Industrial Incinerator PCE is already a name to reckon with in an Incinerator business.

PCE has proven expertise in Design & Construction of Industrial Soild / Aqueous / Gaseous hazardour waste incinerators. Solid Waste Incinerator : The Solid waste incinerator is typically a static dual dual chambered furnace. The primary chamber is operated under 'Starved Air' condition with the secondary chamber operated under ' Excess Air' & high residence time conditon to achieve complete combustion. The incinerators incorporate tailored waste feeding arrangements and ash disposal systems for continuous operation. 1] Large volume waste can be handled. 2] Controlled combustion due to "Starved Air" condition. 3] Significant reduction of volume. 4] Handles any type of soild waste. Capacity Diagram : : 10 to 500 kgs/hr.

For the emission of these plants special regulations are applicable where as the emission limits are more stringent than for conventional power plants. Here the organic compounds of waste are used to produce energy in waste incineration plants or as alternative fuel in cement kilns or even coal fired power plants. 2] Infectious / bio-medical waste.Application : 1] Municipal solid waste. paper. trash. viscous organic & incorganic waste. 3] Garbage. Waste Incineration Plant Hide Page Header Hide Date Hide Subtitle Hide Leadtext Show Content Element Show 1 Link Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image From waste to energy by intelligent analysis Waste management today is increasingly supported by incineration processes. . cloth etc. 5] Contaminated debris etc. 4] Semi-solid.

Scheme of a waste incineration plant Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image Combustion optimization and control Combustion processes require O2 to react chemically with the fuel. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash. and data evaluation systems. particulate. With its wide range of products SICK is able to provide the optimal solution for all relevant parameters. Our solution: • Oxygen analyzer ZIRKOR302 . and heat. reference gases. the latter can be used to generate electric power (waste to energy). pollutants. Monitoring the O2 concentration at the boiler outlet is the most important measure for control and optimization of the incineration process. O2 is supplied to the combustion process via combustion air.SICK analyzing systems are highly qualified for waste incineration applications. flue gas. even for the most stringent European Waste Incineration Directive. SICK is the only manufacturer with own solutions for dust. gas flow.

In addition to O2 (boiler efficiency). NO is monitored at the boiler outlet for control and optimization of the DeNOx process. With the same system HCl. The NOx emissions are reduced accordingly. Here NOx molecules react with the ammonia compounds and form nitrogen and water. In the NOx control process with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) either gaseous ammonia or a mixture of urea and water is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber at temperatures between 900 °C and 1.Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image SNCR flue gas denitrification Due to environmental protection NOx emissions have to be reduced prior to the release into the atmosphere.100 °C. SO2 and H2O concentrations can be monitored as important control parameters for a subsequent scrubber. Our solution: • • O2 measurement: Oxygen analyzer ZIRKOR302 NOx/HCl/SO2/H2O measurement: Analyzing system MCS100E HW Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image SCR flue gas denitrification .

At the inlet of the catalyst NO concentration is monitored to control the ammonia injection. Our solution: • • NO measurement: Gas analyzer GM32 NH3 measurement: Laser gas analyzer GM700 Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image Flue gas scrubber . At the outlet of the catalyst NO and NH3 are measured: The NH3 concentration (ammonia slip) indicates the efficiency of the denitrification process while the NO concentration is monitored to ensure compliance with the environmental regulations. The conversion of NOx into water and nitrogen takes place at temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C.For the process with selective catalytic reduction (SCR ) gaseous ammonia is fed into the catalyst inlet.

Our solution: • Analyzing system MCS100E HW Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image Heavy metal and dioxine removal . Using the dry scrubbing process the aqueous solution is replaced by lime powder or a pasty mixture of water and lime. Two scrubbing processes are used. For proper operation control of the dry process continuous monitoring of HCl. SO2 and H2O concentrations is essential.After the dedusting typically scrubbers are used to remove acidic gases like HCl and SO2. In wet scrubbers the flue gas is sprayed with an aqueous mixture of water and lime. wet scrubbers and (quasi-)dry scrubbers. The gaseous acidic pollutants react with the liquid to form gypsum which can be removed from the waste water to produce drywalls.

Our solution: • Analyzing system MKAS Compact Show Content No Links Show Title Hide Subtitle Show Image Continuous emission monitoring . Activated charcoal has a high porosity combined with a large active surface and is therefore ideal for adsorption of pollutants.For controlling the emissions of heavy metals and dioxines / furanes activated charcoal filters are a commonly used method. Early detection of hot spots in the charcoal filter is possible by using differential CO measurement between inand outlet of the filter. Disadvantage of use of activated charcoal is the self combustibility.

particulate matter.According to environmental regulations. CO. Monitoring equipment used for CEM applications must be approved by the government (for example Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/EC).g. as well as the reference values gas flow. Germany). NOx (NO+NO2). gas temperature. and fulfilling the quality standard EN14181. O2 and H2O. SO2 and TOC). In some countries additional continuous monitoring of total mercury is obligatory (e. The monitored data is transferred to an emission data acquisition system for further processing and reporting to the authorities. HF. Precondition is an approval test according to EN15267-3. pressure. waste incineration plants have to monitor continuously a large number of gaseous components (HCl. Our solutions: • • • • • • • • • • HCl/SO2/CO/NOx/O2/H2O measurement: Analyzing system MCS100E HW HCl/HF/SO2/CO/NOx(NO+NO2)/O2/H2O measurement: FTIR-Analyzing system MCS100FT Hg measurement: Mercury measuring system MERCEM In-situ HF measurement: Laser gas analyzer GM700 Integrated extractive TOC measurement: FID-Analyzer EuroFID Integrated extractive HF measurement: Laser gas analyzer GME700 Gas flow measurement: FLOWSIC100 Dust concentration measurement: DUSTHUNTER SP100 Extractive dust measurement after wet scrubber (gas conditions below dew point): Bypass measuring system FWE200 Data acquisition: MEAC2000 .

gas etc. in turn. Purpose of Thermal Treatment The primary function of thermal treatment is to convert the waste to a stable and usable end product and reduce the amount that requires final disposal in landfills. Because a high proportion of MSW can produce methane on landfilling. incinerated and landfilled. The graph bellows shows domestic waste management in EU countries from 1999-2000 indicating the percentages recycled. Countries with high recycling levels also have high levels of thermal treatment. Irish waste management policy requires thermal treatment facilities to incorporate energy recovery capacity. Thermal treatment processes recover the energy in municipal solid waste (MSW) and convert it to electricity and/or useful heat. clean technology superior to landfill and is compatible with high levels of recycling. prior to final disposal. the energy generated can. According to the most recent EU Directive on Incineration of Waste 2000:��Incineration plant "means any stationary or mobile technical unit and equipment dedicated to the thermal treatment of wastes with or without energy recovery. gasification or plasma processes in so far as the substances resulting from the treatment are subsequently incinerated" EU Directive on Incineration of Waste (Approved by EU Parliament and Council November 2000). Thermal Treatment in Europe When Ireland was failing to address the waste issue our European neighbours were developing and implementing sustainable integrated waste management practices. Thermal treatment is used as an integral part of integrated waste management throughout Europe because it is a safe. recovering energy from the waste will help reduce the 'greenhouse effect'. Thermal treatment can involve a number of processes most of which are commonly referred to as incineration.What is Thermal Treatment? Thermal Treatment is a process by which heat is applied to waste in order to sanitise it and reduce its bulk. This includes the incineration by oxidation of waste as well as the other thermal processes such as pyrolysis. . be used for example to power the plant and for district heating systems. While thermal treatment plants can operate without generating energy.

The process takes place in an externally heated reactor in which the pyrolysis gas is formed. Pre-sorted (segregated) waste or unsorted waste is the fuel in a combustion process that uses excess air to ensure complete combustion. it is important to understand that in the context of the Dublin Waste Management Plan the phrase thermal treatment refers to a number of processes. and partly of a char. which transforms pre-shredded waste into a gas and a residue consisting partly of inert materials. where it is stored in a large enclosed bunker that serves as waste buffer capacity. Incineration Incineration is the most common technology used for converting municipal solid waste into energy. where it is converted into energy. Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is a thermal pre-treatment method. of which incineration in one such process. Overhead cranes feed the waste to the incineration unit. The bunker area is kept under negative pressure thus preventing odours from escaping the building. Other thermal treatment processes include Gasification and Pyrolysis. This usually takes place on a moving grate in the bottom of the combustion chamber. Waste is delivered to the plant.Types of Thermal Treatment While the terms thermal treatment and incineration are often considered synonymous. The gas .

Of this.g. new facilities are being provided in their place. The process is very inefficient in terms of energy recovery and therefore has a higher cost of processing. How Do Incinerators Work? Click on image to enlarge. Gasification This process is similar to pyrolysis in some ways. Incineration capacity across Europe is increasing. With gasification.may be used partly to heat the reactor and partly for generating stream in a boiler. with the energy from the waste being converted into electricity for the national grid.The Facts • • Old badly managed incinerators are being closed down in Europe where they do not comply with the new standards for monitoring and operating. approximately 5-10% is bottom ash and is inert and only 1-3% of the original volume is fly ash requiring disposal in a special facility. if available or it may be disposed of in a landfill. . Chemical reactions form a combustible gas (with traces of tar) which is stored or burned to generate heat. However. The likely technology for the project will be conventional incineration. the pre-treated waste is fed into an externally heated reactor where the carbonaceous material in the waste stream reacts with a gasifying agent (e. air. Modern incinerators reduce waste to between 6-13% of the original volume. The char may be used as a low-grade fuel in a large power plant. oxygen or steam) at temperatures of 8001100°C or higher. Incineration .

. A 2001 EPA report estimates that 60. inert matter. etc. Some Frequently Asked Questions about Incineration What residues do incinerators produce? Incinerators produce two different residues: Bottom Ash and Fly Ash. the energy efficiency of the plant is between 75-80%. is hazardous and is usually 1-3% of the original volume of waste. Incineration will not compete with recycling as infrastructure like thermal treatment plants and landfill will be sized to take the appropriate non-recyclable percentage of the waste stream. however.e. glassy elements. An average conventional power plant has an efficiency of 35%. grit. Legislation controlling emissions from incinerators is among the strictest environmental legislation in the world.000 tonnes of waste burned in the back yard produced 18 grams of dioxins. Studies carried out by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) show no increase in dioxins in dairy products produced in the vicinity of the plants. FSAI and WHO have all indicated that properly managed well run incinerators do not impact on the environment or on human health.000 tonnes of waste enough electricity is generated to service 20. For example. Fly ash. etc. There is a broad spectrum of chemicals emitted from incinerators but even in rural situations the overall contribution is usually less than 1% of existing background levels . It consists of part of the waste stream that cannot be burnt.000 homes. If heat is recovered from the plant and provided to local communities through a district heating system. In a plant handling 400.including dioxins and furans. releases just 0. i. There are 11 incinerators operating in Ireland.54 grams of dioxins to the atmosphere. Modern well-managed incinerators burn waste at much higher temperatures at which dioxins are destroyed. It is the by-product of the gas cleaning processes. The EPA.• • • • • • • • Uncontrolled burning of waste is one of the biggest threats to the Irish environment today because it involves burning waste at temperature levels which create dioxins. metals. The metal fraction of the bottom ash can be separated out using magnets and the remaining fraction is a stable aggregate which can be used in the construction of roads. Levels of dioxins in mothers breast milk and in dairy products (key indicators) have decreased over the past 20 years despite the increased use of incineration in Europe. Bottom ash is between 5-10% of the original volume of waste but up to 20-25% of the original weight. This material requires special handling in an appropriate facility in Ireland or abroad. a modern municipal incinerator treating 1 million tonnes of waste in controlled conditions. Do Incinerators Produce Electricity? One tonne of Municipal Solid Waste in a modern incinerator produces 650Kwh of electricity. Even if 1 million tonnes of municipal waste was to be incinerated in Ireland this would contribute less than 2% of the dioxins emitted to the air (EPA 2001).

17 dioxins have been identified as posing a risk to human health. There are many sources of dioxins to the Irish environment including smoking. Even if we incinerated 1 million tonnes of municipal waste in Ireland. incinerators burn waste at over 850°C.albeit in extremely small quantities. and incinerators produce them. However. but back-yard burning of waste is the single greatest source of dioxins to the Irish environment. However. home heating and some types of industrial processes. Ensuring that waste management has the least possible impact on the environment will involve providing all of the infrastructure necessary to maximise recycling. Most of our exposure (over 90%) to dioxins comes through the food chain. illegal burning of waste . for example. this would contribute less than 2% of the dioxins emitted to air (EPA. the reality is that chemicals like dioxins already exist in our environment and come from very familiar sources like smoking. transport. Most of this waste should be composted or recycled with the remainder going to disposal in properly managed incinerators or landfill sites. . recover energy from the waste that cannot be recycled and keep landfill to a minimum. Currently most dioxins come from uncontrolled backyard burning of waste. This is because backyard burning usually occurs at a temperature of about 200-400°C which is the temperature at which dioxins are formed. common chemicals like salt can be toxic to the human body if taken in large enough quantities. 2001). the temperature at which dioxins are destroyed. This is because incineration of waste is strictly controlled and the gases emitted are cleaned and scrubbed to ensure that any emissions are extremely low. incinerators do emit a broad spectrum of chemicals to the environment . traffic. "If dioxins are so toxic.Do emissions from modern incinerators harm health and the environment? Properly managed and monitored Municipal Waste Incinerators do not impact on the environment. the levels of dioxins in Ireland would decrease dramatically. health or food quality. They persist in body fat and remain in the body for a very long period of time. Many opponents of incineration argue that because incinerators emit these chemicals they should not be built. At a certain dosage. If all of the waste that is currently being burned was handled in this way. Most dioxins will continue to come from uncontrolled burning of waste in back gardens. What are dioxins? Dioxins are the unwanted by-product of low temperature uncontrolled burning. What determines whether they do us harm is the amount or DOSE we are exposed to. bonfires and accidental fires.even home heating systems. surely building incinerators will increase the levels of dioxins in the Irish environment?" Properly managing our waste will reduce the impact waste has on our environment including dioxin emissions.

While the exact design of each incinerator may be slightly different.How do Incinerators work The diagram below gives a simplified overview of what happens to municipal solid waste in an incinerator. The mixing of the waste is useful in producing a more uniform fuel that will help maintaining a steady combustion process within the desired operating conditions . Grab System Waste will be received from both household and commercial sources. so it may need to be broken down into smaller pieces. Overhead traverse cranes fitted with grapples mix the waste before feeding it into the furnace hoppers. they will generally follow the diagram above and will consist of the following areas: Reception Area/Tipping Hall On entering the incineration facility. waste trucks make their way to the tipping hall. Some of the waste will be bulky in nature. The airin the reception area and in the bunkers is maintained at a lower pressurethan outside (negative pressure) and this prevents odours escaping. Here the waste is offloaded into large bunkers for storage.

nitrogen oxides. Fly Ash Fly ash is the particulate removed during the gas cleaning phase. hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride.1100oC. but may also include minute quantities of heavy metals. At this stage of the cleaning process. the temperature at which odourous gases and all dioxins will be destroyed. Acid Gas Scrubbing This consists of a lime mixture being injected into the gas stream.Combustion Chamber The cranes and grabs transfer the mixed waste from the bunker to the furnace 'hopper'. These are primarily dust and ash particles. so hazardous material will be exported for safe disposal. but modern plants generally include the following stages: • • • Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP) The ESP will initially remove 99% or more of particulates. There are various flue gas cleaning designs. The activated carbon provides a surface onto which the heavy metals can adhere and these will then be filtered out at a later stage. Some of these compounds are harmful to health and therefore the flue gas is thoroughly cleaned before it is discharged to the air. At the bottom of the hopper a metering ram pushes the waste onto the combustion grate. At present there are no hazardous waste facilities in Ireland. This material is usually recycled back into the combustion chamber to ensure that dioxins are properly destroyed in the high temperatures. which agitates and transports the waste through the combustion chamber. Flue Gases The combustion process produces flue gas containing water vapour. carbon dioxide. The flue gas cleaning equipment of a modern incineration plant is complex and can take up about half of the space within the plant. Electricity Generation . Filtration The final filtration of particulate matter typically uses a bag house filter (fabric filter). nitrogen. dioxins and furans. Fly ash is considered hazardous and so it must be disposed of in a specially designed facility. Activated Carbon Activated carbon injection is used to remove organic compounds such as dioxins and also volatile metals such as mercury or cadmium. This reacts to neutralise acid gases such as sulphur dioxide. Combustion takes place at temperatures of 850 . particulate matter is primarily made up of spent activated carbon and spent hydrated lime (from the earlier part of the cleaning process). This process can be fully automatic in modern incineration plants. oxygen and particulate matter. It is generally about 13% by weight of the original waste.

The remaining bottom ash is non-hazardous and is typically used in other applications such as an aggregate in concrete or for road building.10% of the bottom ash and are sent to the steel works for recycling. Bottom Ash At the end of the grate the solid waste has been completely burned out. The steam goes into a turbine. which can be directly piped to people's homes in a district heating system.000 homes. After storage the bottom ash may be screened into fine and coarse fractions and the ferrous metals (iron or steel) in the ash will be extracted using large magnets. about 10% of the electricity is used on site and the remainder is fed into the national grid. The combustion chamber is surrounded by water tube walls.A boiler converts the energy from the combustion into high pressure steam. The heat remaining after the electricity production can be used to heat water. . The remaining residue is called bottom ash. The hot flue gases release additional heat in additional tube panels in the boiler. The incineration of 400. which are heated by radiation from the combustion.000 tonnes of waste can supply the annual electricity consumption of more than 30. This can supply the annual requirements for heating and domestic hot water for approximately 25. which is ejected at the bottom of the combustion chamber. which drives an electric generator. The bottom ash corresponds to about 15 .20% by weight or 4-6% by volume of the original waste. The metals represent 5 .000 homes. Generally.

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