FLUIDS PART A (10 ? 2 = 20 marks) 1. Distinguish between ideal and real fluids. 2.

Express 3 m of water head in cm of mercury and pressure in KPa. 3. List out the properties of a velocity potential function. 4. Can the path line and a streamline cross each other at right angles? Why ? 5. Why is it necessary to assume that the flow is steady before integrating Euler s equation to derive Bernoulli s equation? 6. What is the meaning of the term momentum flux? What are its units? 7. What is meant by the term Piezometric head ? 8. A pipe has D = 40 cm, L = 100 m, f = 0.005. Compute the length of an equ ivalent pipe which has D = 20 cm and f = 0.008. 9. State three demerits of a distorted model. 10. Define momentum thickness. PART B (5 ? 16 = 80 marks) 11. A trapezoidal plate of top width 5 m, bottom width 4 m and height 3 m is immersed vertically in water with its parallel sides parallel to the water leve l and its top edge at a depth of 2 m below the water level. Find the water thrus t on one side of the plate and the depth of center of pressure. 12. (a) A mercury U tube monometer shown in the fig. is used to measure th e pressure above atmospheric of water in a pipe, the water being in contact with the mercury in the left hand limb. (i) Explain its action. (ii) If the mercury is 30 cm below A in the left hand limb and 20 cm above A in the right hand limb, what may be gauge pressure at A? Specific gravity of mercury is = 13.6. (iii) If the pressure at A is reduced by 40 kN/m2 what will be the new difference in level of the mercury? Or (b) List out the various methods of construction of flow nets and Explain th e graphical method in detail. 13. (a) Derive Euler s equations for a three dimensional fluid flow. Or (b) A jet propelled boat moves at 32 km/hr in a fresh water lake. There are two jets each of diameter 20 cm. The absolute velocity of the discharged jets is 25 km/hr. Calculate the pump discharge, force of propulsion, power input and ef ficiency of propulsion if the inlet orifices are located at amid ships and in bow. 14. (a) Two reservoirs whose water surface elevations differ by 12 m are connected by the following horizontal compound pipe system starting from the hi gh level reservoir. = 200 m, = 0.2 m, and = 500 m, = 0.3 m, = 0.006. Considering all head losses and assuming that all cha nges of section are abrupt, compute the discharge through the system. Determine the equivalent length of a 0.25 m diameter pipe if minor losses are neglected an d friction factors are assumed to be the same. Sketch HGL and TEL. Or (b) Water flows through a 10 cm diameter, 30 m long pipe at a rate of 1400 lpm. What percent of head would be gained by replacing the central one thir d length of pipe by another pipe of 20 cm diameter. Assume that the changes in s ection are abrupt and f = 0.008 for all pipes. Neglect entrance and exit losses but consider all other losses. 15. (a) Using Buckingham s ??theorem, show that the drag of a supersonic a ircraft is given by : . Where = Reynolds number, = Mach number, ? = fluid density, V = velocity of aircraft, c = sonic velocity = K = bulk modulus of fluid, L = chord length, = wing area = chord x span, ? = a functional notation. Or

(b) It is desired to obtain the dynamic similarity between a 30 cm diameter pipe carrying linseed oil at 0.5 m3/s and a 5 m diameter pipe carrying water. Wh at should be the rate of flow of water in lps? If the pressure loss in the model is 196 N/m2, what is the pressure loss in the prototype pipe? Kinematic viscosi ties of linseed oil and water are 0.457 and 0.0113 stokes respectively. Specific gravity of linseed oil = 0.82.

-------------------------------SOLIDS PART A (10 ? 2 = 20 marks) 1. Define Poisson s ratio. 2. What is the stress developed in a bar of length l, coefficient of linear expansion , modulus of elasticity E when subjected to a rise in temperature of t with the ends clamped. 3. What is an improperly constrained frame? 4. What is the maximum bending moment for a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load and where it occurs? 5. What is Neutral axis? 6. Draw the variation of shear stress across Rectangular section. 7. What is the torque that can be transmitted by a solid shaft of diameter d d allowable shear stress ? 8. Differentiate between a closely coiled helical spring and an open coiled helical spring. 9. Write the expression for longitudinal strain and circumferential strain in the case of thin cylindrical shells. 10. Draw the Mohr s circle for the state of pure shear and mark the principal stresses. PART B (5 ? 16 = 80 marks) 11. A steel bar 3.5 m long is acted upon by forces as shown in fig. 1. Deter mine the value of P and the total elongation of the bar. Take E = 210 kN/mm2.

an

Fig. 1 12. (a) Find the forces in all the members of the girder shown in fig. 2 by the method of joints, indicating whether the force is compressive or tensile .

Fig. 2 Or (b) Find the forces in all the members of the truss shown in fig. 2 by the m ethod of tension coefficients. 13. (a) Draw the BMD and SFD indicating the salient values for the beam load as shown in fig. 3.

Fig. 3

Or (b) At a section in a beam the shear force is 75 kN. Find the ratio of the m aximum shear stress and the average shear stress for the cross section shown in fig. 4.

Fig. 4 14. (a) A hallow steel shaft 24 cm external and 16 cm internal diameter is to be replaced by a solid alloy shaft. If both the shafts should have the sam e polar modulus, find the diameter of the latter and the ratio of torsional rigi dities. Take N for steel = 2.0 * N for alloy. Or (b) A closely coiled helical spring made out of a 10 mm diameter steel bar h as 12 complete coils, each of mean diameter of 100 mm. Calculate the stress indu ced in the section of the rod, the deflection under the pull and the amount of e nergy stored in the spring during the extension if it is subjected to an axial p ull of 200 N. Modulus of rigidity is 0.84 ? 105 N/mm2. 15. (a) (i) At appoint in a stressed material, the normal component of the stresses on a plane is 50 N/mm2 tensile and on a perpendicular plane, the re is a resultant stress of 100 N/mm2 acting away from the plane at an angle of 30? to the normal to the plane. Find the principal stresses at the point and loc ate the position of the planes on which they act. (ii) A thin cylindrical shell 1000 mm long, 200 mm in external diameter, thic kness of metal 10 mm is filled with a fluid at atmospheric pressure. If an addit ional 25 cm3 of the fluid is pumped in to the cylinder, find the pressure exerte d by the fluid on the wall. Take E = 2 ? 105 N/mm2 and Poisson s ratio = 0.3. Find also the hoop stress induced. Or (b) A beam ABC is loaded as shown in fig. 5. If E = 2 ? 105 N/mm2 and I = 9 ? 107 mm4 determine (i) Slope at the end A (ii) Deflection at the free end C (iii) Maximum deflection.

Fig. 5 --------------------------------------------------

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