMware ESX/ESXi Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday. Perform a fresh install of the ESX operating system and restore a backup you created before. . The default in a standard install is high resulting in a fully firewalled (incoming and outgoing) environment. 06 October 2009 15:07 Knowledge Identify default security principles When installing ESX use security=high (default) Do not allow root level access over SSH and use secure commands Disable all unnecessary services in COS Use VCenter to help you manage granular security access Stay current with patches Control User Level access using VCenter Understand Service Console firewall operation By default all incoming connections to the service console port of an ESX server are blocked. Service Console Security Level The VMware firewall protecting the Service Console has three default security levels. The firewall can be configured in two way’s. To do so: Select you ESX host Go to the configuration tab Click “Properties” in the upper right corner of the screen.vmware.pdf) and the procedure described in the upgrade guide for ESXi (vSphere CLI: vicfg-cfgbackup) Tools vSphere Host Update Utility vCenter Update Manager esxupdate Objective 1. Outgoing ports blocked by default. A firewall on the ESX Server checks all incoming traffic and allows only traffic explicitly allowed in the firewall configuration. non listed. Remember that if you already upgraded your VMs this upgrade is not automatically rolled back. Low Incoming ports not blocked by default.When an upgrade fails there are roughly two way to go back to the previous situation: Rollback the upgrade using the provided tools (rollback-to-esx3 command of shift-r during boot for ESXi). Medium Incoming ports blocked by default.

4 – Install VMware ESX/ESXi on SAN Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday.) . Check the FC switch wiring. make the ESX host visible to the SAN. 07 October 2009 21:04 Knowledge Configure LUN Masking LUN Masking is used to hide certain LUNs for the ESX hyper-visor. for Windows Putty is a favored client for accessing SSH Servers.Set up user/group accounts Because the chapter is about ESX / ESXi I presume setting up users and groups on the local ESX host is meant. Another way to authenticate user locally on a ESX host is to enable the AD authentication for local users. but can be enabled. Also an account to login needs to be created. Remote root access is disabled by default. To hide LUNs on ESX (not applicable during install): LUN masking has been changed since the ESX 3. Keyboard) or remote using a SSH (Secure Shell) Client.x version. referring to any cabling guide that applies to your setup. A new command is used: esxcli corestorage claimrules convert This new command allows you to (un)hide luns and the convert the previous LUN masking used in pre ESX 4 servers to the new format. To add a new LUN masking to need to hide the LUN on every available path to the storage controller! This means that the underlying command line needs to be executed for every path. More information on how to migrate you existing pre ESX 4 LUN masking configuration to the new format can be found here on page 94. Tools vSphere Client ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation Objective 1. if there is any. from the local terminal (monitor. Before you can access a VMware ESX server with a remote client you need to explicitly allow access. Hiding LUNs during installation is typically done on you storage array. Configure the storage array. All LUNs presented to the OS are under normal circumstances visible (assuming the LUNs are presented on the storage array). Prepare SAN To prepare the FC SAN: Connect the FC and Ethernet cables. Read more here to add local users and groups Determine applications needed for accessing the service console in a given scenario To access the service console the are roughly two option. Linux and Mac OSX have a SSH client by default. This however is not a best practice!!! The most secure way is to log in as a regular user and use sudo to execute privileged commands. The command to add a LUN is: esxcli corestorage claimrule add -r <claimrule_ID> -t <type> <required_option> -P <MASK_PATH> This and more examples can be found here. otherwise you risk overwriting valuable VMFS partition with VM’s. From the SAN storage array. When installing ESX on a LUN you want to be sure you only see the partition you want to install ESX on. (This is often referred to as creating an object.

the volumes are always presented as LUN 0.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1009080 FC or iSCSI HBA BIOS On dedicated Fibre channel and iSCSI cards a BIOS is available. Configure FC or iSCSI HBA BIOS To boot from SAN you need fibre channel adaptors that support this option. Record the WWPN for each SP and host adapter involved. Configure the storage system. Install VMware ESX/ESXi A detailed installation procedure can be found here. If the SP has only one LUN attached.5 – Identify vSphere Architecture and Solutions Written by Matthijs van den Berg .vmware. Ensure that no other system has access to the configured LUN. Press Enter to save the setting. During the installation of ESX this LUN is visible to install ESX onto. Use the arrow keys to position to the selected LUN and press Enter. Depending on the vendor of the card they function of the BIOS may vary. Create LUNs. If any remaining storage processors show in the list. it is selected as the boot LUN. and the CHAP authentication parameter you use on the ESX system. You must have this information to configure your iSCSI HBA. Use the cursor keys to select the first entry in the list of storage processors. Record the IP addresses of the FC switches and storage arrays. Ensure that the LUN is presented to the ESX system as LUN 0. Assign LUNs. Configure the storage system so that the ESX system has access to the assigned LUN. Boot your ESX system from the ESX installation CD. Enable BIOS Instructions on how to enable the BIOS for Qlogic and Bootbios: Select Boot LUN If you are using an active/passive storage array. If you are not sure which SP is on the active path. More info in the VMware Storage guide. Specific instructions for a qLogic adaptor can be found here. See VMware knowledge base article 1540.From the SAN storage array. The target IDs are created by the BIOS and might change with each reboot. Record the iSCSI name and IP addresses of the targets assigned to the ESX host. Caution! If you use scripted installation to install ESX in boot from SAN mode. More info on the best practices: http://kb. but mostly this BIOS is used to allow a server to boot from a SAN / NAS. you must also explicitly associate the assigned LUN with the host. If the SP has more than one LUN attached. This includes proper configuration of any routers or switches on your storage network. the selected SP must be on the preferred (active) path to the boot LUN. iSCSI names. Create a volume (or LUN) on the storage system for ESX to boot from. the Select LUN page opens. Best practice is to set the /var/log to a separate partition. On storage systems that present volumes as multiple targets rather than multiple LUNs. Press Esc twice to exit.com/selfservice/microsites/search. Tools FC SAN Configuration Guide iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation Objective 1. use your storage array management software to find out. Connect network cables. This could involve updating ACLs with the IP addresses. Instruction for the Emulex adaptor can be found here. Use the cursor keys to select the chosen SP and press Enter. See the Hide LUN section above! Configure the HBA BIOS for boot from SAN. Determine boot LUN size in a given situation VMware recommends a partition of minimal 8 GB in size for the optional partitions. you need to take special steps to avoid unintended data loss. When you presented a LUN you need to enter the BIOS of the adaptor during boot time of the server and configure the LUN you wish to boot from. To prepare the iSCSI SAN: Caution If you use scripted installation to install ESX when booting from a SAN. The host can also boot from LUN 255. position to those entries and press C to clear the data. you must take special steps to avoid unintended data loss. set up the ESX host to have the WWPNs of the host’s FC adapters as port names or node names. Storage systems must be able to ping the iSCSI HBAs in your ESX hosts. Press Enter to open the Select Fibre Channel Device page. On some storage systems. in addition to providing access information for the ESX host. Ensure IP connectivity between your storage system and server. referring to any cabling guide that applies to your setup.

Since Lab Manager 4 Stage Manager is fully integrated. This product allows you to use you virtual infrastructure to host desktops: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure or VDI. VMware Converter VMware Converter allows you to migrate virtual and / or physical machines to you virtual infrastructure. In a hierarchy this looks like: Datacenter products VMware VMware VMware VMware Infrastructure 3 vSphere 4 Server ESXi (Free) Management products in the vCenter lineup VMware vCenter Server (formerly VMware VirtualCenter) VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager VMware VMware VMware VMware VMware vCenter Lab Manager vCenter Chargeback Data Recovery vCenter Lifecycle Manager vCenter Converter VMware vCenter AppSpeed (formerly B-hive Conductor) Desktop products Enterprise Desktop VMware View VMware ThinApp VMware MVP VMware ACE Consumer Desktop VMware Workstation VMware Fusion VMware Player (free) Understand the various data-center solutions (View. The products make a fully redundant setup including the database. Lab Manager. We can separate 3 type of installation of an OS: Directly on the hardware. View allows for easy management. VMware View Not quite sure wheter this belongs into this list as VMware officially stated it as a Desktop product. and is no longer available as a separate product. You can find more info here. Life Cycle Manager This product allows you to deploy VM’s based upon a catalog to ensure consistency in VM deployment. A predefined set of VM’s can be cloned to make a dedicated and clean environment used for development. etc. VMware Server Heartbeat The VMware server heartbeat product helps you to make your vCenter Server implementation completely redundant. testing etc. 07 October 2009 22:28 Knowledge Differentiate VMware platform products and editions VMware differentiated it’s product in roughly two categories with per category several area’s of attention and products. etc. You can provide users with a per user virtual machine that they can work in. Because the VMware vCenter Server is an important part of the vSphere infrastructure (takes care of DRS. The product can import a OS on a physical host to a VM including the installation of VMware Tools. You can make sure these VMs are compliant with your IT policy and retire VMs when necessary. change network addresses if needed and start the VMs in a predefined order. Again.Wednesday. licences etc. thin provisioning etc. Remember this product is for large implementations only and requires selected hardware and a carefully planned fail-over script. These VMs can be based upon the production Virtual Machines. no virtualization . This hyper-visor allows the installation of multiple OS’s on the same hardware platform. Compare and contrast bare metal vs. manages the VM’s. mainly targeted at large infrastructures that demand high availability. Also VM’s from consumer products or from products of other vendors can be migrated to work on you infrastructure.) making this part redundant can be beneficial in certain environment. When your production site fails this product can start a script to mount the replicated SAN volumes. hosted architecture New definition per 4 February 2010 thanks to mvaughn. For some of these additional products I have written a short description: Site Recovery Manager This products helps you to get your virtual machines up and running really fast after a site failure. Your infrastructure has to be separated over two sites with a network and SAN replication in place. VMware Lab Manager This product allows administrators in you organization to rapidly deploy test environments. These additional software product can help you solve complex business cases.) VMware has developed more and more products that add functionality or help providing more up-time to you infrastructure. Resources are managed by the hyper-visor and divided over the guest. Explain ESX/ESXi architecture VMware ESX(i) is based upon the virtualization concept of separating the operating system (OS) and the underlying hardware by placing a hyper-visor in between. SRM. add functionality of ensure your business is always on.

If you disagree. All configuration maximums can be found here. Usually this type of virtualization has a larger performance penalty due to the extra OS layer. MEM. Whitin a vSwitch you can create a portgroup with a VLAN ID allowing only the traffic between that portgroup and the “physical” VLAN. NIC. In regards to the vSwitch there are some configuration maximums: Physical hardware The maximum number of physical adaptors depends on the brand / model of adaptor you use. Virtual Switch Maximums Total virtual network switch ports per host (vDS and vSS ports): 4096 Virtual network switch ports per standard switch: 4088 Port groups per standard switch: 512 Standard switches per host: 248 More information about the networking introduction can be found here. A vSwitch allows for many servers (via port groups) and uplinks to be connected. This combination gives us the best performance (native) but when the OS has nothing to do. Google on Internet to find out so much more you never thought it would fit on the net. explains here for workstations) Virtualization allows you to run more operating systems on the same physical hardware resulting in a better utilized system. This Virtual switch is connected to the physical network as well as to other Virtual Switches via physical ethernet connections. etc. Knowledge Understand Virtual Switch and ESX/ESXi NIC and port maximums A Virtual Switch (vSwitch) is a switch that lives on a single ESX host. If you need CLI command to perform you configuration please take a look at the Enterprise Administrator exam prep I have written. 100% of the resources for the OS. no virtualization. this is handled by the OS. Determine the vSwitch NIC teaming policy in a given situation NIC teaming sets the NIC teaming policies for a vSwitch or an individual port group to share traffic load or provide failover in case of hardware failure.Speaks for itself. the server is not utilized. Remember a lot is said about virtualization. the benefits. There are . The VM layer is usually not aware of the underlying hardware.) Hosted or Type 2 When using this method the virtualization layer runs on top of a OS. 08 October 2009 23:06 Note: Though all / most of the commands in this section can be performed by as well the Grafical User Interface as the Command Line I will only work out the GUI part unless especially stated. In most cases when the servers is under load the hardware is still not being utilized over 10%.1 – Configure Virtual Switches Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. My estimation is that if you understand the basics of virtualization and can point out the differences between bare metal and virtualization this will do for the VCP exam. downsides etc. Port groups are the virtual extension of VLANs. and basic understanding (really helpful if you are a newbie) can be found here. This virtualization layer is a thin and dedicated layer (ESX) that does nothing else then supporting VMs with resources. When possible a VM will be given direct access to hardware resources (CPU. This is based upon the “Tools” section below every Objective stating the GUI much more often than the CLI. please use the comment system and let’s get talking! Tools Introduction to VMware vSphere Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Editions Comparison Chart Objective 2. Please see the configuration maximums guide on page 5 for more information. This is the reason why virtualization is hot. This guide holds much more information in regards to the CLI. you can run multiple OSes and utilize more resources! Bare Metal or Type 1 Hypervisor (according the the definition of Brian Madden. It uses the OS to access resources like processor and memory.

This is used when there I no need for large bandwidth or the underlying network is not redundant or capable to support redundant uplinks. There are several ways to configure multiple NIC’s. . but there should be) you would like to use and click next. Login and follow the next steps: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Add Networking” in the upper right corner of the screen. Based upon a distribution logic (like port based.NIC teaming sets the NIC teaming policies for a vSwitch or an individual port group to share traffic load or provide failover in case of hardware failure. Create/Delete Virtual Switches A virtual switch can be added using the vCenter Client. MAC based or IP based (the last one requires a port channel on a physical switch. the others do not require switch configuration)) all traffic is distributed across the uploads resulting in more usable bandwidth. The next screen shows: Select “Virtual Machine” and click next Select the NIC (non available in the example. Please read here (second half). When a NIC or uplink fails in a load balanced setup the remaining NIC handles all the traffic (after some detection and MAC address learning downtime) Failover 
 Used with multiple NICs where only one NIC is active at a given time. When a network error occurs on the active NIC the secondary NIC can take over. In the following bullets is described per teaming configuration in what situation it can be used: Load Balancing In a load balanced configuration multiple NICs are used to handle the traffic from a vSwitch. Determine the appropriate vSwitch security policies in a given situation For the VCDX exam I have written some security riscs and defined how to combat those. The best configuration depends on the situation you are in.

(Normally you would still see the physical NICs on the right side in the preview pane) Click Next. check the config.Add a name and VLAN for a portgroup (or no VLAN of non are configured on you physical network). To do so: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Click on the “Add” button to add a portgroup . and click finish. Create Ports/Port Groups Besides adding Port Groups during the creation of a new vSwitch (like above) you can add them later.

next Name the new port group. The new port group is now added. Assign Physical Adapters Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the tab “Network Adaptors” . next and Finish. optionally set the VLAN ID.Select “Virtial Machine” to add a portgroup for VMs.

Click “Add” Follow the wizard to add a NIC to a vSwitch (you need a available NIC. To do so: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware . When you already add a portgroup you may need to enable VMotion support on the portgroup. To add a “VMkernel Port” you can use the Add a Port Group wizard described earlier. a NIC currently not in use by another vSwitch) Modify vSwitch NIC Teaming and failover policies Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the “vSwitch” Click “Edit” Goto the tab “NIC Teaming” Adjust the load balancing and / or failover setting to your needs. Modify vSwitch security policy and VLAN settings Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the “vSwitch” Click “Edit” Goto the tab “Security” Set the security policies to your needs. Configure VMotion To configure VMotion you need to add a “VMkerel Portgroup” to one of you vSwitches (a dedicated vSwitch of a vSwitch with VLANs in where you VMotion network has it’s own VLAN).

Unlike the previously covered vSwitch. Lets see: . So what you read is from the manuals or from my brain….2 – Configure vNetwork Distributed Switches Written by Matthijs van den Berg Friday.Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select your VMotion Port Group and click “Edit” Make sure the the “VMotion” checkbox is checked. 09 October 2009 23:45 Note: I do not have a dvSwitch environment to make screenshots / test what I am writing here. just like the old fashioned per ESX host vSwitches a vNetwork Distributed Switch has it’s limits. this dvSwitch has one configuration for all ESX hosts and allows for new features like network statistics that VMotion along with the host. However. When a manual is used you will find a link to it. a to an ESX host local switch. Knowledge Understand ESX Host and port maximums for dvSwitches A vNetwork Distributed Switch (further dvSwitch) is a virtual switch that spans multiple ESX hosts. You need to have an Enterprise Plus license to be able to use the dvSwitch (the most expensive and feature rich version of ESX). Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 2.

To configure read here on page 17. Migrate Virtual Machines to a vNetwork Distributed Switch The dvNetwork Migration and Configuration manual describes two separate methods of migrating to a dvSwitch vDS UI only This offers more per host control over migration. Thanks for the info Steve! Determine the virtual port group NIC teaming and fail-over policy in a given situation Can’t seem to find what I need on the net.e. You need to link physical NICs to a dvSwitch on each ESX server that is using this dvSwitch. because on a failure of the network connection a different NIC temporary will be used (take the performance penealty into account!). but you do need seperate uplinks. On the host you can specify on a per Distributed Port Group basis what port group uses what NIC. A dvSwitch allows for a more granular loadbalancing policy allowing you to team all physical adaptors into one big trunk to the ESX host. http://vmware.-) ) to create a virtual ESX environment for this with temporary keys. Create/Modify dvPort Group settings To configure read here on page 18. Forged Transmits. Read more here (second half). If someone know this / is able to test this. VMs powered down). and on the vSwitch you configure the failover policy.2-install-and-configure-a-virtual-networking-infrastructure-to-meet-set-security-designrequirements. but when implementing this for example for a hosting provider you need to take this into account.html Create/Modify a vNetwork Distributed Switch Please read here on page 16.pdf Create/Modify Uplink Group settings DV Port Groups on vDS are configuration templates for a group of ports and have a similar function and purpose to Port Groups on a vSS.HyperVizor Objective 2. MAC address changes. so any configuration change to a DV Port Group is reflected on all hosts covered by that vDS. I think it is possible to mix vNetwork Distributed Switches with regular vSwitches.3 – Configure VMware ESX/ESXi Management Network . This means that PER vCenter there can be no more than 16 switches and no more than 512 port groups! If we compare this to the regular vSwitch we see that this allows for 248 switches PER HOST and 512 port groups PER SWITCH! Thus allowing for many more networks than a standard switch. but is a longer process. Hosts do not need to be in maintenance mode so VMs can be powered up during migration.nl/vcdx/section-2-networking/objective-2. Determine the appropriate virtual port group security policies in a given situation This is about promiscuous mode.Total virtual network switch ports per host (vDS and vSS ports): 4096 Distributed virtual network switch ports per vCenter: 6000 Distributed port groups per vCenter: 512 Distributed switches per vCenter: 16 Hosts per distributed switch: 64 Take a good look at these figures. For example you can assign a dedicated NIC for the Service Console needing only one NIC. but I was unable to test this due to the lack of the right license and the fact that I think it is too much work (sorry . When being realistic no “normal” implementation will exceed 512 portgroups per virtual Center. You link the NIC’s to a vSwitch.com/files/pdf/vsphere-vnetwork-ds-migration-configuration-wp. I think that the NIC teaming and failover policy is done just like when handling a vSwitch. http://b3rg. These techniques allow you to make your infrastructure more secure. Add an ESX/ESXi Host to a vNetwork Distributed Switch To configure read here on page 11. so this one is done by head. Host Profiles requires the target hosts to be in maintenance mode (i. DV Port Groups span all the hosts covered by a vDS. vDS UI and Host Profiles This uses a reference host template and is the recommended method for bulk vDS migration and deployment on hosts with inactive VMs. Add/Delete a VMkernel dvPort To configure read here on page 18. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Additional Links bij Matthijs vNetwork Distributed Switch Migration and Configuration The Greath vSwitch debate vSwitch architecture Disagram . please fill me in! Update 15-dec-2009: Steve Desrosier left me a message about this You can have dvswitches and regular vswitches on the same server.

and later on you can add additional SCs. Remember that when doing so you network connection will be terminated! Best is to do so from the console. is essential.0 For ESXi you best use the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select your VMotion Port Group and click “Edit” Select “Continue modifying this connection…” Select the tab “IP Settings” Change the IP settings to you needs. A correct . change a SC or delete an SC. preferable on virtual and physical different network segments. Read more here. but best is to limit the amount of traffic that this vSwitch has to handle. When wired adequately to different switches this will provide a level of high availability to you Service Console. For ESX you can type the command:
 esxcfg-vswif vswif0 -i 192. Configure Service Console availability Service Console Availability can be configured in two way’s: You can assign multiple NIC’s to the vSwitch where the Service Console is running on.vmware. Remember network connectivity will probably be lost.2 -n 255.255. 12 October 2009 23:04 Knowledge Modify Service Console IP Settings The Service Console (SC) is a essential part of an ESX host to manage the system. When installing the ESX host you need to configure a SC with IP addresses. There are many good walkthroughs out there who can help you to configure this. The DNS will be used for resolving hostname. The Second option is to create a second Service Console. http://communities. and Is required for a decent operation of techniques as HA and DRS. including DNS resolvers and IP gateway. and also helps to combat configuration issues you might have on the service console / service console IP settings. wire and switch failure.com/thread/227140 This will protect you againt all the failures a second NIC will. for example no IP storage traffic if possible.1. This same vSwitch can be used for other networking issues as well. It will protect you agains NIC. Configure DNS and Routing settings for an ESX Host
To make you Service Console work adequately and reachable setting up you IP settings. To add a Service Console Interface To change the IP settings of an existing Service Console
 You can change the addres and subnet of an existing service console.255. A Service Console usually is a port group within a vSwitch.Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday.168. This option has some more configuration as for the second SC a gateway has to be configured via the advanced network settings.

resolvers and IP gateway. Routing – GUI To configure DNS settings via the GUI: Select Select Select Select Select a ESX host the tab “Configuration” “DNS and Routing” under “Software” “Properties” in the upper right corner the tab “Routing” .1.55
 search b3rg. DNS – GUI
To configure DNS settings via the GUI: Select Select Select Select a ESX host the tab “Configuration” “DNS and Routing” under “Software” “Properties” in the upper right corner Adjust the DNS servers and domain name(s) to your needs. and Is required for a decent operation of techniques as HA and DRS.168. The DNS will be used for resolving hostname. 
Both those settings can be configured from the GUI and the CLI.local More info and advance settings can be found here under “Configure Hostname Resolution”. is essential.241.conf This file holds the DNS servers for name resolution and the local domain name. DNS – Command line
To change the DNS settings from the commandline:
Edit the file /etc/resolv. A correct IP routing / IP gateway is needed for you SC to be reachable from other IP subnets.77.1 nameserver 195. Example:
 nameserver 192.

SAN Switches The SAN controller and the ESX hosts are connected by means of SAN switches. The controller is managed from a web based console or by using a software suite. In the other editions you can do this manually. In order these digits represent: Adapter. the VMkernel default gateway is used for you storage IP settings. When using a redundant setup you usually have two fabrics. Again. This of course depends on you SAN vendor. VMkernel and VMotion (when separated on different networks) but does not require one. Identify how ESX Server connections are made to FC SAN storage When you have a SAN connection over two fabric and you SAN controller has two active controllers you have four paths to your storage. Target. In vSphere enterprise plus you can use storage plugins from you vendor that will optimize multipathing for you. read more here. A SAN is build up out of several components: SAN Controller This is the controller that controls disk. SAN Switch and HBA on a single path. This is default behaviour of many SANs including most HP EVA storage arrays. To find this GUI Select Select Select Select a ESX host the tab “Configuration” “Storage Adaptors” you HBA . To combine those four to one usable path you need Multi Pathing (standard installed on ESX). When a LUN is presented to an ESX host it will be given a unique identifier existing of 4 digits separated by :. A storage array usually can present up to 256 LUNs per storage controller. but they cannot be mixed. Usually zoning is in place a SAN switch. Apparently it is not possible to have a separate gateway for you Service Console and for IP based storage on ESXi (ESX should work).The SC default gateway is used for your service console. Routing – CLI VMware allows a default gateway for iSCSI. Configuration of SAN LUNS is done from the Virtual Center or from the command line of the ESX host. LUN. You can think of SAN switches like Ethernet switches. Adjust to your needs. This means that if you would like to use IP based storage on ESXi you need an interface in the same subnet as you SC is. 1:0:0:2. Zoning creates separate segments (like VLANs when compared to Ethernet switches) the separate the devices in the fabric (a fabric is a collection of a SAN controller. 14 October 2009 23:56 Knowledge Identify FC SAN hardware components When you decide to use a SAN with you VMware environment first make sure that this particular SAN is on the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL).1 – Configure FC SAN Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Describe ESX Server FC SAN storage addressing Storage on a FC SAN is presented to a ESX host as a LUN (Logical Unit Number). also the HBA has to be supported by VMware and be listed on the HCL. Host Bus Adaptor Within the ESX host a Host Bus Adaptor (HBA) is used to connect to the SAN switch. Read more here. Channel. creates LUN and presents these LUNs to your ESX hosts. You can set the VMkernel default gateway / gateway of last resort with the command: esxcfg-route <DefaultGatewayIP> You can add additional or specific routes with the following command: esxcfg-route -a default <Subnet> <GatewayIP> During some surfing on the web I found this forum posting on the VMware website. Using multipathing can improve you SAN bandwidth with factor 4 (or more / less depending on the number of path to a storage array you have). SAN switches only switch the FC protocol. Example. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 3.

To hide LUNs on ESX (not applicable during install): LUN masking has been changed since the ESX 3. This new command allows you to (un)hide luns and the convert the previous LUN maksing used in pre ESX 4 servers to the new format. The command to add a LUN is: esxcli corestorage claimrule add -r <claimrule_ID> -t <type> <required_option> -P <MASK_PATH> This and more examples can be found here. All LUNs presented to the OS are under normal circumstances visible (assuming the LUNs are presented on the storage array). otherwise you risk overwriting valuable VMFS partition with VM’s. When a host can see a storage controller it can see all LUNs presented on that storage controller to the host. Scan for new LUNs When new LUNs are presented from the storage controller to ESX hosts the ESX host needs to scan for LUNs before they are visible on the system. Configure LUN masking LUN Masking is used to hide certain LUNs for the ESX hypervisor. When installing ESX on a LUN you want to be sure you only see the partition you want to install ESX on. Zoning is quite straight forward and allows a host based segmentation. Hiding LUNs during installation is typically done on you storage array. LUN Masking LUN Masking u typically implemented on the ESX server.x version. Look at: Adapter: vmhba1 Channel: 0 Target: 0 LUN: 2 Describe the concepts of zoning and LUN masking To hide certain LUNs from the ESX hypervisor you can use two techniques. A new command is used: “esxcli corestorage claimrules convert”. . Zoning makes segments on SAN switch that separate traffic and allows only hosts configured in that zone to see each other. To add a new LUN masking to need to hide the LUN on every available path to the storage controller! This means that the underlaying command line needs to be executed for every path. More information on how to migrate you existing pre ESX 4 LUN masking configuration to the new format can be found here on page 94. zoning and LUN Masking Zoning Zoning is a technique typically implemented on your SAN switches. This technique allows LUNs to be hided fromthe ESX host.Look at the “Runtime Name” CLI Open a Command line to you ESX server Type: esxcfg-mpath –l A large list of LUN details appear. No LUN based granularity is possible. Do to so we use the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the HBA to where the new LUNs are presented Click “Rescan” in the upper right corner Optionally adjust where to scan for Click OK to start scanning. This process van take a few minutes depending on you configuration.

14 October 2009 22:28 Knowledge Identify iSCSI SAN hardware components Like a Fibre channel SAN a iSCSI SAN is build up out of three components (normal setup). such as abort or reset of logical devices. This is the default policy for LUNs presented from an Active/Passive array. the default NMP. the ESX host switches to an alternative path and continues to use the new path while it is available. a dedicated switch with jumbo frame support is recommended. Read further down for a comparison between the softand hardware initiators. A regular ethenet switch can be used. Depending on a storage device. software iSCSI initiators You can use both a hardware as well as a software iSCSI initiator within VMware. registration. perform specific actions necessary to handle path failures and I/O command retries. if it has been configured. We find: iSCSI Target This is the controller of the disk and the device that converts the undelaying disk technology (for example SCSI) to iSCSI traffic on a network. The iSCSI initiators talk to the iSCSI target over this network layer. it uses the first working path discovered at system boot time. If the ESX host cannot use the preferred path. all paths will used in the round robin. Both will do the job. Minimum speed must be gigabit. Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA). a third party can also provide an Mulitple Multipathing Plugin (MPP) to run in addition to. it selects a random alternative available path. To manage storage multipathing. or use a vendor procides policy. The multipathing modules perform the following operations: Manage physical path claiming and unclaiming. but there are some differences: . A MPP is provided especially for one type of storage array by you vendor and can contain specific multipathing configurations the further improve performance.2 – Configure iSCSI SAN Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. This policy is not currently supported for LUNs that are part of a Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) virtual machine. Determine use cases for hardware vs. Third party PSPs have their own restrictions. Support management tasks. You can choose to use the default build in Native Multipathing Plugin. Round Robin (RR) Uses an automatic path selection rotating through all available paths and enabling the distribution of the load across the paths. it is not possible to rescan a single storage adapter. only the paths to the active controller will used in the round robin. Process I/O requests to logical devices: Select an optimal physical path for the request. Associate physical paths with logical devices. VMware does not recommend changing the LUN policy from Fixed to MRU as this policy is based on the array that has been detected by the NMP PSP. iSCSI initiator The iSCSI initiator is the ESX host. On this host a software of hardware iSCSI initiator can be installed. If you rescan a single adapter. Differentiate between NMP and third-party MPP The VMkernel multipathing plugin that ESX provides by default is the VMware Native Multipathing Plugin (NMP). The PSA is an open modular framework that coordinates the simultaneous operation of multiple multipathing plugins (MPPs). or as a replacement for. Switch The iSCSI target is connected to the network. For Active/Active arrays. ESX uses a special VMkernel layer. There are two types of NMP subplugins Storage Array Type Plugins (SATPs) Selection Plugins (PSPs). and deregistration of logical devices. Determine and configure the appropriate multi-pathing policy Multipathing is a technique to optimize the usage of all paths to a storage controller. or can be provided by a third party. SATPs and PSPs can be built-in and provided by VMware. These only apply to VMware's Native Multipathing (NMP) Path Selection Plugins (PSP). The NMP is an extensible module that manages subplugins. Otherwise. The ESX host automatically reverts back to the preferred path as soon as the path becomes available. The native pathing policies that can be used with ESX 4 are: Most Recently Used (MRU) Selects the first working path discovered at system boot time. If more multipathing functionality is required.On ESXi. If this path becomes unavailable. all adapters are rescanned. but a dedicated VLAN. Manage creation. This is the default policy for LUNs presented from an Active/Active array. For Active/Passive arrays. or even better. Tools FC SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 3. Switching to Round Robin is safe and supported for all arrays. Fixed (Fixed) Uses the designated preferred path.

To set-up the discovery: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the iSCSI Initiator. Configure CHAP Authentication CHAP uses a three-way handshake algorithm to verify the identity of your host and. Hardware iSCSI does not support mutual CHAP. but on the iSCSI hardware initiator. of the iSCSI target when the host and target establish a connection. To set the MTU size for the vSwitch vicfg-vswitch -m <MTU> <vSwitch> To check if the creation succeded successfully you can use the command: vicfg-vswitch -l To create a Jumbo frames enabled VMkernel interface: esxcfg-vmknic -a -I <ip address> -n <netmask> -m <MTU> <port group name> Make sure that you use the Jumbo frames enable vSwitch to create the VMkernel interface in. The main benefits of an iSCSI software initiator is the low cost (regular NIC of VLAN) that provides most of the functionality needed for most of the environments. properties Click the tab “Dynamic Discovery” or “Static Discovery” and add a server or target. but using a VLAN is possible as well. If needed. you must create a VMkernel network interface enabled with Jumbo Frames. all targets receive the same CHAP name and secret from the iSCSI initiator. or CHAP secret. if applicable. in addition to the dynamic discovery method. Configure the iSCSI Software Initiator When you need a iSCSI software initiator you need to: Create a VMkernel port for physical network adapters Select Select Select Select Select a ESX host the tab “Configuration” “Networking” “Add Networking” “VMkernel” Select “Create a virtual switch” Select “Select the NICs Go to “Port Group Properties” and enter a friendly name under Network label Enter the IP settings Finish Enable the software iSCSI initiator Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the iSCSI Initiator Select properties Click “Enabled” If you use multiple network adapters. each time the initiator contacts a specified iSCSI server. which allows you to configure different credentials for each target to achieve greater level of security. Before setting up CHAP parameters for software iSCSI. Generally only the most demanding setups require a hardware initiator but in those environments a fibre channel SAN is another way to go. activate multipathing on your host using the port binding technique. Also hardware initiators allow a boot from iSCSI SAN setup. if you use an ESX host. ESX/ESXi supports CHAP authentication at the adapter level. that the initiator and target share. it sends the Send Targets request to the server. Because the handling of IP packets is not done on the system processor. Make sure to use different secrets for CHAP and mutual CHAP. . To check if the VMkernel interface is jumbo frames enabled: esxcfg-vmknic -l Configure Dynamic/Static Discovery Dynamic Discovery With Dynamic Discovery. the target authenticates the initiator. Static Discevery With iSCSI initiators. You can find all about multipathing here op page 33. The verification is based on a predefined private value. enable Jumbo Frames Jumbo Frames must be enabled for each vSwitch through the vSphere CLI. The server responds by supplying a list of available targets to the initiator. Best is to use a dedicated NIC. determine whether to configure one-way or mutual CHAP. ESX/ESXi also supports per-target CHAP authentication. both the target and initiator authenticate each other. In this case. In one-way CHAP. Also. This can only be done from the Command Line.Software iSCSI initiator The software iSCSI initiator uses code from the vmkernel and requires only regular NIC’s in you ESX host. For software iSCSI. Hardware iSCSI initiator The hardware initiator allows for some extra functionality and less of a performance penalty on the system processor than the software initiator. you can use static discovery and manually enter information for the targets. In mutual CHAP.

iscsi. 1998-01. Configure ESX/ESXi network connectivity to the NAS device For the connectivity to a NFS device you need the same network configuration as you would for iSCSI.com.99 : CAUTION When your host accesses a virtual machine disk file on an NFS-based datastore.com.com. Discover LUNs When you have added the iSCSI initiator and added an iSCSI target you can start discovering targets: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Click “Rescan” in the upprt right corner of the screen. unique name is any name you want to use. maintained by vmware. Configure VMkernel port binding for iSCSI Software multi-pathing When there are two or more NICs available for iSCSI you can configure multipathing for redundancy and performance purposes.1998-01. The naming authority must make sure that any names assigned following the colon are unique. and iscsi is a subdomain. naming-authority is usually reverse syntax of the Internet domain name of the naming authority. Do not remove the .p.3 – Configure NFS Datastores Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday.vmware. Important: when you would like to configure multipathing for iSCSI you must connect the iSCSI software initiator to the VMkernel ports. the iscsi. To do so please read here on page 32 and 33.vmware. Identify iSCSI addressing in the context of the host Not really sure if they mean IP addressing or iSCSI naming here. This can be done only by hand via the ESXCLI. I have found this on ESX Configurate Guide . To do so: Create a VMkernel port for physical network adapters Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Networking” Select “Add Networking” Select “VMkernel” Select “Create a virtual switch” Select “Select the NICs Go to “Port Group Properties” and enter a friendly name under Network label Enter the IP settings .1998-01. the running virtual machine cannot access its virtual disk file.iscsi:name999 Tools iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client esxcli Objective 3.iscsi:name2 iqn.vmware.vmware. The following componets must be in place: NFS Share / server Switch VMkernel interface for NFS support Explain ESX exclusivity for NFS mounts Added via commend system by Carole (THNX!): Concerning "Explain ESX exclusivity for NFS mounts". 15 October 2009 15:41 Knowledge Identify the NFS hardware components To be able to add NFS datastores to your configuration you need an infrastructure that supports NFS. the name of your host. For iSCSI naming iSCSI qualified names take the form iqn.vmware. because without it.yyyy-mm.lck-XXX lock file is generated in the same directory where the disk file resides to prevent other hosts from accessing this virtual disk file. For example. IN regards to IP addressing. a VMkernel interface. such as: iqn.com naming authority could have the iSCSI qualified name form of iqn.for CHAP and mutual CHAP. for example.lck-XXX lock file. a .com domain name was registered in January of 1998. The name indicates that the vmware. make sure that the iSCSI initiator can reach the iSCSI target.iscsi:name1 iqn.com.1998-01.naming-authority:unique name yyyy-mm is the year and month when the naming authority was established.com.

Finish Create an NFS Datastore Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Add storage” in the upper right corner Select the bullet “Network File System”. Objective 3. file block size 4 MB UUID: 4a6f26bb-33aca892-7b43-0024817ebe6b Partitions spanned (on "lvm"): naa. this needs an block I/O device (iSCSI / FC) Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Matthijs' Links Some people are very enthusiastic about running VMs on NFS. 15 October 2009 15:43 Knowledge Identify VMFS file system attributes You can lookup the VMFS file system attributes from the command line. 359.vmdk and a example output: VMFS-3.33 file system spanning 1 partitions. next Fill in the required fields and finish the wizard.4 – Configure and Manage VMFS Datastores Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. vmkfstools -P -h <VMDK FILE NAME> for example: vmkfstools -P -h /vmfs/volumes/AOPSY001/TST001/TST001.600508b300906430a44f208f2ba60007:1 .2 GB.4 GB available. Some more by Matthijs You cannot run MSCS on NFS. File system label (if any): AOPSY001 Mode: public Capacity 931.

first check: Are the LUNs / targets presented on the storage controller? Is the zoning / LUN Masking configured correctly Are the HBA’s / VMkernel interfaces configured correctly Did you scan for new LUNs / targets after they where presented? To create a VMFS Datastore using the vSphere client: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Add storage” in the upper right corner Follow the wizard for your type of storage Attach existing Datastore to new ESX host If an existing datastore (formatted etc. Thin will use only the size that is actually use within the Virtual Machine. SCSI Controller Type You can change the SCSI controller type in the properties of the VM. SCSI Bus Sharing This defines if is disk can be used by one VM or by more than one VM the options are: None Disk is for one VM only Virtual Disk can be shared by VMs on the same ESX host Physical Disk can be shared by VMs on different ESX hosts Determine use cases for multiple VMFS Datastores Oops. but also the controller that has the least number of operating systems that it is supported on. In general the VMware Paravirtual is the fastesed controller you can choose. But because Copy Past is really fast…. In vSphere there are four types of controllers you can choose from: BUSLogic Parallel LSI Logic Parallel LSI Logic SAS VMware Paravirtual What controller you choose depends on you OS and performance needs. accessed over different paths to the storage controller (or even on different storage controllers!) this can improve the performance of a VM. accessed over different paths to the storage controller (or even on different storage controllers!) this can improve the performance of a VM. . In no particular order: Thick or thin When you create a disk or clone a VM from template you can choose if you would like the disk you will be creating to be thick or thin provisioned. Especially when these volumes are separate RAID sets and even better.Determine the appropriate Datastore location/configuration for given virtual machines When you create a Virtual machine there are a couple of consideration to make when creating the vDisk.) is present and visible to the ESX host you can add it to the “Storage” view by: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Refresh” in the upper right corner After de refresh the disk should appear. Create/Configure VMFS Datastores Before you try to add storage according to the following procedure. Think means that the complete size of the disk will be reserved on the storage array.: If you have a VM with multiple disks you can spread those disk over multiple VMFS volumes. just told you guys. Spread the disks If you have a VM with multiple disks you can spread those disk over multiple VMFS volumes. Especially when these volumes are separate RAID sets and even better.

1 – Install vCenter Server Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. VMware has made some estimation on the hardware requirements based on the number of VMs and ESX host: Up to 200 ESX hosts a 32 bit can be sufficient. however a 64 bit server is always recommended. Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Right Click the datastore you would like to delete and confirm. The MINIMUM requirements (thank you ITTamer!) are (can be more when the DB is on the same machine): 2 x 2Ghz CPU 3 GB RAM 2 GB Disk The recommended setting for up to 50 ESX hosts and 250 VMs are: 2 CPUs 4 GB RAM 3GB Disk Space The recommended setting for up to 200 hosts and 2000 VMs are: 4 CPUs 4 GB RAM . Above 200 ESX hosts a 64 bit server is required.Manage VMFS Datastores Group/Unmount/Delete Datastores When a datastore is decommissioned you can delete a datastore from the storage view. Grow VMFS volumes To increase the size of a VMFS datastore: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Right click the datastore that you need to encrease Click on the “Increase” button and follow the wizard. 15 October 2009 22:13 Knowledge Identify hardware requirements The hardware requirements for a vCenter Server depend on the number of ESX hosts and Virtual Machines you plan to deploy in that environment. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 4.

Because the is the vCenter chapter I have summarized some of the vCenter maximums: Item Max. This ensures not only that the service is running on two sites but also that the configuration is replicated.3GB Disk Space The recommended setting for up to 300 hosts and 3000 VMs are: 4 CPUs 8 GB RAM 3GB Disk Space Understand configuration maximums As most of you know the vSphere environment can handle a lot. orchestration and control of virtual machines. Integrated into the vSphere Essentials and Essentials Plus editions for small office deployments. Determine appropriate vCenter Server edition vCenter comes in different flavors. In the past VMware delivered a excel sheet to calculate the estimated MS SQL Server database size but in the new vSphere version this is being calculated in realtime in the GUI. ESX hosts on 32 bit vSphere 200 VMs on 32 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 2000 / 3000 ESX hosts on 64 bit vSphere 300 VMs on 64 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 3000 / 4500 Linked vCenters 10 Concurrent vSphere Clients (32 / 64 bit) 15 / 30 ESX hosts / datacenter 100 Concurrent (storage) VMotions (Host / Datastore) 2/4 Concurrent operations per vCenter Read more about the configuration maximums of vCenter here on page 6. One site. limited number of hosts When you run vCenter on one host with a limited number of ESX hosts and limited up-time demands you can install the vCenter Server in a VM. To change this setting and see the DB size estimate: Goto the menu item “Administration”. VMware stated those maximums in a document that you can find here. resource pools. VMware vCenter Server Foundation. etc. Enabling HA on you cluster will increase the availability of the vCenter Server in case of a ESX host crash. more host and high available demands When the demands for availability are higher of DRS must almost always work you can increase the availability of a vCenter by running it: In a MSCS environment (not officially supported?) In vCenter Linked mode By enabling “Fault Tolerance” for the VM vCenter on more than one site When you have more than one site you best run vCenter in linked mode. VMware vCenter Server for Essentials. This is a settings that you can set. I have thought about this for a number of scenario’s: One site. “vCenter Server Settings” Click “Statistics” Choose a interval duration and click “Edit” . Provides powerful management tools for smaller environments (up to three vSphere hosts) looking to rapidly provision. monitoring. Despite the fact that you infrastructure can run without a VC for a while it is best for management and features like DRS to have a vCenter. Determine database size requirements The size of the vCenter database is mainly determined by the amount of performance statistics collected. This document states all the configuration maximums in regards to ESX hosts. VMware vCenter Server Standard. but there are maximums. Provides large scale management of vSphere deployments for rapid provisioning. VMs. Determine availability requirements for a vCenter server in a given situation 96 VMware vCenter is the hard of the Virtual infrastructure. monitor and control virtual machines.

you can connect to the linked server on site B to continue working. to see what database you would like to use etc. Install additional modules VMware allows fro plug-ins into the vCenter client. the EXE file can run directly on a OS but has to be copied there. Each vCenter Server must have it own database. vCenter Converter The Converter allows you to convert existing VM Backups.000! You can link a maximum of 10 vCenter servers. When is change the five minute interval from log level 1 to four the DB size estimate goes from 15 GB to roughly 44 GB! Wow! And I did not even change the save period from the default of one day. These are both VMware as third party supplied and add extra functionality. When one server fails. vCenter Update Manager The Update Manager allows you to update you infrastructure. 16 October 2009 12:25 Knowledge . The installer is in the Virtual Center installation media and you can select this during the installation wizard.. There are four levels in where level 1 is the lowest level and level 4 is the highest level logging nearly anything on the system. It allows you to select physical servers and convert them using a wizard to a virtual machine. but don’t think so). VMware recommends a separate database for the vCenter Server and for the vCenter Update Manager. for example on site A. This plug-ins has to be installed explicitly. Install vCenter Server using downloaded installer VMware allows you to download the vCenter installation media as a EXE file of as an ISO file. Determine use case for vCenter Linked Mode Groups VMware vCenter linked mode allows you to link vCenter installations.2 – Manage vSphere Client plug-ins Written by Matthijs van den Berg Friday. VMs and physical machines to a virtual server. When running into those limits adding additional vCenter servers can increase those configuration maximums. The number of ESX hosts can grow up to a 1000 and the number of powered on VM can be 10. VMs and users per vCenter server is limited. You have to download and install the converter. including updates to third party guest operating systems. Read more here on page 103. however those database can be on the same SQL Server (if that is the best approach…I don’t know. Tools ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guides Product Documentation Database Sizing Tool/Calculators Objective 4. Configuration maximums The number of ESX hosts.” from the vCenter client menu Install plug-ins to your needs vCenter Guided Consolidation The Guided Consolidation plug-in is the P2V plug-in. Reasons to do so can be: Availability When you link vCenter servers those servers can manage the entire infrastructure. Prepare/Configure vCenter Server database How to prepare your database highly depends on your installation. The plug-in is available if the Update Manager is installed. “Manage Plug-ins. When you click edit you can change the level. Read more here on page 83.When the interval in selected the DB size is shown. To install plug-ins: Select “Plug-ins”. The ISO file can be mounted or burned to DVD. chapter 10. Read here.

please contact me or leave a message in the commend system! Enable plug-ins after installation When I plug-in is installed you need to enable it. Tools ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guides Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 4. please help. I am not sure whether this is a bug and should work (cannot find anything else this setting should do) or that we are on the wrong track here. If anybody knows a better way.. To do so: open the Plug-in Manager Right click a installed plug-in Click “Enable” to enable the plug-in. He point me to 'Table a-6 .extension priveleges' of vsphere basic system administration. To disable this I think the best way is to use Windows user permissions. it does not do the trick. I think it is quite obvious that when you install the Update Manager that that Update Manager plug-in is the associated plug-in to install. if you know more. the plug in menu etc.-) ).Identify available plug-ins The number of plug-ins can very with the exact release of vSphere. ESX hosts on 32 bit vSphere 200 VMs on 32 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 2000 / 3000 ESX hosts on 64 bit vSphere 300 . Item Max. So I think the best way to deny access is not to install the plug-in on the host system.. another list of figures that made the VCP 3 exam so famous. During the initial release the plug-ins worth mentioning are: vCenter Guided Consolidation vCenter Update Manager vCenter Converter vCenter Storage Monitor (default) vCenter Hardware status (default) vCenter Service Status (default) Determine required plug-ins for a given application Not really quite sure what is meant here (again . Unfortunately after testing this with a user.3 – Configure vCenter Server Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday. 18 October 2009 21:43 Knowledge Identify the vCenter Server managed ESX Hosts and Virtual Machine maximums Here we go again.. Update 1 dec 2009: I have received a mail from Peter. and leaving this option unchecked. It is not an option in de roles menu. This should allow control over registering/unregistering/ updating and extension (plug-in). I cannot find any User Access Control method of denying users access to plug-ins. Ensure permissions to install plug-ins This was a really pain in the ass.

To do so: Go to the vSphere client and right click on your cluster In the menu that pop’s up click “Add Cluster” Follow the wizard to add a ESX host. Configure Guest OS Customization When deploying OSes from a template you can use a Customization file to quickly deploy VMs in the same way. In general there are two ways to start the wizard: Deploy from template When you right click a template en choose “Deploy Virtual Machine from this template…” you automatically start a wizard to deploy a VM from template. A part of this wizard is a separate wizard to start the customization of the OS.VMs on 64 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 3000 / 4500 Linked vCenters 10 Concurrent vSphere Clients (32 / 64 bit) 15 / 30 ESX hosts / datacenter 100 Concurrent (storage) VMotions (Host / Datastore) 2/4 Concurrent operations per vCenter 96 Read more about the configuration maximums of vCenter here on page 6. . Join ESX/ESXi Hosts to vCenter Server When you have installed an ESX host you can add this to the vSphere environment by adding it to the vCenter Server. Remember that you need the MS sysprep files for Windows Server 2003 / XP /2000 customization.

this wizard is a separate wizard to start the customization of the OS. Configure/Use Resource Maps A resource map shows how different resources are connected to each other. To open the Customization Specifications Manager select the menu as displayed below. Configure/Use Scheduled Tasks You can create scheduled tasks to automate certain tasks in you vSphere environment. “Scheduled Tasks” to open the Scheduled tasks Right click “New” in the upper left corner of the window Choose a task that fits your needs. Please note that you cannot use VMotion to live migrate VMs from onw DC to another You must use Clusters or a smaller instance to separate VMs if you need VMotion. Follow the per task wizard that pops up. These can represent physical data-centers in your IT environment. Customization Specifications Manager After you have created a VM specification and saved this you can view and edit those. You can create nested folder structures you separate VMs. Folders are visible only in the “VMs and Templates” view. In the “Hosts and Clusters” and the “VMs and Templates” view you can create datacenters. To do so: Goto “Management”. and create complete new ones. manage existing ones and import specifications. Here you can create new specifications. Use datacenters and folders to organize the environment In vCenter there are quite some possibilities to organize your environment. For both folders and datacenters it is possible to set user rights to allow of disallow certain users certain actions. To open Maps choose: “Management” “Maps” Example output: . Folders are created within Data-centers. using the Customization Specifications Manager.

Go to: “Administration” in the menu bar Select “vCenter Server Settings…” .Use Storage Reports/Storage Maps To open storage information including Maps choose: “Inventory” “Datastores” goto the tab Maps to see the connections between ESX hosts. To open the events: “Management” “Events” Configure vCenter Server settings vCenter Server settings can be viewed and edited via the vSphere client. View/Manage Events In the event log all events are logged including the person who initiated the event (another reason for decent delegation of control!). VM and storage goto the tab datastores to see the datastores on the ESX hosts and the amount of storage that is used.

Configure vSphere Client settings vCenter Client settings can be viewed and edited via the vSphere client. Go to: “Edit” in the menu bar Select “Client Settings…” Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 4.4 – Configure Access Control Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. 21 October 2009 00:32 .

only the privileges and roles assigned directly on the host are available. only the privileges and roles assigned through the vCenter Server system are available. Create/Modify user permissions in ESX Server The privileges and roles assigned on an ESX/ESXi host are separate from the privileges and roles assigned on a vCenter Server system. called Roles in vCenter. you can: Open the vCenter client In the navigation bar choose “Administration”. When you manage a host using vCenter Server. Read more here on page 213. It allows for users to be created and a per user or per group delegation of access rights. If you connect directly to the host using the vSphere Client. and “Roles” Right Click in the left “Name” pane and select “Add” or “Edit” to add or edit user roles. You can edit the user permissions to your needs. Also you can use your active directory users in VC.Knowledge Create/Modify user permissions in vCenter VMware vCenter has quite a advanced Delegation of Control system. only the privileges and roles assigned through the vCenter Server system are available. When you manage a host using vCenter Server. To edit local users and groups on a ESX host connect you vCenter client directly to the ESX host instead of connecting to the vCenter server (type the ESX hostname in the vCenter client connection box and use root or a later created user to log-in). If you connect directly to the host using the vSphere Client. only the privileges and roles assigned directly on the host are available. Then: Select the ESX host Select the tab “Users and Groups” . To create / modify user permissions.

You can create a role that specifies what users / groups in that role are allowed to do. To attach a Define vCenter predefined roles and their privileges vSphere comes standard with a number of preconfigured security roles. roles and rights policy in vCenter is quite advanced. The standard roles within vCenter are: Select the object you would like to apply the user rights on Goto the tab Permissions Right click and select “Add” Select the role you would like to assign in the right pane Select the local or AD user / user group you would like to assign Optionally. By applying a Role for the users you can control what users are allow to do within that folder. This allows for a granular user and object access. To do so: . For example if you would like your R&D department to access only VMs in the Folder R&D you attach the R&D user group (that can be the same user group that you use in your active directory!) to that folder. Users can be added to these standard roles to quickly give them predefined privileges. add a user group to this role and connect that user group to an inventory object in vCenter. deselect the “Propagate to Child Objects” check box if you need user rights only on the object and not on underlying objects.Right click to add or edit users Read more here on page 213. Create/Clone Edit roles The roles we have been talking about earlier can be modified and new roles can be added. Restrict access to vCenter inventory objects The users. groups.

but always use groups. you have a resource pool. Those users and groups can have different roles on different objects within you vSphere environment. 26 October 2009 14:22 Knowledge Understand virtual machine hardware maximums A virtual machines can handle the values as described in the following table. Item Max. This can make the permissions part VERY COMPLEX! So be conservative with user rights. 512 bytes IDE Controller / Devices 1/4 Virtual NICs 10 Parallel ports 3 Serial Ports 4 VMDirectPath PCI / PCIe Devices 2 VMDirectPath SCSI targets 60 Number of remote console connections 40 Create a virtual machine .1 – Create and Deploy Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. Understand permissions as applied to user and group combinations You can assign the same permissions to groups and individual users.Use the navigation bar to go to “Administration”. Describe how privileges propagate When a Role and user are assigned to an object these Users and Roles propagate to underlying objects. If you would like to add users with certain permission to the whole infrastructure select the highest level in the vCenter hierarchy. CPUs 8 Max. Personally I never assign individual users rights. To add users and roles: Select the tab “Permission” Right click and select “Add Permission…” Add a user of group and select the appropriate Role. Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5. preferably groups that also exist in the Active Directory (if one is present). When you create a privilege all those VMs and resource pools inherit the same policy. RAM 255 GB SCSI adaptors 4 SCSI Targets per adaptor / VM 15 / 60 Disk Size / VM 2 TB min. Max. Within this resource pool multiple VMs and other resource pools are present. Example. So one user can sometimes be part of a group and sometimes have permission assigned to the individual user. This is default behavior. Please note that these maximums can depend on the VMware version you are using. To disable this propagation disable the check box “Propagate to Child Objects” in the assign permissions screen. “Roles” Right click a role to edit or add Assign roles to users and groups To assign users to a role an object where the users and roles are assigned to is needed.

The format of the disk in not VMFS but OS specific and allows for clustering across boxes (both a physical and virtual node participate in a OS level cluster). The most recent virtual hardware.). changing the SID. Disks with snapshots might not experience performance gains when used on LSI Logic SAS and LSI Logic Parallel adapters. Paravirtual SCSI adapters are best suited for high performance storage environments. Create a RAW Device Mapping This allows you to directly connect to a SAN / NAS LUN. VM will be converted to template. To start the customization wizard: Right click a template and select “Deploy a Virtual Machine from the template” Follow the wizard that appears. “Install/Upgrade VMware Tools” Another option is to use the Update Manager to upgrade VMware tools Create/Convert templates It is possible to create template from VMs.) When you have installed the OS and the VMware tools and other general software shutdown the VM Right click the VM and choose “Template”.Determine appropriate SCSI adapter When creating or editing a VM you can choose from several types of SCSI adaptors. To install VMware tools: Right click a VM in the vCenter client Choose “Guest”. Paravirtual SCSI adaptor Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) adapters are high-performance storage adapters that can result in greater throughput and lower CPU utilization. VMware recommends that you create a primary adapter (LSI Logic by default) for use with a disk that will host the system software (boot disk) and a separate PVSCSI adapter for the disk that will store user data. changing the name of the VM. This wizard assists you in some basic configuration steps like assigning a IP. These tools provide you with the optimal driver set for the virtualized hardware. etc. Those are: Buslogic Parallel Older guest operating systems default to the BusLogic adapter. Those templates can be used to VMs from. Before you can use those tools some OSes (like 2003) need the sysprep tools installed on the vCenter server. When you have created Use an existing Virtual Disk This option allows you to attach a previously created virtual disk to the VM. Customize Windows/Linux virtual machines When using supported MS Windows or Linux guest OSes you can use a wizard to create a VM from a template. such as a database. To create a template: Create a VM like you normally would but use general settings (no specific hardware etc. Paravirtual SCSI adapters are not suited for DAS environments. . source VM stays as a VM) or “Convert to Template” (only available when VM is off. “Clone to Template” (can be done when VM is powered on. LSI Logic Parallel This is the default adaptor when a VM is created (for most OSes). for example the VMXnet 3 adaptor needs those tools to be installed before it is usable in the OS (driver). Determine Virtual Disk type When creating a Virtual Machine there are the following options in regard to disk types: Create a Virtual Disk The standard option is to create a new vDisk that you can use in the VM. Do not create a disk Install/Upgrade/Configure VMware Tools When you have a running VM best practice is to install the VMware tools. LSI Logic SAS LSI Logic SAS is available only for virtual machines with hardware version 7.

Perform a Hot Clone Perform a Cold Clone Perform System Reconfiguration Deploy a virtual machine using Guided Consolidation a module within vCenter Server. Deploy a virtual machine using VMware vCenter Converter Enterprise VMware Converter is available in two editions. manage existing ones and import specifications. The Standalone version is free. Deploy a virtual machine from a template Explained two bullets above.One of the last steps of the wizard allows you to save the customization specification you have just created. and create complete new ones. conversion and intelligent placement on the right host Perform Discovery Analyze discovered virtual machines Consolidate selected virtual machines Clone a virtual machine To clone a VM: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Clone” . performance analysis. walks you step by step through the consolidation process including automatic discovery of up to 500 servers. To open the Customization Specifications Manager select the menu as displayed below. Those saved specifications allow you to reuse those settings when deploying other VMs later on. Manage Customization Specifications After you have created a VM specification and saved this you can view and edit those. VMware Converter Standalone and VMware Converter Integrated (I could not find a “Enterprise” version for vSphere… So let’s presume that the Integrated version is meant here). Here you can create new specifications. using the Customization Specifications Manager. the integrated version is free only when you have valid vSphere licences.

When a VM is off all types of hardware can be added / modified / deleted. 25 October 2009 01:23 Knowledge Configure/Modify virtual machines Add/Hot Add virtual machine hardware You can add and remove hardware for Virtual Machines via the GUI and the CLI. Depending of the state of the VM (on or off) you can add certain hardware. We will be discussing the GUI only here.Follow the wizard to create a clone of the selected VM Import a virtual machine from a file/folder You can import VMs that all ready exist on a datastore: Select an ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select the Hardware option “Storage” Right click a datastore and select “Browse Datastore…” Select a VMX file to import a VM Follow the wizard Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5.2 – Manage Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday. To edit the hardware properties of a VM: Right click a VM is the vSphere Client Click “Edit Settings…” .

This is a little bit more save. large updates. When you assign a VM a 20 GB partition a 20 GB file is created on the VMFS file system whether the VM uses it or not. This might depend of the type of guest OS you are using. A Thin provisioned disk is a disk that is assigned a predefined amount of disk space. Also you can browse to the . etc. This is called “Hot Add”.). The “Recent Tasks” screen show a progress indicator that the disk is being increased. You can choose this during the creation of a Disk and during a VMotion of a VM. vSphere allows you to connect a physical device directly to a VM. This allows a VM to directly access this device for optimal performance and compatibility. You can assign a PCI Device to either the VMkernel or as a pass through device. A Thick Provisioned file system is a file-system that works a little bit more the old fashioned way. but way more inefficient use of disk space.Click the Add button to add additional hardware Select existing hardware to modify or delete Follow the instructions on screen to execute your selected operation It is possible to add / modify certain aspects / remove some types of hardware while the VM is running. Determine appropriate disk format The are some options to choose when creating a Virtual Disk. You can Hot Add the following types of hardware: USB Controller (new device type in wizard) Ethernet Adaptor (Hot Add / Remove new in ESX 4.x) Hard Drive SCSI Controller Grow virtual machine disks You can grow a virtual disk both when a server is turned on and off. Because many VMs will never fully use the assigned disk space this can potentially save much space. The downside is that you can over-commit you VMFS volumes with the danger of quickly filling the volumes when many VM start to allocate space at the same time (virus.vmdk file using the GUI and choose to inflate the disk. Read more here and here about restrictions and how to configure. Configure virtual machine options General Options To open the general options of a VM: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane “General Options” is selected by default . but the disk space is not being used on the VMFS volume until the VM actually needs the space. The PCI Device has to be on the HCL. but not both. I think that the difference between thin and thick provisioned disk is meant here. Connect virtual machines to devices I Presume PCI devices are meant here. So dual of quad port card has to be either one. To grow a virtual disk: Right click a VM is the vSphere Client Click “Edit Settings…” Select the disk you would like to grow and click increase the size of the disk on the right side of the screen Click OK to apply and close the screen.

As stated on the Advanced window you can leave those to the default most of the time. I won’t go through all the option but you can enable mem and CPU hot plug and NPIV (SAN WWN to a VM) here. Consider this a warning from VMware . Power Management Options Can oly be changed when the VM is off Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “Power Management” .Edit the VM Name of Guest OS type here Advanced Options Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “Advanced” There are several field you can change.-).

5. unlike in VMware ESX 3. VMware Tools Options When the VMware tools are installed in the guest OS this allows for a more controller Guest OS. Also the way the VM handles hyper threading can be configured. You can control the VM with the play. You can change these settings here. To do so: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Resources” . perform a soft pause of shutdown (guest shutdown) of the OS by default. shares and limit of VM resources on a per VM level. To go to the panel: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “VMware Tools” Configure appropriate virtual machine resource settings You can change the reservation.Change the way how a VM responds to the standby mode here. Those buttons. and allow “Wake on LAN” (WOL) Support here. pause and stop buttons.

When you are not using a vApp starting or stopping an application that exists out of multiple VMs means you need to start / stop the VMs in a particular order by hand. or see the CTRL-ALT-DEL screen) and then start the next server. ) and define groups of VMs to start / stop when a criteria is met. Another benefit of the OVF is that the VMs are compressed by default make to size of the file smaller. To access the VA Marketplace choose: File “VA Martketplace…” .vmware. This makes using vApps really powerful. This is a part of the VMware website where VMs are offered by vendors of software that you can use for preview of production purposes depending on the type of software offered. http://www. 25 October 2009 01:29 Knowledge Determine whether a vApp is appropriate for a given situation A vApp is a logical group of VMs that have a dependency on each other. You can use the OVF tool to import / export VMs from and to the OVF format.com/go/ovf_guide Import/Export a Virtual Appliance You can import a Virtual Appliance by using the VA Marketplace.3 – Deploy vApps Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday. This is exactly what a vApp automates for you in combination with a Resource Pool. When the fist VM is started (let’s say a domain controller) you need to check is it is up (Tools report back. Define Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) The Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) is a format the allows for VMs to be migrated between different platforms of virtualization. A vApp allows you to: Determine a start-up oder including dependencies (start only when. In the “File” menu you can choose to deploy or export OVF templates. Configures resources like you would using a resource pool Configure vApp properties and version numbers Configure vApp IP allocation Nest other vApps within a vApp. You can manage a vApp within a vApp as a single server.. (assuming those support the OVF as well).Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5. Read more here. In short you can migrate a OVF VM easily between VMware ESX and Hyper-V / Xen.

To add a VM to a vApp drag and drop the VM on to the vApp. distribute and install updates in a controlled way. just told you… . The update manager allows you to centrally download.1 – Install. “Export OVF Template” Clone a vApp To clone a vApp: Right click the vApp (the vApp has to be shut down for this option to be selectable) Choose “Clone” from the menu (the vApp has to be shut down for this option to be selectable) Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client OVF Tool Objective 6. Build a vApp To build a new vApp: Right click you cluster and select “New vApp…” Follow the wizard that appears To add VM to the vApp drag and drop the VM into the vApp Create/Add virtual machines to a vApp Oops. The VUM supports the ESX Operating Systems as well as some mainstream guest OSes. Export vApps To export a vApp: Click “File” in the vCente client Choose “Export”. To distribute these updates VUM downloads and stores the updates locally and the signatures are stored in a Database that can be local or on a central Database . Edit vApp Properties To edit a vApp: Right click a vApp Select “Edit Settings” Adjust the settings as needed.Select a VM in the screen that pop’s up to download and follow the wizard to install this in you VI. 02 November 2009 01:03 Knowledge Determine installation requirements and database sizing When installing vCenter you can choose to install the Vmware Update Manager (VUM). The settings that can be edited are explained earlier in this chapter.-). Configure and Manage VMware vCenter Update Manager Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday.

vmware. Create baselines A baseline holds specific updates or update groups / criteria for OS’s. When VUM is installer on the same server as vCente Server (fully supported) a minimum of 4 GB of RAM is needed. use a shared repository. From this view you can select and configure multiple option from the VUM like when and how to download what patches. This allows you to select single or multiple entities in one baseline to create a granular update policy. containing all available updates with certain urgency for a specific OS.com/pdf/vsp_vum_40_admin_guide. use a proxy server and create download schedules for updates. Configure patch download options Under the tab “Configuration” you can select the “Patch Download Settings” and the “Patch Download Schedule”. of dynamic. install and enable the VUM plug-in.To distribute these updates VUM downloads and stores the updates locally and the signatures are stored in a Database that can be local or on a central Database server. The size that the update store and database needs can be calculated with the Sizing Estimator VMware distributes here. http://www. containing only specific updates. When you have the plug-in enabled in the vSphere Client select “Home” from the navigation pane and then click “Update Manager” from the “Solutions and Applications” section. When scanning for updates a host will be checked whether those updates defined in the baseline are installed. Install Update Manager Server and Client components To install the update manager. Make sure you have sufficient disk space and a database (or no DB if you choose to install the MS SQL Server locally). You can create a baseline for example to hold all ESX(i) updates. To start the install run the wizard from the vCenter Server install CD. Recommendations for large environments are to use a separate Update Manager Server and a separate database server. but 10/100 can suffy Software Windows XP SP2. Preferable a Gigabit connection. A baseline can be applied to: vCEnter Server environment (the top level) Datacenters Clusters Hosts vApps ESX hosts VMs Scan ESX hosts and virtual machines To scan ESX hosts you need to: Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Click “Scan” in the upper right corner . Sever 2003 or Server 2008 (dedicated DB recommended) MS SQL serve or Oracle as a local or remote database. The installation requirements are: Hardware 2 Ghz processor 2 GB RAM. A base line can be static. This can be done on the vCenter Server or on a separate machine. see events and create baselines to attach to ESX hosts for scanning etc. Read more here on how to. Read more here on page 27. Attach baselines to vCenter inventory objects When you have created a baseline you need to attach this baseline to objects in the vSphere environment.pdf Configure update manager settings To be able to manage the VUM settings you first need to download. Here you can configure the settings like: for wat OS to download patches.

Click OK on the pop-up screen that appears. Remediate ESX hosts and virtual machines When the scan completed successfully you can choose to apply those updates to the OS / Applications. Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Select the button “Remediate” in the lower right corner Follow the wizard that appears on screen. Stage ESX/ESXi Host updates Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Select the button “Stage” in the lower right corner Followw the wizard to upload (stage) the updates for a OS or application. When you select a host and the select the tab “Update Manager” you are in the “Compliance View”. This Shows how many updates are not installed on a host. Analyze compliance information from a scan When you have performed a scan of a ESX host or VM you can see whether the host has all the latest updates installed or not. . When you click on updates the need to be installed (the red figure) you see the Following window that indicated what applicable updates are installed and that are not.

02 November 2009 23:05 Knowledge Create/Delete Host Profiles Host profiles can be used to capture a configuration of an ESX host.2 – Establish and Apply ESX Host Profiles Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday.Tools VMware vCenter Upgrade Manager Administration Guide Product Documentation Update Manager Database Sizing Tools Objective 6. To create a host profile: Select the “Host profiles View” from the menu. Click “Create Profile” in the upper left corner. Follow the wizard that appears Or right click an ESX host and select “Create Profile” . This configuration can be used to be applied on other ESX hosts or as a baseline to check whether an ESX host complies to the standard defined.

Import/Export Host Profiles To import Host Profiles: Use the same procedure as described above To export I think right click a profile and export. To create a cluster: Open the vCenter client Go to the view “Hosts and Clusters” Right click you Data Center in the left pane. 10 November 2009 00:27 Knowledge Create new cluster A cluster is an entity that exists within a Data center.com/docs/DOC-10850 Objective 7. en select “New Cluster” .1 – Create and Configure VMware Clusters Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday. Check for Compliance To Check for host compliance af an ESX host: Right click the ESX host Select “Host Profile” Select “Check Compliance…” Apply Host Profiles To apply a host profile to an ESX host: Right click the ESX host Select “Host Profile” Select “Apply Profile…” Analyze configuration compliance information from a scan I really need another version. Edit Host Profile Policies I think right click a profile and edit. Associate an ESX host with a host profile I think right click a profile and link. You can create multiple clusters to segment ESX hosts due to version. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this. proc type. or to to counter cluster configuration maximums.vmware. etc. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this.. Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Matthijs’ links http://communities.

“Edit Settings…”) Click “VMware HA”. This can be due to failures of an ESX host or failures within the VM (VM Tools heartbeat monitoring). The following screen appears . To configure this: Edit the settings of you cluster (right click. In the above example we enabled HA and DRS. Configure High Availability basic/advanced settings High Availability is technique that automatically start VMs that crashed. Add ESX/ESXi hosts to a cluster When you have created a cluster you need to add ESX(i) hosts. user name and password of the local ESX host user (password created during setup) Follow the rest of th wizard to add the host to the cluster.Follow the wizard that appears to create a new cluster. Those are only available with the correct licenses. Right click on you cluster and select “Add Host…” Fill in the FQDN hostname.

Edit the settings to your needs. Host Monitoring Status This should be enabled for default operation of HA. When you expect network downtime you can temporary disable this. Be aware that when disabled HA will not work. Admission Control This controls whether VMs can be powered on when there are not enough resources available. It reserved the capacity of the number of resources reserved for HA. For example when set to prevent; when you have three VMs you have 300% of resources. When you specify that HA tolerates 1 host failure (equal to 100%) this means that admission control reserves 100% of 300% (1/3th) of the resources for just in case. When you try to power on a VM that would take the number of resources over 200% this VM will fail to power on. Admission Control Policy This controls how many (or what percentage) of host failures capacity is reserved for. Idea, but not officially meant for this purpose: You can increase the number that the cluster tolerates if you have a second site that is being replicated to the first and would like to make sure that you have sufficient capacity for the VMs on the second site. Click Advanced to change advanced settings. Advanced Settings can only be added manually. Enable/Configure VM Monitoring VM Monitoring allows you to monitor the availability of the VMware Tools within a VM. When the VMware Tools heart beat is not received for a certain period of time the VM will be reset. You can specify a default value for the monitoring times of specify this by hand: Failure Interval This value determines the period of time that no heart beats are received and the VM will be reset. Minimum Up-time Number of seconds that a VM is not being monitors after it’s power on. Maximum per VM resets The maximum number of times a VM is reset during a certain time frame. By setting this you can prevent infinite reboots, but it most likely will reboot multiple times every time frame. Pay attention! Maximum resets time windows The time frame to what the “Maximum per VM Resets” setting apply. Configure Distributed Resource Scheduler basic/advanced settings Distributed Resource Scheduler or DRS is the technique VMware uses to level the load of all VMs across the ESX hosts. When creating a cluster this is disables by default and you need the right licenses before you can use this. There are three basic levels: Manual VMware DRS make the load level recommendation only; you need to apply the recommendations manually. Partially Automated This will start a VM when being powered on the host with the most resources available. You still need to apply the recommendations to VMotion a VM to level the load manually Fully Automated This will place VMs when being powered on and migrate VMs to level the load fully automated. You can select how aggressive this is being handled. Advanced option van be entered manually. VMware recommends this only to use in conjunction with their support desk. I could not find a complete comprehensive list of all the DRS advanced options on the Internet. Configure Distributed Power Management This is where VMware continues on their Green IT promise. DPM allows you to consolidate all VMs on the minimum number of hosts required. All other hosts are being shutdown until their resources are needed within the cluster. A host is than turned on fully automatic by the vCenter Server. To configure DPM: Right Click you cluster

Click “Edit Settings…” Click “Power Management”

Change the settings to your needs Click “Host Options” to change per ESX host DPM settings when you would like those to be different from the cluster settings. Configure Enhanced VMotion Compatibility Enhanced VMotion Compatibility allows hosts with CPU’s from different families to be used in the same Cluster for VMotion. From ESX 4.0 this allows an easier use of ESX hosts: you can mix older and newer CPU families (from one vendor!) with each other. To do so you must select an EVC mode that supports the oldest CPU in the cluster. To configure: Right Click you cluster Click “Edit Settings…” Click “VMware EVC” Click the button “Change…” Choose Enable for your CPU vendor Click the “VMware EVC mode” for you servers.

Note: to enable none of you VMs must use technology from a newer processor type. For example, when you build a cluster from ESX hosts with Core i7 processors, create VMs and add a Core 2 due processor host later on you VMs are using Core i7 functionality. You cannot enable the EVC mode for anything less that Core i7 mode. You have to change the VM CPU details to allow this. Configure swap file location Each VM comes with a default created swap file. These swap files are stored with the VM files on the VMFS data store. You can change this default behaviour to another location, for example the local disk of the ESX host. To to so:

another location, for example the local disk of the ESX host. To to so: Select an ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Virtual Machines Swapfile Location” in the menubox “Software” Click “Edit” in the upper right corner Select a local or remote VMFS data store that this ESX host will use as default You can also change this per VM Edit the settings of a VM Select the tab “Options” Select the item “Swapfile Location” Change the settings to your needs. Analyze HA host failure capacity requirements You can calculate the amount of CPU and memory resources that are needed for a host failure. When doing so you need to take the following into account: Resources in use Total amount of resources available Amount of CPU resources available on the host with the largest amount of Mhz Amount of CPU resources available on the host with the most RAM When you account for 1 host failure this can be the host with the most RAM, CPU etc. So you need to make sure that you always have the largest amount of RAM and the largest mount of CPU resources available in the cluster to accommodate for a host failure. This can be calculated bu using the total amount of resources minus the amount of resources in use. Read more here on page 13 – 19. Analyze HA admission control Admission control checks if there are sufficient resources within: Host (checks to ensure reservations, shares and limits) Resource Pool (checks to ensure reservations, shares and limits) VMware HA (checks to ensure VM recovery as specifies in the HA settings) Those settings can prevent a VM from starting up or can prevent settings new reservations, limits or shares on a VM. Only HA admission control can be disabled. You can choose your HA admission control policy based on your needs. You can account for fragmentation (the total amount of resources in the cluster can be sufficient for one large VM but it might not fit on any of the hosts) and flexibility. Read more here on page 19. Important: In addition to the user-specified memory reservation, for each virtual machine there is also an amount of overhead memory. This extra memory commitment is included in the admission control calculation and can provide readings that you might not anticipate. It can even prevent you from powering on a VM that, when calculated on paper before, should fit! Determine use cases for DRS automation levels and migration thresholds DRS is a very powerful technology that automatically distributes resources. This is typically used in environments where resources used by VMs vary and can lead to performance bottlenecks or uneven distributed ESX hosts. When turning on DRS the resources are load balanced automatically giving you the best performance. How aggressive you set your DRM depends on the type of VMs. When you have VMs that have a very volatile CPU / MEM usage setting it to conservative might prevent many VMotions that need to be undone some minutes later. When you need the best performance asap you mijght set this to aggressive. Be aware that VMotion uses system resources. Determine use cases for DPM policies I my opinion this should be “allways-on”. It consolidates you VMs on the least amount of ESX hosts needed to accommodate the resources needed savinf energy. If however you expect that VMs need CPU of memory in large amounts faster that you ESX hosts can power on you might disable this. Also HA can be a reason the be conservative on those settings. And last but not least, you hardware must support the shutting down / powering on of the ESX hosts. Technologies like HP iLO can help you make sure you can turn your hosts back on.

Tools
vSphere Availability Guide vSphere Resource Management Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client

Objective 7.2 – Enable a Fault Tolerant Virtual Machine
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 10 November 2009 01:31

Knowledge
Identify FT restrictions There are ‘some’ restrictions to the use of VMware Fault Tolorance. Those are for the ESX host system You can only apply it to VMs with one processor You need a working cluster (HA and DRS with shared storage) as a FT VM only resides on 1 data store You need a HV-Compatible CPU

To calculate the required bandwidth use the formula: FT logging bandwidth ~= [ (Average disk read throughput in Mbytes/sec * 8) + Average network receives (Mbits/sec) ] * 1. Adding multiple uplinks to the virtual switch does not automatically result in distribution of FT logging traffic. FT generates two types of network traffic: Migration traffic to create the secondary virtual machine FT logging traffic Migration traffic happens over the NIC designated for VMotion and it causes network bandwidth usage to spike for a short time. ESX failures like network. And it are those applications that are best suited for FT when they do fit between the restrictions FT has. Physical CD-ROM.) No Para Virtualisation enabled No Para Virtualized SCSI (PVSCSI) Will use their full memory reservation! No VMXNET 3 NIC support VM OS must be supported (Operating system support may very based on the processor your ESX host uses ) No support for Snapshots No MSCS support (remove before enabling FT) No support for CPU / Mem hot plug Extended Page Tables (EPT)/Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI) is automatically disabled Read these and more limitations in a blog posting here. and by spreading the secondary virtual machines to different hosts. If there are multiple FT pairs. Evaluate FT use cases Despite the large number of restrictions FT is a strong feature of ESX / vSphere to protect you VM against unplanned ESX host failure. then traffic could be distributed with IP-hash based load balancing policy. Sound. VMware vSwitch networking allows you to send VMotion and FT traffic to separate NICs while also using them as redundant links for NIC failover. server. Separate and dedicated NICs are recommended for FT logging traffic and VMotion traffic. etc. Sharing the same NIC for both FT logging and VMotion can affect the performance of FT virtual machines whenever a secondary is created for another FT pair or a VMotion operation is performed for any other reason. Remember that IP hashed based load balancing require switch configuration. disk I/O etc. especially when multiple FT virtual machines reside on the same host. But remember that this is the only thing this feature protects you from.2 To setup a network for FT logging Select an ESX host Click tha tab “Configuration” Select “Networking” from the right menu Select an existing vSwitch with sufficient free bandwidth or create a new vSwitch with dedicated NICs Click “Add” on the “Ports” tab Select the VM Kernel Bullet Enter a name and optionally a VLAN Check the box “Use this portgroup for Fault Tolerant logging” Finish the network Verify requirements of operating environment There are some requirements and recommendations to the guest OS of a FT VM: The guest OS must be supported by VMware for FT .You need exactly the same CPU on both ESX hosts All hosts must use the same version of ESX It does not prevent you from a faulty storage array (or a filled up VMFS) You need a dedicated NIC for FT logging (Gbit or better) Advanced or higher license 5% to 20% overhead! And for the VM you would like to apply FT to: No thin provisioned disk (auto upgraded to thick disk) No Storage VMotion A small performance penalty (keeping the VM in lockstep) See here No non-replayable devices (USB. Set up an FT network A FT VM uses the vLockstep technique to keep the VMs on both ESX hosts in sync. When the central storage or Guest OS failes FT is not going to help you! A Cluster like MSCS would be a better solution to counter a guest OS failure but is a expensive solution that cannot be used for all applications.

But no situation is given. When not enough resources are available to process is terminated. VMware recommends the following two update scanario’s: Disable FT (longer downtime) The first scenario is easy.Make sure that the guest OS uses an NTP server for time sync FT does not perform well when used on a VM with a large amount of I/O Enable FT for a virtual machine There are two types of FT operations that can be performed on a virtual machine: Turning FT on or off. Disable FT with multiple hosts (shorter downtime) The second scenario requires at least four hosts. and limits in a given situation …for a given situation.3 – Create and Configure Resource Pools Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Those resources are: . resource compartmentalization. Keep turning on / off to a minimum. This uses a substantial amount of resources. Right-click the VM and there'll be a Fault Tolerance option. Test Failover: Primary and Secondary VMs switch roles Test Restart Secondary: After restarting it. Non Supported devices are removed Balooning is being disabled The SWAP file is deleted Hardware MMU is being disabled (shutdown required) “enable FT” operation enables Fault Tolerance by live-migrating the virtual machine to another host to create a secondary virtual machine. reservations. the main purpose meant to use them for. So it has the same effect as “Enabling FT”. enabling can take several minutes. Disabling only takes seconds. The performance implications of these operations are as follows: “Turn On FT” prepares the virtual machine for FT. Test an FT configuration Thank you Henrique: There are two build in methods to test FT. disable (not turning off. But no situation is given. When “Turn on FT” operation succeeds for a virtual machine that is already powered on. Resource pools consist of multiple resources that can be guaranteed or limited. so a general explanation here. and enabling or disabling FT. A replica is automatically created on the ESX host with the same patch level. Tools vSphere Availability Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Matthijs’ Links FT Archtecture and performance VMware Fault Tolerance Recommendations and Considerations Objective 7. so a general explanation here. VMware resource pools can be used for delegation of control and. You can use resource pools to: Segment you organization Isolate VMs from certain users Access control and delegation Separate resources Evaluate appropriate shares. this takes longer!) FT. In short: Update the two hosts not in use by FT VMs and check the levels are exactly the same Disable FT (turning off would take longer) VMotion the FT machine to an updates ESX host Enable FT. 18 November 2009 23:40 Knowledge Determine Resource Pool requirements for a given situation …for a given situation. you can check its consistency compared to the original Upgrade ESX hosts containing FT virtual machines This sound easy but must be handled with care! VMware FT requires two ESX hosts to have the exact same patch level! So when updating you need to make sure this is either the case or not necessary. it automatically creates a new secondary virtual machine. upgrade and enable again.

If you power on a virtual machine in this resource pool. and the reservations of the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool. Create Resource Pools To create a resource pool you can Select the object you would like to create a resource pool in (ESX host. other resource pool or vApp) Right click. reservations and / or limits on a existing resource pool: Right click the resource pool Click “Edit Settings…” Adjust the CPU settings to your needs. the resource pool can use resources from its parent or ancestors if this check box is . Limit Upper limit for the amount of CPU or memory the host makes available to this resource pool. Evaluate virtual machines for a given Resource Pool When you select a resource pool and go to the tab “Resource Allocation” you can see the VMs in a resource pool. and the reservations of the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool. To specify a limit. and select “Create Resource Pool…” Set CPU resource shares/reservations/limits To set CPU Shares. deselect the Unlimited check box. Define Expandable Reservation Indicates whether expandable reservations are considered during admission control. If you power on a virtual machine in this resource pool. reservations and / or limits on a existing resource pool: Right click the resource pool Click “Edit Settings…” Adjust the Memory settings to your needs. Reservation The guaranteed CPU or Memory allocation for a resource pool. Those resources are extracted from the parent ESX host of resource pool. This shows you the view as shown below including the Resource Pool main items like Reservation.Shares The number of CPU or Memory shares a VM has in respect to the Resource Pool or ESX hosts total. Set memory resource shares/reservations/limits To set Memory Shares. Limit and Shares. the resource pool can use resources from its parent or ancestors if this check box is selected (the default). Indicates whether expandable reservations are considered during admission control. Default is Unlimited.

devices. 18 November 2009 23:44 Knowledge Identify compatibility requirements For a VMotion to work some requirements need to be met. The benefits of a cold migration are: You can move the VM files. is moved to the new host. I think that VMotion of a suspended VM is also a cold migration. registers. The memory content includes transaction data and whatever bits of the operating system and applications are in the memory. while the associated virtual disk remains in the same location on storage that is shared between the two hosts. you need ….4 – Migrate Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. CPU. Those requirements depend on the specific environment you are using. if necessary. drag and drop the VMs into the correct resource pool. Tools vSphere Resource Management Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 7. The defining and identification information stored in the state includes all the data that maps to the virtual machine hardware elements. if necessary. “Sleur en Pleur”. hot. as well as its configuration file. The entire state of the virtual machine as well as its configuration file. The entire state of the virtual machine.the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool. Describe resource pool hierarchy You can cascade resource pools. the virtual machine runs on the new host. When you migrate a virtual machine with VMotion. After the virtual machine state is migrated to the alternate host. Remember that a second level resource pool (pool in pool) cannot have more resources then the resource pool on a higher level. with the exception of the host CPU. Almost the same benefits apply here.) You need processors from the same family or use Enhanced VMotion to broaden the compatibility of the processors. the virtual machine runs on the new host. This means something like drag and drop. You cannot change the virtual machine’s execution host during a migration with Storage VMotion. After the virtual machine state is migrated to the alternate host. You can use storage VMotion while the VM keeps on running. that you need to power down the VM. such as BIOS. is moved to the new host. The benefits of a VMotion are that there is no host downtime. storage) What type of licenses do you have (need enterprise for VMotion!) Is your hardware suited for VMotion / Storage VMotion Cite the three methods of virtual machine migration Cold Migration a cold migration is a migration of a VM when it is powered off. chip set states. and so forth. Add virtual machines to pool In Dutch we have a nice phrase for this. and so forth. Storage VMotion Use migration with Storage VMotion to relocate a virtual machine’s configuration file and virtual disks while the virtual machine is powered on. The state information includes the current memory content and all the information that defines and identifies the virtual machine. When you use more than one resource pool on the second level those resource pools together cannot use more resources than the resource pool on the above level. devices. registers. obvious. the new host for the virtual machine must meet compatibility requirements in order for the migration to proceed. VMotion Migration with VMotion allows virtual machine working processes to continue throughout a migration. This allows you to free up space in storage array’s without downtime. the new host for the virtual machine must meet compatibility requirements in order for the migration to proceed. MAC addresses for the Ethernet cards. while the associated virtual disk remains in the same location on storage that is shared between the two hosts. the resource pool can use resources from its parent or ancestors if this check box is selected (the default). This means that you can place resource pools within resource pools. also when those are not on shared storage The Host you move the VM to does not need to have the same CPU The downside is. When you migrate a virtual machine with VMotion. Migration with VMotion happens in three stages: . Understand/Apply Migration with VMotion allows virtual machine working processes to continue throughout a migration. and that’s just is. such as BIOS. chip set states. The defining and identification information stored in the state includes all the data that maps to the virtual machine hardware elements. The state information includes the current memory content and all the information that defines and identifies the virtual machine. You cannot move the storage of the VM. Some factors are: What type of migration are you performing (cold. The downsides are: Need shared storage Need a (preferably dedicated) Gigabit network connection The ESX hosts need to be configured in exactly the same manner (like network names. Another option is to select the correct resource pool during a VMotion. MAC addresses for the Ethernet cards. The memory content includes transaction data and whatever bits of the operating system and applications are in the memory. storage etc. Those must be of the same proc family for the migration of a suspended VM to work. CPU.

If any error occurs during migration. registers. and network connections) is copied to the target host. If those CPU resources cannot be allocated the VMotion will fail! Low Priority migration: Resources are not reserved on the source / destination hosts. because they allow migration of a virtual machine without powering it off. The migration will take longer and the VM might become unavailable for some time! Finish to start the VMotion (remember that there is a maximum to the number of concurrent VMotion. VMware converter you can use the VMware converter to migrate VMs of physical machines to a VM. The virtual machine state information (memory. Migrate a virtual machine using VMotion To migrate a VM using the vSphere Client GUI: Right click the VM Select “Migrate…” from the menu The following wizard appears Select “Change host” On the “Select Destination” select the Cluster to migrate to On the “Select Resource Pool” select the resource pool to migrate to On the VMotion priority select with what priority a VM will be Motioned: High Priority migration (the recommended and first option in vSphere called: Reserve CPU …) will VMotion the VM and reserve the resources this VM needs on both the source and destination hosts. To be able to know how to migrate you need to now about several migration options: VMotion For the live migration of a VM from one ESX hosts to another. Some scenarios are: Migrate VMs to perform hard. Determine migration use cases There can be several reasons why to migrate a VM from one hosts to another. No downtime for the VM. Migrate a virtual machine using Storage VMotion This method used the same start as the normal VMotion but has a few different steps.and or software maintenance of the host or underlying layers as network / storage Migrate VMs for migration purposes Migrate VMs for balancing the use of resources (automated with DRS) Migrate VMs to separate certain servers onto different hosts Migrate VMs to automatically shut down remaining hosts for power savings (DPM) Migrate VMs for disaster recovery reasons Compare and contrast migration technologies You can migrate VMs for several reasons as described above. The virtual machine resumes its activities on the new host. Since I have Copy Past: Right click the VM Select “Migrate…” from the menu The following wizard appears . Migration of a suspended virtual machine and migration with VMotion can be referred to as hot migration. vCenter Server verifies that the existing virtual machine is in a stable state with its current host. Usually this requires downtime and the old machine is not removed (default). No downtime Storage VMotion With storage VMotion techniques you can migrate the files the VM uses from one VMFS to another storage array. the virtual machines revert to their original states and locations.When the migration with VMotion is requested.

You can perform a migration of the ESX host and the datastore in one migration. If you would like to separate several files of a VM (configuration files. Cold migrate a virtual machine And the last option of the Migrate wizard only applies to VMs that are turned off or are in “Suspended” state.Select “Change datastore” On the “Select Resource Pool” select the resource pool to migrate to On the Select Datastore screen select the data store you would like to move to. different disks. . etc) you can select the “Advanced” option that allows you to pick a data store from per disk or for the configuration files. Select the format you would like to disk to use. Finish to start the VMotion (remember that there is a maximum to the number of concurrent VMotions. Here you can change a thin disk to a thick disk or visa versa.

The only change is the select host you need to specifically select and ESX host to migrate to. To manually create / delete or restore snapshots you can use the vSphere Client. Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 7. Those files can be transferred and restored on other location and ESX hosts. VMware Consolidated Backup. Snapshots are differentials between two points in time. remove re restore snapshots. what a question. A few ways to go: Manually using VMware converter or coping the files from the ESX host (downtime!) Automatically using VMware VCB. This allows a file level backup for some supported guest OSes Image Backup an image back up is a copy of the VM files. 18 November 2009 23:48 Knowledge Describe different back-up/restore procedures and strategies Wow. Use a backup proxy to backup you data. Usually this backup method is used for disaster recovery of VMs. Using the new VMware “Backup and Recovery Appliance” Using several thirty party products that are out there. In general there are two types of backups with per type several implementations. With backup proxy I usually mean VCB. There is the Snapshot manager that allows you to revert of delete snapshots and gives an overview of all the snapshot available. There are quite a lot way’s to backup VMs.Since this option uses a combination of the options you’ll find in the wizards described above I will not go into detail. Some ways to go to achieve this: Install you old-fashioned decent backup agent as an application in you OS. When right clicking a VM you can use the “Snapshot” menu to create. This agent is not aware of the fact that this OS is virtualized. Create/Delete/Restore Snapshots The new “Backup and Recovery Appliance” VMware provides as a downloadable appliance from there website uses snapshots to create backups.5 – Backup and Restore Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Using this principle VMware can create easy backups. Let’s sun some of them: File level backup with this I mean backing up and restoring on a file level in a VM. .

The appliance can be downloaded from the VMware site. Objective 8. So I put something together myself: Is the problem reproducible? Can you find anything in the log files . I searched the Internet and the VMware website but there is no chapter ”Trouble shoot” or what so ever. Follow all the steps in the wizard to get the VM running Install vCenter Data Recovery plug-in To manage the appliance you need to install the Data Recovery Plug-in into you vSphere client.Install Backup and Recovery Appliance First make sure that you pass all the requirements that this solution requires. This plug-in connect to the Backup and Recovery Appliance over port 22024. Please read here on page 11 and further to check. Remember that backups are only performed when the CPU usage of the host is below 90% and that no more that 8 back-up jobs can run at the same time. To create a backup job: Open the “VMware Data recovery” option on the vSphere client Click “New Backup Job…” Follow the steps in the wizard. Perform test and actual restores using vCenter Data Recovery Install and play around. Also you need your business input like frequency. To install you can choose: File “Deploy OVF template…”. advanced or essential plus edition or buy it separately in advance to the standard edition. 29 November 2009 12:53 Knowledge Understand general ESX Server troubleshooting guidelines VMware maintains some documentation and Self Service guides to troubleshoot issues wih VMware ESX / vSphere. Tools VMware Data Recovery Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Backup and Recovery Appliance To download you need a VMware vSpere Enterprise (plus). Retention time etc.msi Follow the wizard Enable the plug-in in the vSphere client Create a backup job with vCenter Data Recovery Before you create a back-up job make sure that you have add storage to backup to. Run the plug-in installer VMwareDataRecoveryPlugin. This will give you a wizard to install a VM into you environment.1 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for ESX/ESXi Hosts Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday.

You have selected the wrong boot device in the BIOS of the server After installation you cannot reach the server via the network The VLAN configuration on your Switch or Service Console is misconfigured Routing is not configured There is no Default Gateway defined for the Service Console Network The Firewall on ESX does not allow you to connect you the protocol you intent Monitor ESX Server system health You can use the vCenter Hardware Status plug-in to monitor you server hardware. If all else fails: Contact VMware Support and send the the generated support log files. After installation your ESX server does not boot You have installed ESX on to a LUN instead of the local hard drive (possibly over writing VMFS partitions). optionally you can download them to a specified location. There are many 3th . Troubleshoot common installation issues When installing there can be several installation issues.Are you using the latest version / patches? Are there other people who have the same problem / symptoms and do they have a solution? Familiar with the VMware community forums? Post your problem. Troubleshooting might be difficult. Solve by reinstalling and before starting the installation hide the LUNs presented to the server You intentionally installed ESX to a LUN (boot from SAN) but ESX does not boot. This default plug-in shows you CIM hardware sensor information like temperature. Because a FT VM requires two instead of one active host you need to make sure that you have at least two hosts supporting FT and having exactly the same configuration and version number. Understand how to export diagnostic data You can download log files of ESX hosts via the vSphere client.Thanks to Milopez using the comment system Objective 8. 07 December 2009 22:02 Knowledge Analyze and evaluate VM population for maintenance mode considerations As explained before in chapter 7. fan rotation speed etc. Solve by adjusting the HBA BIOS to boot from LUN and by selecting the correct LUN.2 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for VMware FT and ThirdParty Clusters Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. If you cannot meet these criteria you disable FT (remember that disabling is faster than turing it off). but I have written down some things that go wrong quite often. Tools ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guides Product Documentation vSphere Client Additionel Links Performance and Troubleshooting Guide . To do so: Goto File in the vSphere Client Select Export Select “Export System logs…” Select the ESX host you would like to export log files from.2 you need to take special care before placing a host in maintenance mode when using FT. Understand manual Third-Party failover/failback processes When using other fail-over techniques VMware provides you with nothing more or less than hardware virtualization (assuming that FT is not used).

This might cause a FT VM to failover. distribute the FT VMs and their copies more evenly over all hosts. Avoid renaming networks after they are in use. so to solve this the only way is to reduce the number of IOs on a VMFS volume.When using other fail-over techniques VMware provides you with nothing more or less than hardware virtualization (assuming that FT is not used). There is a possibility to create scripts to seach the replicated LUNs and import the VM found into you vCenter / vSphere environment. Since the failed over VM will use the same storage array this is not going to help. Changing the name of a port group when virtual machines are already connected to that port group causes an invalid network configuration for the virtual machines configured to connect to that port group. where applicable. To do so (assuming you have a default vSwitch. for example what physical NIC and / or VLAN are being used you need to check the port group settings. duplex and VLAN trunk on the switch Click “Properties” on that port group Select the port group in the pop-up screen that appears and click “Edit” Check if the VLAN mentioned is the correct one. For those errors te solve first solve the underlying storage errors. Tools vSphere Availability Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 8. increase the bandwidth of. There are many 3th party techniques to provide fail-over scenarios on the guest (VM) level. To see is a VMFS volume is over utilized check for warnings about SCSI reservations in the VMkernel log. and the name is what is stored in the virtual machine configuration. A small piece of extra info: Prehaps this question is about the fail-over of ESX hosts from one site to another. Troubleshoot Fault Tolerance partial or unexpected fail-overs You can use the information provided in the appendix Fault Tolerance Error Messages to help you troubleshoot Fault Tolerance. Storage Related Errors When you loose / partial loose / have slow storage you VM might experience errors. To look up the port group name: Select the VM Right Click and select “Edit Settings” Select the network adaptor of your choosing Check if the drop down box shows the correct network adaptor Verify port group settings are correct To check to port group settings. Verify that the network adaptor is connected within the VM To check is the NIC is connected (virtually connected) check the VM properties: Select the VM . not a distributed one): Select “Hosts and Clusters” view (Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters) Select an ESX host Select the “Configuration” tab Select “Networking” Select the vSwitch that the port group belongs to Check the Upload Adaptors and check speed.-) File system – too much IO When a file system is handling too much IO this might cause a FT VM to fail-over. Network related errors When the logging NIC is not functioning the FT VM might fail-over. Network related errors – bandwidth issues When there is not enough bandwidth to send all transactions to fail-over hosts you FT VM fail. advice on how to resolve each error. The connection from virtual network adapters to port groups is made by name. vMotion failure When you vMotion a VM that is busy the vMotion might fail. you must reconfigure each associated virtual machine by using the service console to reflect the new port group name. because their connections to the network are already established. 07 December 2009 23:04 Knowledge Verify VM is connected to the correct port group To check if a VM is connected to the correct port group you can check if the Vm is connected to the correct port group. To solve this reduce the number of FT VMs. The topic contains a list of error messages that you might encounter when you attempt to use the feature and. This includes the manual action: Replicates LUNs with VMs Make sure there is enough capacity to start all VMs on one site Create a shell script to search LUNs / VMFS volumes and import the VMs Create a script to start the VMs in a particular order with pauses between the start-up. To solve this dedicate a separate NIC for fail-over and vMotion. After you rename a port group. the easiest solution. To avoid this VMware recommends only to vMotion VMs when the VM is not that busy… so night work . Every tool has its own requirements and procedures to fail-over. Changing the name of a port group does not cause a mass reconfiguration of all the virtual machines connected to that port group. Virtual machines that are already powered on continue to function until they are powered off.3 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for Networking Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday.

This latency depends on many things like the performance of the array (duh). in our case. what is storage contention. synchronous replication to a second site. Also read my blof on how to log to a remote share for a longer period of time. . nslookup Objective 8. To effectively find the one issue that is causing delay in your SAN / NAS network might be quite a quest. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation vSphere Client ping. etc. mostly limited by write I/Os of sometimes in bandwidth. the network. This can cause a higher than usual latency before a write to disk is committed. have specific settings on their own.4 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. Storage contention is the battle of several. 10 December 2009 23:02 Knowledge Identify storage contention issues The first thing here is. the disks. VMs for storage performance.) Check if the adaptor has the correct MAC address (or better. Usually I p think SAN / NAS tooling is used to find the delays. Those adaptors. enhanched VMXNET3 etc. the amount used. To check: Select the VM Right Click and select “Edit Settings” Select the network adaptor Check if the adaptor is of the correct type (e1000. To check those: Select “Hosts and Custer's” view (Home > Inventory > Hosts and Custer's) Select an ESX host Select the “Configuration” tab Select “Networking” Select the tab “Network Adaptors” Check “Edit” to change the speed and duplex Verify vSphere network management settings Network Management of management network??? If you know the answer? Drop my a line or use the comment system please. Read more on ESXTOP here and look for davg / gavg / kavg.Right Click and select “Edit Settings” Select the network adaptor Check if the box “Connected” is ticked under “Device Status” Check if the box “Connected at power on” is ticked (optional) Verify VM network adaptor settings The Virtual NIC has some settings on its own. To look at disk latency: Select and ESX host Select the tab “performance” Find the chart that says “Disk (ms)” It shows a chart like this one: Look at the milliseconds to see if your SAN has structural latency (congestion) issues. You can also use ESXTOP on the command line to find latency information. For this reason VMware a build Performance section in vSphere. auto) Verify physical network adaptor settings All virtual NICs are connected through physical adaptors. again. It all starts with finding the cause of the contention. A SAN is limited in performance. tcpdump. vmkping.

VMware recommends smaller LUNs to reduce the contention of storage. To find thore reports: Select and ESX host or Virtual Machine Select the tab “Performance” Look at the graphs you find interesting. esxping. Identify storage connectivity issues The way to troubleshoot this depends on your type of storage. Interpret Storage Reports and Storage Maps The VMware vSphere interface produces many graphs and topology layout images for your convenience. A Gigabit network interface At least a gigabit NIC is required for vMotion to transferr the state of the VM to another host. with enhanced vMotion this requirement is stretched to “vendor”. VM without RAW disk of physically connected devices The VM must not have a RAW device for clustering purposes or any physically devices. you can use ping. These images can give you a good insight into the VMware performance and layout. I have tried to put most of them in a list: Compatible CPUs Depending on your VMotion type (Enhanced VMotion of the previous regular stuff) you need matching CPUs. . The problem might also be the (virtual) iSCSI adaptor it self. Jumbo Frames Jumbo Frames are recommended for the best vMotion performance All hosts must be connected to a vCenter server The hosts must be part of a vCenter environment and have the correct licences applied. configuration of the HBA. etc. To troubleshoot fibre channel you need to take a look at: LUN presentation at the storage array (presented to the correct ESX host (WWN Name)) Zoning of the Fibre Channel Switches LUN masking on the ESX host. For regular VMotion these must come from the same family. the technique used for DRS and in some extend HA have certain requirements to work. for example an iSCSI solution. When you use an IP based storage solution. Advanced CPU Features All hosts must have AMD-V or Intel-VT and AMD-NX or Intel XD. like local CD-ROM players from a host or managemnt station. trace route etc. 20 January 2010 21:51 Knowledge Explain the requirements of HA/DRS and VMotion VMotion. IP based or Fibre Channel based. Tools FC SAN Configuration Guide iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 8. Some of the things you need to check: IP address Jumbo Frames Subnets configures for iSCSI VLAN ID Etc. are you using boot from SAN? Check the HBA BIOS. to check the network layer. Shared Storage All hosts must be able to access shared storage where VMs can reside. more latency might indicate contention Look at the Disk (KBps) to see how busy you SAN is and relate this to the maximum performance of you SAN. Do not forget to ping with a larger packet size when using jumbo frames to check if all the components in the network between you ESX host and the storage array (and including those two) support jumbo frame size (9000). connected.5 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for HA/DRS and VMotion Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Identify iSCSI software initiator configuration issues In the previous step we checked the network layer of the iSCSI / NAS based storage layer. To interpret those graphs Look at the Disk (ms). Identify storage over-commitment issues I could not find any official documentation. To look for overcommitted storage arrays look at: Latency Number of I/Os verses you storage array’s maximum The Queue depth used Etc.

Troubleshoot VMotion using topology maps Topology maps are a easy way to show you the network and storage connection from an to ESX hosts and / or VMs. optionally with jumbo frames. When VMs can no longer start this might be due to a lack of resources (memory is quite common). Read more here (VI doc but most info is still relevant). Below is a selection that excludes the performance alarms (see 8. . Make sure that the following in regards to DNS resolving works: Resolve your hostname Resolve you FQDN hostname Resolve your IP address (reversed lookup) Verify the service console network functionality You can use vmkping (see above under Verify vMotion Compatibility) to use vmkping to test the SC network connection Interpret the DRS Resource Distribution Graph and Target/Current Host Load Deviation The Tab hosts of your Cluster contains the following view: This view shows the amount or resource (CPU / Memory) being used on each hosts. You Vi will provide you with warnings like “insufficient resources to satisfy failover level” etc. Maps can be found when selecting a server and than selecting the tab Maps. Cluster High Availability Error Monitors high availability errors on a cluster. vmkping Matthijs’ Links DRS Performance Best Practice Objective 8. 20 January 2010 22:01 Knowledge List vCenter default connectivity alarms Going to do this one the easy way. Alarm Name Description Cannot Connect to Network Monitors network connectivity on a vSwitch. the number of hosts that can fail before you run short on resources. When CPU or memory are unbalanced for a longer period of time moving one or more VMs might balance the load en let all servers on those hosts perform better.vmware. help me out using the comment system please! Tools vSphere Availability Guide vSphere Resource Management Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client DRS Resource Distribution Graph Topology Maps cpuid.Verify VMotion functionality vMotion uses a dedicated interface to transfer data. As stated above there are some requirements to the use of vMotion live storage.7 for those).com/files/pdf/VMwareHA_twp. http://www. To test if network connectivity. Verify DNS settings Adding a host to your company's DNS is essential. DNS usually is more easy to configure and maintain. A first and easy check is to look at the topology maps and see if these requirements are met. networking etc..pdf Troubleshoot HA redundancy issues HA redundancy. is working properly you can use the vmkping command vmkping [options] [host|IP address] Read more on vmkping ant the available options here. For the ultimate test can can manually vMotion a VM from one host to another. Without DNS things like HA will act strange. Troubleshoot HA capacity issues When planning for HA you need to plan for a maximum host failure. Cannot Connect to Storage Monitors host connectivity to a storage device. Though a hostfile can do the trick. VMware publishes a table in their Online Library (see blow) that shows all the default.6 – Create and Respond to vCenter Connectivity Alarms Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Usually this interface in designed to use a separate VLAN / subnet. ping. What is meant here? The number of host failures allowed? A second service console to counter network issues? If you know.

List possible actions for connectivity alarms Below you will find all actions that can be defind as a action for a specific alarm. email message is sent. Host Hardware Temperature Status Monitors host temperature. Host Memory Status Monitors host memory. Host Hardware System Board Status Monitors host system boards. datacenter. Host CPU Usage Monitors host CPU usage. Host Memory Usage Monitors host memory usage. Host Service Console SwapOut Rate Monitors host service console memory swapout rate. Exit Standby Error Monitors whether a host cannot exit standby mode. Host Storage Status Monitors host connectivity to storage devices. Host Status for Hardware Objects Monitors the status of host hardware objects. datastore. Host Hardware Fan Status Monitors host fans. Host Hardware Voltage Monitors host voltage. Host Service Console SwapIn Rate Monitors host service console memory swapin rate. dvPort group through Microsoft Outlook Express. vCenter Server is the default SNMP resource pool. datastore. Send a notification trap SNMP sends a notification trap. Host Connection Failure Monitors host connection failures. cluster. host.Datastore Usage On Disk Monitors datastore disk usage. datacenter. An SNMP trap viewer is required to view a sent . vNetwork distributed SMTP through vCenter Server or switch. Health Status Changed Monitors changes to service and extension health status. License Inventory Monitoring Monitors the license inventory for compliancy. Host Hardware Power Status Monitors host power. Migration Error Monitors whether a virtual machine cannot migrate or relocate. Host Connection and Power State Monitors host connection and power state. virtual machine notification receiver. Host Error Monitors host error and warning events. Host Processor Status Monitors host processors. cluster. The SMTP must be ready when the resource pool. virtual machine. You can set network. or is orphaned. License Error Monitors license errors. host. Host Battery Status Monitors host batteries. (found here) Action Description Alarm Object Send a notification email SMTP sends an email message.

Do: Select the tab “Alarms” Select the view “Definitions” Right click in the definitions pane and select “New Alarm…” the flowing pane opens: Select the second bullet: “Monitor for specific events…” Enter all values in all tabs to create the alarm. datastore. Another answer to this question is perhaps how to see what part of your virtual infrastructure is affected by the issue indicated by the alarm.viewer is required to view a sent trap. analyze and evaluate the affected virtual infrastructure components See the second column from the table above. If you think so. You put a host in maintenance mode when you need to move or service it. cluster. host For a given alarm. Since there is a large number of settings to be made I will not state all options. host. dvPort group Enter or exit maintenance mode Puts the host in and out of maintenance mode. You can see this under “object” in the “Triggered Alarms” view. host Enter or exit standby Suspends or resumes the guest operating system on the virtual machine. network. virtual machine. resource pool. you can create a alarm for one VM only that monitors the VM and reboots the host when memory usage is out of control. It runs as separate process and does not block vCenter Server processes. vNetwork distributed switch. But perhaps something different is meant here. The Virtual Infrastrcture level is a good start (highest level). Actions that are triggered based on a event will only affect that level and the objects that are part of that level. help me out and reply below! Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client . host or VM level. Run a command Performs the operation defined in the script you specify. host Reboot or shut down host Reboots or shuts down the host. datacenter. Maintenance mode restricts virtual machine operations on the host. For example. Relate the alarm to the affected components I think that this means that you can create an alarm on different levels like data-center. Create a vCenter connectivity alarm To create a custom alarm you first need te specify the level you would like to create an alarm on. The options a quite clear as well.

Virtual Machine Fault Tolerance State Changed Monitors changes in the fault tolerance state of a virtual machine. Virtual machine disk commands canceled Monitors the number of virtual machine disk commands that are canceled. For example. Reset the virtual machine Pauses activity on the virtual machine. Virtual Machine Memory Usage Monitors virtual machine memory usage. Virtual Machine Fault Tolerance Secondary Latency Status Changed Monitors changes in latency status of a fault tolerance secondary virtual machine. Virtual Machine Total Disk Latency Monitors virtual machine total disk latency. Virtual Machine Error Monitors virtual machine error and warning events.Objective 8. Virtual Machine High Availability Error Monitors high availability errors on a virtual machine. but is used when a shut down might not succeed.Power off is analogous to pulling the power cable on a physical machine. Transactions are frozen until you issue a Resume command. a shut down will not work if the guest operating system is not responding. Virtual machine disk reset Monitors the number of virtual machine bus resets. You can use the suspend feature to make resources available on a short-term basis or for other situations in which you want to put a virtual machine on hold without powering it down. Timed Out Starting Secondary Virtual Machine Monitors timeouts when starting a Secondary virtual machine. 20 January 2010 23:11 Knowledge List vCenter default utilization alarms No Compatible Host For Secondary Virtual Machine Monitors whether there are no compatible hosts available to place a secondary virtual machine. Power on or power off the virtual machine Power on starts the virtual machine virtual machine and boots the guest operating system if the guest operating system is installed. It is not a graceful shutdown of the guest operating system.7 – Create and Respond to vCenter Utilization Alarms Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. List possible actions for utilization alarms Action Description Alarm Object Suspend the virtual machine Suspends the virtual machine when virtual machine the alarm triggers. Virtual Machine CPU Usage Monitors virtual machine CPU usage. virtual machine . Virtual Machine CPU Ready Monitors virtual machine CPU ready time.

Another answer to this question is perhaps how to see what part of your virtual infrastructure is affected by the issue indicated by the alarm. For a given alarm. If you think so. Do: Select the tab “Alarms” Select the view “Definitions” Right click in the definitions pane and select “New Alarm…” the flowing pane opens: Select the second bullet: “Monitor for specific conditions of state…” Enter all values in all tabs to create the alarm.8 – Monitor vSphere ESX/ESXi and Virtual Machine Performance Written by Matthijs van den Berg Saturday. analyze and evaluate the affected virtual infrastructure resource See the tables above Create a vCenter utilization alarm To create a custom alarm you first need te specify the level you would like to create an alarm on. For example. Actions that are triggered based on a event will only affect that level and the objects that are part of that level. you can create a alarm for one VM only that monitors the VM and reboots the host when memory usage is out of control. host or VM level. Relate the alarm to the affected resource I think that this means that you can create an alarm on different levels like data center. The Virtual Infrastructure level is a good start (highest level). But perhaps something different is meant here. virtual machine Reboot or shutdown the guest Reboot shuts down and restarts the virtual machine guest operating system without powering off the virtual machine. You can see this under “object” in the “Triggered Alarms” view. 13 February 2010 10:16 . Since there is a large number of settings to be made I will not state all options.Migrate the virtual machine Powers off the virtual machine and migrates it according to the settings you define when you created the alarm action. The options a quite clear as well. help me out and reply below! Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation esxtop/resxtop Performance Charts vSphere Client Objective 8.Shutdown shuts down the guest operating system gracefully.

Since queued commands are an instantaneous statistic. 100% for up and 100% for down.. etc.. sometimes providing a server with LESS vCPUs might result in BETTER performance. My ESX host shows 800% here when having 4 NICs in the system. but only make the guest OS belive so. queuing. that’s CPU ready time. Those metrics can give you some insight in the performance of you storage device. MbTX/s The Megabits transmitted per second. Some columns of the disk portion of ESXTOP are: NLUNS The number of LUN’s that are behind the specific adaptor. To find out what resources are short you can monitor some metrics of the ESX host. This battle might result in a lack of a particular resource. I have written a blog about ESXTOP monitoring here . Explain storage metrics (latency.) As you might have read before working with virtual servers kinda changes the way to think about resources and servers. 'QUED' is the counter to look for in the esxtop. VMware uses a technique called ballooning to reclaim memory from VMs. I will keep it to the basics here. just did two bullets above. See “Related Publications” on page 22. The “-a” option defines that esxtop will be showing ALL fields (widen you screen to show all). the freed memory within the guest is available for ESX to use. After taking the exam I did not find any questions that cover the subjects in the chapter in depth. Read more here.) You can use ESXTOP and select the “d” (disk) key to show disk I/O performance metrics.) Yep. A general rule. UPLINK Y implies the corresponding port is an up-link. KB article 1267.Knowledge Before we start this chapter…. then try to adjust queue depths. Be aware the when using multiple storage processors you have more paths to you SAN / NAS than HBA’s. Here we go… Identify critical performance metrics (e. done on slower disk resulting in performance degradation. VMs and Load. shared. You can also find them on the internet.) Memory is one of the resources that you run short on some day in your environment. Those multiple requests must be consolidated onto a fewer number of processors. N implies it is not. you storage array / SAN infrastructure is not able to get all I/Os written to disk. Since I prefer the ESXTOP tool because it really shows a lot of information…: To use it and let it show network charastics use: esxtop –a Then press the letter “n” to let it show network charastics. Since the balloon within the VM is not consuming actual memory. When ballooning occurs be aware the performance might drop because your ESX host is short in memory. packet drops. you do have things like less further relaxed co-scheduling. start competing for resources. I also think that this is not the idea of the VCP exam.vmware. Explain network metrics (usage.vmware. So you have 3 CPU cores waiting. More info can be found here. To determine queued commands. and 4 physical cores the 4 processor request will not be scheduled until the 1 CPU requests are handled. To change this. etc. etc. When the queue starts to rise. Explain memory metrics (ballooning. MbRX/s The MegaBits received per second. storage resource screen. and that VMware will go there with the enterprise admin exam. Unfortunately the memory techniques within the guest usually mean SWAPPING.) You can monitor the network performance by using the “ESXTOP” command line tool or by viewing the information in the vSphere GUI.pdf Queue depth This queue depth applies to the storage queue on your ESX system. You can use ESXTOP to monitor the queue depth over time. Swapping is. When the load is high. %DRPTX The percentage of transmit packets dropped. at some point. etc. VMware places request on the storage queue. Especially with multi processor VMs (vSMP) the scheduling is difficult. I/Os are in fact lost. this scheduling becomes challenging. %USED The amount of total network capacity used. CPU ready. So I think this shows 200% per physical NIC. This strongly depends on you specific hardware. VMware needs to have to total number of vCPUs as physical cores available before this request is executed on the processor. Because VMware places multiple servers on 1 host those servers will. This inflation increases the memory pressure within the VM causing the VM OS to start using its own memory techniques to free up memory.g. If queueing. For those who would like to dig in to this. You can check wheter you have distributed your LUN’s evenly across you HBA’s. UP Y implies the corresponding link is up. etc. Read some here: http://www.com/files/pdf/perfvsphere-cpu_scheduler. When the queue overflows. and show only fields that interest you use the “f” key.com/pdf/esx3_ready_time. So the basics of performance. queue depth. %DRPRX The percentage of receive packets dropped.pdf In fact. This means this figure will not provide you with a complete picture of all . N implies it is not. When you have 2 VMs. The process is in fact quite simple: When the ESX host runs short on memory it signals the ballooning driver in the VM to inflate. Explain CPU metrics (ready/wait time. you will need to monitor it over a period of time to see if you are hitting the queue limit. There are quite a large number of columns. http://www. I picked a few to explain: PORT-ID The virtual network device port id. PKTTX/s The number of packets transmitted per second. PKTRX/s The number of packets received per second. CPU Ready time VMware schedules the CPU requests from the VMs on the physical processor. use the MINIMUM amount of vCPU as possible. You an find all items explained bu reading the MAN pages of esxtop. as we all know. a 1 proc and a 4 proc.

This means this figure will not provide you with a complete picture of all your storage paths! READS/s and WRITES/S This show the number of reads and writes per second per HBA. This gives you an insight in the amount of I/Os you esx host and storage device are processing. LQLEN The LUN queue depth. This is the maximum number of ESX VMKernel active commands that the adapter driver is configured to support. This can help you make charts for a specific VM or ESX host when running into issues. Latency can increase due to heavy load. Compare and contrast Overview and Advanced Charts You can view performance characters in the vCenter client. for example a ESX host Select the tab “Performance” There are two different default levels: Overview Give you an overview of some of the most important counts of an object. To do so: Select and object. This can be important as long latency is killing for a good overall performance.using multiple storage processors you have more paths to you SAN / NAS than HBA’s. To do so: Select and object. the following screen appears: Select a Chart option area you would like to create a custom chart for Select all counters you would like to include Click “Save Chart Settings…” in the lower right corner. This gives you an insight into the amount of data your ESX hosts and storage device are processing. When using the GUI you can view the latency. This is the maximum number of ESX VMKernel active commands that the LUN is allowed to have. for example a ESX host Select the tab “Performance” Click the button “Advanced” in the upper left corner Click “Chart Option”. AQLEN The storage adapter queue depth. This is a clean overview Advanced Gives you some more advance charts and the ability to create you own charts. Create an Advanced Chart You can create / customize performance charts in vCenter. Determine host performance using guest Perfmon You can generate log files with ESX top and export them to be used within Perfmon. Tools vSphere Resource Management Guide . You can select you custom chart settings under “Switch To…” in the top of the screen. I have write a blog on how to do so here. long distances to the storage device (second site for example) of a bad of over committed network / storage infrastructure. give a name and save. MBREAD/s and MBWRTN/s The amount of Megabytes read and written per second. This latency figure shows you the round trip time from you ESX host to you storage device.

If you have more resources.. 29 November 2009 20:12 There are some exam practice sites and tools out there that can help you prep for the actual exam and give you an insight of the type of questions that will be asked. Warning: Those practice exams might but also MIGHT NOT represent actual exam questions! Simon Longs Practice Exams Exam Collection. for example: Testking Pass4Sure . All Rights Reserved.Product Documentation esxtop/resxtop Performance Charts vSphere Client Matthijs’s Links Comparison between VMXNET and VMXNET3 Ethernet adaptors Performance Monitoring and Analysis on the VMware site Practice Exams Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday... .. I would recommend that you first learn (for example by using my learning guide) and then use the practice exam to test if you are ready to go for it. Joomla! is Free Software released under the GNU/GPL License.Quick navigation - Copyright © 2010 B3RG..com (You need a special tool ($) to take this test exam!) And you have those payed exam questions.. please let me know! VCP4 STUDIE GUIDE .FAST FIND .

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