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Ministry of Education
© Policy & Planning Branch Ministry of Education First draft: July, 2010 Second draft:September 6, 2010 Final Version: October 1, 2010
Contents..................................................................................................................... 3 1.0 Background.......................................................................................................... 4 2.0 Current issues emerging from irrational school distribution and structures .......6 3.0. Conceptual framework........................................................................................7 3.1 Justification........................................................................................................7 3.2 Vision ................................................................................................................ 8 3.3 Goals ................................................................................................................ 8 3.4 Objectives of the programme............................................................................8 3.5 Anticipated outcomes........................................................................................9 3.6 Process of selection and conditions for development of schools.....................10 4.0 Development components to be rationally considered for inclusion in the development plans of selected schools....................................................................14 4.1 Quality development component ...................................................................14 4.2 Physical infrastructure facilities.......................................................................15 4.3 Strengthening governance and service delivery ............................................16 5.0 Quota for each province....................................................................................18 6.0 Programme period and tentative estimated cost..............................................18 7.0 Implementation arrangements...........................................................................19 7.1 Implementation of programme with the provincial education authorities:......19 7.2 Composition of the committees:......................................................................19
Establishment of an efficient school network at each education division: developing selected secondary schools and primary schools
1.0Background Providing equitable access for education is a fundamental policy of the education system in Sri Lanka. In order to ensure this policy, during past decades, various programmes have been implemented, e.g. fee-free education, implementation of education subsidy programmes (school textbooks, uniforms and mid-morning meals) and establishment of central colleges etc. As a result of these initiatives, the participation in education has increased substantially. All the subsequent governments that came to power in Sri Lanka after the independence, adhered to these policies and also as a result of the investments made, the participation rate and literacy rate have increased. Sri Lanka has for ahead in both qualitative and quantitative development of education compared to the other countries of the South Asian region. Despite such achievements, at present, it can be seen that schools are being closed down in the rural areas while some urban schools attract large number students. This has resulted in create bi-polarization of school system which has adversely affected education quality and development. In one end, number of schools with less than 100 students has increased up to 2,973 in 2009 and this was a 4.6 per cent increase compared to the year 2000. On the other end, number of schools with more than 3,000 students has been increased to 89. Any investment in the general education system requires careful planning based on the national education policies. The programmes or projects needs medium or long-term approaches in order to enable students to acquire competencies that are needed to meet current and future labour market requirements. The current ESDFP attempted to promote students’ acquisition of curriculum specified learning competencies and hence included a revision of competency-based curriculum, dissemination of such competencies through teacher instructional manuals (TIMs) and ISAs’ and teachers’ training, and preparation of examination guidelines and an Item Bank which supports measurement of competencies than memorizing through rote learning. Such attempts should be supported with strengthened capacities of personnel of the system as well as by the improved educational infrastructure facilities. Strengthening of management and timely delivery of services are also prerequisites to ensure promotion of acquisition of learning
outcomes. Therefore, current ESDFP attempted to facilitate schools with funds for higher-order processes, to construct infrastructure and procurement of equipment. The national assessments were regulated to measure system’s performance. Even though Sri Lanka is not participating in any international assessment, the national assessments conducted by NEREC are expected to play a similar role in assessing students’ performance over time. King (2009 in Kellaghan et al. 2009: xi), states that:
.......more than years of schooling, it is learning-or the acquisition of cognitive skills that improves individual productivity and earnings, ……one standard deviation increase in student scores on international assessments of literacy and mathematics competencies is associated with a 2 per cent increase in annual growth rates of GDP per capita.
The gradual improvement of national assessment results in Sri Lanka (e.g. Grade 4 results) indicates the possibilities of earning an increased productivity in the future. In terms of learning achievements, EFA movement has been continuously highlighting the need for addressing disparities in terms of equity and quality of the system. World Declaration on Education for All, (1990: Articles 1-4,) emphasizes that:
……basic education services of good quality should be expanded and consistent measures must be taken to reduce disparities. For basic education to be equitable, they [learners] must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning. The focus must be on actual learning acquisition and allowing learners to reach their fullest potential…… (NEREC, 2007:1-2).
Therefore, a future educational investment should be clearly focused on to reducing disparities in the general education system while preparing students to meet the labour market needs and to improve productivity and their own earnings. Hence, a greater emphasis is to be given to initiate appropriate programmes at school level specifically targeting students in secondary education stage (Grades 6 to 13). In Sri Lanka, nationally, the gross survival rates at Grade 9 have been increased up to 91 per cent (MoE, (2009) School Census, 2009). However, provincial gross survival rates are varied from 79.2 per cent (Northern Province) to 94.7 per cent (North Central Province). The drop-out rates are higher in Grades 6 to 9. Performance of schools measured by public examinations and national assessment results also in many education zones, is low. Lack of availability of a viable school network with primary schools and quality secondary schools, could be one of the issues that contribute to the said situation. It is a well-known fact that many parents are willing to
enroll their children in so-called popular secondary schools in the urban areas and the demand for such schools for exceed the supply. The raised demand for urban and sub-urban schools has directly resulted in increasing the number of smaller schools and gradual closing down of such schools located in the rural peripheral areas. This should be seen as a serious issue connected to quality of education. Hence, the GoSL should look into alternative but best solutions which address social demand for equity and quality of education while assuring efficient investment of available resources. The GoSL wishes that he aforementioned issues could be addressed to a greater extent by improving secondary schools’ quality with adequate physical infrastructure and enriched teaching and learning processes. Accordingly, 1,000 secondary schools will be selected scattered throughout the country, to be developed as fully-pledged secondary schools. When the 54 Central Colleges were established, Dr CWW Kannangara directed the officers to follow accurate school mapping exercise to select the locations. Most of such Central Colleges are today functioning as centers to deliver a better service to the surrounding primary schools. Nonetheless, we have to admit that certain previous school development programmes which did not follow proper mapping exercises (‘Navodya’, ‘Isuru’ schools) have not been able to reach up to the desired objectives. In this context, it is essential to identify schools for the proposed 1,000 secondary schools development programme (as proposed in the Mahinda Chinthana Vision for the Future) based on a careful mapping and rationalization exercise and be the lead project of the general education sector for next five years. The schools should be developed balancing between development of physical infrastructure and improvement of quality of learning. The network should be developed in such a way that each secondary school should serve for at least three primary feeder schools. 2.0 Current issues emerging from irrational school distribution and structures
1. Gaps in equity and equality in educational opportunities and quality for
students, especially, those who are living in the rural disadvantaged locations; 2. Learning outcomes of students, (especially in secondary education) is yet to be improved; 3. Total child development is not very-well focused within schools: inadequate coverage to address health and nutritional issues of school students. Issues such as long hours travelling to schools have affected children's mental and physical growth; 4. Survival rate at secondary level has not yet exceeded 91% at Grade 9;
5. Congested classrooms within which students do not receive individual
attention of teachers;
6. Exclusion of students from meaningful learning as most of the schools
do not promote inclusive learning1 practices; 7. Absence of conducive learning environment due to low student population in some schools resulting in low motivation of both students and academic staff (principals and teachers), imbalances in social and emotional development, low achievement of students, and waste of infrastructure facilities; 8. Inadequacy of quality secondary schools: there has been a serious concern among parents over continuation of their children's secondary education after completion of primary education in a good quality school. This, in turn has created an overemphasis on admissions to Grade 1 of prestigious /popular secondary education. The situation has peanalised the rights of those who qualify at grade 5 scholarship examination to receive a good secondary education due to limited spaces available at Grade 6 of those schools. 9. The said overemphasis on admission to Grade 1 has resulted in corruptions and mal-practices in admission procedures to so-called popular schools; 10. Disciplinary issues also take place due to poor administration of schools with large number of students; 11. Education officials at national and provincial levels are heavily involved in matters related to school admissions. This has affected the progress of development programmes of education. The previous experience with school development projects such as Navodya and Isuru, shows that the principles and procedures followed to select schools and implement development activities in those have not been worked well and that has resulted in low achievement of desired objectives. 3.0. Conceptual framework 3.1 Justification To address prevailing performance issues in the system of education, it is essential to ensure establishment of well-performing schools in the suburbs. Therefore, to bring about a change of the general education system through the proposed 1,000 secondary school development programme requires a careful planning for selection, rational allocation of financial and physical resources on site-based needs and assuring capacity building of school professional staff. These secondary schools should be established in order to
Inclusive education: Identifies and reduces the barriers that lead to exclusion; ensures not only enrollment, but full-participation of all children in school; responds positively to diversity and differences; and aims to meet the needs of all learners through an ongoing process of quality improvement in teaching and learning (Source: UNESCO (2006) EFA, Mid Decade Assessment: Planning Guide) .
cater to the needs of the primary school network in the closer geographical area. To ensure that a viable network of quality secondary schools is available throughout the country, schools should be selected by divisional/zonal level. This programme should be an innovative programme which will bring about a managerial and cultural change within schools and attitudes of parents and school community about the public education. Identified schools will provide rich learning environment for students to acquire higher-order skills which are required to enter and progress in rapidly changing labour market (world of work). This programme will be identified as the flagship programme of the general education sector for the next five years. 3.2 Vision Produce Sri Lankan citizens with knowledge, attitudes, skills and values enabling them to fulfill the requirements of a modern local and global knowledge economy. 3.3 Goals
Transforming the school system with a view to linking human capital foundation to the future knowledge hub in Sri Lanka and thereby to contribute to the future global knowledge economy; Improving student learning outcomes: knowledge, attitude, values, skills and specially soft skills,i.e. teamwork, communication, leadership, entrepreneurial abilities etc. required in general by society and by employers at both local and international labour markets; Minimize gaps of procedural and distributional equity and quality of resource allocation and distribution between and within provinces and between schools; Ensure learning occurs in an inclusive learning environment.
3.4 Objectives of the programme Proposed 1,000 schools will ensure that the implementation of free education, right to education of each child and equitable access to good quality education. The programme in whole will include developing a comprehensive strategic plan which will serve following objectives: 1. 2. develop secondary schools selected through a mapping exercise and ensure each of them will cater to 3-5 feeder primary schools;; establish attractive and viable school network in each education division by developing these selected 1,000 secondary schools equipping them with adequate human and physical resources;
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
13. 14. 15. 16.
develop feeder primary schools within a supplementary medium-term programme; optimize utilization of education resources and provide equal educational opportunities for all students ensuring compulsory free education; reduce competition for admission to urban schools; ensure that the aforementioned network of schools will improve student learning outcomes through promoting acquisition of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. ensure in each education division, within these schools, will have trilingual learning environment. ensure these schools promote social cohesion and values based education; promote resource sharing between schools; establish public-private partnerships for improving learning of ICT, languages etc.; teacher empowerment; resource generation; knowledge sharing; sports and co-curricular activities; ensure conducive and inclusive learning environment where each student is equitably treated and individually attended; ensure acquisition of soft skills as they are defined in the curriculum as well as defined for other relevant fields, (e.g. communication; team work etc.). It may need a consultation with relevant stakeholders (Higher Education, Ministry of Finance & Planning, Ministry of Economic Development, public and private sector employers etc..) in order to define the soft skills needed for secondary education provide access to learn full-curriculum (e.g. making available facilities ICT/Maths/Science /English Language); establish capacity development programmes for teachers, principals and officials; raise awareness among parents and communities; and establish mechanisms to further transfer of financial and managerial decision-making powers to schools and to prepare schools, divisions/zones and provinces to undertake changing roles and responsibilities.
3.5 Anticipated outcomes Following outcomes programme.
Equity for all to access to quality primary and secondary education; Strong administration and enriched pedagogical practices within schools and assured higher-level standards of quality of education in general education; Increased utilization rate of education resources; Minimize closing-down schools located in rural areas;
Citizens with positive attitudes and human qualities; Minimize corruption and mal-practices in education (sp. In relation to school admission processes) and improved transparency in school management and administration; (vii)Empower schools and communities with decision-making authorities and schools transformed to deliver timely and better services to the society; (viii)Schools that share educational benefits with other educational organizations and the society; and (ix) Improved contribution by the schools to socio economic development of the society.
3.6 Process of selection and conditions for development of schools 3.6.1 Responsibilities
Undertaking the mapping exercise in order to identify the schools for the programme - Planning Branches of the Provincial Departments of Education in consultation with the respective provincial education authorities. Provide advocacy for the mapping process and make recommendations for selection of schools taking in to account the conditions given below and the need for minimizing bi-polarization issue in the future, and the available financial resources and obtaining concurrence of the provincial education authority. There should be a justification for each school selected for further development (Provincial Structure Committee). Parallel to above school mapping exercise, considering the schools with very small number of students proceed with an appropriate school rationalizing process to define school network. It is essential to ascertain that right to access of each children is secured (Provincial Structure Committee). Finalizes selection schools, development components and financial and human (e.g. teacher deployment, principal's professional development, etc.) resource matters -National-Level Steering Committee with the membership of provincial secretaries of education headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Education.
3.6.2 Process of selection
The Ministry of Education in collaboration with the provincial education authorities will conduct a school mapping exercise and will identify most appropriate secondary schools for further development. The mapping exercise will include following steps: (i) Identification of student flow within each school, by grades and by GN divisions, during past 3/5 years (Attachment- Example-No.1); (ii) Identify schools with student flow information by GN divisions (Attachment- Example-No.2); (iii)Identify patterns of student flow by GN divisions and emerging school groups (i.e. schools with high student flows from particular GN divisions) (Attachment- Example-No.3); (iv) Identify schools for further development within each selected school group and submit structure proposals in respect of each selected school to the Steering Committee to be established at the Ministry of Education for approval. Selection procedures should strictly be conducted associating available school data, geographical information system data, student flow analyses and zone and divisional level officials' own professional experience. School mapping techniques should be used to ensure more rationalized distribution of schools with secured access to all children. Education division should be considered as the unit of analysis, and student flow analyses will inform about the schools that are more feasible for further development. Projected student flow for at least next 05-10 years should be studied in this exercise. Certain aspects to be considered are:
a. b. d. f.
Geographical location and road access; Number of students of the primary and secondary schools; c. Patterns of student flow of the selected school and surrounding schools (sp. Feeder primary schools); Distance to the secondary school from the primary feeder schools; e. Available and required spaces of the school (both basic and higher-order learning spaces); Access for public facilities and government administrative offices; Pattern of demographic changes and population growth in the area; h. Availability/ if not available, whether access can be established for electricity, communication; Cultural and environmental factors and any special circumstances; Feasibility for rational deployment of subject specific teachers in the school; Selection of a good principals
l. m. 3.
Leadership capacity of the principal. Maximum size per school. Every selected school need to cater at least three primary schools located in the surrounding geographical area, creating a viable and inter-linked school network, hence the mapping exercise should be extended to identify most appropriate primary schools for development through a supplementary component. In line with this programme, the provincial education authorities may suggest for a comprehensive supplementary plan for the development of small schools with less than 50 students. Where ever possible, some of such schools could be included in the selected networks while others located in isolated areas may remain to be developed as they are.
3.6.3 Conditions for development of schools 1. Selected schools should demonstrate viability for development in the future as a promising institution that will provide better service to a wider community; Selected schools may be belong to any existing type of schools (i.e. 1AB, 1C, Type 2, Type 3/ National, Provincial/ Central schools, Navodya, Isuru etc.); Under unavoidable circumstances certain primary schools could be selected provided such schools demonstrate the potential of growing as a secondary school. Selected schools perhaps may belong to type 2/1C/1AB with grade span of 1 to 13. Such schools will be subject to the condition to be transformed to schools with Grades 6-13, by gradually removing primary classes (by not enrolling Grade 1 students. In such cases, the Directors of respective Zonal Education Offices should be made responsible for assuring rights of prospective children to be admitted to Grade 1 of such schools, by making arrangement to enroll them in close by primary schools). All selected secondary schools should have medium-term development plans for 2012-2016. The primary schools that will belong to the
network and any new primary schools to be established should also have medium-term development plans for 2012-2016. 6. The medium-term school development plan may include following components. a. Strategies to improve access and participation while adhering to the stipulated national norms regarding class sizes b. Quality development: processes
development: teachers, senior management staff, principals and communities. Add to this, the capacity development of divisional and zonal officials.
d. Procurement of basic and higher-order capital equipment. e. Infrastructure development: continuations and constructions of school buildings, other infrastructure. f. Maintenance of capital assets (buildings and equipment) This plan should include components and by activities. cost estimates by
Implementation should be phased out and prioritized considering the costs. Requirements should be computed based on the national norms/criteria Building constructions designs may include provincial specific historical architecture.
The budget for each school should be decided taking into account the essential requirements and on priority. It could be suggested to agree upon the amount allocated for a school may range from Rs 5mn to 60mn, as to meet the availability of limited financial resources. It is also suggested for all selected schools to be provided with a catalytic grant to meet requirements of their quality development processes and procurement of equipment, as the first step.
Development components to be rationally considered for inclusion in the development plans of selected schools
The programme may comprise of three major components. 4.1 Quality development component –processes 4.2 Physical infrastructure facilities 4.3 Strengthening governance and service delivery including capacity development 4.1 Quality development component This component will have to be developed in order to facilitate students to acquire learning experience in an inclusive environment. Therefore attention should be brought about to include higher order learning processes, acquisition of basic and higher-order /minor capital items or assets and services as well as capacity building requirements of managerial, teaching and non academic staff in the school development plans. Some of the examples are: Student camps; extracurricular activities: aesthetic/sports/entrepreneurship; special seminars for remedial teaching; school-based teacher development; community-based activities; health promotion environment with safety and security; etc.
4.2 Physical infrastructure facilities This component will be aimed at provision of essential physical infrastructure facilities, basic and higher-order capital assets, basic and higher-order spaces, completion of renovation and rehabilitation requirements. (i) Enrich school environment Green schools with different eco systems Smart classes (define: IT-based) Prepared for any emergency situation Safe environment (e.g. Fence & a gate) (ii) Basic assets • Classroom furniture • Office furniture • Library furniture Higher-order physical assets Laboratory equipment Library books ICT facilities Technical workshop equipment Co-curricular and extra-curricular activities based assets Sports equipment Aesthetic instruments Any other subject related…
(iii) • • • • (iv) • • •
o o o
o o o
(v) Basic physical infrastructure Functional water and sanitary facilities adequate classroom spaces Hostel facilities (where necessary) School plant and garden Administrative complexes Staff quarters (principals, teachers) Playground and sport facilities Access to children with special needs • Email/internet accessories • Electricity • Telephone (vi) Higher-order physical infrastructure GCE OL science laboratory buildings GCE AL science laboratory buildings Computer laboratory facilities with internet
Library facilities Home science rooms, agriculture rooms, activity rooms
All selected schools may not be required all kinds of physical assets and buildings. The programme should not merely be concentrated on construction of buildings and purchase of expensive equipment. Programme should be carefully planned with a better understanding of possible budgetary implications but taking into consideration the prime need of having established well-functioning group of schools. Hence, the ingredients for each school should be identified based on location specific feasibility assessment. Physical infrastructure with expensive buildings should not be over-emphasised. Multi-purpose buildings may be promoted. If land space is there, single storied school buildings with attractive designs could be promoted. School communities should not be looking forward to receive expensive buildings. However, the school plant should be modified with minimum -affordable- cost. Suggestions for identification for priorities of infrastructure requirements Selected schools may be classified on the availability of physical infrastructure facilities [Ref: 4.2, (v) & (vi)] in preparation of the mediumterm development plans. (i) Schools which satisfy 100% of suggested building infrastructure facilities and require maintenance and improvements; (ii) Schools which satisfy 75%-100% of suggested infrastructure facilities and require certain constructions, maintenance and improvements;
(iii)Schools which satisfy 50%-75% of suggested infrastructure facilities
but substantially improvements;
(iv) Schools with less than 50% of suggested infrastructure facilities and
seriously require constructions, maintenance and improvements. 4.3 Strengthening governance and service delivery o Capacity building o Human resource development o School principals to acquire innovative leadership skills (selected schools should be managed by qualified, formally appointed, talented principals with a better service history). o teaching staff o Registrars (cadre to be established and recruited)
Supportive staff School community Relevant divisional and zonal officials
5.0Quota for each province Option 1: based on the proportion between existing secondary and primary schools (as proposed below) Ser. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Province When a secondary school Number of secondary is identified for a schools to be selected network of minimum of for the development three primary schools 13.40 134 15.30 153 11.00 110 9.00 90 10.30 103 12.70 127 8. 20 8.80 11.30 100.00 82 88 113 1,000
Western Central Southern Northern Eastern North Western North Central Uva Sabaragam uwa Total
The above option was agreed by the Hon. Minister of Education and the Hon. Provincial Chief Ministers at the meeting held on September 20, 2010. [Option 2: 111 schools for each province (1000 schools divided by nine provinces Option 3: 6.0 Quota to be determined after completion of the entire school mapping in the province].
Programme period and tentative estimated cost Programme period: 5 years (2012 – 2016), initiation in 2011. Tentative estimated cost: to be worked out. [Per school cost may vary between Rs 5mn to 60mn. A school based grant of Rs 10mn for each school is proposed and that may cover costs of higher-order processes (teacher and student based); acquisition of quality inputs, assets, minor constructions and rehabilitation works. Construction and rehabilitation works
worth more than Rs 10mn may be incurred by the authorities beyond the school]. 7.0Implementation arrangements
Following arrangements will be made in order to undertake the implantation arrangements of the programme 1. Establishment
of National-Level Secretary/Ministry of Education). a Consultative
2. Establishment of Secretary/PPRD).
3. Establishment of Technical Committee (Chair: DE/Planning) 4. Provincial level monitoring by ESDFP theme coordinators 7.1 Implementation of programme with the provincial education authorities: This is the lead programme in the education sector for next medium-term phase and will be implemented jointly by the Ministry of Education, Provincial Ministries of Education, and Provincial Departments of Education. As per the instructions of the MFP, the provincial education authorities will undertake the responsibility of provincial component while the MoE will undertake selected national schools. 7.2 Composition of the committees: Two committees will be established for monitoring, supervision, directions and implementation as well as providing policy guidance for the programme. National-level Steering Committee: The National-level Steering Committee will provide policy advocacy and mediate to solve policy issues. Following members are included in this committee:
Chair: Secretary, MoE All Provincial Secretaries of Education All Provincial Directors of Education Director General, National Institute of Education Commissioner General of Examinations Commissioner General, Department of Education Publications Additional Secretaries/PPRD, EQD, ESE Chairman/FC
The Additional Secretary of the Policy, Planning and Performance Review Division of the Ministry of Education is the convener of the meeting. Consultative Committee Chair: Addl. Sec./PPRD Chief Accountant Development partners who support the prog Secretary/FC PDDE Academics/researchers/principals/trade unions/teachers/private sector education providers/public and private sector employers Prov Deputy Chief Sec/Planning Technical Committee: The National-level Technical Committee will coordinate provincial activities and report to the National-level Steering Committee. Following members of the national and provincial levels are included in this committee: - Chair: Director of Education, Policy and Planning Branch, Ministry of Education - All relevant Subject Heads - Provincial planning officers - provincial ESDFP Chief Coordinator - Director, School Works, Ministry of Education - Relevant other officers
Example 01 Student flow by student information (need to fill according to separate grades) Name of the student 1 2 3 . . 12 13 Total A B C Grama Niladari Division D E F G.. Other
Example 02 Student flow by Grades Grade A 1 2 3 . . 12 13 Total B C Grama Niladari Division D E F G.. Other
Example 03 Student flow by Schools (summarized by division) School A 1 2 3 . . 12 13 Total B C Grama Niladari Division D E F G.. Other
Student flow Information (By Division) (Example for format 03) School A L M N O P Q R S T U B C D Grama Niladari Division E F G H 2 1 3 2 I -1 --2 J ---3 -K ---2 1 Other 02 06 03 06 07 06 03 01 02 01
15 7 16 8 2
2 -3 -1
9 10 25 10 4
1 -6 -2
8 6 18 25 17
5 4 2 6 4
4 5 20 30 25
1 2 1 7 3
-4 10 30
5 3 5 8 3
-6 2 4
3 2 4 5
2 1 1 3
2 6 7 11 6
19 10 17 15 14
20 12 18 16 11
21 14 20 12 18
17 16 06 03 20
18 06 07 04 06
Schools of a selected Group A School L M N . . . U Cycle 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr 5-1 Gr 11-6 Gr 13-12 Gr B
Grama Niladari Division C D E
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