Second Half Alongside Always Afloat Always Accessible Always Afloat Always Afloat or Safe Aground. Conditi Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area Toward the rear (stern) of the ship. Behin On or within the ship On the deck (not over it - see ALOFT) About Any agreement to purchase goods under It is a natural event, not preventable by a Address Commission Additional chartering terms at the end of Whenever the terms in a fully signed C/P Commission payable to the charterer by Partial payment of the bill of lading freig The hiring of a ship in whole or part Tanker of maximum 79,999 dwt on the A Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway) At or towards the stern or rear of a ship Touching or fast to the bottom All Going Well Australian Hold Ladders Artificial objects to supplement natural la This term has various meanings the most A bill of lading that covers both domestic The broadest form of coverage available, Both these terms mean the same. Here th

Above the deck of the ship A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Iron ore being a very heavy cargo is load This clause is inserted in a C/P to preven In or toward the centre of the ship A place suitable for anchorage in relation Antwerp-Hamburg Range A charterparty which has been agreed up

APS Arrival Pilot Station ARAG Amsterdam-Rotterdam--Antwerp-Gent R The buying of foreign exchange, securiti ARBITRAGE ARBITRATION Method of settling disputes which is usua A point of identification at which a timeARRIVAL PILOT STATION A vessel is an arrived ship and the laytim ARRIVED SHIP AS FAST AS THE VESSEL CAN Means that the laytime is calculated by re RECEIVE/DELIVER ASBA American Shipbrokers Association ASPW Any Safe Port in the World ASTERN In the back of the ship, opposite of ahead ATDNSHINC Any Time Day/Night Sundays and Holid ATHWARTSHIPS At right angles to the centerline of the sh ATUTC Actual Times Used to Count All vessels trading with Australia must b AUSTALIAN HOLD LADDERS Any loss or damage due to insured perils AVERAGE To average means to make separate calcu AVERAGING LAYTIME freight charged for the return of goods w BACK FREIGHT BACKLETTER Where a seller/shipper issues a 'letter of i BAF: Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted fr BALE CAP. Cubic capacity of a vessel’s holds to carr The cubic capacity of a ship's holds below BALE CAPACITY Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary BALLAST Sum of money paid by a time charterer to BALLAST BONUS This relates to the maximum draft enabli BAR DRAFT Lease of a ship wherein the charterer tak BAREBOAT /DEMISE CHARTER BAREBOAT CHTR: . Bareboat Charter - Owners lease a specif BBB: Before Breaking Bulk. Refers to freight p BDI Both Dates Inclusive BEAM The maximum breadth or the greatest wi A scale of wind force expressed from 0 t BEAUFORT SCALE Refers to the time when freight is paid. In BEFORE BREAKING BULK BELOW Beneath the deck If a ship has to pass under a bridge acros BELOW BRIDGES BENDS Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports) The person in whose favor a draft is issu BENEFICIARY The specific place where ships are ancho BERTH If a vessel chartered for loading on a part BERTH CHARTER Also referred to as "liner terms". The Shi BERTH TERMS


Both Inclusive The document issued on behalf of the car The Baltic and International Maritime Co Bale (Bill of Lading) A document signed by th List of countries published by a governm Beam Booking Note Bunker on Board Best Offer A building authorized by Customs autho The term means that the arrangements ag The forward part of a ship Brackish is spoken of water in a river wh Loose cargo, such as cartons, stowed dire The expression means "to start the discha Bunkers Remaining on Board The space wasted in a ship's holds when A shipbroker acts as a middleman betwe Percentage of freight payable to broker ( Brokerage is a commission paid to the sh Basis Basis 1 Port to 1 Port Berth Terms Shipments which are not packaged, but a A vertical partition separating compartm This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, s This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, s A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percent Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel O Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel O An anchored float used for marking a po Brackish Water Arrival Draft CONSIGNEE. Name of agent, company Currency Adjustment Factor By doing certain tonnage and hatch calcu A month according to a calendar, e.g., if The date, mutually agreed upon between Vessels too large for the Panama and/or t

O. Seller pays al CIP Carriage and Insurance paid to.) 1936 U.. CIP . Insurance & Freight (named port of destination) The seller has the same obligations as un CIF: Cost.S.A. merchandise or commodities of e CARGO A customs document permitting the hold CARNET CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (C.Owners agre COACP Contract of Affreightment Charter Party COB Closing of Business COBLDN Closing of Business London COD Cash On Delivery COGSA Carriage of Goods by Sea Act Freight payable at destination provided th COLLECT FREIGHT A ship specifically designed to carry both COMBI Combined transport document issued by COMBIDOC Laytime is said to commence once a vess COMMENCEMNT OF LAYTIME A statement of transaction between a sell COMMERCIAL INVOICE Set of four "negotiable" documents that r COMMERCIAL SET Implies that the quote does not include th COMMISSION PAST US Transporter who holds himself out to the COMMON CARRIER ..Carriage & Insurance Paid To (named port of destination) The seller has the same obligations CKD Completely knocked down Water carried in a tanker or tanks which CLEAN BALLAST TANKS Means that the day on which the notice i CLEAR DAY/S COA Contract of Affreightment .S.Cost.Cost & Freight (named port of destination) The seller must pay the cost and freight necessary CFR (or C&F) Cost and Freight CHART A map used by navigators Water level calculated on the lowest tide CHART DATUM A written contract between the owner of CHARTER PARTY They are specially appointed by large im CHARTERING AGENTS CHOPT Charterers Option CHTRS Charterers CIF .Goods. required by certai CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN CFR . Insurance & Freight. but CARRIER CBFT (or CFT) Cubic Feet CBM Cubic Metres Describes viscosity of fuel oils—380 c/s CENTISTOKES A document often required with shipmen CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION A statement sometimes notarized by a pr CERTIFICATE OF MANUFACTURE A specified document.G. Statute that governs the acts th Usually means Steamship Company.

S. Customs to clear shipm CUSTOMS BROKER D/A-DOCUMENTS AGAINST ACCEPTANCE Instructions from a shipper to his bank th D/P-DOCUMENTS AGAINST PAYMENT Instructions a shipper gives to his bank th DA Disbursement Account DAF Deliver At Frontier DAF . introduced by CST Centistoke CTR Container Fitted This takes account of the rate of exchang CURRENT ADJUSTMENT FACTOR CUSTOMARY DESPATH or CUSTOMARY QUICK The charter is required to discharge and/o DESPATCH This term relates to customs and practice CUSTOME OF THE PORT Licensed by U.Carriage Paid To (named port of destination) The seller pays the freight for carriage of the go CQD Customary Quick Despatch CR Current Rate CRN Crane CROB Cargo Remaining on Board To trade a ship wherever suitable cargoe CROSS TRADE CRT Cargo Retention Clauses. usually CONSIGNEE Merchandise shipped to a foreign agent o CONSIGNMENT The Consolidation Endorsement may be CONSOLIDATION Bills of lading. DAILY RUNNING COST Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship a DAMAGES FOR DETENTION .CONGESTION Port/berth delays In order to avoid loss to owners due to no CONGESTION CONS Consumption A named vessel may be employed on a s CONSECUTIVE VOYAGES Party who is to receive the good. INSURANCE AND FREIGHT CP (or C/P) Charter Party CPD Charterers Pay Dues CPT Carriage Paid To CPT . materials carried CONTRABAND In chartering this terms refers to a shipow CONTRACT OF AFFREIGTMENT COP Custom Of Port (Cost and Freight) Seller owns goods unt COST & FREIGHT Seller owns goods until they are loaded o COST. certificates of origin or sp CONSULAR DOCUMENTS A detailed statement of goods shipped ce CONSULAR INVOICE Shipping systems based on large cargo-c CONTAINERIZATION During the time of war.Delivered at Frontier (named place) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the good Cost per day of operating a ship.

Time saved. Money paid by Money (compensation) payable to the sh DEMURRAGE DEQ Delivered Ex Quay DEQ .Delivered EX Quay (named port of destination) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver wh DES Delivered Ex Ship DES .DAMFORDET: Damages for Detention. Vessel departure from specifi Deviation is an intentional departure from DEVIATION CLAUSE DFRT Deadfreight. fresh DISPLACEMENT LOADED A charterer who has control of the vessel DISPONENT OWNER The expression is used in connection wit DISTANCE FREIGHT .Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliv Where a charterer or shipper fails to fulfi DEAD FREIGHT Weight of the cargo only which a ship ca DEADWEIGHT CARGO CAPACITY Signifies the carrying capacity of a vesse DEADWEIGHT TONNAGE DECK A permanent covering over a compartme Cargo carried outside rather than within DECK CARGO (or 300mm) line painted amidships on bo DECK LINE 12" One of the three forms of laytime (the ot DEFINITE LAYTIME Even under All Risk coverage. fre DISPLACEMENT LIGHT Weight of the vessel plus bunkers. DDU .Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver w DDU Delivered Duty unpaid. DDP . Space booked by shipper or DHDATSBE Despatch Half Demurrage on All Time S DHDWTSBE Despatch Half Demurrage on Working T Sums paid out by the ship's agent on beh DISBURSEMENTS DISCH Discharge Weight of the vessel without bunkers. damage d DELAY A time charter commences with the deliv DELIVERY & RE-DELIVERY DEM :Demurrage (Quay Rent). Penalty if cargo DAPS Days all Purposes (Total days for loading The actual date on which the fixture nego DATE ON CHARTER PARTY Means a continuous period of 24 hours w DAY total time for both loading and dischargin DAYS ALL PURPOSES DDP Delivered Duty Paid.Delivered EX Ship (named port of destination) The seller satisfies his obligation to deliver wh DESP: Despatch. reward for quick The money (bonus) payable by the shipo DESPATCH / DESPATCH MONEY DET Detention (See DAMFORDET) DETENTION & DEMAGES FOR DETENTION If demurrage has not been agreed in the c DEV Deviation.

stores and A receeding current East Coast Speed of a ship which is lower than its no Even If Used Electric Ventilation Estimated Time of Arrival Estimated Time of Completion Estimated Time of Departure Estimated Time of Sailing Time spent in carrying out loading and/o From the point where the shipment begin Refers to laytime.DISTRESS FREIGHT DK DLOSP DNRCAOSLONL DO DOCK RECEIPT DOCUMENTARY CREDIT DOCUMENTS DOLSP DOP DOT DOWN TO HER MARKS DRAFT DRAFT OR DRAUGHT DRAFT SURVEY DRAUGHT: (or DRAFT) DRK DROPPING LAST OUTWARD SEA PILOT DROPPING OUTWARD PILOT DUNNAGE DUNNAGE DUTY DWAT (or DWT): EBB EC ECONOMIC SPEED EIU ELVENT ETA ETC ETD ETS EVEN IF USED EX (POINT OF ORIGIN) EXCEPTED EXCEPTION CLAUSES EXCEPTIONS TO LAYTIME EX-DOCK EX-FACTORY When a chartered vessel is being loaded Deck Dropping Last Outwards Sea Pilot (Norw Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo Diesel Oil Receipt issued by an ocean carrier or its A commercial letter of credit providing f Papers customarily attached to foreign dr Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot (Norway) Dropping Outward Pilot Department of Transport When a vessel is immersed to the approp Buyer's payment for goods. often timber o Materials of various types. Depth to which a ship is immersed in wa Survey undertaken to determine the quan Depth to which a ship is immersed in wa Derrick Some ports require the service of more th A point of delivery on to and re-delivery Materials of various types. often timber o (a) ad valorem duty means an assessed am Deadweight.) Seller owns goods until the Seller owns goods until they are picked u . Means that the specifie Clauses in a C/P or B/L which relieve the The happening of events agreed upon in (From dock. Weight of cargo.

but exc FIOST: Free In/Out and Trimmed.B. Charterer pay FIOT: Free In/Out and Trimmed.Ex Works (named place) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has made the go F. F. As per FIOS b FIRM OFFER Used by the owner's shipbroker in negoti FIRST CLASS CHARTERER When the name of the charterer is not rev FIRST OPEN WATER The first date when a port is free from ice FIT Free In Trimmed FIW Free In Wagon FIXING Chartering a Vessel FIXING Chartering a Vessel FIXTURE Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations t FIXTURE Conclusion of a shipbroker's negotiations FLATPACKING Cargo to be presented stacked and secure FLATPACKING Cargo to be presented stacked and secure FLT Full Liner Terms FMC Federal Maritime Commission FME: Force Majeure Excepted FMS Fathoms 1 FO For Orders .A..Free Carrier (named place) The seller satisfies his obligation to deliver when he has handed o FDD Freight Demurrage Deadfreight FDEDANRSAOCLONL Freight Deemed Earned. Freight booked FIO include FIOS Free In/Out Stowed.. As per FIO. ENDORSEMENT If a merchant sells on F. placed between ships.EXPRESS CLAUSE In case what has actually been agreed is n EXW Ex Works EXW . C& FAC Fast as can FAS Free Alongside Ship.O.Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) The seller satisfies his obligation to deliver the FAST AS CAN The term appears in a C/P when laytime FCA Free to Carrier.O.B. Discountless An FDESP Free Despatch FENDER A cushion. or betw FEU Standard 40’ Container FHEX Fridays/Holidays Excluded FHINC Fridays/Holidays Included FILO: Free In/Liner Out. Seller delivers goo FAS ./F. A modern equivalent of F FD (FDIS) Free Discharge FDC .A.S. Seafreight with which FIO Free In/Out.S.

First attempt at best offer FREE (OF) TURN Time lost (if any) by a vessel for waiting FREE ALONGSIDE Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock FREE ALONGSIDE STEAMER Seller owns goods until they are delivere FREE DESPATCH If loading/discharging achieved sooner th FREE DESPATCH If loading/discharging achieved sooner th FREE DISCHARGE The charterer contracts to discharge the v FREE EXINS Free of any Extra Insurance (Owners) FREE IN & OUT Distance measured amidships from the w FREE IN & OUT AND SPOUT TRIMMED Charterer bears the expenses of the cargo FREE IN & OUT AND STOWED Charterer bears the expenses of loading. FREE IN & OUT AND TRIMMED Same as FIO plus that the cargo has also FREE IN & OUT STOWED AND TRIMMED Charterer bears the expenses of the cargo FREE IN LINER OUT Charterer pays expenses at load port(s).FO2 (IFO) Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO 3 FO Free Out FOB Free on Board. Seller sees the goods "ov FOB. Clearance by the Health A FR :First Refusal.Clause exclu FREE ON BOARD Seller sees the goods _over the ship_s r FREE ON BOARD TRUCK Seller owns goods until they are loaded o FREE ON BOARD VESSEL Seller owns goods until they are loaded o FREE ON BOARD WAREHOUSE (Free on board warehouse. Includ FREE OUT Free of discharge costs to owners. Includ FREE PRATIQUE This expression means that the vessel has . w FREE OF CAPTURE & SEIZURE Free of Capture & Seizure .Freight on Board (named port of shipment) Means the seller completes his obligation to delive FOFFER Firm Offer FOG For Our Guidance FOQ Free On Quay FOR Free On Rail FORCE MAJEURE :Clause limiting responsibilities of the ch FORCE MAJEURE The title of a standard clause in marine c FORCE MAJEURE Circumstances beyond the control of one FORE-AND-AFT In a line parallel to the keel FORWARD Toward the bow of the ship FOT Free On Truck 1 FOW First Open Water 2 FOW Free On Wharf FP :Free Pratique.) Seller owns g FREE OUT Free of discharge costs to owners.

Ports in order of Grab is a unit of cargo handling. consisti The capacity in cubic feet of the cargo ho Geared Type of voyage charter in which the ship The vessel's internal space measured in u Gross Registered Tonnage Good.FREE TO CARRIER FREE TRADE ZONE FREEBOARD FREEBOARD FREIGHT FREIGHT AT DESTINATION FREIGHT TON FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE FRESH WATER ARRIVAL DRAFT FRIDASYS & HOLIDAYS EXCEPTED or FRIDAYS & HOLIDAYS INCLUDED FRT: FRUSTRATION FRUSTRATION FULL & COMPLETE CARGO FWAD FWDD FYG FYI GA GEAR GENERAL AVERAGE (G. blocks. Money payable on delivery of ca Charterers when cancelling agreement so There is a question of frustration when th Cargo required to fill a ship to capacity e Fresh Water Arrival Draft Fresh Water Departure Draft For Your Guidance For Your Information General Average A general term for ropes.A. Safe Berth Good. Grain Capacity. Cubic capacity in 'grain' Geographical Rotation. tackle a Ancient principle of equity in which all p Documents the cargo owner presents to t Gearless Grain (Capacity) Gencon (GENERAL CONDITIONS) Gas Oil Cargo shipped by sea or air.) GENERAL AVERAGE SECURITY GLS (GLESS) GN (or GR) GNCN GO GOODS GP GR GRAB / GRAB DAMAGE GRAIN CAPACITY GRD GROSS TERMS (GROSS CHARTER) GROSS TONNAGE GRT GSB GSP GTEE A modern equivalent of FAS used in inte A port designated by the government of a The minimum vertical distance from the Distance measured amidships from the w The money charged by the carrier for tra Freight payable at destination upon deliv Unit of cargo on which freight rate is bas Loadline regulations permit extra draft w Fresh water draft of a ship on arrival at a Fhex applies to Muslim countries where Freight. Safe Port Guarantee .

It is neither Handy Heavy d.GUARANTEED FREIGHT GUNWALE HA HAGUE RULES HANDY SIZE / MAX HARMONIZED SYSTEM HATCH HATCH COAMING HBF HDLTSBENDS HDWTS HEAD CHARTERER HEAVY GRAINS.0 An international commodity classificatio An opening in a ship's deck fitted with a Steel parapet surrounding a hatchway wh Harmless Bulk Fertilizer Half Despatch Lay Time Saved Both End Half Despatch Working (or Weather) Tim Most C/Ps allow the charterer to sub-let o What [SF44-49]. SOYA BEANS & SORGHUMS HEAVY HANDY DEADWEIGHT SCRAP HHDW HIRE HIRE HMS HO HOLD HOLIDAY HULL HW ICE CLAUSE ICW IMDG IMO IN &/OR OVER IN BOND IN GEOGRAPHICAL ROTAION IN REGULAR (USUAL) TURN / TURN TIME IN TRANSITU IN WRITING INCOTERMS IND INDEFINITE LAYTIME INHERENT VICE INLAND BILL OF LADING INSTITUTE WARRANTY LIMITS Freight payable whether the goods are de The upper edge of a ship's sides Hatch Code of minimum conditions for the carr Bulk carriers in the range of 20.000-50. an International Maritime Dangerous Goods International Maritime Organization Goods carried below and/or on deck A term applied to the status of merchand If an option is given to the charterers to l Turn refers to the sequence in which a ve On the passage. Writing means in relation to a notice of r (Refer to comments in covering statemen Indication This arises in cases where the shipowner A loss caused by the inherent nature of th A bill of lading used in transporting good In insurance. rivers. sam .w. a set of warranties (i. (Scrap) T/C Remuneration The payment for hiring a vessel on a tim Heavy Metal Scraps Hold A compartment below deck in a large ve Means a day of week (or part thereof) on The main body of a ship High Water To safeguard the shipowner that the vess Inter coastal Water way : bays.e. soyabeans [SF48-52] an A type of scrap metal cargo.

The distance north or south of t Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date) Stands for "laydays commencing / layday The correct interpretation of this is the ea Time at Charterers disposal for purpose o Means the period of time agreed between To stop trading a ship temporarily due to Lowest Current Rate The side sheltered from the wind The direction away from the wind.INTERCLUB AGREEMENT INTERMODAL INTERMODAL INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT WORKERS' FEDERATION IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT ITF ITINERARY IU IUHTAUTC IWL JETTISON CLAUSE KEEL KEEL CLEARANCE KNOT L/C LANE METER LANE METER LASH LAT LAYCAN LAYCAN LAYDAYS LAYTIME LAYTIME LAY-UP LCR LEE LEEWARD LEEWAY LENGTH OVERALL LETTER OF CREDIT . Percentage of cargo or pass Retention of property until outstanding d The right to retain control of cargo until Goods which fill the ship cubically but d To reduce the draft of the vessel so as to The shipowner bears all costs for loading . Half Time Actually To Count Institute Warranty Limits Clause in a B/L or C/P setting out the cir The centreline of a ship running fore and Minimum distance between the bottom o A measurement of speed equal to one na Letter of Credit A method of measuring the space capaci A method of measuring the space capaci To hold goods in position by use of Rope Latitude.COMMERCIAL LETTER OF INDEMINITY LF LIEN LIEN LIGHT CARGO LIGHTENNING (OR LIGHTERAGE) LINER IN FREE OUT An agreement by 14 mutual associations Carriage of a commodity by different mo Carriage of a commodity by different mo Organisation which looks after the welfa A letter of credit in which the specified p International Transport Workers Federati Route.Schedule If Used If Used. Oppo The sideways movement of the ship caus Maximum length between the extreme en A letter addressed by a bank. at the insur A written statement in which one party (s Load Factor.

a Letter of Indemnity The distance in degrees east or west of th A situation in which. Also. a fixed q Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity) Memorandum of Agreement More or Less Charterers Option More or Less Owners Option An arrangement for securing a ship to a m Gives the option to the charterer to increa Gives the option to the shipowner to incr Mertic Tonne (i.240 lb Liner Terms Hook/Hook A fixed sum is paid to the shipowner reg Low Water Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date) Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel Inventory of cargo on board An itemized list by Bill of Lading numbe Merchant Broker Marine Diesel Oil Average of forward and aft draft of a ves Approximately in the location equally di Minimum and maximum cargo.e. for one reason or an Last Open Water It pre-supposes that at the very wors ther Lumpsum Freight. Money paid to Shippe Lashed Secured Dunnaged Liner Terms Long Ton = 1.05 kilogram (2.000 kilos) Not Always Afloat But Safely Aground Any marine policy limiting coverage to p .016.LINER TERMS LNG LOA LOAD LINE LOAD LINE LOAN RECEIPT LOF LOG LOI LONGITUDE LOSS OF MARKET LOW LOWEST ASTRONOMICAL TIDE LS (or LUMPS) LSD LT1 LT2 LTHH LUMPSUM FREIGHT LW LYCN M/V MANIFEST MANIFEST MB MDO (DO) MEAN DRAFT MIDSHIP MIN/ MAX MIN/MAX MOA MOLCHOPT MOLOO MOORING MORE OR LESS CHARTERER'S OPTION MORE OR LESS OWNER'S OPTION MT NAABSA NAMED PERILS POLICY A rate that includes freight plus handling Liquefied Natural Gas Length Overall of the vessel SEE PLIMSOLL LINE An internationally recognised line painte Document signed by the Assured where Lloyds Open Form A record of courses or operation. 1.

One minute of latitude. ap Time and voyage charters fall under this (Detention). usually wooden A bulk carrier of about 65. Unle Time on demurrage is continuous unless Owners Option Said of a ship.000 tonnes de Past Us Period of Charter Part Cargo Percent Per Day Pro Rata The expressionis used to calculate laytim By Itself . Open Shelter Deck Over the side or out of the ship Owners The ship is permitted to deviate without b Protection and Indemnity Insurance A low portable platform.NAVIGATION NCB NESTING NESTING NET CHARTER NET TONNAGE NM NON-DEMISE CHARTERS NON-REVERSIBLE NON-REVERSIBLE / NORMAL LAYTIME NOR NRT NYPE OBO OCEAN BILL OF LADING OFF-HIRE CLAUSE ON DEMURRAGE ONCE ON DEMURRAGE ALWAYS ON DEMURRAGE OO OPEN OPEN CHARTER OPEN POLICY OPEN PORT OSH OVERBOARD OWS P & I BUNKERING CLAUSE P&I PALLET PANAMAX PASTUS PC PCGO PCT PDPR PER HATCH PER DAY PER SE The art and science of conducting a ship National Cargo Bureau Implies that cargo is presented stacked in Implies that cargo is presented stacked in After delivery of the vessel in the first po The figure represents the total revenue ea Nautical Mile. If loading completed sooner Means notice by the master or his agent t Notice of Readiness Net Restricted Tonnage New York Produce Exchange Ore/Bulk/Oil Vessel Bill of lading indicating that the exporter In a time C/P it specifies the circumstanc Means that the laytime has expired. which is available at a par A C/P in which neither the ports of destin A cargo policy with no expiration date th A port that is free of ice.

during the relevant period A port which.M.0 metric Tonne or (Detention).e. If loading completed sooner An option given to the charterer to add to A set of additional clauses which substitu Remaining On Board Voyage involving two legs.0 metric tonne or Days which follow one immediately afte A berth which. A Means an area within which ships are loa The left side of a vessel when viewed for Licence or permission to use a port License or permission to use a port Introduction to a charter party An invoice provided by a supplier prior t Estimated Account Vessel that can be ready to load at short n Plus Us Per Weather Working Day Receiver The charterer undertakes that when the s Recapitulation of the terms and condition Revenue Tonne (i. peculi Per Hatch Per Day A certificate. during the relevant period Maximum load which can safely be carri Person who negotiates the terms for the s Vessel's draft on arrival in salt water whe Saturday P.PER WORKING HATCH PER DAY or PER WORKABLE HATCH PER DAY PERDIEM PERILS OF THE SEA PHPD PHYTOSANITARY INSPECTION CERTIFICATE PILFERAGE PLIMSOLL LINE PLIMSOLL MARK POLITICAL RISK PORT PORT PORT / PORTSIDE PRATIQUE PRATIQUE PREAMBLE PRO FORMA INVOICE PROFORMA PROMPT SHIP PUS PWWD RCVR REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL or ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE RECAP REVENUE TONNE REVERSIBLE REVERSIBLE LAYTIME RIDER CLAUSES ROB ROUND VOYAGE RT RUNNING DAYS / CONSECUTIVE DAYS SAFE BERTH SAFE PORT SAFE WORKING LOAD SALE & PURCHASE BROKER SALT WATER ARRIVAL DRAFT SATPM This expression is more in charterer's fav By the Day Fortuitous accidents or casualties. issued by the US Departme The theft of part of the contents of a ship In export financing the risk of loss due to The left side of a ship looking forward. 1. . the second o Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.

Sundays.SAVAGE SB SCALE RATES SD (or SID) SEAFREIGHT SEAFREIGHT SEAWORTHINESS: SEGREGATED BALLAST TANK SELFD SELF-TRIMMING SHIP SEMI-TRAILERS SF: SHEX SHIFTING SHINC SHIPPER'S EXPORT DECLARATION SHIPPER'S LOAD AND COUNT SKIDS SKIDS SN SOC SOF SP SPECIAL POLICY OF INSURANCE SPECIFIC GRAVITY SPIDERING SPIDERING SPOT SRBL SS OR SUBSTITUTE SSHEX SSHINC (or SATSHINC) STABILITY STABILITY STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION (SITC) STARBOARD STARBOARD STATEMENT OF FACTS Action taken to save a ship or her cargo f Safe Berth Rates set by organizations which publish Single Decker Costs charged for transporting goods ove Costs charged for transporting goods ove Statement of condition of the vessel (vali Tank which is used for water ballast only Self Discharging Ship whose holds are shaped in such a w Are usually 12. Sundays.0 meter flat bed road trail Stowage Factor. Holidays Included It is paramount that a vessel is stable in a It is paramount that a vessel is stable in a A standard numerical code system develo :Right side of a ship when facing the fron The right side of a ship when looking for Statement prepared by an agent showing . Holidays Excluded Saturdays.A form of position Shipper Owned Container Statement of Facts Safe Port Document issued on behalf of the Under Ratio of the weight of a liquid to its cubi Is the strengthening of circular tanks for Is the internal strengthening of circular ta A vessel which can commence loading im Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading Such a condition in a C/P entitles the ow Saturdays. Cubic space (measurem Sundays/Holidays Excluded Time spent shifting between berths is gen Sundays/Holidays Included A form required for all shipments by the Note on bill of lading indication that the Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned u Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned u Satellite Navigation .

STEM Subject to Enough Merchandise (Availab STERN The aformost or after part of a ship The space occupied by a ton (or tonne) o STOWAGE FACTOR A non-negotiable bill of lading in which STRAIGHT BILL OF LADING Some C/Ps state that delays due to strike STRIKES SUB Subject (to). TENOR The invoice is the sales contract between TERMS OF SALE TEU Standard 20' Container A single bill of lading converting both th THROUGH BILL OF LADING THWARTSHIPS At right angles to the centreline of the sh TIDE The periodic rise and fall of water level i TIME BAR Time after which legal claims will not be Employment of a vessel for a specific pe TIME CHARTER TIME LOST WAITING FOR BERTH TO COUNT AS If the main reason why NOR can not be g LOADING / DISCHARDING TIME or AS LAYTIME TIME SHEET TON PER INCH / CENTIMETRE TONNAGE TOPSIDES TOTAL COMMISSION TRADING LIMITS In order to calculate the time used for loa The weight which must be added to.Total internal carrying c The sides of a ship between the waterline Total of (a) address commission [adcom] Limits or restrictions imposed by the ship .000 tonnes dw SUEZMAX SUNDAYS & HOLIDAYS EXDEPTED / INCLUDED Under this expression Sundays and holid SUPERCARGO Person employed by a ship owner. T TAKING INWARD PILOT The weight of a container and packing m TARE WEIGHT TBN To Be Named / To Be Nominated TC Time Charter . or ta Gross Tonnage . shippi A person on board representing the chart SUPERCARGO A marine specialist who examines damag SURVEYOR SWAD Salt Water Arrival Draft SWDD Salt Water Departure Draft A point of delivery on to a time charter. Depending upon as a condit Implies that the vessel is fixed subject to SUBJECT STEM Means that the acceptance of the terms o SUBJECTS The operation by which the insurance co SUBROGATION bulk carriers of about 150.Owners agree to hire a pa TCP Time Charter Party TEN PERCENT BAGS FOR SAFE STOWAGE Some C/Ps stipulate that if a charterer loa The term fixed for payment of a draft.

TRANSIT SHIPMENT TRANSSHIPMENT TRIM TRIMMING TRIP-TIME CHARTER TTL TURN ROUND TIME TW ULLAGE ULTRA LARGE CRUDE CARRIERS UNLESS SOONER COMMENCED UNLESS USED USC UU UUIWCTAUTC VALUATION CLAUSE VERY LARGE CRUDE CARRIERS VESSEL VOYAGE CHARTER VPD WAR RISKS WAREHOUSE RECEIPT WAREHOUSE-TO-WAREHOUSE CLAUSE WATERLINE WAY WCCON WEATHER PERMITTING WEATHER WORKING DAY WHARFAGE WHETHER IN BERTH OR NOT or BERTH NO BERTH WHETHER IN FREE PRATIQUE OR NOT WHETHER IN PORT OR NOT WIBON WIFPON WINDWARD WIPON WITH OUT GUARANTEE WLTOHC A term designating a shipment destined f To transfer from one ship or conveyance Fore and aft balance of a ship The operation of shoveling grain. Time actually used before commenceme This refers to the counting of laytime and Unless Sooner Commenced Unless Used Unless Used In Which Case Time Actual The clause in the Marine Policy that cont Tankers in the range of 160. coal an A vessel chartered on time charter terms Total Time taken to discharge and/or load a sh Tween Decker Historically quantity a cask or drum lack Tankers above 320. NOR ca The vessel need not exactly be within the Whether In Berth Or Not Whether In Free Pratique Or Not Toward the direction from which the win Whether In Port Or Not By the use of this phrase the shipowner i Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming .0 Every description of watercraft or other a Employment of a vessel for a specific an Vessel Pays Dues Those risks related to two (or more) belli A receipt supplied by a warehouseman fo The clause in the Cargo Policy that defin A line painted on a hull which shows the Movement of a ship through water such a Whether Customs Cleared Or Not That time during which weather prevents A working day or part of a working day d A charge assessed by a pier or dock own If the location named for loading/dischar With the insertion of this phrase.000 to 319.000 tonnes dwt.

Wipon York Antwerp Rules To swing or steer off course. That time during wh Weather Permitting Day Wire Rods In Collis Weather Working Day When. Wccon. Wifpon. as when run UTC = GMT .WOG WORKING DAY WORLDSCALE WP WPD WRIC WWD WWR WWWW YAR YAW Z Without Guarantee Day or parts of a day which are not expre Scale by which tanker freight rates are qu Weather Permitting. Where Ready Wibon.

see ALOFT) urchase goods under specified terms.C. such as flood. This is a non-nego f coverage available. seas and bottom h has been agreed upon. y heavy cargo is loaded in alternate holds. covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. freight p in whole or part 79. An agreement to purchase goods at a state price and under stated terms. storms. etc. er it . Condition for a vessel whilst in port p-Rotterdam Area rn) of the ship. G. Forces of nature that a carrier has n g terms at the end of a charter party in a fully signed C/P are amended by subsequent negotions an addendum is prepared by the charterer's broker e to the charterer by the shipowner as a percentage of freight or hire. providing protection against all risks of physical loss or damage from any external cause an the same.S. or lightning. . Behind. ed in a C/P to prevent a vessel from being ordered to proceed to a berth where she touches the ground during lo tre of the ship anchorage in relation to the wind..B. not preventable by any human agency. Here the description of the time means that time saved to the owner from the completion of the lo o the side of a ship. leaving remaining holds empty. in other respects is the same as guaranteed freight. Historically it was paid to the charterer to he bill of lading freight in advance. adopted or recommended by BIMCO. ot Station (Norway) ern or rear of a ship he bottom supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters s meanings the most common being: The maximum height from the water line to the top-most point of a ship.Always Afloat fe Aground. In other words.999 dwt on the AFRA freight rate assessment scale.

Two types of average occur: Particular Average and General o make separate calculations for lading and discharging and any time saved in one operation can be set off agai he return of goods which have not been accepted at the port of destination. expressed in cubic feet or cubic metres. under a bridge across a canal to reach the port or berth it has to ensure that its draft permits the vessel to have Discharge Ports) e favor a draft is issued or a letter of credit opened. The Shipowner pays for loading and discharging subject to the custom of the port or as fast as the . In fact the becomes th Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only. securities. for loading on a particular berth. In case the vessel ein the charterer takes over the ship together with the rigid of management and control. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences dth or the greatest width of a ship e expressed from 0 to 12 in which weather conditions represent with conditions expressed in numerals. opposite of ahead ht Sundays and Holidays Included e centerline of the ship with Australia must be provided with ladders acceptable to waterside workers' federation/ unions in that countr due to insured perils that is less than a total loss. e. reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers. In this case freight is to be paid any time before commencement of discharge. A clause usually in a charter party tion at which a time-chartered vessel is delivered to the charterer (or re-delivered to the shipowner). available for the carriage of breakbulk typ sea water. Charterers lk. or commodities in one market and the simultaneous selling in another market. in terms isputes which is usually binding on parties. vessel’s holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets of a ship's holds below deck. by a time charterer to a shipowner (in a good market) to compensate him for not finding a cargo near the place aximum draft enabling a vessel to pass over a bar. where hen freight is Range gn exchange. necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo.g. Martin Garcia bar in the River Plate. here ships are anchored for loading and/or discharging at the docks in a port. The term berth charter implies that notice liner terms". the contract is called berth charter. In this cas d ship and the laytime allowed under the C/P begins to count as soon as the following conditions have been co me is calculated by reference to the maximum rat at which the ship in full working order is capable of loading ers Association ip.. Also applied to goods discharged a er issues a 'letter of indemnity' in favor of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading dded or subtracted from the freight amount.

if a vessel is taken up on time charter for say 6 months and has been delivered on 10th June greed upon between the shipowner and the charterer. the shipper. secured into one manageable unit. stowed directly in the ship's hold as opposed to containerized or bulk cargo. reflecting the movement in the market p els Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers) els Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers) sed for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring e of agent. . rate of loading and discha of water in a river when partly salt and partly fresh. e. It has a density between that of fresh water (1000 kgs/cubi s cartons. effort and expenses in concluding a (succ e not packaged. company or person receiving consignment nage and hatch calculations one can work out the exact laytime available for cargo operations. Handr pressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount." on Board a ship's holds when stowing general cargo which is uneven and packed. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel. but are loaded directly into the vessel's holds. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel.g." ns "to start the discharge. national Maritime Council ocument signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of Affreightment. on which the vessel must be ready to lad at the latest is c the Panama and/or the Suez Canal are termed Capesize. He represents one pa t payable to broker (by owners in c/p's) or applicable to sale or purchase mission paid to the shipbroker by the shipowner for the broker's time.. See "Containerization. e. a receipt and evidence of title to the blished by a government which will not allow ships to trade at its ports if they have traded at ports in the count ed by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are remo the arrangements agreed upon hold true both at loading and discharging ports.d on behalf of the carrier describing the kind and quantity of goods being shipped. secured into one manageable unit. the consignee.. o a calendar. Examples of commodities that can be shipped in eparating compartments of pieces of cargo. a middleman between the shipowner and the charterer and negotiates the terms of a C/P. Handr of pieces of cargo.g.

or merchandiser that indicates the goods have been manufa nt.Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.. terms. or nker or tanks which have no traces of oil. tment Charter Party y Sea Act estination provided the vessel delivers the goods as specified.or commodities of every description which may be carried aboard a vessel. airline. when certification notes the good condition of the mercha mes notarized by a producer. or railroad as transporter of cargo. but must also procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of. required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes. the higher the viscosity of the o quired with shipments of perishable or other goods. price. of fuel oils—380 c/s or 180 c/s (better). esigned to carry both containers and conventional cargoes. in consideration of the freight cha t permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display. Tanks carrying the w on which the notice is given and the day on which the notice expires are not included in the notice period. Hence such water is referred to as clean ballast. but can also refer to trucking company. setting forth the terms of ppointed by large importers or exporters to book space or vessels for their shipments. ed on the lowest tide that can ever occur and used as a basis for chart measurements. All enquiries for tonnage ame obligations as under CFR. The greater the number of centistokes. he same obligations as under CPT.. or da reight. etween the owner of a vessel and the one (the charterer) desiring to empty the vessel. The act provides tha mship Company. but must also procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of. usually also the seller. certifying the country of origin of the merchandise nd freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination. document issued by the Baltic and International Maritime Conference (BIMCO) ommence once a vessel has arrived at a port. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or place of discharge. tment . nce paid to. complied with all stipulations and tendered the notice of readines action between a seller and buyer prepared by the seller. ds himself out to the general public for the transportation of goods over a definite route and according to a reg . de at governs the acts that a carrier is responsible for and defines the terms used in shipping. and a description of the merchandise. etc ble" documents that represents and takes the place of the goods themselves in the financing of the cargo sales t e does not include the normal commission for the brokers quoting the order.

to provide coverage on merchandi ficates of origin or special invoice forms that are officially signed by the consul of the country of destination. and freight. selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of freight. but under an agreement obliging Endorsement may be added to an Open Cargo Policy at an agreed premium. also can forward goods "In Bond" to your port. sed on large cargo-carrying containers ranging up to 48 feet long that can be easily interchanged between truc war. hipper to his bank that the documents attached to a time draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee agai er gives to his bank that the documents attached to a draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee only agai eliver when the goods are available. usually the buyer. If a C/P ustoms to clear shipments for clients.s to owners due to non-availability of the berth or waiting at the anchorage. introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices f the rate of exchange variations. Owners are required to pay costs in local currency in the country of loading ed to discharge and/or load as quickly as possible (as fast as can) depending on the custom of the port. The vessel proceeds loa ve the good. There i customs and practices which have been gradually established in the course of time in a particular port. rather then carrying cargoes to and from the country where the ship is regi uses. ot ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships tim . weapo ms refers to a shipowner (or charterer) who enters into a contract to carry a large quantity of cargo between na eller owns goods until they are loaded on vessel. selling price includes cost of goods. at the named point and place at the frontier. of goods shipped certified by the consul at the point of shipment. such as arms. or damage to the goods. The risk of loss of. d to a foreign agent or customer when an actual purchase has not been made. insurance. C/Ps specify that the notice of read y be employed on a series of voyages called consecutive voyages against a single C/P. cleared for export. or carriage of the goods to the named destination. as well as any a ever suitable cargoes are available. but before ating a ship. The ntil they are loaded on vessel. materials carried aboard a vessel that could aid a belligerent in the process of the war.

runs from midnight to midnight. without bunkers. nted amidships on both sides and parallel to the loadlines. The ship is not permitted to leave this route for a booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used urrage on All Time Saved Both Ends urrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends e ship's agent on behalf of a shipowner and recovered subsequently. This is not detention whic Total days for loading & discharging) which the fixture negotiations are finally concluded. on) payable to the shipowner by a charterer for delay for which the owner is not responsible in loading and/or igation to deliver when the goods are available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destinati ligation to deliver when the goods are available to the buyer on board the ship uncleared for import at the nam ed. Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified "Free Time" period. hull or any part thereof e rather than within the enclosed cargo spaces of a vessel. fresh water. plus bunkers. It is the deadweight all told less weight o g capacity of a vessel and includes bunkers. For instance. if th . During the d ed in connection with discharge of cargo at a port other than the original port of destination. reward for quick turnaround. bligation to deliver when the goods are available at the named place in the country of importation. oading and discharging. control of the vessel (e. under a bareboat or time charter) is referred to as a "disponent owner". The charterparty specifies the days/hours allo coverage. period of 24 hours which. shipper fails to fulfil his contract to load the cargo or the full cargo.ion. fresh water. unless the context otherwise dry cargo only payable by the shipowner to the charterer if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the expiry of la MFORDET) t been agreed in the charterparty. fresh water. The differenc ng over a compartment. A case whe eparture from specified voyage course ntional departure from the set or agreed course of the voyage. cargo and/or passengers and constants. after all subjects have been lifted. (See reversible laytime). (named pla is obligation to deliver when the goods are available at the named place in the country of importation. cargo and/or passengers and constants.g. damage due to delay is not recoverable. Most underwriters have inserted a "Delay Cause" in the Op mences with the delivery of the vessel to the charterer and comes to an end with the re-delivery of the vessel to Rent). he commits a breach of the contract for w only which a ship can carry when immersed to her summer loadline. the shipowner can claim compensation as damages for detention. cargo and/or passengers and constants. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). The line is located at the point where the upper mos ms of laytime (the other two being "calculable" and "indefinite").

ssel is being loaded at the berth and charterers find it difficult to secure completion of cargo at normal rates, th

wards Sea Pilot (Norway) n-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost

ocean carrier or its agent for merchandise delivered at its dock or warehouse awaiting shipment. of credit providing for payment by a bank to the name beneficiary, usually the seller of merchandise, against d attached to foreign drafts, consisting of ocean bills of lading, marine insurance certificates, and commercial inv ea Pilot (Norway)

mersed to the appropriate loadline and therefore cannot load any further cargo.

p is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depe o determine the quantities of cargo on board a ship. p is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depe

he service of more than one pilot to be used, one from the berth to the beginning of the channel and another ca on to and re-delivery off a time charter. The point where an "on-hire" or "off-hire" survey takes place is that pl types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for means an assessed amount at a certain percentage rate on the monetary value of an import. (b) Specific duty: a of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.

ch is lower than its normal speed. It provides a reduction in fuel cost as less fuel is consumed.


ng out loading and/or discharging in excepted periods (e.g., Shex =Sundays and holidays excepted) is not to co e the shipment begins movement, e.g., "Ex Factory" "Ex Mine" or "Ex Warehouse." See "Terms of Sale." Means that the specified days do not count as laytime even if loading or discharging is done on them, e.g., Sund B/L which relieve the carriers of responsibility of certain perils, accidents or neglect. (See Hague Rules and CO ents agreed upon in the C/P which interrupt counting of laytime. These give protection to the charterer. For e. owns goods until they are unloaded on dock at port of discharge; selling price includes all costs so far plus cos ntil they are picked up at his factory; selling price is the cost of the goods.

ually been agreed is not very clear, then an express clause is inserted in addition to the printed form drawing a

n he has made the goods available at his premises (i.e. works, factory, warehouse) to the buyer. n F.O.B., F.A.S., C&F or similar terms, it is the buyer's responsibility to place the insurance.

. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks igation to deliver the goods when the goods are placed alongside the vessel on the quay or lighters (barges) at a C/P when laytime is not fixed. It means that the laytime is calculated by reference to the maximum rate at w odern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarders p

hen he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the Deadfreight ned, Discountless And Non-Returnable (Refundable) Ship And Or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost

etween ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent damage

eafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs. booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loadin As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs. mmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming. mmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but exc shipbroker in negotiations to indicate that the vessel is being offered to only one possible charterer at a time. C he charterer is not revealed by his broker the charterer is referred to as a first class charterer. However, it is risk a port is free from ice conditions to allow ships to enter, load/discharge and leave safely, at the start of a new s

rokers negotiations to charter a ship - an agreement broker's negotiations to charter (fix) a ship. d stacked and secured as an integral unit. d stacked and secured as an integral unit.


r sees the goods "over the ship’s rail" on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer s obligation to deliver when the goods pass over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.

ponsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers of cargo. rd clause in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of condit nd the control of one of the parties to a contract. E.g., Act of God. This can relieve that party from performing

rance by the Health Authorities attempt at best offer that can be matched y a vessel for waiting its turn to berth to count as laytime against the charterer. Opposite of "in regular turn". s to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading. ntil they are delivered alongside vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of transportation to doc ng achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned. ng achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned. cts to discharge the vessel, free of expense to the shipowner. surance (Owners) midships from the waterline to the main deck. expenses of the cargo to be loaded, spout trimmed and discharged, free of expense to the shipowner (e.g., bulk expenses of loading, stowing and discharging, free of expense to the shipowner (e.g., bagged rice). at the cargo has also to be trimmed at the charterer's expense, e.g., bulk cargo. expenses of the cargo to be loaded, stowed, trimmed and discharged free or expense to the shipowner (e.g., scr nses at load port(s), while the shipowner pays the expenses at the discharge port(s) eizure - Clause excluding war risks from the Marine Policy; war risks can be covered by issuing a separate Wa s _over the ship_s rail_ on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer ntil they are loaded on truck at his factory; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of loading on truck. ntil they are loaded on vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of loading on vessel. house.) Seller owns goods until they are delivered to buyer's warehouse at final destination; selling price inclu sts to owners. Includes seafreight only. sts to owners. Includes seafreight only. ns that the vessel has a clean bill of health. (The health authorities board the vessel in order to ascertain the co

depot o y the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. tackle and other equipment equity in which all parties in a sea adventure (ship. by the carrier for transporting goods. loading. The alternative is space measured in units of 100 cu. cargo. stowing. ope c feet of the cargo hold in a ship measured to inside of the shell plating. The certificate of tonnage specifies the ship's gross tonnage. opes. vessel is lost. lim countries where Friday is observed as a holiday. blocks. permit extra draft when a vessel loads in fresh water. and freight) proportionately share losses resulting f o owner presents to the General Average Adjuster to replace the vessel owner's maritime lien on cargo for its s L CONDITIONS) ic capacity in 'grain' on. (Generally . estination upon delivery of goods. di al distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale midships from the waterline to the main deck. of frustration when through circumstances entirely beyond control of parties commercial object of maritime ad l a ship to capacity either by weight or cubic measurement. (If measured to the inside of the frame ter in which the shipowner pays for tally. Ports in order of calling go handling. ich freight rate is based. Merchandise may be stored. Fhinc applies to non-Muslim countries where Friday is n able on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition celling agreement sometimes quote 'doctrine of frustration' i. either one tonne or one cubic metre. consisting or two quarter circle metal parts which can be brought together to make a close fit. the reason being that the vessel's draft becomes less wh a ship on arrival at a port. Also referred to as "freight collect". extensive delays.ft. trimming and discharging costs.e.t of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarder premises.

a notice in any manner or mode and includes fax.either for storage in a to the charterers to load or discharge a ship in more than one part within a range of ports. w deck in a large vessel.000 tonnes dwt. and (ii) water from Time Saved Both Ends king (or Weather) Time Saved charterer to sub-let or sub-charter the vessel to other charterers.ther the goods are delivered or not. with customary dispatch.e. in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier. The original charterer is then called the "head yabeans [SF48-52] and sorghums [SF 44-49] are considered as heavy grains. it is important to sta quence in which a vessel may be allowed to berth for (coal) loading or discharging by the port authorities due ation to a notice of readiness.000-50. provided the failure to deliver the goods resulted from causes beyond the c ship's sides onditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of Lading range of 20. Also rye and maize are heavy gra al cargo. telegram and telex. mmodity classification system. in covering statement on front page A-F) where the shipowner agrees for the vessel to be loaded/discharged as fast as can. used solely for carrying cargo k (or part thereof) on which cargo work on the ship is suspended at the place of loading/discharging by reason powner that the vessel is sent to a safe port free from ice. with inherent nature of the thing insured and not the result of a casualty or external cause. It is neither very light nor very heavy and is therefore called "handy" with a SF of between 48-52. in insurance) in a hull policy which prohibit the vessel from entering cert . ing a vessel on a time-chartered basis. developed under auspices of Customs Cooperation Council. a protective clau way : bays. a protective clause dealing with ice. and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts). connected so t me Dangerous Goods Code me Organization w and/or on deck e status of merchandise admitted provisionally to a country without payment of duties -. cable. rivers. f warranties (i. adopted by the Uni p's deck fitted with a watertight cover nding a hatchway which rises vertically to prevent (i) a person from falling into the hatch. same as conditions.

e. also called under keel clearance. 4. (Also referred to as "overall length"). Complies on crewing Actually To Count /P setting out the circumstances under which a master is entitled to jettison goods from a vessel. the backbone of a vessel between the bottom of a ship and the bed of sea. (Some isposal for purpose of loading/discharging time agreed between the parties during which the owner will make and keep the ship available for loading/ di p temporarily due to bad markets.000 tons carried on a vessel of 10. This may s all costs for loading ( associations concerning the method of settling liability of cargo claims between shipowners and chart odity by different modes of transport. ce north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees. trimming etc. (Goods which bring the ship dow of the vessel so as to enable it to enter the part/berth where the depth of available water is restricted. sea. Wires. to a seller. om the wind from the wind.076 feet) per hour ing the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of ing the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of sition by use of Ropes. road.). ship cubically but do not bring it down to its marks are called light cargoes. rail and air within a single journey. looks after the welfare of transport workers and deals with their pay and working conditions.g. sea. It issues the "ITF which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee. road.000 capacity has a load factor of 4 y until outstanding debt is paid ontrol of cargo until the charges related to it are paid. i. y a bank. ncelling Date) commencing / laydays canceling" and is a spread of dates which provides for the earliest date for the ship to ar ation of this is the earliest time when the vessel is expected to be ready for loading and/ or discharging. ort Workers Federation (Trade Unions). (Jettison is to hip running fore and aft. authorizing him to draw dra in which one party (shipper) undertakes to compensate another (shipowner) for the cost and/or consequences o tage of cargo or passengers carries e.e. i. rail and air within a single journey odity by different modes of transport. Chains or Straps etc. at the insurance and responsibility of a buyer of merchandise. peed equal to one nautical mile (6. The charterer (or receiver/consignee) pays all costs incurred fo . Opposite of windward ment of the ship caused by either wind or current tween the extreme ends (forward and aft) of the ship. During lay-up the daily running lost of the ship is greatly reduced.

a fixed quantity.000 kilos) But Safely Aground imiting coverage to perils specifically listed in the policy. 10. ncelling Date) chant Vessel Bill of Lading number of the kind and quantity of all cargoes loaded aboard a vessel.freight plus handling charges at loading and discharging ports. England . a device to measure speed ees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich.000 ton . Also. for one reason or another. (Similar to "Gross terms" used in bulk cargo tra ecognised line painted on the side of merchant ships. sound cargo is no longer wanted by the consignee when it arrives.240 lbs) to the shipowner regardless of the quantity of cargo actually shipped.. See "All Risks." . When a ship is loaded. prepared by the vessel's M and aft draft of a vessel. Money paid to Shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo 5 kilogram (2. e. he shipowner to increase or decrease the quantity of cargo by a percentage agreed in advance. opposed to All Risks policy.g. This is a "busin at the very wors there would always be that depth of available water at the particular spot. m (cargo quantity) rers Option securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier he charterer to increase or decrease the quantity of cargo by a percentage agreed in advance. the water level is not supposed to y the Assured where he acknowledges receipt of money advanced by the insurance company as an interest-free or operation. e location equally distant from the bow and stern mum cargo.

000 tonnes deadweight whose dimensions enable her to transit the Panama Canal where due to locks dra ed to calculate laytime with reference to the number of cargo hatches serving cargo compartments on the vesse . out 65. her the ports of destination nor the nature of the cargoes are specified and the vessel may fix for any cargo and no expiration date that provides automatic coverage of cargo to or from an Assured in a specified trade at agre of the ship d to deviate without breaking the contract for lifting bunkers at ports where it may be cheaper. it may be likened to a stack of plates.280 feet arters fall under this category as opposed to demise and bareboat charters. receiver or any other persons as required by the charterer. that th Exchange ting that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified foreign m ifies the circumstances under which hire is suspended or reduced. usually wooden. This is parti presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo. h is available at a particular place to load her next cargo. mnity Insurance orm. This is gross tonnage less "de minute of latitude. on which cargo is stacked for storage or transportation. having discharged the last one. This is parti vessel in the first port of loading. it may be likened to a stack of plates. me has expired.about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5. master or his agent to the charterer. shipper. a skid. approximately 6.of conducting a ship safely from one point to another presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo. Unless the C/P expressly provides to the contrary the time on demurrage will not be subject to is continuous unless exceptions to demurrage are contained in the C/P. then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed. ng completed sooner than expected. the charterer pays all additional port charges. cost of loading and dischargin s the total revenue earning space (volume) within a ship available for the cargo.076 feet .

akes that when the ship arrives at the port there will be a loading/discharging berth for her to which she can pr e terms and conditions agreed 1. the ship can reach. then days saved can be added to discharge operations. remain at and depart without being exposed to danger. whichever greater). g the relevant period of time. peculiar to transportation on a navigable water. A harbour. the second of which brings the ship back to the first port. say within a few delay. . es the terms for the sale of a ship on behalf of the buyer or seller. indicating that a US s he contents of a shipping package. enter. ch can safely be carried by a crane or a derrick. val in salt water where the density of water is 1025 kg per cbm. They are continuous.0 cubic meter. e p looking forward.0 cubic meter. 1. collision of the vesse by the US Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations for foreign countries. such as stranding. the ship can reach.0 metric Tonne or 1. n which ships are loaded with or discharged of cargo.ore in charterer's favour than "per hatch per day". But ng the relevant period of time. (The right side is called starboard). remain at and depart without being exposed to danger. he risk of loss due to such causes as currency inconvertibility. sinking.0 metric tonne or 1. If a rider clause contradic wo legs. informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods t ady to load at short notice. he charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and discharging. whichever greater). A working day may exclude Sundays and holidays. The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of one immediately after the other. and includes the usual place where ships wait for their tu ssel when viewed forward. The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis o ng completed sooner than expected at load port. The word "working" or "workable" hatch means that hatch or casualties. When the option is exercised the eff lauses which substitute or supplement the clauses in the original standard C/P form. government action preventing entry of goods. on to use a port on to use a port arter party by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise.

qu . This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport o ansporting goods over the sea. The tanks are strengthened with thening of circular tanks for transport. indicating the value. destin g indication that the contents of a container were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verifie or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift handling at port. (By remembering that port and left both have four letters. When cargo is loaded/discharged. Also used for cargo which is available for im ng Bill of Lading a C/P entitles the owner to replace the original vessel by another ship. hip when looking forward. ations which publish standard C/Ps. it is easier to remember w by an agent showing dates and times of arrival. this prevents the tanks becoming warped. fully equipped and manned etc. the stability is monitored by a co a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. Also called "relative density". of same cargo capacity including class a Holidays Excluded Holidays Included a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times.A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic e behalf of the Underwriter stating the terms and conditions of the marine insurance. the stability is monitored by a co al code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade. When cargo is loaded/discharged.00 (1 cubic metre of water w of circular tanks for transport. weight. when facing the front or forward end.000 kgs) of cargo between berths is generally taken to be for owner's account. Property saved from loss or damage at sea. App ansporting goods over the sea. this prevents the tanks from becoming warped.a ship or her cargo from loss or damage at sea. Water has SG of 1. This does not cover any haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transpo on of the vessel (valid certificates. provided it has been agreed that loading/dischargi all shipments by the US Treasury Department and prepared by the shipper. and for ease of rigging and lashing on b or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port. The scale rates contain daily loading rates as well as demurrage rates. commencement and completion of loading and discharging. ter flat bed road trailers bic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2. The tanks are strengthened w commence loading immediately after the charter has been fixed.) for water ballast only.240 lbs/1. e shaped in such a way that a bulk cargo loaded into her will level itself. and for ease of rigging and lashing on boar . Issued when evidence of i of a liquid to its cubic capacity.

or taken from. that if a charterer loads in bulk.000 tonnes dwt with a draft of 53' which can transit the Suez Canal fully laden. grain. If weather is bad pilot m tainer and packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains. An air waybill is essentially e centreline of the ship d fall of water level in the oceans gal claims will not be entered ssel for a specific period of time. r part of a ship by a ton (or tonne) of a commodity in a ship's hold expressed in cubic feet to the ton or cubic metres to the ton ll of lading in which the goods are consigned directly to a named consignee. The sh hy NOR can not be given is that there is no loading/discharging berth available to the ship the laytime will co the time used for loading or discharging a time sheet is drawn up from the statement of facts to determine if a ust be added to.). Owners feed the supercargo at a nominal rate but p who examines damaged property and determines the cause.Merchandise (Availability of cargo). etween the waterline and the deck. delays due to strikes are not to count as laytime. charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operation epresenting the charterer who supervises cargo operations. s imposed by the shipowner on a time charterer's freedom to nominate ports to ensure that a list of places cons . Also. crewing etc. the forward most part of the bow.. n Sundays and holidays will not count as laytime (excepted) /will count as laytime (included). a ship owner. a ship in order to change its mean draft by one inch or one centimeter. tal internal carrying capacity of a vessel expressed in measurement tons (one measurement ton = 100 cu. 10% of the cargo must be laoded in bags to bring the ship down to ayment of a draft. The vessel's delivery commences with the pilot boarding the ship. ding upon as a condition el is fixed subject to the cargo quantity being available in the laydays agreed upon. ng converting both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment. les contract between buyer and seller and indicates the Terms of Sale. shipping company. The charterer has no possession or control of the ship. ft. Be Nominated ers agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management. e. and extent of damage and methods of repai on to a time charter.g. 2 months. say. nature. ptance of the terms offered by the other side is "conditional" and hence a conditional acceptance is not an agre hich the insurance company (on payment of a claim) assumes all of the assured's rights to recovery from any th ut 150. sometimes referring to onto or above the deck commission [adcom] to charterer plus (b) brokerage to shipbroker.

exactly be within the port limits for NOR to be tendered. It is the intent of the policy to attach at the hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed through water such as headway. as a means of transportation on water ssel for a specific and certain voyage to load at one or more named ports to be carried to a named discharging o two (or more) belligerents engaging in hostilities. The phrase is commonly used during negotia h Coaming .a shipment destined for an interior point or a place best reached by reshipment from another port. y a warehouseman for goods he has placed in storage. n time charter terms but for a specific voyage and expected duration. coal and other bulk cargoes to the wings or ends of the holds when loading. e ship or conveyance to another for further transit. a cask or drum lacks of being full.000 dwt. before commencement of laytime shall count. or capable of being used. d for loading/discharging is a berth and if the berth is not immediately accessible to the ship NOR can be given f this phrase. NOR can be tendered even if the health clearance formalities are not completed. If work is carried out during the ex ch Case Time Actually Used To Count arine Policy that contains a fixed basis of valuation agreed upon by the Assured and the Underwriter and whic of 160. watercraft or other artificial contrivance used. art of a working day during which it is possible (if the vessel is loading / discharging) to load of discharge the c y a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo. whether or not there has been a formal declaration of war. If is possible to do this if the vessel has arrived at the tique Or Not n from which the wind is coming rase the shipowner is not bound by the veracity of the statement.000 to 319. rgo Policy that defines when coverage commences and terminates. Nowdays the term is used for tankers or oil storing tanks representing emp 000 tonnes dwt. sternway or leeway leared Or Not ich weather prevents working shall not count as lay time. The charterer pays hire instead of freight arge and/or load a ship at a terminal. unting of laytime and exceptions to laytime such as Sundays and holidays. of a ship oveling grain.

as when running with a quartering sea .y which are not expressly excluded from laytime by the C/P and which are not holidays. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime pon. er freight rates are quoted. Wipon f course.

freight payable before goods are accepted for shipment. n. he charterer's broker (and forms a part of the C/P). inade e completion of the loading and/or discharging until the expiry of the allowed laytime excluding and notice tim the ground during loading of discharging or which can only be reached after lighterage of part of her cargo or . This is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper. indicating that th m any external cause. It comes into effect only when it is signed by all parties jus aid to the charterer to cover up some of the expenses incurred by him. At present it virtually works out to a red other words. Once paid it can not be recovered from th most point of a ship. inherent vice. e that a carrier has no control over.under stated terms. and therefore cannot be held accountable. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay. preshipment condition.

where 0 means calm wind (less that I knot speed) and 12 refers to hurricane (speed between 64 ts the vessel to have sufficient clearance above its highest point to pass under the bridge with ease. The bonus serves as an incentive for t te.ther market. Charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses for the duration. in terms of a third market. . Th unions in that country. as fast as she can or with customary (quick) dispatch. bales. cartons. e. These ladders are so constructed as to prevent fatigue due to platforms at regular interv Average and General Average. it will have to discharge part of the cargo into barges and then reloa n fact the becomes the virtual owner of the vessel during the term of the charter. packages. iage of breakbulk type of cargoes. By this manipulation a profit is made because of the difference in the r hipowner). d in numerals. In this case the hire commences (or ends) as soon as the vessel reaches the pilot station. er implies that notice of readiness cannot be given until the vessel is in the designated berth as required by the e port or as fast as the ship can handle the cargo or under customary dispatch. Charter has the right to engag ons only. which are not ca cargo near the place of re-delivery of the ship at the end of the charter. cartons. The option to average laytime is given to the charte o goods discharged at another convenient port. pallets. that is. In case the vessel has too great a draft. on can be set off against any excess time used in the other.. berth or dock as stated in the C/ s capable of loading or discharging the cargo.g. etc. drums. price for bunkers.. (This term ditions have been complied with: 1) The vessel must have arrived at the port..

Handrails. Stairways etc. shipowner) and negotiates with the other party (charterer) directly or with anoth in concluding a (successful) fixture. o lad at the latest is called the canceling date. Whilst this is a very flexible description. a rule of thumb is to present ment in the market place price for bunkers. It serves as a document of title. the consignee. at ports in the countries on that list. etc. the charter will expire on 10th December. Stairways etc. scrap. grain.pper." He represents one party (say. normally a certain percentage of the hire of freight earned by the shipown hat can be shipped in bulk are ores. a rule of thumb is to present ructural Steel. and s ructural Steel. rice. Whilst this is a very flexible description. Should the vessel miss her canceling date. water (1000 kgs/cubic metre) and that of salt water (1025 kgs/cubic metre). the charterers are enti . When a ship proceeds to a brackish "Containerization. fuel oil. dence of title to the cargo. vegetable oil. the ports of loading and discharge and the carrying vessel. appointment of agents. Handrails. fertilizers. iron. livered on 10th June. coal. tallow. il the goods are removed. of loading and discharging.

Sometimes requires the signature of the consul of the country to which it is destined. freight rate and ports involved in the contemplated trip... i. honey is mor ndition of the merchandise immediately prior to shipment. does not include provisions and stores for use on board. or damage to the goods during the carriage. (Viscosity is the ability of liquid to resist flow. tries (for display. umber of voyages. The act provides that the shipowner's liability will be limited to $500 per shipping package. er’s risk of loss of. ng forth the terms of the arrangement. n of the merchandise. and it stipulates a of cargo.e. e notice period. or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. g of the cargo sales transaction.ion of the freight charged. etc. . demonstration. enquiries for tonnage are placed in the hands of these chartering agents to the exclusion of any other broker. price. or damage to the goods during carriage.g. T s risk of loss of. terms. nd according to a regular schedule. ds have been manufactured and are at the disposal of the buyer. the viscosity of the oil and cheaper the cost. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the Tanks carrying the water are therefore clean ballast tanks. e. he notice of readiness as specified in the C/P dise.

The buyer is responsible for insurance.hat the notice of readiness can be tendered by the master "whether in berth or not (wibon). whether in free pra e vessel proceeds loaded from loading to discharging port only to return in ballast and repeat the following voy agreement obliging the consignee to pay the consignor for the goods when sold. as well as any additional costs due to the events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered in where the ship is registered. e frontier. of cargo between named port or regions on mutually agreed terms and conditions over a period of time. If a C/P provides loading and discharging according to the custom of the port (or with customary le to the drawee against his acceptance of the draft. hanged between trucks. It is a percentage of the base rate. . m of the port. such as arms. and while at. There is no fixed time allowed to the charterer. Hence the term is not favourable to the shipowne rticular port. weapons or munitions. The s s cost of freight. verage on merchandise while in transit to. e country of loading and discharging. ods. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET. the drawee only against his payment of the draft. but before the customs border of the adjoining country. The term "frontier" covers any frontier inclu charged for ships time on delay. a common consolidation point for the purpose of prepa untry of destination. trains and ships without rehandling the contents.

To protect themselves the shipowners enter a clause in t owner". e. During the duration of the charter.. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET. or import at the named port of destination.g. on. elay Cause" in the Open Cargo Policy. A case where a shipowner can claim damages for detention is when a vessel is chartered to load at a leave this route for any purpose without justification. pa ime" period. The difference between the displacement of a vessel on her light draft and her loaded draft represents th where the upper most continuous not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. efore the expiry of laytime stipulated in the C/P. constants. In other wor all told less weight of bunkers. es the days/hours allowed for loading and/or discharging. which states specifically that damage caused by delay is not recoverable ivery of the vessel to the owner. if the vessel runs the risk of being frozen in. etention. These damages are known as dead freight. fresh water. known as the freeboard deck. (named place of destination) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods are available importation. le in loading and/or discharging after the laytime stipulated in the C/P has expired. stants. portation. of the contract for which he is liable to pay damages. The delivery or re-delivery can occur at a port or a place agreed upon. usually half the demurrage rate. meets the side of the ship. he acts as if he were the real owner. For instance. etc. med port of destination cleared for importation. the master may deem it advisable to deliver the c .

." e on them.. Sundays and holidays excepted. (b) Specific duty: an assessment on the weight or quantity of an article without preference to its monetary va excepted) is not to count as laytime. but also on the density annel and another called the sea-pilot for navigation within the channel to the river and canal outside the port takes place is that place where the pilot who assists the ship in navigation to the pilot station disembarks from on from damage. costs so far plus cost of unloading from vessel. the charterer.g. and where required. Note that if laytime has expired then the exceptions do not app Hague Rules and COGSA). and commercial invoices. reater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board. in the case of certain cargoes.go at normal rates. for ventilation and. . to provide space in which the tynes of a fo t. including certificates of origin and consular invoices. to provide space in which the tynes of a fo on from damage. in the case of certain cargoes. but also on the density reater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board. " "Terms of Sale.g. This qualification of laytime is favourable to the charterer. For e. against delivery of documents specified in the credit. a clause dealing with stoppage of work due to strike would be a protective clause. they may book cargo at very low rates (called distress rates) in order to fill up the remainin merchandise. for ventilation and. . even if used. e.

The term is commonly used in the St Lawrence Seaway. the term could also be used by the charterer's shipbroker inviting owner's ship er. . charterer at a time. However. but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs. If the buyer instructs the seller to deliver the cargo to a person e. Conversely. depot or terminal but not actually on board vessel. e maximum rate at which the ship in full working order is capable of loading or discharging the cargo as fast a minated forwarders premises. a ys for cost of loading/discharging cargo. es seafreight. overs costs and risks of loading r lighters (barges) at the named port of shipment.nted form drawing attention to the terms specifically agreed upon.g. d by the buyer at the named place or point. it is risky to negotiate with such a charterer as his record of payments cannot be cross-checked w at the start of a new season.

.as a result of conditions beyond their control. hipowner (e. such as earthquakes. . f "in regular turn". floods. scrap iron). rty from performing the contract. of loading on truck. or war. of loading. selling price includes all costs so far plus transportation to final warehouse.g.g. er to ascertain the correctness of the information given by the master or the agent).. n. bulk wheat). ransportation to dock. shipowner (e. ssuing a separate War Policy with an additional premium being charged.

g.der premises. depot or terminal but not actually put on board vessel.. The expression "frustration of the adventure" in C/Ps relates are losses resulting from a voluntary and successful sacrifice of part of the ship or cargo to save the whole adv ien on cargo for its share of General Average and to obtain release of the goods by the Steamship Company. fios. and bale c ts. loading. are for charter's ac tonnage. object of maritime adventure is entirely frustrated. discharging. Grab damage is damage to ship caused by use of the me he inside of the frames or cargo battens it is called bale capacity is used for bulk cargoes e. fiot or foist where the cost of tally. etc. se may be stored. displayed. gross tonnage is a measure of the volume of a vessel and net tonnage represents . G make a close fit.. used for manufacturing. (Generally speaking. within the zone and reexported without duties being aft becomes less when she reaches open sea (salt water) where the density of water is greater. grains. operated by a crane or winch power. es where Friday is not observed as a holiday. The alternative is fio. etc.

asts). adopted by the United States in 1989 and increasingly the most widely accepted import/export classification and (ii) water from entering the hold. connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea either for storage in a bonded warehouse or for trans-shipment to another point. In practice heavy-grains constitute the b f between 48-52. scharging by reason of the local practice or custom. The day may usually be used for rest (Sunday) or may be ice. omary dispatch.m causes beyond the carrier's control. then called the "head charterer" or "disponent owner". Barley and oats are classified as light grains. where duties will eventually be it is important to state that if they exercise the option the ship will proceed to the ports in geographical rotatio port authorities due to congestion at the port (or availability of coal). a protective clause dealing with ice conditions in inserted in the C/P. with customary quick dispatch or as per the custom of the port. Laytime does not generally count agains egram and telex. l. maize are heavy grains. In such cases there is no way el from entering certain waters (mainly ice areas) without payment of additional premium or with a change in .

g. Non-production by the drawee. (Jettison is to throw goods overboard for the purpose of lightening the ship)..hipowners and charterers.0 meter in length x 2. vessel. (Sometimes the word is used to refer to "laytime" but then this leads to confusion. . sented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2. e.0 meters in width. Laytime is th ilable for loading/ discharging without payment additional to the freight.0 meters in width. It issues the "ITF Blue Certificate" to a ship if its owner complies with their requirements. zing him to draw drafts to a stipulated amount under specified terms and undertaking conditionally or uncond nd/or consequences of carrying out a certain act. sented by an area of deck 1. This may be achieved by lightening or lighterage by discharging part of the cargo in barges outside all costs incurred for discharge at the destination part. date for the ship to arrive and for laytime to commence and also gives the last date for the charterer to cancel t r discharging. obtaining a release of goods without producing an origin has a load factor of 40% h bring the ship down to its marks but do not completely fill the space available for cargo are called heavy car restricted. The Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement is a clause in the NYPE ti ns. The time allowed to the charterer is n ly reduced.

used in bulk cargo tramp vessels). means that the shipowner may load between 9500 e "All Risks. el is not supposed to go above the line. 10. nce.000 tonnes 5% more or less in owner's option." .g. This is a "business loss" not recoverable under a Marine Cargo Policy. Christmas trees arriving in Ja quantity of cargo ared by the vessel's Master. Water can reach different parts of the line as its temperature and saltine ny as an interest-free loan (instead of payment of a loss) repayable to the insurance company only if the loss is ves.g... e. e.

f plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport f plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport. ading and discharging in the first and any additional port of loading and in the port of discharge. After comple oss tonnage less "deductions" and less "allowances for propelling machinery space" and is calculated in units

the charterer, that the ship has arrived at the port or berth as the case may be and is ready to load/discharge in

a specified foreign market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection. If it is a straight B/

will not be subject to the laytime exceptions.

fix for any cargo and for any ports. pecified trade at agreed rates, terms, and conditions. Usually consists of separate Marine and War policies.

where due to locks draft, beam and length are limiting factors.

artments on the vessel. Laytime is to be calculated by multiplying the agreed rate per hatch of loading/discharg

ch means that hatch can be worked because there is cargo in the hold below it. Workability refers to the cargo

collision of the vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of n

ndicating that a US shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases.

ing entry of goods, expropriation or confiscation, war, etc.

ships wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn, no matter the distance from that area.

quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, etc.)

r to which she can proceed without delay.

a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on t e operations. n is exercised the effect is the same as a total time being specified to cover both operations. Until the toal time der clause contradicts a printed clause the rider clause prevails.

a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on th ys and holidays. But a running day does not exclude any day unless provided in the C/P. sed to danger. exposed to danger.

demurrage rates. Applicable to bulk cargoes like coal, ores, etc., from specific countries.

ut the sea transport only sts but the sea transport only.

hat loading/discharging is at more than one berth. Also time spent in shifting from the waiting place (anchorag

value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment. ot checked or verified by the Steamship Company. ging and lashing on board ship. g and lashing on board ship. n-board automatic equipment

d when evidence of insurance is required, as by the bank issuing the Letter of Credit. bic metre of water weighs 1 tonne). re strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a "spider" appearance s are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a _spider_ appearance. h is available for immediate loading.

city including class and suitability of laycan, for the fulfillment of the charter.

is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel. is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.

onal trade.

easier to remember which is port and which is starboard). g and discharging; quantity loaded/discharged daily; hours worked/stopped with reasons for break-down of eq

Usually followed by the words "within Institute Warranty Limi .000 kgs) of c ptance is not an agreement. The shipowner receives "hire" payments from the charterer. crewing etc. substitution of one creditor for another. unless pre acts to determine if any demurrage/dispatch in payable. T nt. waybill is essentially a through bill of lading used for air shipments. ocean shipments usually require ol of the ship. and all his actions are without prejudice to po weather is bad pilot may not be able to board the vessel. However.240 lbs/1. centimeter. t ton = 100 cu. ing the ship down to her marks. He is not an adjuster. and methods of repair and/or replacement. usually so-much per day or pro-rata p the laytime will commence to run when the ship starts to wait for a berth and will continue to run. ft. Hence the ship cannot be considered to be delivered.). a list of places considered unsafe is excluded. go handling operations.ubic metres to the tonne Or Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2. recovery from any third parties. Often called a port captain. a nominal rate but provide free of charge accommodation.

but may olicy to attach at the time the goods leave the warehouse of origin named in the Policy. and to continue while oad of discharge the cargo without interference due to weather. nderwriter and which establishes the insured value of the merchandise. The Clause determines the amount pay nsportation on water. ssel has arrived at the usual waiting place for the vessel to become an arrived ship. .hire instead of freight and the contract is that of a time charter. If such interference occurs (or would have occu ip NOR can be given when the ship has arrived at the port in which the berth is situated. a named discharging port or ports.C. The owner's remuneration is known as freight calculated on the amount of c l declaration of war.&S. (Free of Capture and Seizure) Warranty. Such risks are excluded by the F. ed out during the expected days the actual hours of work only to count as laytime. nks representing empty spaces. y used during negotiations in order to guard all parties involved in the transactions.


lly works out to a reduction in the freight. be recovered from the shipowner upon frustration on voyage and loss of goods. f part of her cargo or which can only be reached during high tide.ned by all parties just like the original C/P. luding and notice time and periods which are exceptions to laytime. inadequate packaging. or loss of market. er. indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the ment condition. .

(speed between 64 to 71 knots). (This term favours the shipowner vis-à-vis "taking inward pilot" which favours the charterer). The term appears in a C/P when laytime is not fixed (indefinite) and is left to the custom of rms at regular intervals.he difference in the rates of exchange or in the prices of securities or commodities involved. as an incentive for the ballast (empty) trip to cover up the cost of fuel and time. 2) The vessel must be ready to load or discharge in every way. . is given to the charterer. At times a shipowner pay pat barges and then reload it after passing the bar. The shipowner merely receives co es for the duration. ck as stated in the C/P. etc. Vessels without such type of ladders can be penalized or delayed. as vessels are not penalised f th as required by the charterers. Such p as the right to engage and pay the master and crew who are his employees. 3) A notice of readiness (quick) dispatch. which are not capable of filling the space between the ship's frames. ot station. This term is used mostly in time charterparties. A similar situation exists at Yangon (formerly Rangoon)..

he charterers are entitled to cancel the C/P . fertilizers. a contract of carriage. oil. the ship's draft will be more than the draft in salt water and less than the draf irectly or with another broker who represents the charterer. roceeds to a brackish water port. thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift truck.s a document of title. (A sale and purchase broker negotiates for the sale arned by the shipowner. and a receipt for goods. thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift. and similar commodities.

ich it is destined. This act automatically applies to inte w.g. The chartering agents act as intermediaries for their principals. f any other broker. e. urance and pays the insurance The seller . and it stipulates a one-year time limit for filing suit against the carrier. although he is required to obtain only minimum coverage. honey is more viscous than lemon juice)..

t (or with customary dispatch or as fast as can) the laytime becomes indefinite.). separate the purpose of preparing or consolidating the merchandise for export. period of time. ve been delivered into the custody of the carrier. a situation unfavourable to ship ers any frontier including that of the country of export. In this context. whether in free pratique or not (wifpon). "carrier" means any person who. in a contrac able to the shipowner as the laytime is indefinite and uncertain. However. and whether customs cleared or not (wccon) eat the following voyage on same terms and conditions until all the cargo has been shipped. The shipowner may employ his own vessels or charter other vessels to meet his commitments. Therefore. it is vital that the frontier in question be def .

ed draft represents the deadweight capacity in tons (or tones).DAMFORDET.g. However the charterer directs the vessel to rs enter a clause in the charterparty called the "deviation clause" which allows them to deviate to save or attem sable to deliver the cargo at the nearest safe port. payment for space booked on a vessel but not used. agreed upon. In other words. passing Cape Pas hartered to load at a berth where the vessel must be always afloat. (named place of destination) The seller freight. e goods are available at the named place in the country of importation. lay is not recoverable even if the delay was due to a peril insured against. If the extra distance is worthwhile he can claim distance frei . e.. Also called deadweight all told. passing Skaw (northern tip of Denmark. at the entrance of the Baltic Sea).

o fill up the remaining space rather than allow the vessel to be dispatched with empty space. anal outside the port limits. (c) Drawback: a recovery in whole or in part of duty paid on importe ble to the charterer. ..g. hich the tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted. also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying. lar invoices. hire of a tug) hich the tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted. otective clause. ce to its monetary value or market price. "Unless used" has the opposite effect and favours the shipowner. exceptions do not apply. In this case the off-hire (or on-hire) survey will be carried out only when the sea-p ion disembarks from the ship. A point in owner's favour as expenses into and out of a port (e. also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.

.g. the seller is deemed to have completed his oblig inviting owner's shipbroker to submit a firm offer for a particular order. a freight forwarder who is not a "carrier". At times this term is combined with the custom of the port or customary quick d rgo to a person e. It is a normal practice to include certa t be cross-checked with the cargo as fast as she can.


and bale capacity is used for general cargo. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchand nture" in C/Ps relates to a delay of such a duration—without the actual fault of either party—as to frustrate the o save the whole adventure from an impending peril.g. grains. c. Security consists of a G. are for charter's account. et tonnage represents the volume available for cargo. or extraordinary expenses necessarily incurred for the joi eamship Company. e.A. pallets.A. ... (However the port charges are paid by the shipowner in all cases). G.without duties being paid. the revenue earning space in a vessel).g. that is. Bond and either a cash deposit or an Underwriter's Guara used by use of the mechanical grabs. Different t .

or with a change in conditions. However. . for example. Replaces SCHEDULE B export codes and TARIFF SCHEDULE OF THE rains constitute the bulk of the grain shipments. ies will eventually be imposed. if the C/P says "free of tune" th ases there is no way to determine the exact time the vessel will take for loading and discharging.export classification methodology. (Sunday) or may be observed as a religious festival (Christmas). geographical rotation (without. going north and south and then again north). This is important to enerally count against the charterer while the ship is waiting its turn.

. ents. d to the charterer is not indefinite. are called heavy cargoes). The time is either "fixed" or "calculable". fusion. t producing an original B/L. ditionally or unconditionally to provide eventual payment for drafts. Non-production of such a certificate can cause problems for a vessel in all Australian ports and in some p charterer to cancel the charter if the vessel does not arrive by the date.lause in the NYPE time C/P. Laytime is the period allowed for the cargo to be loaded and/or discharged). go in barges outside the port/berth.

as trees arriving in January undamaged. any only if the loss is recovered from a third party and then only to the extent of the recovery. y load between 9500 to 10500 tonnes of cargo.mperature and saltiness varies with the season and location. . From where Plimsoll Shipping derived its name.

charge. h of loading/discharging the cargo by the number of ship's hatches and dividing the quantity of cargo by the re . Laytime begins to count from the moment when NOR has been tendered by c .ft. to load/discharge in all respects. After completion of discharge the vessel is re-delivered to the owner and the outward port charges from s calculated in units of 100 cu. (Net tonnage is also referred as "register" tonnage). If it is a straight B/L. the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of and War policies.

s.y refers to the cargo and not cranes/derricks that serve the hatch in question. Largest quantity in one hold/Dail er unusual forces of nature. . ( ty is calculated on the total RT amount. ity is calculated on the total RT amount. nce from that area. Opposite of normal or non-reversible laytime. multiplied by the freight rate. Until the toal time expires. no demurrage becomes payable. multiplied by the freight rate.

thin the vessel. within the vessel. etc. or break-down of equipments.ting place (anchorage) to the first cargo berth is generally not to count as laytime. .

unless previously exhausted. red to be delivered. . thout prejudice to policy terms and conditions.000 kgs) of cargo. ue to run. The laytime exceptions apply to the waitin titute Warranty Limits". This term therefore favours the charterer. whereas "arrival pilot station" is favourable to th ments usually require two separate documents -. Also called "period charter".40 lbs/1. until the ship stops inland B/L for domestic carriage and an ocean B/L for inte h per day or pro-rata paid semi-monthly or monthly in advance.

at an additional premium.mines the amount payable under any recoverable loss or General Average contribution. but may be covered by a separate War Risk Policy. d on the amount of cargo carried. e) Warranty. nd to continue while the goods are in due course of transit until delivered to the warehouse of destination name (or would have occurred if work had been in progress) there shall be excluded from laytime a period calculat . Voyage C/P contains laytime and demurrage/dispatch clauses.


e consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. .

ls are not penalised for non-performance of speed in case wind speed is more than the agreed Beaufort number . eft to the custom of the port. A notice of readiness must have been given in writing to the charterers or shippers/consignees. a shipowner pay pat the charterer a ballast bonus when the vessel is being re-delivered at the end of time chart rly Rangoon). r merely receives compensation as hire payments.the charterer). Such ports are called bar-ports.

.nd less than the draft in fresh water. egotiates for the sale of a ship and represents the shipowner).

. The seller must clear the goods for export.tically applies to international ocean movements but not to domestic ocean transits unless the carrier agrees to coverage.

This ships used for the carriage are not named. undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail. It differs from a et his commitments. However. As each shipment takes place a fresh voya on who. separate calculations of freight and laytime are made for the individual voyages. The term applies primarily to th . in a contract of carriage.d. road unfavourable to shipowners as they will find it difficult to put a claim for demurrage or damages for detention er in question be defined precisely by naming the point and place in the term.

stination) The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods are available at the named place in the co ea). . Since it has been agreed in the C/P that NOR viate to save or attempt to save life and/or property at sea and to give the owners the right to deviate for bunke n claim distance freight. directs the vessel to a berth where the vessel is not always afloat. or any other position. passing Cape Passero (south-east coast of Italy). passing Key West (Florida).

.. hire of a tug) will be for charterer's account. in the same or different form. duty paid on imported merchandise at the time of exportation.g.only when the sea-pilot (who navigates the vessel outside the port limits) disembarks from the ship. (e.

. ctice to include certain main terms in a firm offer.or customary quick dispatch. e completed his obligation to deliver the goods when they are in that person’s custody.


Different tonnage measurement systems (i. y incurred for the joint benefit of ship and cargo.d from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Cus y—as to frustrate the charter.e British. Suez Canal or Panama Canal) have different to . a vessel). Underwriter's Guarantee.

This is important to the owner to determine the distance. import codes. . says "free of tune" then time waiting for a berth will count. .S.CHEDULE OF THE U. time and fuel expenses.

.n ports and in some ports of other countries.

.g derived its name.

(Not a popular form of chartering nowa as been tendered by charterers/consignees.ard port charges from the port of redelivery is for the owner's account. . the buyer must first pay for the goods. o ty of cargo by the resulting sum. If a negotiable B/L is used. post a bond. Laytime= Quantity of Cargo/Daily Rate x Number of Hatches = Days. Thus. ly showing proof of identity.

A hatch that is capable of b -reversible laytime. .tity in one hold/Daily rate per hatch x Number of hatches serving that hold =Days. (See "days all purposes").


ns apply to the waiting time as if the ship were at the loading/discharging berth provided the ship is not already .n" is favourable to the shipowner. n ocean B/L for international carriage. Through bills of lading are insufficient for ocean shipments.

e of destination named in the Policy. me a period calculated by reference to the ratio which the duration of the interference bears to the time which . where it terminates.



specially when market is not good for the shipowner.the end of time charter. eed Beaufort number. .


the carrier agrees to be bound by it. .

or by a combination of such modes. or road. . This gives the shipowner sufficient flexibil carriage by rail.ges. If subsequent carriers are damages for detention. inland waterway. but may be used for any mode of transport. It differs from a COA where the shipowner can use any ship and the freight rates take into account the cos es place a fresh voyage charter is entered into between the parties. pplies primarily to the goods carried by rail. sea. road. air.

.amed place in the country of importation. in the C/P that NOR can be tendered and laytime to commence whether the vessel is in berth or not (wibon). to deviate for bunkering purpose (by inserting another clause called the "P & I Bunkering Clause"). ther position.

m the ship. .



try subject to the Customs Authority. . Also called FOREIGN TRADE ZONE nal) have different tonnages for the same vessel.




post a bond. goods. r of Hatches = Days.m of chartering nowadays). A hatch that is capable of beign worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as . or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller.

ch that is capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as two hatches. .


hipments. he ship is not already on demurrage. When the waiting time ends time commences to count and restarts when .

.rs to the time which would have or could have been worked but for the interference.



e into account the cost of ballast return voyage from discharge to load port. ner sufficient flexibility. bsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination. the risk passes when the goods have been .

the master refuses to comply with the berthing orders. The shipowner in this case may no g Clause"). .erth or not (wibon).








.y shall be counted as two hatches.



nt and restarts when the ship reaches the loading/discharging berth subject to say notice time if provided for in .







The CPT team requires the seller to clear the goods for expor .the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

he may be entitled to "damages for deten .r in this case may not be able to put a claim for demurrage. However.











me if provided for in the C/P. . unless the ship is by then on demurrage.







including multi-modal transport. . The term applies to any mode of transport.r the goods for export.

.o "damages for detention".

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful