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1

(Computer Science & Engineering)

III B.Tech I Semester(R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November 2010 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA THEORY Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Max Marks: 80

1. (a) Deﬁne string and alphabet. Discuss the operations on string. (b) Deﬁne language? Discuss its operations. 2. Prove the theorem “if L is accepted by an NFA with ε - transitions then L is accepted by an NFA with out ε - transitions”. 3. Find a string of minimal length in Σ = {a,b} that is not in the language corresponding to the given regular expression. (a) 1 ∗ (01) ∗ 0 ∗ . (b) (0 ∗ +1∗)(0 ∗ +1∗)(0 ∗ +1∗). 4. (a) What are the properties of the CFL generated by a CFG. (b) Find the grammar for the language L={a2n bc, where n>1} (c) Find the language generated by S → 0S1|0A|0|1B|1, A → 0A|0, B → 1B|1. 5. (a) Find out a context free grammar for the language of strings over the alphabet {0, 1} such that the number of 0’s are more than the number of 1’s in the strings. (b) Show that the following grammar is ambiguous. E → E+E / E*E / a Eliminate the ambiguity from the above grammar using precedence of + is higher than the precedence of * in evaluating the expressions. 6. (a) Deﬁne a PDA. Design a PDA for L = { xcxr / x ∈ {a,b} * }. Process the string “abbacabba”. Note: xr stands for reverse of the string x. (b) What do you mean by an instantaneous description of a PDA. Explain with example. 7. Deﬁne a Turing Machine(TM) and the language accepted by a TM. Design a TM for recognizing the language (a+b)*aba(a+b)*. Draw it’s transition diagram and table. Using the Instantaneous Description notation. process the string “aabaabaaab”. 8. (a) What is PCP? Find the solution to the following instance of PCP. w = (1, 10111, 10) and x = (111, 10, 0) (b) Discuss in detail about LBA model with one example.

Code No: R7310501

2

(Computer Science & Engineering)

III B.Tech I Semester(R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November 2010 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA THEORY Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Max Marks: 80

1. (a) Prove the following theorem by Induction. 1 + 2 + 3 + ........ + n = n(n + 1)/2 (b) A tree with ‘n’ vertices has (n-1) edges. Prove the theorem by induction. 2. (a) Discuss brieﬂy the signiﬁcance of NFA and DFA. (b) Write about NFA with ε transitions and also discuss the signiﬁcance of NFA with ε? 3. Show that the language L = {x {0, 1}∗ : x has equal number of 01 and 01 as substrings} is regular. 4. (a) construct CFG without production form S → a | Ab | aBa, A → b | , B → b | A

(b) Explain the relationship between derivation and derivation tree with an example. 5. (a) Show that the following grammar is ambiguous and also eliminate the ambiguity using the if else rules in C language. S → if (c) S / if (c) S else S / S (b) What are unit productions? Write the disadvantages of unit productions? Write the procedure for eliminating unit productions from a given CFG. Eliminate unit productions from the following grammar. E → E+T / T T → T*F / F F → (E) / id 6. (a) Design a PDA for L = {xxr / x ∈ {a,b} * }. Process the string abbaabba. Is you PDA deterministic or non deterministic? Justify your answer. Note: xr stands for reverse of the string x. (b) Explain the diﬀerences between a PDA and FA. 7. Design a TM for recognizing L = { xx / x ∈ {a, b}* }. Show the moves of the TM for the strings abaaba and abaabb. 8. (a) What is Modiﬁed PCP? Does the following instance of MPCP has solution? If so, give the answer w = (1, 10111, 10) and x = (111, 10, 0) (b) Explain about halting problem of Turing Machine.

Code No: R7310501

3

(Computer Science & Engineering)

III B.Tech I Semester(R07) Regular & Supplementary Examinations, November 2010 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA THEORY Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Max Marks: 80

1. (a) Describe the following languages over the input set A={a,b} i. L1 = {a, ab, abb, aba} ii. L2 = {an bn | n >= 1} iii. L3 = {an bn | n > 0} (b) What is the Kleen closure? Let = {a,b} obtain Σ∗ = Σ0 ∪ Σ1 ∪ Σ2 ∪ Σ3......... 2. Find the Minimal DFA for the language L={an bm , n > 2, m > 1}. 3. Discuss and prove that the closure properties of regular sets are closed. 4. (a) If S → Asb | aAb, A → bAa, A → ba. Find out the CFL. (b) Consider the grammar P = {S constructing: i. Two parse trees. ii. Two leftmost derivation. iii. Rightmost derivation. (c) Find CFG with no useless symbols equivalent to S → AB | CA, B → BC | AB, A → a, C → aB | b. 5. (a) What are useless variable in a CFG? How do you ﬁnd out useless variable in a given CFG? Explain with an example. (b) Eliminate ambiguity from the following grammar. E → E+E / E*E / (E) / id 6. (a) When do we say that a PDA is non deterministic? Design a PDA for recognizing the language of palindromes over the input alphabet {a, b}. (b) Distinguish between a DPDA and NPDA. 7. (a) Design a TM for recognizing the language of palindromes over the input alphabet {a, b}. Show the moves of TM for the string abbbba. (b) What is Instantaneous Description of a TM? Brieﬂy explain. 8. (a) Discuss about P and NP complexity of algorithms. (b) What is PCP? Find solution to the following PCP instance, if exists? w = (10, 011, 101) and x = (101, 11, 011) → aS | aSbS | ε} Prove that it is ambiguous by

Code No: R7310501

4

(Computer Science & Engineering)

1. (a) What is the ﬁnite state machine? Deﬁne ﬁnite Automata and discuss the representation of ﬁnite automata. (b) Discuss the applications of ﬁnite automata. 2. Prove the theorem “Let L be a set accepted by non-deterministic ﬁnite automata, then there exists a DFA that accepts L”. 3. Give a DFA for accepting L = {an bm | abs (n − m) mod 3 ≤ 1} and show that L is non regular. 4. (a) What is i. CFL. ii. Sentential form? Give example for each. (b) What is the language generated by the grammar G=(v,t,p,s) where P = {S → aSb, S → ab} ? (c) What is i. Derivation ii. Derivation/Parse tree. iii. Sub tree. Give example for each. 5. Write a procedure for eliminating. ∈ - productions from a given CFG. Eliminate ∈ - productions from the following grammar. S → ABCBCD A → CD B → Cb C → a / ∈ D → bD / ∈ 6. When do you say that a language L is recognized or accepted by a PDA? Design PDA for L = { ai bj ck / j ≥ i+k and i,j,k > 0}. Process the string aaabbbbbbccc using instantaneous description. 7. Deﬁne a TM and the instantaneous description of a TM. Design a TM for recognizing L = { x ∈ {a, b}* / x ends with aba}. Specify it’s transition diagram . Process the the strings abaaba and ababaa using ID notation. 8. (a) What is an LR(0) grammar? Show that the grammar with following productions is LR(0) grammar. S → aA A → Abb / b (b) Find solution to following PCP instance, if exists? w = (01, 001, 10) and x = (011, 10, 00)

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