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Autodesk 3Ds

Max Note
3Ds Max

3D Beginnings, developments, achievements

The original 3D Studio product was created for the DOS platform by the Yost Group
and published by Autodesk. After 3D Studio Release 4, the product was rewritten for the
Windows NT platform, and originally named "3D Studio MAX." This version was also originally
created by the Yost Group. It was released by Kinetix, which was at that time Autodesk's
division of media and entertainment. Autodesk purchased the product at the second release
mark of the 3D Studio MAX version and internalized development entirely over the next two
releases. Later, the product name was changed to "3ds max" (all lower case) to better comply
with the naming conventions of Discreet, a Montreal-based software company which Autodesk
had purchased. At release 8, the product was again branded with the Autodesk logo, and the
name was again changed to "3ds Max"

Since its invention in 1838, stereoscopy has been used as a technique to create the illusion
of a third dimension. There is a lot of debate about the first 3D film but “L’arrivée du train”
filmed in 1903 by the Lumière brothers, the inventors of cinema, is often referred to as the
first stereoscopic movie ever made. When it was released, audiences panicked because they
thought the train was about to crash right into them!

Since then, about 250 films and TV programs have been produced in 3D. Although the
technology for creating 3D films has been around for a long time, the technology for viewing
these films, as essential as it may be, is a totally different story. This explains why 3D cinema
has gone through five significant eras and why its story is still being written.

1900 to 1946: Experimentation

Producers, fans and inventors of all stripes lay the groundwork for 3D cinema. A few films are
shot with small budgets in order to try to uncover the secrets of stereoscopic production.

1950 to 1960: The first golden age

During this decade, 3D sees its first boom. With the commercial success of “Bwana Devil”,
released by United Artists in 1952, 3D cinema captures the attention of the major studios.
They turn out more than sixty films, including Hitchcock’s “Dial M for Murder” and “Hondo”,
starring John Wayne. Although these films were shot with state-of-the art technology, 3D fell
out of use because of the poor viewing conditions in most theatres and due to the complex
equipment required to exhibit 3D movies (silver screens, polarized glasses, double
synchronized projectors, special lenses…).
1973 to 1985: The Renaissance

All but forgotten by the general public, 3D cinema resurfaces and several studios, large and
small, try to resurrect it. They succeed in creating interest thanks to such films as “Jaws 3D”,
“Comin at Ya!” and “Friday the 13th – Part 3”. However, in spite of its new-found success, the
little cardboard glasses still didn’t cut it, and 3D disappeared once again.

1986 to 2000: The revolution

With the invention of the Imax 3D format, which audiences discover for the first time while
watching “Transitions” at Expo ‘86 in Vancouver, and the emergence of new screening
technology, 3D cinema finally comes into its own. Although 3D is used only in specialized
productions due to the prohibitive shooting costs, it takes its rightful place, never to relinquish
it again.

2001 to today: The second golden age

The advent of computer animation technology, digital cameras and 3D home theatre
contribute to the democratization of stereoscopic production and screening. The demand for
3D continues to grow and the technology is now entering its second golden age.

Production Cycle

Pre-production :

Depending on the nature and scale of your operation, you might be sceptical of the
idea of pre-production programs. It can be time-consuming and if the product development
time is short (as in TV or Radio news programming) then who has time to produce a shot-by-
shot plan of how the end product should look and sound? But if you are in film, commercial or
TV magazine and documentary production, dealing with large multidisciplinary production
teams who may be split between different sites, then careful planning is essential.
Storyboarding plays an important role in these areas in providing everyone, including the
client, if there is one, with a common point of reference, to verify and validate structural and
content elements. The same is true in multimedia production, perhaps even more so since
teams in this area are still in the process of developing a common cross-disciplinary language
and, with development tools still in the process of evolution, experience is not always there to
draw on when it comes to the incorporation of more obscure design elements.

What is Storyboard ?

A storyboard is an expression of everything that will be contained in the program --


what menu screens will look like, what pictures (still and moving) will be seen when and for
how long, what audio and text will accompany the images, either synchronously or
hyperlinked. Typically, storyboards may be written documents and off-the-shelf storyboard
pads for TV and video formats, adaptable for multimedia, are available. For me, the storyboard
expresses, in one way or another, everything that can be seen or heard or experienced by the
end-user of the multimedia program. It's more than a test-of-concept model, and just short of
the final product specification document.

Over view of 3Ds Max

3Ds Max is a relatively large and complex program . It combines all the necessary tools
into a single user interface that is easy to learn and easy to use . 3Ds Max is used in every
industry where we might find 3D graphics. The applications of 3Ds max are as follows:

Film/video

Gaming

Visualization

Technical Animation

Web Graphics and Animation

User Interface

3DS Max interface can be classified into five elements. These elements can be grouped
under various sub-elements. The following are the main five elements of the max interface.

Menus- Menus hold most of the 3ds Max commands. These menus are found along the top
edge of the Max window.

Toolbars- There are a number of toolbars containing icon buttons that provide single-click
access to features. These toolbars can float independently or can be docked to an interface
edge. By default, the main toolbar and the reactor toolbar are visible.

View ports- There are four separate views into the scene show. They are- Top, Front, Left, and
Perspective.

Command Panel- The command panel is located to the right of the four view ports. It contains
six tabbed icons at its top that can be clicked to open the various panels. Each panel includes
rollouts containing parameters and settings. These rollouts change depending on the object
and tab that is selected.

Lower Interface Bar- Along the bottom edge of the interface window is a collection of
miscellaneous controls.
Menus

Main Toolbar

Reactor Toolbar
Command Panel

The Create panel- It contains controls for creating objects; such as, geometry, cameras, lights,
and so on.

The Modify Panel- It contains controls for applying modifiers to objects and editing editable
objects such as meshes and patches.

The Hierarchy Panel- It contains controls for managing links in a hierarchy, in joints, and in
inverse kinematics.

The Motion Panel - It contains controls for animation controllers and trajectories.

The Display Panel- It contains controls that let you hide and unhide objects, along with other
display options.

The Utilities Panel- It contains miscellaneous utility programs, most of which are plug-ins to
3ds max.

Rollouts- Rollouts contain most of the controls, buttons, and parameters in the Command
Panel. Each rollout title bar includes a plus or minus sign (a minus sign indicates that the
rollout is open; a plus sign shows closed rollouts). Clicking the rollout title opens or closes the
rollout. You can also reposition the order of the rollouts by dragging the rollout title and
dropping it above or below the other rollouts. But you cannot reposition some of the rollouts,
such as the Object Type and the Name and Color rollouts found in the Create panel.

Right-clicking away from the buttons in a rollout presents a pop-up menu which you can select
to close the rollout you’ve clicked in- whether it is a Close All, Open All, or Reset Rollout Order.
The pop-up menu also lists all available rollouts within the current panel, with a check mark
next to the ones that are open. Expanding all the rollouts often exceeds the screen space
allotted to the Command Panel. If the rollouts exceed the given space, then a small vertical
scroll bar appears at the right edge of the Command Panel. This scroll bar can be dragged to
access the rollouts at the bottom of the Command Panel, or can be clicked away from the
controls when a hand cursor appears. With the hand cursor, you can click and drag in either
direction to scroll the Command Panel. The Command Panel can be also be scrolled with the
wheel on the mouse.

Using the Lower Interface Bar Controls

Lower Interface bar is a collection of several sets of controls located along the bottom
edge of the interface window. These controls cannot be pulled away from the interface like the
main toolbar, but they can be hidden using the Expert Mode (Ctrl+X). These controls, include
the following from left to right:
Lower Interface Bar

Time Slider- The Time Slider, located under the viewports, enables you to quickly locate a
specific frame. It spans the number of frames included in the current animation. Dragging the
Time Slider can move you quickly between frames.

Track Bar - The Track Bar displays animation keys as color-coded rectangles with red for
positional keys, green for rotational keys, and blue for scale keys. Parameter change keys are
denoted by gray rectangles. Using the Track Bar, you can select, move, and delete keys.

Status Bar - The Status Bar is below the Track Bar. It provides valuable information, such as
the number and type of objects selected, transformation values, and grid size. It also includes
the Transform Type-In fields.

Prompt Line- The Prompt Line is text located at the bottom of the window. If you’re stuck as to
what to do next, look at the Prompt Line for information on what Max expects.

Key Controls - These controls are for creating animation keys and include two different
modes- Auto Key (keyboard shortcut, N) or Set Key (keyboard shortcut, ' ).

Auto Key mode sets keys for any change made to the scene objects. Set Key mode gives you
more precise control and sets keys for the selected filters only when you click the Set Keys
button (keyboard shortcut, K).

Time Controls- Resembling the controls on an audio or video device, the Time Controls offer
an easy way to move through the various animation frames and keys. Based on the selected
mode (keys or frames), the Time Controls can move between the first, previous, next, and last
frames or keys.

Viewport Navigation Controls- In the lower-right corner of the interface are the controls for
manipulating the viewports. They enable you to zoom, pan, and rotate the active viewport’s
view.

Objects and Transformations


Primitive Objects - Max has a big list of default geometric objects called primitives. You can
create primitives in the scene by simply selecting the correct option and click-dragging in the
view port.

Create Menu - The Create menu offers quick access to the buttons in the Create panel. All the
objects that you create using the Create panel can be accessed using the Create menu.

Selecting an object from the Create menu automatically opens the Create panel. After
selecting the menu option, you simply need to click in one of the viewports to create the
object.

Create Panel - The creation of all default Max objects, such as primitive spheres, shapes,
lights, and cameras, starts with the Create panel (or the Create menu, which leads to the
Create panel). This panel is the first in the Command Panel, indicated by an icon of an arrow
pointing to a star.

The Create panel includes both categories and subcategories. After you click on the Create tab
in the Command Panel, seven category icons are displayed. They are Geometry, Shapes,
Lights, Cameras, Helpers, Space Warps, and Systems from left to right.

The Create panel is the place you go to create objects for the scene. These objects could be
geometric objects like spheres, cones, and boxes or other objects like lights, cameras, or
Space Warps.
The Create panel contains a large variety of objects. To create an object, you simply need to
find the button for the object that you want to create, click it, click on one of the viewports and
the object is created.

After you select the Geometry button (which has an icon of a sphere on it), a dropdown list
with several subcategories appears directly below the category icons. The first available
subcategory is Standard Primitives. After you select this subcategory, several text buttons
appear that enable you to create some simple primitive objects.

Creating a Standard objects- To create standard objects like Box, Cone, Sphere, GeoSphere ,
Cylinder ,Tube ,Torus , Pyramid , Teapot , Plane click on the Button labeled and drag it on
viewports .we are taking a example of Sphere . To create a Sphere Primitive, click on the
Button labeled Sphere. Several rollouts appear at the bottom of the Command Panel. These
rollouts for the Sphere primitive object include: Name and Color, Creation Method, Keyboard
Entry, and Parameters. The rollouts for each primitive are slightly different, as well as the
parameters within each rollout.

Do not change the settings in the rollouts to draw the sphere with default settings. Click and
drag anywhere in one of the viewports and the sphere object is created.

When an object button, such as the Sphere button, is selected, it turns dark yellow. This color
change reminds you that you are in creation mode. Clicking and dragging within any viewport
creates an additional sphere.

While in the creation mode, you can create many spheres by clicking and dragging several
times in one of the viewports. To get out of creation mode, rightclick on the active viewport
and click the Select Object button or one of the transform buttons on the main toolbar.

After you select a button, several additional rollouts appear. These new rollouts hold the
parameters for the selected object and are displayed in the Create panel below the Name and
Color rollout. Altering these parameters changes the object. The button remains selected,
allowing you to create more objects until you select a different button, click on a toolbar
button, or right-click on the active viewport
Keyword Entry Rollout - Keyboard entry rollout can be used for creating a primitive by entering
precise values for the location and dimensions of the object. When all the dimension fields are
set, click the Create button to create the actual primitive.You can create multiple objects by
clicking the Create button several times. After a primitive is created, altering the fields in the
Keyboard Entry rollout has no effect on the current object, but you can always use the Undo
feature to try again.

Modifying Object's Parameters - The parameter rollout holds all the various settings for the
object. Compared to the Keyboard Entry rollout, which you can use only when creating the
primitive, you can use the Parameters rollout to alter the primitive’s parameters before or
after the creation of the object. The parameters are different for each primitive object, but you
can generally use them to control the dimensions, the number of segments that make up the
object, and whether the object is sliced into sections. You can also select the Generate
Mapping Coordinates option, which automatically creates material mapping coordinates that
are used to position maps. After you deselect an object, the Parameters rollout disappears
from the Create tab and moves to the Modify tab. You can make future parameter
adjustments by selecting an object and clicking the Modify tab.

Tranforming Objects -- The three different forms of transformations are translation, rotation,
and scaling. These actions are called transformations because they transform the object to a
different state.
Transformations are different from modifications. Modifications change the object’s geometry,
but transformations do not affect the object’s geometry at all.

The three transform buttons located on the main toolbar are

Select and Move

Select and Rotate

Select and Uniform Scale

Using these buttons, you can select objects and transform them by dragging in one of the
viewports with the mouse. You can access these buttons using three of the big four
keyboard shortcuts— Q for Select Objects, W for Select and Move, E for Select and Rotate, and
R for Select and Scale.

Translation – Translation of moving objects is the first kind of transformation. An object can
be in any of the three directions i.e. x, y, or z.. To move objects, you have to click on the Select
and Move button on the main toolbar, or press the W key. Then you select the object to move,
and drag the object in the viewport to the desired location. Translations are measured in the
defined system units for the scene, which may be inches, centimeters, meters, and so on.

Rotation-- Rotation is the process of spinning the object about its Transform Center point. To
rotate objects, click the Select and Rotate button on the main toolbar, or press the E key,
select an object to rotate, and drag it in a viewport. Rotations are measured in degrees, where
360 degrees is a full rotation.

Scaling -- Scaling increases or decreases the overall size of an object. Most scaling operations
are uniform, or equal in all directions. All scaling is done about the Transform Center point.

To scale objects uniformly, click the Select and Uniform Scale button on the main toolbar, or
press the R key, select an object to scale, and drag it in a viewport. Scalings are measured as
a percentage of the original. For example, a cube scaled to a value of 200 percent is twice as
big as the original.

Transform Gizmos - The Transform gizmos are viewport icons that let you quickly choose one
or two axes when transforming a selection with the mouse. You choose an axis by placing the
mouse over any axis of the icon, then drag the mouse to transform the selection along that
axis. In addition, when moving or scaling an object, you can use other areas of the gizmo to
perform transforms along any two axes simultaneously.

Move Gizmo - In each corner of the Move Gizmo are two perpendicular lines for each plane.
These lines let you transform along two axes simultaneously. The colors of these lines match
the various colors used for the axes. Selecting one of these lines highlights it. At the center of
the Move Gizmo is a Center Box that marks the pivot point’s origin.

Rotate Gizmo-- The Rotate Gizmo surrounds the selected object in a sphere. A colored line for
each axis circles the surrounding sphere. As you select an axis and drag, an arc is highlighted
that shows the distance of the rotation along that axis and the offset value is displayed in text
above the object. Clicking on the sphere away from the axes lets you rotate the selected
object in all directions.

Scale Gizmo -- The Scale Gizmo consists of two triangles and a line for each axis. Selecting
and dragging the center triangle uniformly scales the entire object. Selecting a slice of the
outer triangle scales the object along the adjacent two axes, and dragging on the axis lines
scales the object in a non-uniform manner along a single axis.
Transform Type-In Dialog Box -- You can specify precise values for moving, scaling or rotating
the objects through Transform Type-In dialog box. This command provides more exact control
over the placement of objects than dragging with the mouse.

You can enter numerical values or offsets in the Transform Type-In dialog box. You can open
this dialog box by choosing “Tools>Transform Type-In” menu command or by pressing the F12
key.

Right-clicking any of the transform buttons opens the Transform Type-In dialog box, but the
dialog box opens for whichever button is enabled, regardless of which button you right-click.

The Transform Type-In dialog box is modeless and allows you to select new objects as needed
or to switch between the various transforms. When the dialog box appears, it displays the
coordinate locations for the pivot point of the current selection in the Absolute: World column.

Status Bar Type-In Fields - The status bar Type-In fields shows the position of the cursor or the
status of a transform, and allows entry of new transform values.

When you move, rotate, or scale an object, the X, Y, and Z offset values appear in these fields.

The values depend on the type of transformation taking place. Translation shows the unit
distances, rotation displays the angle in degrees, and scaling shows a percentage value of the
original size.

You can also use these fields to enter values, like with the Transform Type-In dialog box. The
type of transform depends on which transform button you select. The values that you enter
can be either absolute coordinates or offset values, depending on the setting of the Transform
Type-In toggle button that appears to the left of the transform fields. This toggle button lets
you switch between Absolute and Offset modes.

Extended Primitive

Extended Primitives contain a collection of complex primitives .

Hedra – Hedra is to produce objects from several families of polyhedra . The Hedra Primitives
available in Max are Tetrahedron , Cube/ Octahedron , Dodecahedron / Icosahedron , and two
star types called Star 1 and Star 2 . From these basic Polyhedra , we can create many
different variations .

Chamfer Box – The chamfer objects are objects whose edges are smooth.

OilTank – OilTank is to create a cylinder with convex caps .

Spindle -- The Spindle primitive is same as the oiltank primitive ,except that the dome caps
are replaced with conical caps . All other options in the parameters rollout are identical to the
Oiltank primitive .
Gengon -- The Gengon primitive creates and extrudes regular polygons such as triangles
,squares and pentagons.

Ring Wave -- The Ring wave primitive is a specialized primitive that you can use to create a
simple gear or a sparkling sun . It consists of two circles that make up a ring . We can set the
circle edges to be wavy and even fluctuate over time .

Prisim – The prism primitive is an extruded triangle .

Torus Knot – A Torus Knot is similar to the Torus in standard primitive that we have learnt
earlier , except that the circular Cross-Section follows a 3D curve instead of a simple circle .

ChamferCyl – ChamferCyl is to creat a cylinder with beveled or rounded cap edges .

Capsule -- Capsule primitive is another primitive based on the cylinder , with hemispherical
caps .

L-Ext -- The L-Ext primitive stands for L-Extension. Use L-Ext to create L shaped extrude object
.

C-Ext – The C- Ext is used to create an extruded c- shaped object .

Hose -- The Hose primitive is a flexible connector that can be positioned between two other
objects . It acts much like a spring but has no dynamic properties .

Compound Objects

A compound object is an object that is the result of combining two or more objects into a
single object.

The compound objects sub- category includes several unique object types .
Morph—The compound object enables us to morph from one object to another. The objects
must have same number of vertices . These vertices are interpolated from one object to
another. This is an animated compound object and is typically used for character animation
particularly, facial animation.

Scatter -- This compound object enables us to scatter one object across the surface of
another .

Conform – The compound object forces one object to conform to the surface of another . We
can use this option to simulate a morph between objects with different number of vertices .
This can be useful simulating basic effects .

Connect – This compound object is used to connect two objects together .Both objects must
have an opening in them . The connection is made between the open edges of two objects .

Shape Merge – This compound object enables us to add a shape to a 3D object and then
either combine them or subtract one from the other .

Boolean – Boolean enables us to join two or more objects through Boolean mathematics. We
can create a union , intersection and subtraction or a cut .

Terrain – This compound objects take the shape as input . Basically we create a shape that is
the representation of elevation contours from a site map . Then Terrain will create the 3D
surface . Terrain is not particularly flexible and often does not produce great results .

Loft—It enables us to take two shapes : one shape is a loft path and the shape is extruded
along the path . We can also deform the shape . This is one of the earliest modeling tools
available to the 3D users .

Mesher—This compound object enables us to convert a particle system to a mesh object so


we can apply modifiers to the particle system .

Blobmesh -- This compound objects creates a meatball object that flows from one object to
next like water.

MODELING

Modeling is the process of creating custom objects and meshes. Max includes many
different model types and includes even more ways to work with these model types. The 3d
models can be used for video games. The other uses of 3d models are animation for
broadcast and architectural pre-visualizations.

Primitives

Primitives are basic parametric objects such as cubes, spheres, and pyramids. The primitives
are divided into two groups consisting of Standard and Extended Primitives.

Creating Spline
Shapes are simple vector shapes such as circles, stars, arcs, and text, and splines are forms
such as the Helix. These objects are fully renderable. The Create menu includes many
parametric shapes and splines. These parametric objects can be converted to Editable Spline
objects for more editing.

Line -- Use Line to create a free-form spline made of multiple segments . The line primitive
has several creation method setting , which allows us to create hard corners or smooth
corners . We can set the initial Type option to either corner to create sharp corner or we can
select smooth to create smooth corner of the first point created .

Rectangle – The Rectangle shape produces Simple Square and rectangles . Holding the Cntl
Key while dragging creates a perfect square .

Circle -- Use Circle to create closed circular splines made of four vertices .The only adjustable
parameter in the parameters roolout in the radius .

Ellipse – Ellipses are simple variations of circular shape . Holding down the cntl key while
dragging , creates a perfect circle .

Arc – Use Arc to create open and closed circular arcs made of four vertices.

Donut – It consists of two concentric circles . Each circle is made of four vertices .

NGon – We can use NGon to create regular polygons with specific number of sides and the
corner radius . The inscribed option in the parameters rollout positions the polygon with in a
circle that touches all the outer polygon vertices . The Circumscribed option positions the
polygon with in a circle that touches the mid-point of each polygon edge . The circular option
changes the polygon to a circle that inscribes the polygon .

Star – The star shape creates closed star-shaped splines with any number of points . Star
splines use two radius to set the distance between the outer points and inner valleys . Radius
1 specifies the radius of the inner vertices of the star . Radius 2 specifics the radius of the
outer vertices of the star . Points specifies the number of points on the star . The value can
range from 3 to 100 . The Distortion value causes the inner points to rotate relative to the
outer points and can be used to create new star types . The Fillet Radius 1 and Fillet Radius 2
are used to adjust the Fillet for the inner and outer points .
Text – Text shape is used to create outlined text .Text shapes maintain the text as an editable
parameter .We can change the text at any time .If the font used by text is deleted from the
system, 3Ds Max still properly displays the text shape .The text in the scene is just a shape
where each letter and , in some cases ,pieces of each letter are individual splines . We can
apply modifiers like Edit Spline , Bend , and Extrude to Text shape just like any other shape
.We will learn these modifiers in detail in later part of the session .

Helix – It is like a spring coil shape and it is the only 3D shape . The two radii in the parameter
specify the inner and outer radius .The two radii can be equal to create a coil or unequal to
create a spiral ,

Bias option forces the turns to accumulate at one end of the helix . Bias no visible affect when
the height is 0.0.Turn option allows us to specify the numbers of turns .CW/CCW option sets
whether the Helix turns CW or CCW .

Section – Section generates other shapes based on a cross sectional slice through mesh
objects .The Section object appears as a bisected rectangle .We can move , rotate , or scale
the cross sectioning plane to obtain the desired cross section .

Editable Poly or Polygon modeling -- Polygon modeling is more common with game design
than any other modeling technique as the very specific control over individual polygons allows
for extreme optimization. Usually, the modeler begins with one of the 3ds max primitives, and
using such tools as bevel and extrude, adds detail to and refines the model. Versions 4 and up
feature the Editable Polygon object, which simplifies most mesh editing operations, and
provides subdivision smoothing at customizable levels.

Meshes -- Meshes are complex models created from many polygon faces that are smoothed
together when the object is rendered. These objects are available only as Editable Mesh
objects .

Patches -- Based on spline curves; patches can be modified using control points. The Create
menu includes two parametric Patch objects, but most objects can also be converted to
Editable Patch objects.

NURBS -- NURBS is an acronym for Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines. They are similar to
patches in that they also have control points. These control points define how a surface
spreads over curves.

Compound Objects -- Compound objects is a miscellaneous group of modeling types, including


Booleans, loft objects, and scatter objects. Other compound objects are good at modeling one
specialized type of object such as Terrain or Blob Mesh objects.

Particle Systems -- Particle systems are a system of small objects that work together as a
single group. They are useful for creating effects such as rain, snow, and sparks.

Editable Objects -- Any object type can be converted into editable object type. You can convert
objects by right-clicking on the object in the view port and selecting the Convert To submenu
from the pop-up Quad menu, or by right-clicking on the base object in the Modifier Stack and
selecting the object type to convert to in the pop-up menu.
Once converted, all the editing features of the selected type are available in the Modify panel,
but the object is no longer parametric.

Converting Object into Poly – Create a object ,then Right click on the object and then select
Convert to Editable Poly .By converting into Poly we can create different types of modeling .In
Editable poly a object have vertex ,Edge, border, Polygon and Element . In its 5 aspects we can
change a object into a model .

Vertex Vertex means crossing point of two or more than two edges or segment is called
Vertex .

Edge : Connection of two vertex is called Edge .

Border : Selection of edges in a round area which have no face or polygons .

Polygon : When four different edges are crossing each other and create a face is called
Polygon.

Element : Element is use for selecting total polygon in a time .

Edit Geometry : ( Vertex )


Extrude: In Poly Extrude is use for increasing height of an object . Extrude affects in different
way by selecting vertex , edge ,border , polygon and element .

Remove: By selecting a vertex in a Poly object ,if we click on Remove option in Edit geometry
the selected vertex will remove from the object . It is also applicable for Edge .

Weld: Weld it self means joint two or more things . In Poly if we want to join two vertex or edge
into one , weld option is apply .

Chamfer: In Poly Chamfer is use for create a smooth edge and corner of an object .

Target Weld : Target weld is also use for weld two or more different edges and vertex into
one . But before weld ,Target weld can target its target point for weld .

Connect : Connect is use for adding segment in a poly object . By selecting edge or segment
in a ring way connect option can apply .

Attach : Attach is use for attach different objects into one .

Detach : It is use for detaching attached objects .

Subobjects -- A sub-object is a subset of an object's geometry. Subobjects are the elements


that make up the model and can include vertices, edges, faces, polygons, and elements.

These individual subobjects can be selected and transformed just like normal objects using
the transformation tools located on the main toolbar.

To access sub-objects, go to the Modifier panel. In the modifier stack display, click the plus-
sign button to display an object's hierarchy, and then choose the sub-objects level from the
hierarchy.
Soft selection – Soft Selection selects all the subobjects surrounding the current selection
and applies transformations to them to an extent that falls off as the distance from the
selected sub-object increases. This falloff is visible in the viewports as a color gradient
surrounding the selection.

For example, if a face is selected and moved a distance of 2, then with linear Soft Selection,
the neighboring faces within the soft selection range move a distance of 1. The overall effect
is a smoother transition.
The Use Soft Selection parameter enables or disables the Soft Selection feature. The Edge
Distance option sets the range (the number of edges from the current selection) that the Soft
Selection will affect. If disabled, the distance is determined by the Falloff amount.

The Affect Backfacing option applies the Soft Selection to selected subobjects on the backside
of an object. For example, if you are selecting vertices on the front of a sphere object and the
Affect Backfacing option is enabled, then vertices on the opposite side of the sphere are also
selected.

Modifiers—

Modifiers is a tool to sculpt and edit objects. They enable you to change the geometry of an
object, and its properties.

The Modifiers menu includes a submenu of modifiers that are specific to mesh (and poly)
objects. These modifiers are found in the Mesh Editing submenu and can be used to enhance
the features available for these objects.

The modifiers you apply to an object are stored in a stack. By navigating up and down the
stack, you can change the effect of the modifier, or remove it from the object. Or you can
choose to “collapse” the stack and make your changes permanently.

You can apply an unlimited number of modifiers to an object or part of an object. When you
delete a modifier, all its changes to the object disappear. You can move and copy modifiers to
other objects using controls in the modifier stack display.
The order or sequence in which you add modifiers is important. Each modifier affects those
that come after it. For instance, adding a Bend modifier before a Taper can give you distinctly
different results than if you first added the Taper followed by the Bend.

Several of the Mesh Editing modifiers are unique, special-purpose modifiers. The Edit Normals
modifier, for example, lets you change the direction of face normals, which doesn’t really
change the geometry, but can create a big impact on how the object is smoothed and shaded.

ARRAY - Using the Array tool is not like cloning an object, although you do make copies. But
you don't make just one copy, with this tool you can create armies of similar objects in one,
two or even three dimensions with a click of a button. And you can change the offsets and
distances between objects as well as change rotational values. Using this tool you can easily
create complex objects such as staircases, walls, and many others.

Spacing tool - Spacing lets you distribute objects (based on settings in the Spacing dialogue)
as clones, instances, or references along a path or just at set intervals, guaranteeing perfectly
even spacing.

Bend modifier- The Bend modifier lets you bend the current selection up to 360 degrees about
a single axis, producing a uniform bend in an object’s geometry. You can control the angle and
direction of the bend on any of three axes. You can also limit the bend to a section of the
geometry.

Lattice modifier-The Lattice modifier converts the segments or edges of a shape or object into
cylindrical struts with optional joint polyhedra at the vertices. Use this either to create
renderable structural geometry based on the mesh topology, or as an alternate method to
achieve a rendered wireframe effect.

Ripple modifier-This modifier is useful when creating hilly terrain, cloth, or movement in a body
of water. These modifiers can be animated through the use of key frames for interesting video
imagery and motion effects.Decreasing the wavelength of the effect will heighten the
frequency or increase the number of smaller ripples in the wave.

Shell modifier- The Shell modifier “solidifies” or gives thickness to an object by adding an
extra set of faces facing the opposite direction of existing faces, plus edges connecting the
inner and outer surfaces wherever faces are missing in the original object. You can specify
offset distances for the inner and outer surfaces, characteristics for edges, material IDs, and
mapping types for the edges.Also, because the Shell modifier doesn’t have sub-objects, you
can use the Select options to specify a face selection for passing up the stack to other
modifiers. Please note that the Shell modifier doesn’t recognize existing sub-object selections,
nor does it pass such selections up the stack.

Skew modifier- The Skew modifier lets you produce a uniform offset in an object's geometry.
You can control the amount and direction of the skew on any of three axes. You can also limit
the skew to a section of the geometry.

Stretch modifier-The Stretch modifier simulates the traditional animation effect of "squash-
and-stretch." Stretch applies a scale effect along a specified stretch axis and an opposite
scale along the two remaining minor axes.The amount of opposite scaling on the minor axes
varies, based on distance from the center of the scale effect. The maximum amount of scaling
occurs at the center and falls off toward the ends.

Noise Modifier -- Noise modifier varies the position of object vertices in the direction of
selected axes .Most of the Noise parameters have an animation controller . In the noise
parameter rollout the noise group controls the appearance of the noise and thus its effects
on the physical deformation of the object .

Twist modifier – Twist modifier produces a twirling effect in an object . Twist parameters
includes the angel which is the amount of twist in degrees that is applied to the object .

Wave modifier-- The wave modifier produces a wave effect in an object’s geometry . Wave
uses a standard gizmo and center , which we can transform to increases the possible wave
effects.

Free Form Deformations (FFD) -- FFD stands for Free Form Deformations . FFD modifiers
create Lattice of controls points around the object. By adjusting the control points of lattice ,
we deforms the enclosed geometry .The object is deform only if the object is with in the
volume of the FFD lattice . There are three FFD modifiers ,each providing a different Lattice
resolution :2x2,3x3,and 4x4. The 3x3 modifier , for example , provides a lattice with three
control points across each of its dimensions or nine on each side of the lattice .

Modifiers Stack -- The modifier stack and its editing dialog are the keys to managing all
aspects of modification. Modifier stack can be used to find a particular modifier and adjust its
parameters. It can also be used to manipulate the sequence of modifiers and copy, cut and
paste modifiers between objects.With the stack feature, no modification has to be permanent.
By clicking an entry in the stack, you can go back to the point where you made that
modification.

The effect of a modifier in the stack can be deactivated and modifiers can also be removed
from the stack. You can also insert a new modifier in the stack at that point. The changes you
make ripple upward through the stack, changing the current state of the object.

Modifier sets –
When the user interface lists modifiers, it lists them typically by sets. The modifiers are
classified into different types or sets on the basis of their functionality. Following is a list of
modifier sets in Max.

Selection Modifiers

Path/Spline Editing

Mesh Editing

Animation Modifiers

UV Coordinate Modifiers

Cache Tools

Subdivision Surfaces

Free Form Deformations

Parametric Modifiers

Surface Modifiers

Conversion Modifiers

Two commonly used Mesh Editing Modifiers, Edit Mesh Modifier and Extrude Modifier are
discussed below.

NURBS modeling -- NURBS is an acronym for Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines. They are the
ideal modeling tool for creating organic characters because they have a number of
advantages. They are easy to work with, they give you good interactive control, they blend
together seamlessly, and their surfaces remain smooth even when distorted. NURBS are
superior to polygonal modeling methods when building models with smooth flowing contours
such as plants, flowers, animals, and skin.

A NURBS model can be an assemblage of multiple NURBS sub-objects. For example, a NURBS
object might contain two surfaces that are separate in space. NURBS curves and NURBS
surfaces are controlled by either point or control vertex (CV) sub-objects. Points and CVs
behave somewhat like the vertices of spline objects, but there are differences .

Patch modeling -- A patch is a type of skew able object. A patch object is useful for creating
gently curved surfaces, and provides very detailed control for manipulating complex geometry.

When you apply an Edit Patch modifier to an object or convert it to an editable patch object,
the software converts the object's geometry into a collection of separate Bezier patches. Each
patch is made up of three or four vertices connected by edges, defining a surface. Patches
also have interior vertices that you can control, or let the software control for you.
You can also create a patch by applying the “Surface” Modifier on a closed shape object
containing 3 or 4 vertices along its perimeter. You control a patch surface's shape by
manipulating the vertices and edges. The surface is the render able geometry of the object.

Materials and Textures

Materials are used to provide surface properties like color, opacity, reflective index,
roughness, etc. to an object in Max .

Material Editor-- The Material Editor is the interface with which you define, create, and apply
materials. You can open the Material Editor by choosing “Rendering>Material Editor” menu
command or by clicking the Material Editor button on the main toolbar. It has four small
rendered spheres on the icon. You can also use the keyboard shortcut M. .
Material Editor Controls -- At the top of the default Material Editor window is a menu of
options including Material, Navigation, Options, and Utilities. The menu commands found in
these menus perform the same functions as the toolbar buttons, but the menus are often
easier to find than the buttons with which you are unfamiliar.

Six sample slots that display a preview of some available materials come below the menus.
Surrounding these slots are button icons for controlling the appearance of these sample slots
and interacting with materials.

The button icons to the right and below the sample slots control how the materials appear in
the editor.

Simple slots -- The sample slots permit you to maintain and preview materials and maps. You
can change the material by using the Material Editor controls, and you can apply the material
to objects in the scene. The easiest way to do this is to drag the material from the sample slot
to objects in viewports.

Twenty-four slots are available, but the default layout displays only six. You can access the
other 18 slots using the scroll bars. You can also change the number of displayed slots. To
change the number of slots, choose “Options>Cycle” Sample Slots (or press the X key), or
right-click on any of the material slots and select 2×3, 3×5, or 4×6 from the pop-up menu

Creating a simple material -- The simplest material is based on the Standard material type,
which is the default material type. Standard material type provides a single, uniform color
determined by the Ambient, Diffuse, Specular, and Filter color swatches. Standard materials
can use any one of several different shaders. Shaders are algorithms used to compute how
the material should look, given its parameters.

Shader type -- Max includes several shader types. These shaders are available in a drop-down
list in the Shader Basic Parameters rollout. Each shader type displays different options in its
respective Basic Parameters rollout. Other available shaders include Anisotropic, Metal, Multi-
Layer, Oren-Nayar-Blinn, Phong, Strauss, and Translucent Shader.
The color is selected for the material. After the color is selected, the material is required to be
applied on the object in our 3d scene. When you need to apply this material to a sphere shape
in the viewport, you can do so by The Shader Basic Parameters rollout also includes several
options for shading the material, including Wire, 2-Sided, Face Map, and Faceted.
Wire mode causes the model to appear as a wireframe model. The 2-Sided option makes the
material appear on both sides of the face and is typically used in conjunction with the Wire
option or with transparent materials. The Face Map mode applies maps to each single face on
the object. Faceted ignores the smoothing between faces.

For creating a simple material, Blinn shader type is used.

Blinn shader -- Blinn shader is the default shader. It renders simple circular highlights and
smoothes adjacent faces. The Blinn shader includes color swatches for setting Ambient,
Diffuse, Specular, and Self-Illumination colors. To change the color, click on the color swatch
and select a new color in the Color Selector dialog box.

The dialog is divided into three different color selection models. You can use the controls for
any model to define a color. The three color models are:

Hue/ Blackness/Whiteness (HBW)

The most prominently displayed and intuitive color model is the HBW model. This model
represents a natural, pigment-based way of mixing color by starting with a pure color (hue)
and then making it darker by adding black, or lighter by adding white.

Red/Green/Blue (RGB)

The RGB model adjusts the mix of Red, Green, and Blue to define a color. This model
represents the way colored light can be mixed. This is additive color mixing, as opposed to
subtractive color mixing for paint and other pigments. You can adjust values by using the color
sliders, the numeric fields to their right through the keyboard, or the spinners to the right of
the numeric fields.

Hue/Saturation/Value (HSV)

The HSV color model adjusts Hue, Saturation, and Value. Hue sets the color; Saturation
(labeled "Sat") sets the color's purity; and Value sets the color's brightness or intensity. You
can adjust values using the color sliders, the numeric fields to their right via the keyboard, or
the spinners to the right of the numeric fields.

The color is selected for the material. After the color is selected, the material is required to be
applied on the object in our 3d scene. When you need to apply this material to a sphere shape
in the viewport, you can do so by clicking and dragging the material with the left mouse button
and leaving it on the sphere object.

Other basic parameters of the default shader are:

Self Illumination

This makes a material appear lit from within. Self-illumination is not available for the Strauss
shader.

Opacity

This controls how opaque or transparent a material is.

Diffuse level

This controls the brightness of the diffuse color component. Diffuse Level is available only for
the Anisotropic, Multi-Layer, and Oren-Nayar-Blinn shaders .

Roughness
This controls how quickly the diffuse component blends into the ambient component.
Roughness is available only for the Multi-Layer and Oren-Nayar-Blinn shaders.

Maps

Maps are bitmaps or procedural textures that are used to give color and other apparent
surface characteristics ("textures") to 3D objects in Max.

There can be different types of maps. Some maps wrap images about objects, while others
define areas to be modified by comparing the intensity of the pixels in the map. An example of
this is a bump map. A standard bump map would be a grayscale image. When mapped onto
an object, lighter colored sections would be raised to a maximum of pure white and darker
sections would be indented to a minimum of black. This enables you to easily create surface
textures, such as an orange rind, without having to model them.

The basic parameters of a shader like diffuse, specular, self-illumination, opacity etc. can be
mapped with a bitmap or a procedural texture. Clicking on the small button in front of the
color swatch can do this job. Clicking on this button opens a Material/Map Browser. When a
parameter is mapped, the small button shows “M”.

Mapping the diffuse parameter with a bitmap will enable the bitmap to appear around the
surface of the 3d object.

Maps Rollout

The Maps rollout is where you apply maps to the various materials. To use a map, click on the
Map button; this opens the Material/Map Browser where you can select the map to be used.
The Amount spinner sets the intensity of the map, and an option to enable or disable the map
is available. For example, a white material with a red Diffuse map set at 50 % Intensity results
in a pink material.

The available maps in the Maps rollout depend on the type of material and the Shader that
you are using. Raytrace materials have many more available maps than the standard material.
Some of the common mapping types found in the Maps rollout are discussed in this section.

Material/Map Browser

The Material/Map Browser lets you choose a material or a map. When you click Get Material,
the Browser that is displayed is modeless (you can leave it displayed while you do other work).
However, when you display the Browser by clicking the Type button, a map assignment button
in the Environment dialog, or from a projector light (see Advanced Effects Rollout), it appears
as a modal dialog with OK and Cancel buttons.

The Material/Map Browser includes several browse options accessible as radio buttons on the
left of the dialog box. The browse options include Material Library, MaterialEditor, Active Slot,
Selected, Scene, and New. In order to choose a bitmap image as a map, you click on New, and
the Bitmap on the top of the list appears.
UVW mapping coordinates

An object assigned a 2D mapped material (or a material that contains 2D maps) must have
mapping coordinates. These coordinates specify how the map is projected onto the material,
and whether it is projected as a "decal," or whether it is tiled or mirrored. Mapping coordinates
are also known as UV or UVW coordinates. These letters refer to coordinates in the object's
own space, as opposed to the XYZ coordinates that describe the scene as a whole.

Mapping coordinates are used to define how a texture map is aligned to an object. These
coordinates are expressed using U, V, and W dimensions, with U being a horizontal direction, V
being a vertical direction, and W being depth.

UVW map modifier

UVW Map modifier controls how mapped and procedural materials appear on the surface of
an object. Mapping coordinates specify how bitmaps are projected onto an object. The UVW
coordinate system is similar to the XYZ coordinate system. The U and V axes of a bitmap
correspond to the X and Y axes. The W axis, which corresponds to the Z axis, is generally only
used for procedural maps. A bitmap's coordinate system can be switched in the Material
Editor to VW or WU, in which case the bitmap is rotated and projected so that it is
perpendicular to the surface.

UVW Map Modifier projects the UVW coordinates on the surface of the 3d object. This
projection can be done in the following available ways.

Planar

Cylindrical

Spherical

Shrink Wrap

Box

Face

XYZ to UVW

Primitives, Loft Objects, and NURBS can generate their own mapping coordinates, but you
need to use this modifier to apply mapping coordinates to mesh objects and patches.

Unwrap UVW modifier

The Unwrap UVW modifier lets you control how a map is applied to a subobject selection. It
can also be used to unwrap the existing mapping coordinates of an object. You can then edit
these coordinates as needed. You can also use the Unwrap UVW modifier to apply multiple
planar maps to an object. You accomplish this task by creating planar maps for various sides
of an object and then editing the mapping coordinates in the Edit UVWs interface.

The Unwrap UVW modifier can be used as a self-contained UVW mapper and UVW coordinate
editor, or in conjunction with the UVW Map modifier. If you use Unwrap UVW in conjunction
with the UVW Map modifier, it is usually because you want to map the model with a method
other than planar mapping, such as cylindrical or spherical mapping. You can animate UVW
coordinates by turning on the Auto Key button and transforming the coordinates at different
frames.

LIGHTS

Lights are objects that simulate real lights such as household or office lamps, the light
instruments used in stage and film work, and the sun itself. Different kinds of light objects
cast light in different ways, emulating different kinds of real-world light sources.

Lighting plays a critical part of any Max scene. Understanding the basics of lighting can make
a big difference in the overall feeling and mood of your rendered scenes. Most Max scenes
typically use one of two types of lighting: natural light or artificial light. Natural light is used for
outside scenes and uses the sun and moon for its light source. Artificial light is usually
reserved for indoor scenes where light bulbs provide the light. However, when working with
lights, you’ll sometimes use natural light indoors, such as sunlight streaming through a
window, or artificial light outdoors, such as a streetlight .

Default Light

Very handy and more useful than simple ambient light, default lights appear automatically
whenever there are no other lights in the scene. They are two omni lights, one from above and
to the left, the other from below and to the right. The default lighting disappears as soon as
you put in any light and reappears if you delete all your lights.

Lights are objects that simulate real lights such as household or office lamps, the light
instruments used in stage and film work, and the sun itself. Different kinds of light objects
cast light in different ways, emulating different kinds of real-world light sources.

Lighting plays a critical part of any Max scene. Understanding the basics of lighting can make
a big difference in the overall feeling and mood of your rendered scenes. Most Max scenes
typically use one of two types of lighting: natural light or artificial light. Natural light is used for
outside scenes and uses the sun and moon for its light source. Artificial light is usually
reserved for indoor scenes where light bulbs provide the light. However, when working with
lights, you’ll sometimes use natural light indoors, such as sunlight streaming through a
window, or artificial light outdoors, such as a streetlight.

Default Light

Very handy and more useful than simple ambient light, default lights appear automatically
whenever there are no other lights in the scene. They are two omni lights, one from above and
to the left, the other from below and to the right. The default lighting disappears as soon as
you put in any light and reappears if you delete all your lights.
Default light can be very handy for quick renders or test renders where you want to check
geometry or textures,

Ambient Light –

Ambient light is the general light that illuminates the entire scene. It has a uniform intensity
and is uniformly diffused. It has no discernible source and no discernible direction. In the real
world, light reflects from one surface to the next over and over, perhaps millions of times, until
all the light energy has been absorbed.

Ambient intensity, simply adds an illumination value to every pixel in the scene, regardless of
any physical or environmental parameters. Ambient intensity is accessed through the
Rendering>Environment menu option. Under the Environment and Effects panel, click on the
Ambient swatch to get the MAX Color Selector.

Once in the Color Selector, you can select any color at any value for your ambient intensity. It
has to be noted that it is the grayscale value (black/white value) that determines the lighting
intensity value, and not the color.
Free Lights and Target Lights

Free lights are just lights that you place in your scene and aim wherever you want by moving
and rotating them. Target lights, on the other hand, are directional lights or spotlights that
come with an extra feature, a target. The light will automatically aim wherever you place the
target.

Directional Light

Directional lights are different from all other lights in such a way that the light rays are parallel.
Rather than emanating from a single point as in an omni light or spotlight, or emanating from
over an area or a line, as with an area or linear light, the directional light’s light beams run
parallel to each other in a cylindrical shape. A target directional light uses a target object to
aim the light.

Because directional rays are parallel, directional lights have a beam in the shape of a circular
or rectangular prism instead of a cone.
Spot Light

A spotlight casts a focused beam of light like a flashlight, a follow spot in a theater, or a
headlight. The only difference between a spotlight and a directional light is that the directional
light is composed of all parallel light beams, while the spotlight’s beams all emanate from one
point. A target spotlight uses a target object to aim the camera.

Omni Light

An omni light is simply a point in space that emits light omnidirectionally. You have the usual
shadow, intensity, and color choices in the basic parameter rollouts.
Omni lights can cast shadows and projections. A single shadow-casting omni light is the
equivalent of six shadow-casting spotlights, pointing outward from the center.

Sky Light

The Skylight light models daylight. It is meant for use with the Light Tracer. You can set the
color of the sky or assign it a map. The sky is modeled as a dome above the scene.

Transforming Lights

Lights can be transformed just like other geometric objects. To transform a light, click on one
of the transformation buttons and then select and drag the light.

Target lights can have the light and the target transformed independently, or you can select
both the light and target by clicking the line that connects them. Target lights can be rotated
and scaled only if the light and target are selected together. Scaling a Target light increases its
cone or cylinder. Scaling a Target Direct light with only the light selected increases the
diameter of the light’s beam, but if the light and target are selected, then the diameter and
distance are scaled.

An easy way to select or deselect the target is to right-click on the light and choose Select
Target from the pop-up menu. All transformations work on free lights.

Placing Highlights

The Place Highlight (Ctrl+H) feature enables you to control the position and orientation of a
light in order to achieve a highlight in a precise location. To use this feature, you must select a
light object in the scene and then choose Tools>Place Highlight, or click the Place Highlight
flyout button on the toolbar. The cursor changes to the Place Highlight icon. Click a point on
the object in the scene where you want the highlight to be positioned, and the selected light
repositions itself to create a specular highlight at the exact location where you clicked. The
light’s position is determined by the Angle of Incidence between the highlight point and the
light.

Light Parameters

When a light is selected, several different rollouts appear. The options contained in these
rollouts enable you to turn the lights on and off, select a light color and intensity, and
determine how a light affects object surfaces.

General Parameters

The General Parameters rollout is displayed for all types of lights. These controls turn a light
on and off, and exclude or include objects in the scene. On the Modify panel, the General
Parameters rollout also lets you control the light’s target object and change the light from one
type to another.

The General Parameters rollout also includes some settings for shadows. Shadows can be
easily turned on or off. In this rollout, you can defer to the global settings by selecting the Use
Global Settings option. This option helps to maintain consistent settings across several lights.
It applies the same settings to all lights, so that changing the value for one light changes that
same value for all lights that have this option selected .
You can also select from a drop-down list whether the shadows are created using Area
Shadows, a Shadow Map, regular or advanced raytraced shadows, or a mental ray shadow
map. A new rollout appears depending on the selection that you make.

Exclude button excludes selected objects from the effects of the light. Click this button to
display the Exclude/Include dialog. Excluded objects still appear lit in shaded viewports.
Exclusion takes effect only when you render the scene .

Intensity/Color/Attenuation Rollout

Multiplier value controls the light intensity. A light with a Multiplier set to 2 is twice as bright as
a light with its Multiplier set to 1. Higher Multiplier values make a light appear white
regardless of the light color. The Multiplier value can also be negative. To the right of the
Multiplier value is a color swatch.

Clicking the color swatch opens a color selector where you can choose a new light color.

Attenuation is the effect of light diminishing over distance. In 3ds max, you can set
attenuation values explicitly. The effects can vary from real-world lights, giving you more direct
control over how lights fade in or fade out.

Shadow Parameters

All light types have a Shadow Parameters rollout except Skylight and IES Sky. It lets you set
shadow colors and other general shadow properties. This rollout can be used to select a
shadow color by clicking the color swatch. The default color is black. The Dens setting stands
for “Density” and controls how dark the shadow appears. Lower values produce light shadows,
and higher values produce darker shadows. This value can also be negative.
The Map option, like the Projection Map, can be used to project a map along with the shadow
color. The Light Affects Shadow Color option alters the Shadow Color by blending it with the
light color if selected.

In the Atmosphere Shadows section, the On button lets you determine whether atmospheric
effects, such as fog, can cast shadows. You can also control the Opacity and the degree to
which atmospheric colors blend with the Shadow Color.

Spotlight or Directional Parameters

The parameters rollout for spotlights and directional lights are identical. The same tools for
spotlights and directional lights behave slightly differently, as outlined below.

Light Cone

This area describes all the adjustable parameters of the light “cone,” which is in fact not
always cone-shaped. A spotlight’s illumination shape does look like a cone, but a directional
light’s light “cone” is cylindershaped.

Show Cone

Checking the Show Cone check box will allow you to see the light cone even if the light is not
selected.
Overshoot

The Overshoot check box allows the directional light or spotlight to illuminate areas outside
the light cone. This is helpful in a number of ways. For example, if you have a large outdoor
scene, you will have to scale your directional light up to encompass the entire scene. Make a
mistake and you’ll see the cone edge in your render. But if you select Overshoot, there will be
no cone edge and the entire world will be illuminated by the directional light. In this way, a
directional light is made to behave a little like the sun. For spotlights, sometimes you have
your spotlight in the perfect position, but you just catch the edge of the beam in frame.
Instead of having to reposition your light, just check Overshoot.

Hotspot /Beam

Most normal lights have a hotspot somewhere near the center of their light beam. This is
usually because directed light, like that from a stage spotlight, uses imperfect optics, and
either the reflective mirror behind the lamp or the lenses are causing imperfect light focus to
concentrate some light in one area and less in another.

Falloff/Field

Falloff/Field is the area of illumination falling outside of the hotspot and going as far as the
edge of illumination. Using combinations of Hotspot/Beam and Falloff/Field, you can create
very hard-edged theatrical spotlights, very soft-edged light, or anything in between.

Circle / Rectangle

You can easily switch your beam shape from a cone to a rectangle with the Circle and
Rectangle buttons.

Aspect

The Aspect numeric input and spinner controls how rectangular in shape a Rectangle beam is.
For example, if you enter an aspect of 1.0, the light beam will be perfectly square. If you enter
an aspect of 2.0, the beam will be twice as wide as it is high, and so forth.

Bitmap fit

If you choose a rectangular beam, you can automatically set the aspect with the Bitmap Fit
button. Selecting this button brings up a file dialog. When you select a valid image file, the
light’s aspect will automatically be adjusted to match that of the selected image.

Advance Effects

Options in the Affect Surface section of the Advanced Effects rollout control how light interacts
with an object’s surface. The Contrast value alters the contrast between the diffuse and the
ambient surface areas. The Soften Diffuse Edge value blurs the edges between the diffuse
and ambient areas of a surface. The Diffuse and Specular options let you disable these
properties of an object’s surface. When the Ambient Only option is turned on, the light affects
only the ambient properties of the surface.
You can use any light as a projector; you find this option in the Advance Effects rollouts.
Selecting the Map option enables you to use the light as a projector. You can select a map to
project by clicking the button to the right of the map option. You can drag a material map
directly from the Material/Map Browser onto the Projector Map button.

Photometric Light

Target Point light:

A Target Point light, like a standard omni light, emits light from a geometric point. You can set
the light distribution; this light has three types of distribution, with corresponding icons. You
use a target object to aim the light.

To create a Target Point light:

On the Create panel, click Lights.

Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (The default is Standard.)

In the Object Type rollout, click Target Point.

Drag in a viewport. The initial point of the drag is the location of the light, and the point where
you release the mouse is the location of the target.

The light is now part of the scene.

Set the creation parameters.


You can use the Move transform to adjust the light.

To select the target:

The target, displayed as a small square, is often in the same area as objects that you want to
illuminate. It can be difficult to select it by clicking.

First select the target point light.

Right-click the light and choose Select Target from the quad menu.

You can also choose Lights from the Selection Filters list on the toolbar, and then click the
target. Clicking the line that connects the light and its target selects both objects.

To adjust the light and target:

Select the light or target or both.

On the Main toolbar, click Move. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

Because the light is always aimed at its target, you can't rotate it about its local X or Y axes.
However, you can select and move the target object as well as the light itself. When you move
either the light or the target, the light's orientation changes so it always points at the target.

You can use the Place Highlight command to change a light's position.

For target point lights with spotlight distributions, you can also adjust the light using a Light
viewport.

To change a viewport to a light view:

Note: The viewport can only be set to a light view when the target point light’s distribution is
spotlight.

Right-click the viewport label.

The viewport right-click menu is displayed.

Choose Views.

The name of each light is displayed in the Views list. By default, Target Point lights are named
Point01, Point02, and so on.

Choose the name of the light you want.

The viewport now shows the light's point of view. You can use the Light viewport controls to
adjust the light.
Free Point light

A Free Point light, like a standard omni light, emits light from a geometric point. You can set
the light distribution; this light has three types of distribution, with corresponding icons. A free
point light has no target object. You use transforms to aim the light.

To create a Free Point light:

On the Create panel, click Lights.

Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (Standard is the default.)

In the Object Type rollout, click Free Point.

Click the viewport location where you want the light to be.

The light is now part of the scene. It points away from you in the viewport you clicked.

Set the creation parameters.

You can position the light and adjust its direction with the transform tools or by using a Light
viewport. You can also adjust the light's position with the Place Highlights command.

To adjust the light:

Select the light.

On the Main toolbar , click Move. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

On the Main toolbar, click Rotate. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

Tip: You can also adjust the light's position with the Place Highlight command.

To change a viewport to a light view:

Note: This is only available for lights with Spot distribution.

Right-click the viewport label.


The viewport right-click menu is displayed.

Choose Views.

The name of each light is displayed in the Views list. By default, Free Point lights are named
FPoint01, FPoint02, and so on.

Choose the name of the light you want.

The viewport now shows the light's point of view. You can use the Light Viewport Controls to
adjust the light.

Target Linear light

A Target Linear light emits light from a line, like a fluorescent tube. You can set the light
distribution; this light has two types of distribution, with corresponding icons. A target linear
light uses a target object to aim the light.

To create a Target Linear light:

On the Create panel, click Lights.

Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (The default is Standard.)

In the Object Type rollout, click Target Linear.

Drag in a viewport. The initial point of the drag is the location of the light, and the point where
you release the mouse is the location of the target.

The light is now part of the scene.

Set the creation parameters.

You can use the Move transform to adjust the light.

To select the target:


The target, displayed as a small square, is often in the same area as objects that you want to
illuminate. It can be difficult to select it by clicking.

First select the light itself.

Right-click the light to open the quad menu. From the tools quadrant, choose Select Target.

You can also choose Lights from the Selection Filters list on the toolbar, and then click the
target. Clicking the line that connects the light and its target selects both objects.

To adjust the light and target:

Select the light or target or both.

On the Main toolbar, click Move. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

Because the light is always aimed at its target, you can't rotate it about its local X or Y axes.
However, you can select and move the target object as well as the light itself. When you move
either the light or the target, the light's orientation changes so it always points at the target.

You can use the Place Highlight command to change a light's position.

Free Linear light

A Free Linear light emits light from a line, like a fluorescent tube. You can set the light
distribution; this light has two types of distribution, with corresponding icons. A free linear light
has no target object. You use transforms to aim the light.

To create a Free Linear light:

On the Create panel, click Lights.

Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (Standard is the default.)

In the Object Type rollout, click Free Linear.

Click the viewport location where you want the light to be.
The light is now part of the scene. It points away from you in the viewport you clicked.

Set the creation parameters.

You can position the light and adjust its direction with the transform tools. You can also adjust
the light's position with the Place Highlight command.

To adjust the light:

Select the light.

On the Main toolbar, click Move. Drag the selection to position the light.

On the Main toolbar, click Rotate. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

Target Area light

A Target Area light emits light from a rectangular area, like a skylight. You can set the light
distribution; this light has two types of distribution, with corresponding icons. A target area
light uses a target object to aim the light.
Note: When you add a Target Area light, the software automatically assigns a Look At
controller to it, with the light's target object assigned as the Look At target. You can use the
controller settings on the Motion panel to assign any other object in the scene as the Look At
target.
Note: When you rename a Target Area light, the target is automatically renamed to match. For
example, renaming Area01 to Klieg causes Area01.Target to become Klieg.Target. The target's
name must have the extension .Target. Renaming the target object does not rename the light
object.
To create a Target Area light:

1. On the Create panel, click Lights.


2. Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (The default is Standard.)
3. In the Object Type rollout, click Target Area.
4. Drag in a viewport. The initial point of the drag is the location of the light, and the point
where you release the mouse is the location of the target.
The light is now part of the scene.
5. Set the creation parameters.
You can use the Move transform to adjust the light.

To select the target:


The target, displayed as a small square, is often in the same area as objects that you want to
illuminate. It can be difficult to select it by clicking.
1. First select the light itself.
2. Right-click the light to open the quad menu. In the Tools quadrant, choose Select
Target from the pop-up menu.
You can also choose Lights from the Selection Filters list on the toolbar, and then click
the target. Clicking the line that connects the light and its target selects both objects.

To adjust the light and target:


1. Select the light or target or both.

2. On the Main toolbar, click Move. Drag the selection to adjust the light.
Because the light is always aimed at its target, you can't rotate it about its local X or Y
axes. However, you can select and move the target object as well as the light itself.
When you move either the light or the target, the light's orientation changes so it
always points at the target.

Free Area light

A Free Area light emits light from a rectangular area, like a skylight. You can set the light
distribution; this light has two types of distribution, with corresponding icons. A free area light
has no target object. You use transforms to aim the light.
To create a Free Area light:

1. On the Create panel, click Lights.


2. Choose Photometric from the drop-down list. (Standard is the default.)
3. In the Object Type rollout, click Free Area.
4. Click the viewport location where you want the light to be.
The light is now part of the scene. It points away from you in the viewport you clicked.
5. Set the creation parameters.
You can position the light and adjust its direction with the transform tools. You can
also adjust the light's position with the Place Highlight command.

To adjust the light:


1. Select the light.

2. On the Main toolbar, click Rotate. Drag the selection to adjust the light.

IES Sun

IES Sun is a physically-based light object that simulates sunlight. When used in conjunction
with a daylight system, its values are set automatically based on geographic location, time,
and date. (IES stands for Illuminating Engineering Society; see IES Standard File Format.)
Outdoor scene illuminated by the IES Sun light
The mental ray renderer gives physically accurate results for IES Sun, and renderings that use
it will appear similar to renderings done with the default scanline renderer. You do not need to
turn on Final Gather for light from IES Sun to render.
If you use the IES sun or sky with the Logarithmic Exposure Control, turn on both the Daylight
and Exterior options. This will provide greater control for properly mapping the higher energy
levels to RGB colors. In addition, it is important to set the Physical Scale to the brightest light
source in your scene. If the IES Sun is used, set the Physical Scale to 90000 cd.

On—Turns sunlight on and off in the viewport.


Targeted—Applicable only when you add the IES Sun light directly, rather than as part of a
Daylight system. When on, the light is targeted and you can change the target distance by
moving the target. The distance between the light and its target is displayed to the right of the
check box. When off, you can set this value directly.
Cast Shadows—Sets whether the sunlight casts shadows or not.
Intensity—The intensity of the sunlight. The color swatch to the right of the spinner opens the
Color Selector to set the color of the light. Typical intensities in a clear sky are around 90,000
lux.
Intensity is set automatically and cannot be set manually if the sun is under the control of a
daylight system.

Shadows group
On—Determines whether the sunlight casts shadows or not.
Shadow Method drop-down list—Determines whether the renderer uses shadow maps, ray-
traced shadows, advanced ray-traced shadows, mental ray shadow maps, or area shadows to
generate shadows for this light.
Each shadow type has a rollout with its associated controls.
Use Global Settings—Turn on to use global settings for shadows cast by this light. Turn off to
enable individual control of the shadows. If you choose not to use the global settings, you
must choose which method the renderer will use to generate shadows for this particular light.
When Use Global Settings is on, the shadow parameters switch over to show you what the
current global setting is. This data is shared by every other light of this class. When Use Global
Settings is off, the shadow parameters are specific to that particular light.
Exclude—Excludes selected objects from the effects of the light. Click this button to display the
Exclude/Include dialog.
Excluded objects still appear lit in shaded viewports. Exclusion takes effect only when you
render the scene.

Advanced Effects Rollout

Contrast—Adjusts the contrast between the diffuse and ambient areas of the surface. Leave
this set to 0 for normal contrast. Increase the value to increase the contrast for special
effects: for example, the harsh light of outer space. Default=0.0.
Soften Diffuse Edge—Increasing the value of Soften Diffuse Edge softens the edge between
the diffuse and ambient portions of a surface. This helps eliminate edges that can appear on
a surface under certain circumstances. Default=50.
Diffuse—When on, the light affects the diffuse properties of an object's surface. When off, the
light has no effect on the diffuse surface. Default=on.
Specular—When on, the light affects the specular properties of an object's surface. When off,
the light has no effect on the specular properties. Default=on.
For example, by using the Diffuse and Specular check boxes you can have one light color the
specular highlights of an object, while not coloring its diffuse component, and then have a
second light color the diffuse component of the surface while not creating specular highlights.
IES Sky

IES Sky is a physically-based light object that simulates atmospheric effects on skylight.

Outdoor scene lit by the IES sky light


(IES stands for Illuminating Engineering Society; see IES Standard File Format.)
You can create daylight lights manually, but to get the best results, you should use them in
conjunction with the Daylight system. The Daylight system combines the two daylight
components of sun and sky in a unified interface. It allows you to set date and time positions
with the light type you want to use.
IES Sky works correctly only when the sky object is pointing down from the Z axis, meaning
that it points down when looking from the Top view.
When using the default scanline renderer, IES Sky produces the best results when used in
conjunction with one of the advanced lighting options: radiosity or light tracing.
Warning: When you render with the mental ray renderer, objects illuminated by IES Sky appear
dark unless you turn on Final Gathering. The toggle for Final Gathering is on the Final Gather
rollout of the Render Scene dialog.
When you add an IES Sky light, 3ds Max automatically assigns a Look At controller to it, with
the light's target object assigned as the Look At target. You can use the controller settings on
the Motion panel to assign any other object in the scene as the Look At target.

Interface
On—Turns the sky light on and off in the viewport.
Multiplier—Adjusts the intensity of the skylight.
When this is set to 1.0, the intensity will be physically accurate based on angle. You can,
however, override this by changing the value. This is useful for doing night shots with artificial
lighting.
Sky Color—The color swatch opens the Color Selector, which lets you set the color of the sky.

Coverage group
Clear, Partly Cloudy, Cloudy—This choice determines how much light is scattered through the
sky.

Render group
Cast Shadows—Causes the sky light to cast shadows.
A great deal of processing is dedicated to the calculation of the subtle shadows cast by
skylight. If shadows are not important in your model, you can disable them and save
substantial amounts of processing time. However, the results will not be as realistic.
The Cast Shadows toggle has no effect when using radiosity or the light tracer.
IES Sky objects will not cast shadows in an ActiveShade rendering.
Rays per Sample—The number of rays used to calculate skylight falling on a given point in the
scene. For animation you should set this to a high value to eliminate flickering. A value of
around 30 should eliminate flickering.
Increasing the number of rays increases the quality of your image. However, it also increases
rendering time.
Ray Bias—The closest distance at which objects can cast shadows on a given point in the
scene. Setting this value to 0 can cause the point to cast shadows upon itself, and setting it to
a large value can prevent objects close to a point from casting shadows on the point.

CAMERAS

Cameras present a scene from a particular point of view. Camera objects simulate still-image,
motion picture, or video cameras in the real world.

The benefit of cameras is that you can position them anywhere within a scene to offer a
custom view. You can open camera views in a view port, and you can also use them to render
images or animated sequences.

Cameras in Max can also be. If you want to animate the point of view, you can create a
camera and animate its position. For example, you might want to fly over a landscape or walk
through a building. You can animate other camera parameters as well. For example, you can
animate the camera's field of view to give the effect of zooming in on a scene.

There are two types of cameras in Max. They are Free camera and Target camera.

Free Camera

A Free camera has a single icon to animate. Free cameras are easier to use when the
camera's position is animated along a path. The Free camera object offers a view of the area
that is directly in front of the camera and is the better choice if the camera will be animated.

When a Free camera is initially created, it points at the negative Z-axis of the active viewport.
The single parameter for Free cameras defines a Target Distance—the distance to an invisible
target about which the camera can orbit.
Target Camera

A Target camera has two icons to animate, the target and the camera. Target cameras always
face their target. The camera and the camera target can be animated independently, so target
cameras are easier to use when the camera does not move along a path.

The target can be named along with the camera. When a target is created, Max automatically
names the target by attaching “.target” to the end of the camera name. You can change this
default name by typing a different name in the Name field.

Creating a free Camera

On the Create panel, turn on Cameras. On the Object Type rollout, click on Free. In the Top
viewport, click to place the camera icon.

The camera direction is directly away from you. Clicking the Top viewport aims the camera
downward, clicking the Front viewport aims the camera at the scene from the front, and so on.

Clicking on a Perspective, User, Light, or Camera viewport aims the free camera downward,
along the negative Z axis of the World Coordinate System.

In the Parameters roll out, change the Field of View (FOV) parameter to in- or decrease the
camera’s field of view.

Creating a Target Camera

On the Create panel, turn on Cameras. On the Object Type rollout, click on Target.

In the Top viewport, click to place the camera icon, then drag toward the center of the object.
Release the mouse button to set the target point.
Right-click on the Perspective viewport to make it active, then press the C key on the
keyboard. This is a keyboard shortcut for Camera View. The Perspective viewport is replaced
with the Camera Viewport. Notice in the bottom right that the Viewport navigation controls
have changed. There are different controls for cameras than for the Perspective viewport. The
viewport now shows what the camera "sees".

Camera Viewport

You can change any viewport to show a camera’s viewpoint. To do so, right-click on the
viewport’s title, and select View and the camera’s name from the pop-up menu. Any
movements done to the camera are reflected immediately in the viewport.

Another way to select a camera for a viewport is to press the C key. This keyboard shortcut
makes the active viewport into a camera view. If several cameras exist in a scene, then the
Select Camera dialog box appears, from which you can select a camera to use.

You can turn off the camera object icons using the Display panel. In the Display panel, under
the Hide by Category rollout, select the Cameras option. When selected, the camera icons are
not visible in the viewports.

Creating Camera from View


Create Camera From View creates a free camera whose field of view matches the current
viewport. At the same time, it changes the view port to a camera view port for the new camera
object, and makes the new camera the current selection.

To create a camera from a view, activate a perspective viewport.Adjust the perspective view
port using Pan, Zoom and Arc Rotate until you have view you like. Leaving the viewport active,
on the Views menu choose Create Camera from View. The Perspective view port label now
reads Camera.

If there is already a camera in the scene and the camera is selected, then Create Camera
from View will not create a new camera from the view. It will match the selected camera to the
view instead, and switch the viewport to display what the selected camera sees.

Creating Parameter rollout

When a camera is first created, you can modify the camera parameters directly in the Create
panel as long as the new camera is selected. After the camera object has been deselected,
you can make modifications in the Modify panel’s Parameters rollout for the camera.

Lens and FOV

Lens field sets the camera’s focal length in millimeters. Use the lens spinner to give the focal
length a value other than the preset “stock” values on the buttons in the stock lenses group
box.
FOV (which stands for field of view), sets the width of the area that the camera displays. The
value is specified in degrees and can be set to represent a Horizontal, Vertical, or Diagonal
distance using the flyout button to its left .

Orthographic projection

When on, the camera view looks just like a User view. When off, the camera view is the
standard perspective-like view. While Orthographic Projection is in effect, the view port
navigation buttons behave as they ordinarily do, except for Perspective. Perspective function
still moves the camera and changes the FOV, but the Orthographic Projection cancels the two
out, so you don’t see any change until you turn off Orthographic Projection.

Stock Lenses

Standard stock lenses can be simulated in Max by clicking one of the Stock Lens buttons.
Preset stock lenses include 15, 20, 24, 28, 35, 50, 85, 135, and 200mm lengths. The Lens
and FOV fields are automatically updated on stock lens selection.

Camera type and Display options

Camera type changes the camera’s type from a Target Camera to a Free Camera, and vice
versa.

The Show Cone option enables you to display the camera’s cone, showing the boundaries of
the camera view when the camera isn’t selected. The Show Horizon option displays the
horizon line. A dark gray line appears at the level of the horizon in the camera’s viewport.

Enviroment Ranges and Clipping

Environment ranges determine the near and far range limits for atmospheric effects you set in
the Environment dialog.

Clipping planes let you exclude some of the scene´s geometry to view or render only certain
portions of the scene. Objects closer than the near clipping plane or farther than the far
clipping plane are invisible to the camera. The location of each clipping plane is measured
along the camera's line of sight (its local Z axis) in the current units for the scene. In viewports,
clipping planes are displayed as red rectangles (with diagonals) within the camera’s cone.

Multi-Pass Camera Effects

All cameras have the option to enable them to become multi-pass cameras. You can find
these settings in the Parameters rollout when a camera object is selected. Checking the
Enable button and selecting the effect from the drop-down list creates multi-pass cameras.

The available effects include Depth of Field (mental ray), Depth of Field, and Motion Blur. For
each, an associated rollout of parameters opens.

The Multi-Pass Effect section of the Parameters rollout also includes a Preview button. This
button makes the effect visible in the viewports. This feature can save you a significant
amount of time that normally would be spent test-rendering the scene. The Preview button is
worth its weight in render speed. Using this button, you can preview the effect without having
to render the entire sequence.

The Render Effect Per Pass option causes any applied Render Effect to be applied at each
pass. If disabled, then any of the applied Render Effect is applied after the passes are
completed.

Camera Matching

The Camera Match tool is used to align a camera’s position to the background image. After
you align the camera to the position that was used to take the image, you can place 3D
objects within your scene and be assured that they will line up correctly with the objects within
the image. For example, if you take a picture of a street scene and align the camera with the
background image, then any cars or buildings that you digitally add to the scene are correctly
aligned.

You can find the Camera Match tool in the Utilities panel. Before you can use this tool, you
need to load a bitmap image as a background.
Camera Tracker

The Camera Tracker utility recreates the movements of a camera that was used to create an
animated background. As with the Camera Match utility, you access the Camera Tracker utility
from the Utilities panel. Click on the More button to open the Utilities dialog box, and select
the Camera Tracker from the list of additional utilities.

Rigging

Rigging is the process of bones setup to animate of an any object or any 3d character .we can
link between bones or create relationship between bones that is rigging.

The Skeleton

Let's first create some bones for our friend. This is the first step when rigging a character...
creating the bones AND making sure they're correctly oriented.

THE SPINE
In the front viewport, create a straight bone chain to create the spine. I usually snap to the
grid so I can make sure the chain goes up straight. You can adjust bone positions afterwards if
necessary. If you need to do so after creating the spine, just open the Bone Tools floater
(found in the character menu), turn on Bone Edit Mode, and move your bones vertically to
their proper position. To check for orientation, just turn on bone fins, and make sure the front
fin is actually facing to the front. Adjust the fin sizes so that they actually give you a visual
representation of your model's volume. Name the bones clearly (I used the Bones_spine01
through 04 I normally use). You should end up with something like this...
THE ARMS
Let's now create the arms... create the bone chain in the top viewport, using the model as a
reference. As you might have noticed earlier, the model's arms are pointing downwards a bit
(in my case), so you'll need to rotate the arms downwards (rotate the root bone) afterwards,
and move the bones into their proper positions. It's very likely your joints will be short (in this
case). So you'll need to enter Bone Editing mode, select the move tool, change your referece
coordinate system to local, and move the bones in their local x axis to position them properly.
Check ALL your viewports ALWAYS to ensure proper bone positioning. Name these bones (I
use 'Bone_armRT', 'Bone_forearmRT' and 'Bone_armTermRT' respectively... changing the RT
suffix to LT for the left side). Adjust fins and overall properties to suit your particular model
and/or needs and preferences. Here's what you should have right now... (NOTE: You can
mirror bone chains to create the opposite side chains, but apparently, there are some issues
with doing this... caution is recommended if you do this. If you decide to mirror the arm, just
create a point helper and align it to the root bone in the chain... in this case, it's be Bone_arm.
Now, move it to X=0 [looking at it from the front viewport]. Link this bone to the helper. Double
click on the helper to select the whole hierarchy. Set you coordinate system to parent, and
your transform center to pivot point. Now mirror the bones. This will give you a symmetrical
mirror along the center of the universe [that is, coords 0,0,0]. I hope you modeled your
character this way in the first place!... you can delete the point helpers when you're done
mirroring ).

THE HANDS
Ok. The hands are an important and a tricky area to bone the first time you do it. The general
workflow (the "easy" approach) is to bone the fingers first and the actual hand bones lastly.
Again, do this in the top viewport, and move/rotate your bones into place. Here are the bone
fingers...
To create the hand bones, select the arm terminator (nub) bone (the small one at the end of
the chain), and from the bone tools menu (go to the Character menu, and open the Bone
Tools floater), turn on Connect Bones... a dashed line will appear... select the root bone for
one of the fingers. A bone will be created in between them, and will be automatically set as
the parent for the finger root bone. Check it's orientation. If you need to adjust it (very likely),
unlink the finger root bone before doing so, rotate the hand bone, and relink. Here's what the
connection bone (hand bone) looks like once you'ce completed the operation...
THE LEGS
The legs are pretty straightforward. Create them in the left viewport, and again, make sure to
move and rotate them into position. Also, remember to check for proper bone orientation. If
you did create them in the left viewport, you should be ok. Here's what the finished legs look
like...

THE FEET
The feet should also be created in the left viewport. Create them just the way you see them,
and afterwards move/rotate them. You can do this by moving the root of the foot chain to the
leg's terminator position (align them in position pivot-pivot), and then align the foot's root bone
orientation to the thigh or calf bone's (x,y, and z orientation, pivot-pivot). Here's a view of the
finished feet.
You'll notice that this model required an extra set of special bones for the heels (these will be
used for skinning purposes)... this is not required for most characters. Feel free to experiment
with different models and see how you arrive at an efficient boning solution.

HIPS AND TAIL


Let's start refining the rest of the skeleton. We'll need to create a hip bone, and in the case of
this charcater, a tail bone(s). Do this in the front vieport, going from the belly area downwards.
When you're done, using the left viewport, rotate them accordingly. You might need to go into
Bone Edit mode (bone tools floater) and move some bones a bit, if they're too short. Make
sure the root bone is aligned in position with the root bone for the spine chain. They should be
located in the same place (their pivots). This will give us a better motion in this area. Here's
what these new bones look like...
NECK, HEAD AND JAW.
Create a chain going from the spine's terminator bone pivot point up to the tip of the head. I
used two bones for my character's neck, since it's kinda long, and from the character design,
it looks like it needs to be able to bend there... and one bone for the head. I then created a
smaller bone for the jaw. Be sure to position it in the middle of the model's jaw, and where the
jaw bone should be. Check your jaw... your jaw bone's pivot should be just below your ears. My
character has a very small jaw, so I positioned the bone accordingly... here's what I ended up
with..
CLAVICLES
All that remains, are the clavicles. Create them by selecting the spine's terminator bone, and
doing a bone connect operation to each root bone of the arms chain. Select these new bones,
unlink them, and rotate them if needed (relinking them afterwards). Here's what you should
have...
FINISHED SKELETON

Here's how your finished skeleton should look like now. Take a look at yours and see you're
not missing anything. We'll proceed to applying IK solvers, and some special controls.
About IK

IK, short for Inverse Kinematics, is the way to go to animate characters. It lacks some of the
control provided by Forward Kinematics solutions, but it's much faster to use and has some
great advantages over FK. One of the most important is that, since the IK solver is an object
outside of the hierarchy, it can be used to anchor the IK-driven chain to another object.
Imagine you needed to animate a character doing pushups... doing so with FK could turn into
a nightmare, because the main animation would come from rotation the spine and hips, and
keeping the feet and hands at the exact same spot in the floor throughout the whole
animation. Most people did this in the past using a pen marker to mark on their monitors
where the hands and feet were located, and rotating them using FK every keyframe (not every
frame! although it could happen...). And even if you were extremely careful, some sliding was
sometimes unavoidable.
However, with IK, since the solvers are at a different place in the hierarchy, they'd take care of
keeping the whole chain positioned at the exact same spot (for as long as you didn't move the
solvers from their place). That made life a WHOLE LOT easier for animatiors.
So, those are some of the differences of IK and FK. If you need more info on this subject,
please read my FK/IK paper located at the papers section of my site. Hope all is clear. So, let's
move on...

APPLYING IK SOLVERS

Ok... we're gonna need four IK solvers here... one for each arm, and one for each leg. Let's ge
one thing straight from the beginning... you DO NOT use IK to animate fingers or
necks/spines. I can think of a couple of situations where I can think of using IK for fingers, but
these are extremely rare and IK should NOT be incorporated into standard rigs at these areas.
Anyway, here goes...
Select the root bone for the arm chain (Bone_armRT in the case of the right arm). Go to the
animation menu, and select IK solvers/ HI Solver. This is the history independent solver, and
it's the one you should use on every character you build. The HD Solver is the one we had in
max 3, and it's useful if you require sliding joints, so it's more used for mechanical rigs. The
Limb Solver is a "limited" version of the HI solver (it only supports 1-joint chains), and, if you're
using max5, we've got the all brand new SplineIK Solver... we'll use that one on the advanced
tutorial.
One you've selected the HI Solver, you'll notice a dashed line appearing in your viewport that
follows your mouse. It's part of the solver creation. It needs a second node to tell where the
solver will end. All nodes included in an IK solution MUST be part of the same hierarchy. You
may not use different hierarchies under the same IK solver.
So, go ahead and select the arm chain's nub bone (Bone_armTermRT, in the case of the right
arm). Once you did, a blue cross will appear at the nub bone's location. This is what's called
the goal. The IK solution will always try to solve rotations to aim at this goal. So, whereever the
goal goes, the chain will follow... go ahead, try moving the goal and see how an IK-driven chain
behaves...
Once you go this one, go ahead an add solvers to the rest of the chains (arms and legs). The
leg's chains go from the root of the legs to their nub bones (in the case of the right leg, it goes
from Bone_legRT to Bone_legTermRT).
Ok. We've got IK solvers on out character. However, we'll need some extra controls to help us
animate the character properly and in a easier fashion

ARM CONTROLS

We'll need some controls to help us animate the arms and hands properly. I'll just go through
the process for one arm, and you can do the other arm when you're done.
First, lets create a point helper, and align its position to the nub bone's pivot point (or you can
use the IL's goal, if you haven't moved it). Once it's there, link the IK chain's goal to this point
helper. Set the point's display properties to show the box only, and size it to your liking. Name
it ArmControlRT (or LT, if you're working on the left arm... you already got the whole suffix idea,
right?). Try moving it and the whole arm should move...

Now, create another point object, and align it to the nub bone again, but this time align both
its position AND orientation. Set the display properties to show the Axis tripod only. Size it so
it's easily selectable. Now, link it to the arms forearm bone (Bone_forearmRT). Now, link every
bone in the hand chains to this helper (these would be the bones that were created by
connecting the fingers to the nub, remember?). Here are the bones you should link to this
helper...
Once they're linked, select again the helper you just created and name it HandControlRT. Go
to the Link Info section if the HIerarchy panel, and turn off ALL the rotation Inherit switches.
This will keep the hand locked to "world space" instead of "local space". It means it will
prevent sliding and rotating when the hand should be locked to the world. The downside is
you'll need to animate the rotations whenever the character moves its arm so the hand keeps
with it, but it's just a minor issued compared to keeping the hand locked to other objects.

Now, create another point object, and align it to the shoulder (Bone_armRT). Move it
backwards to the back of the character. Name it ArmSwivel_RT, and link it to the topmost
bone in the spine (Bone_spine04). This node will help us aim the elbow. Select the IK chain's
goal, go to the motion panel, and in the IK solver properties rollout, click on the "Pick Target"
button under IK Solver Plane, and select this point object. This will orient the chain so that the
elbow faces towards this node. We linked the point object to the spine so that when the
character bends his spine, the arm keeps its orientation relative to the spine. If you'd rather
have the elbow's orientation locked to something else, you can link this point object to
something outside the spine hierarchy, such as the COM we'll create later (I like it the way it is
now).

Lastly, let's create a helper to aid us in rotating the clavicle in an easier way. Create a point
object and align it to the clavicle in both position and orientation. Name it Clavicle Contro lRT.
Link it to the Spine04 bone. Now, linke the clavicle bone to it. That's it. If you rotate it, the
clavicle should rotate, and the arm should follow. Here it is...
That does it for the arm... let's move onto the legs.

First, create another point object and align it to the IK chain's goal. We'll use this object just
like the one we created for the arm... to animate the leg. You'll usually want these objects,
since it's very rare to animate the goal directly. Name the point object LegControlRT. Link the
IK chain's goal to it. If you move it, the leg should follow now.
Create another point object, and set its display properties to show the axis tripod only. Align it
to the leg's nub bone in both position and orientation. Name it FootControlRT. Link it to the
calf bone (Bone_calfRT). Now, link both feet root bones (we usually have one only, but
remember we had to create a 'special' chain for the heel of the foot) to this helper. You may
turn off rotation inhertinaces for this one, depending on what you need this character do.
We're done. This node is used to rotate the feet.

Now, let's add another helper to aid us in controling the rotation plane for the leg's IK solver
(or, in other words, aim the knee). Create another point object, and align it to the thigh bone's
root (Bone_legRT). Now, move it forward to the front of the character. Name it LegSwivel_RT.
Link this node to the hips bone (Bone_hips). This will keep knee orientation relative to the hips
rotation. Now, select the IK chain's goal and go to the motion panel. Click on the Pick Target
button under IK Solver Plane in the IK Solver Properties rollout, and pick this object. Now the
knee will always aim towards this node.
Create a big point object, and set its display properties to box. Name it COM (short for Center
of Mass). Align it to the spine root (Bone_spine01) in both position and rotation. Now, select
the following nodes:

• Bone_spine01
• Hips Control
and link them to this new point object.
If you move this COM, you'll notice the whole character moves, but the arms and legs. This is
good, because it allows us to have the hands and feet locked to the world, which is what we
usually want. However, it makes posing the character and moving it to different parts in the
scene a bit cumbersome. We'll add another object to help us do this.

Create another circle primitive, and align it to the COM in both position and orientation. If it
ends up oriented in the wrong way (left to right instead of top to bottom), go into sub-object
mode, select the spline, and rotate it. Now, move it to the bottom of the character, where its
feet are. Scale it (in sub-object mode) so you can see it and select it easily. Now, select the
following nodes:

• COM
• Both Arm Control nodes
• Both Leg Control nodes

and link them to this object. Name this circle "Character" or whatever name you deem proper
for this guys. If you move it, the WHOLE character should move. This way, you can move this
character through the scene or make him jump or fly easily.
And there it is... the finished rig...
Basic Animation Techniques

Animation is used throughout 3ds max. It is possible to animate the position, rotation, and
scale of an object, and almost any parameter setting that effects the object’s shape and
surface. It is possible link objects for hierarchical animation, using both forward and reverse
kinematics, and to edit the animation in Track View.

This section discusses the basics of creating animation. It looks briefly at a comparison
between computer animation and classic hand-drawn animation, and then describes the
creation of “Key Framed” animation, using the “Animate” Button.

Key Frames

Key Frames are the ones, where you define the animation for a parameter by specifying its
exact value at a given set of times. The computer can then work out by interpolating what the
value should be between the keys.

Time controls

Time Controls can be found on the lower interface bar between the key controls and the
Viewport Navigation Controls. The Time Control buttons include buttons to jump to the Start or
End of the animation, or to step forward or back by a single frame. You can also jump to an
exact frame by entering the frame number in the frame number field. The Time Controls also
include the Time Slider found directly under the viewports.
Time Slider

The Time Slider provides an easy way to move through the frames of an animation. To do this,
just drag the Time Slider button in either direction. The Time Slider button is labeled with the
current frame number and the total number of frames. The arrow buttons on either side of
this button work the same as the Previous and Next Frame (Key) buttons.

Track Bar

The Track Bar is situated directly under the Time Slider. The Track Bar displays a rectangular
marker for every key for the selected object. These markers are color-coded depending on the
type of key. Position keys are red, rotation keys are green, scale keys are blue, and parameter
keys are dark gray. The current frame is also shown in the Track Bar as a light blue
transparent rectangle.

The Track Bar shows key markers only for the currently selected object or objects, and each
marker can represent several different keys. When the mouse is moved over the top of these
markers, the cursor changes to a plus sign, and a marker can be selected by clicking on it.
Selected markers turn white. Using the Ctrl key, you can select multiple keys at the same time.
You can also select multiple key markers by clicking an area of the Track Bar that contains no
keys and then dragging an outline over all the keys you want to select. If you move the cursor
over the top of a selected key, the cursor is displayed as a set of arrows enabling you to drag
the selected key to the left or right. Holding down the Shift key while dragging a key creates a
copy of the key. Pressing the Delete key deletes the selected key.

Animation with key frames

Keys define a particular state of an object at a particular time. Animations are created as the
object moves or changes between two different key states. The easiest way to make keys is
using the Key Controls. These controls are located to the left of the Time Controls.
Max includes two animation modes: Auto Key (N) and Set Key ( ' ).You can select either of
these modes by clicking the respective buttons at the bottom of the interface. When active,
the button turns bright red, and the border around the active viewport also turns red to remind
you that you are in animate mode. Red also appears around a spinner for any animated
parameters.

Auto key mode

With the Auto Key button is enabled, every transformation or parameter change creates a key
that defines where and how an object should look at that specific frame.

To create a key, drag the Time Slider to a frame where you want to create a key and then
move the selected object or change the parameter, and a key is automatically created. When
the first key is created, Max automatically goes back and creates a key for frame 0 that holds
the object’s original position or parameter. Upon setting the key, Max then interpolates all the
positions and changes between the keys. The keys are displayed in the Track Bar.

Each frame can hold several different keys, but only one for each type of transform and each
parameter. For example, if you move, rotate, scale, and change the Radius parameter for a
sphere object with the Auto Key mode enabled, then separate keys are created for position,
rotation, scaling, and a parameter change.

Set key mode

The Set Key button ( ' ) offers more control over key creation and sets keys only when you click
the Set Key button (K). It also creates keys only for the key types enabled in the Key Filters
dialog box. You can open the Key Filters dialog box, by clicking the Key Filters button. Available
key types include All, Position, Rotation, Scale, IK Parameters, Object Parameters, Custom
Attributes, Modifiers, Materials, and Other (which allows keys to be set for manipulator
values).
Setting Key Frames

The process of animating a simple primitive such as a sphere is given below. You can also
choose to go with any other primitive.

Once you are ready with a sphere or any other primitive object for the animation, press the
"Auto Key" button in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen. The “Auto Key” button will
turn red. While it's red, anything you change will create a keyframe in that state at that frame.

You will also notice a slider at the bottom of the screen telling you which frame you're on. It
should be at 0. Drag it to whatever frame you want the sphere to be in its new position by.
Let’s say 25 frames.

Now move the sphere.

Now hit the play button to watch the animated sphere in action.

If you move the sphere again at frame 25, the keyframe will be changed. But if you move to a
new frame and move the sphere, a third keyframe will be created with the sphere at its new
position. If you turn animate mode off and move the sphere it moves the entire animation.

Time Configuration
Time configuration is used to determine the length of your time segment and scale your
animation. It is also simple and does not require much time and knowledge to accomplish
these tasks.

Right-click anywhere in the time settings area, or click on the time configuration button at the
bottom right-hand corner of the screen.

Then a Dialog Window saying Time Configuration will pop up.

To change the length of the active time segment, either adjust the "end time" or "length"
spinners.

To scale the animation contained in the active time segment, click the "Re-scale Time" button
in the Animation section of the Time Configuration window.

Another window will appear, in which you select the new length of the animation. This will slow
down or speed up the entire animation to fit whichever new time you enter.
Track View

With Track View, you can view and edit all the keys that you create. You can also assign
animation controllers to interpolate or control all the keys and parameters for the objects in
your scene.

Track View uses two different modes, Curve Editor and Dope Sheet.
Curve Editor mode lets you display the animation as function curves. Dope Sheet mode
displays the animation as a spreadsheet of keys and ranges. Keys are color-coded for easy
identification. Some of the functions in Track View, such as moving and deleting keys, are also
available on the track bar near the time slider, which can be expanded to show curves as well.
You can dock the Curve Editor and Dope Sheet windows beneath the viewports at the bottom
of the interface, or use them as floating windows.

Dope Sheet

First, an animation has to be made. In this example the animated sphere used above, will be
used. You can do that by following the steps above. Then from the Menus, select “Graph
Editors>Track view-Dope Sheet”. This opens the Track View window.
The sphere is an object, so click on the + sign next to Objects to open the list of objects. Open
the object whose keyframes you want to edit. In this case we are editing Sphere01.

Then open up its transform track, since you're editing its change in Position, which is a
transform. Now you should see the keyframes for your object. If you don't, press zoom extents
(it is in the bottom left-hand corner of the track view window), and that will zoom out all the
way. (In this case the sphere will have two, since it only goes from one place to another during
this animation)

To move the keys around, use the move button to select and move them.

To create new keys that you can later edit, use the "create key" button. You can type in the
exact frame you want the key to be placed in the bottom-right field of the window.

To delete keys, select them and press the delete key on your keyboard or click on the delete
button.

Curve Editor

The Track View - Curve Editor is a Track View mode that allows you to work with motion
expressed as function curves on a graph. It lets you visualize the interpolation of the motion,
and the object transformations that the software creates between the keyframes. You can
easily see and control the motion and animation of the objects in the scene using tangent
handles on the keys found on the curves.

The Curve Editor interface consists of a menu bar, a toolbar, a Controller window, and a Key
window. There is also a time ruler, and navigation and status tools at the bottom of the
interface.

The Track View

Curve Editor is a Track View mode that allows you to work with motion expressed as function
curves on a graph. It lets you visualize the interpolation of the motion, and the object
transformations that the software creates between the keyframes. You can easily see and
control the motion and animation of the objects in the scene using tangent handles on the
keys found on the curves. The Curve Editor interface consists of a menu bar, a toolbar, a
Controller window, and a Key window. There is also a time ruler, and navigation and status
tools at the bottom of the interface.

Select the animated track (like position, rotation, or scale) and press the function curves
button. Now the function curve for your animation will open up. If you click on the graph, the
keys will become apparent.

To move the keys, adjust their values, or both, by using the move button.
Motion Panel

The Motion panel provides tools to adjust the motion of the selected object. Key timing and
easing in and out of a key are parameters that you can adjust with tools on the Motion panel,
for instance. The Motion panel also provides an alternative to Track View for assigning
animation controllers.

The Parameters button on the Motion panel lets you assign controllers, and create and delete
keys too. Controllers are custom key-creating algorithms that can be defined through the
Parameters rollout. These controllers are assigned by selecting the position, rotation, or
scaling track and clicking on the Assign Controller button to open a list of applicable
controllers that you can select.

Rendering

3D Rendering is the process of producing an image based on three-dimensional data


stored within a computer.

3D rendering is a creative process that is similar to photography or cinematography, because


you are lighting and staging scenes and producing images. Unlike regular photography,
however, the scenes being photographed are imaginary, and everything appearing in a 3D
rendering needs to be created (or re-created) in the computer before it can be rendered. This
is a lot of work, but allows for an almost infinite amount of creative control over what appears
in the scene, and how it is depicted.
The three-dimensional data that is depicted could be a complete scene including geometric
models of different three dimensional objects, buildings, landscapes, and animated
characters - artists need to create this scene by Modeling and Animating before the Rendering
can be done. The 3D rendering process depicts this three-dimensional scene as a picture,
taken from a specified location and perspective. The rendering could add the simulation of
realistic lighting, shadows, atmosphere, color, texture, and optical effects such as the
refraction of light or motion-blur seen on moving objects - or the rendering might not be
realistic at all, and could be designed to appear as a painting or abstract image.

NOTE: Even though they are called "3D," these images are not the same thing as the "3D
Movies" that were popular in the 1950's, which created the illusion of depth on a movie
screen when the audience wore special glasses. 3D computer graphics are called "3D,"
because of the way they are made, using 3D computer models to represent scenes before
they are rendered. Although 3D graphics could be used in a 3D movie (if they ever became
popular again), the final product of a 3D rendering is generally a regular two-dimension image,
and these images can be used in printed pictures, on the internet, in interactive media, on TV,
or in the movies.

Rendering sometimes takes a long time, even on very fast computers. This is because the
software is essentially "photographing" each pixel of the image, and the calculation of the
color of just one pixel can involve a great deal of calculation, tracing rays of light as they would
bounce around the 3D scene. To render all the frames of an entire animated movie (such as
Shrek, Monsters Inc., or Ice Age) can involve hundreds of computers working continuously for
months or years.

Rendering creates a 2D image or animation based on your 3D scene. It shades the scene's
geometry using the lighting you've set up, the materials you've applied, and environment
settings such as background and atmosphere.

Max includes a Scanline Renderer that is optimized to speed up this process, and several
settings exist that you can use to make this process even faster. Understanding the Render
Scene dialog box and its functions can save you many headaches and computer cycles.

Rendering Menu

The Rendering menu contains commands for rendering scenes, setting up environmental and
render effects, composing scenes with Video Post, and accessing the RAM Player.

The Render command opens the Render Scene dialog box where you can set output options
such as which frames to render and the final image size.

Environment displays the Environment panel, which is used for setting up atmospheric and
background effects such as a background color or image, global lighting settings, and
atmospheric effects such as Combustion, Fog, and Volume Lights.
The Effects command opens the Rendering Effects dialog box. You use the Rendering Effects
dialog box to add rendered effects to an image without having to use the Video Post dialog
box.

The Advanced Lighting command opens a control panel where the settings for the Light
Tracer, Radiosity, Exposure Control, and Lighting Analysis tools are located.

Rendering to texture, or "texture baking,” allows you to create texture maps based on an
object's appearance in the rendered scene. The textures are then “baked” into the object: that
is, they become part of the object via mapping, and can be used to display the textured object
rapidly on Direct3D devices such as graphics display cards or game engines.

The Raytracer Settings command opens a dialog box for enabling raytracing options, and the
Raytrace Global Include/Exclude command opens a dialog box where you can specify which
objects are rendered using raytracing and which are not.

The Mental ray Messages Window displays log messages (other than debug messages)
generated by the mental ray renderer.

The ActiveShade Floater opens the ActiveShade window, where you can get immediate
rendered results. The ActiveShade Viewport command displays the immediate rendered
results in the active viewport.

The Material Editor provides functions to create and edit materials and maps. The Material
Editor (keyboard shortcut, M) and Material/Map Browser commands open their respective
dialog boxes for creating, defining, and applying materials.

The Video Post command opens a dialog box for scheduling and controlling any post-
processing work. The dialog box manages events for compositing images and including
special effects such as glows, lens effects, and blurs. The Show Last Rendering command
immediately recalls the last rendered image produced by the Render command.

The Panorama Exporter command allows you to render a panoramic scene. The Print Size
Wizard is a godsend for anyone who is printing images from Max. It relates the current scene
to the common paper sizes that printers use. The RAM Player can display images and
animations in memory and includes two channels for overlaying images and comparing
animations side by side.

Common Rendering Parameters

The Render Scene dialog's Common panel contains controls that apply to any rendering,
regardless of which renderer you have chosen, and that lets you choose renderers.
Time Output

The time output portion details the frame(s) that should be rendered to disk. You can choose
a single frame, a series of frames, or even specific frame numbers. This last option may be
useful when you want to see only keyframes of your animation rendered out.

The Active Time Segment option renders the complete range of frames. The Range option lets
you set a unique range of frames to render by entering the beginning and ending frame
numbers. The last option is Frames, where you can enter individual frames and ranges using
commas and hyphens. For example, entering “1, 6, 8-12” renders frames 1, 6, and 8 through
12.

The Every Nth Frame value is active for the Active Time Segment and Range options. It
renders every nth frame in the active segment. For example, entering 3 would cause every
third frame to be rendered. This option is useful for sped-up animations. The File Number
Base is the number to add to or subtract from the current frame number for the reference
numbers attached to the end of each image file .

Output Size

The Output Size is fairly self-explanatory, however, a larger output size is directly related to
quality which is directly related to the time needed to complete the render. Therefore, if you
were making an Internet movie at 320*240, it would be a waste of time to render a higher
quality file because of the amount of time it would take to create a larger output size.

If you don't need to create a Custom file size, you choose one of the drop down options that
suits your needs.
The Aperture Width indicates the lens you used to take the snapshot or video. If you know
what the aperture was, you should enter it into this area.

The Image Aspect and Pixel Aspect relates to the ratio relationship between width and height
as well as how the pixels are drawn onto the screen respectively. A Pixel Aspect of 1.0 looks
great on a computer screen, but DV uses 0.9. This often looks a bit distorted on a computer
screen, but looks great on a TV source.

Options

The Options menu allows additional control over how the file will be rendered.

Atmospherics, Effects, and Displacement are rendered out by default, however, they can take
a long time to render. If you want to speed up the render time and render out a quick test,
atmospherics can be turned off in the renderer.

On the other hand, items like Force 2-Sided is unselected by default. When a basic shape like
a box or a sphere are created, they only have an outside. If you zoom towards one of these
shapes to the point that you are inside of it, the inside lacks any color or material. There are
ways to modify the shape, and the way the colors and materials affect it to show both the
inside and outside. However, forcing a 2-sided render will accomplish this task.

If you completed the box explosion tutorial, you will have noticed that when the box's pieces
flip in the air, they disappear. This is a result of the box having only one side. By rendering
both sides, a more realistic tumble through the air will be created.

Advanced Lighting

The Advanced Lighting panel offers options to use Advanced Lighting or Computer Advanced
Lighting when Required. Advanced lighting can take a long time to compute, so these two
options give you the ability to turn advanced lighting on or off.

The Render Output section enables you to output the image or animations to a file, a device,
or the Rendered Frame Window. To save the output to a file, click the Files button and select a
location in the Render Output File dialog box. Supported formats include .AVI, .BMP, .DDS,
Postscript (.EPS), JPEG, Kodak Cineon (.CIN), .FLC, Radiance Image File (.HDRI), QuickTime
(.MOV), .PNG, .RLA, .RPF, SGI’s Format (.RGB), Targa (.TGA), and .TIF. The Device button can
output to a device such as a video recorder. If the Rendered Frame Window option is selected,
then both the Files and Devices buttons are disabled.

Render Output

The Render Output menu is as important as choosing which frames to render. If you do not
complete this step, clicking on render will create nothing at all. You must select the Files
button in order to decide the name of the output file, where it will be saved, and in what
format. This may include a series of still images, or it may be an avi file using the DiVX codec.

When you choose to render a particular output type for the first time, you will be provided with
the specific options for the chosen codec.
The Use Device option is related to an external video device that you may want to record to.

The Virtual Frame Buffer, if selected, will allow you to see each frame as it is rendered.

Net Render, if selected, will check to see if you have a network render farm setup and will
request which frames it should render while other computers on your network are working
hard to complete other frames.

Finally, Skip Existing Images refers to the possibility that you rendered using individual images
rather than an AVI file and that for some reason the rendering was interrupted. You can
resume the rendering without having to re-render existing images. Unfortunately, an AVI will
need to be re-rendered rather than being appended too.

Assign Renderer

The Assign Renderer rollout displays which renderers are assigned to the production and
ActiveShade categories, as well as the sample slots in the Material Editor. To change the
default renderer, look in the Assign Renderer rollout in the Common panel of the Render
Scene dialog box. Here you can select different renderers for the Production, Material Editor,
and ActiveShade modes. For each, you can select from the Default Scanline Renderer, the
mental ray Renderer, or the VUE File Renderer.

Final Options

The Final Options provide some basic, but important features. The first permits you to choose
between a Production and an Active Shade. The Production shade is the highest in quality,
while Active Shade is a lower quality that renders much faster.

The Viewport option is also quite significant. Of the four possible views that are displayed on
your screen at one time, you can choose which to render out. The perspective view, for
example, will provide a 3D view whereas a front, right, and left view will be a 2D view.
Finally, by clicking on Render you confirm all the options and it will render out your still or
video.

Default Scanline Renderer

The scanline renderer is the default renderer. By default, you use the scanline renderer when
you render a scene from the Render Scene dialog or from Video Post. The Material Editor also
uses the scanline renderer to display materials and maps.

The image produced by the scanline renderer is displayed in the rendered frame window, a
separate window with its own controls. Scanline renderer renders the scene as a series of
horizontal lines.

The Default Scanline Renderer rollout, found in the Renderer panel is the default renderer
rollout that appears in the Render Scene dialog box. If a different renderer is loaded, then a
different rollout for that renderer is displayed in the Renderer panel

Options

Options section furnishes the control for toggling on-off features like mapping, shadows and
reflections in order to speed up rendering for performing test renders.

Mapping is turned off to ignore all mapping information. It affects automatic reflections and
environment maps, as well as material mapping. Turning off the shadows speeds up the test
rendering. Auto Reflect/Refract and Mirrors when turned off, ignores automatic
reflection/refraction maps to speed up rendering for tests.

Force Wireframe is used to render all surfaces in the scene as wireframes. You can choose
the thickness of the wireframe in pixels.
Turning on Enable SSE uses Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). SIMD stands for Single
Instruction, Multiple Data. Depending on the CPU (or CPUs) of your system, SSE can improve
render time.

Ant aliasing

Ant aliasing smoothes the jagged edges along the border lines when rendering. Filter drop-
down list lets you choose the filter that works at the sub-pixel level to perform the antialiasing.
The Filter Maps option allows you to disable the computationally expensive process of filtering
material maps. The Filter Size value applies only to the Soften filter.

Global Super sampling

Global Super sampling is an additional ant aliasing process that you can apply to materials.
This process can improve the image quality.

“Disable all Samplers” disables all super sampling.

“Enable Global Super sampler” applies the same super sampler to all materials. When turned
off, materials set to use the global settings are controlled by the settings appearing in the
rendering dialog.

“Super sample Maps” turns on or off super sampling for mapped materials and the sampler
drop down list lets you choose which super sampling method to apply.

Object Motion Blur

Object Motion Blur blurs the object by creating multiple "time-slice" images of the object for
each frame. This takes camera movement into account. Object motion blur is applied during
the scanline rendering process.

Toggle Apply is used for turning object motion blur on or off, globally for the entire scene.
Samples determine how many Duration Subdivision copies are sampled. The maximum
setting is 32.

Image Motion Blur

This type of blur is affected by the movement of the camera and is applied after the image has
been rendered. You achieve this blur by smearing the image in proportion to the movement of
the various objects.

The Duration value determines the time length of the blur between frames. The Environment
Map option lets you apply the blurring effect to the background as well as to the objects.

The transparency option blurs transparent objects without affecting their transparent regions.
Using this option adds time to the rendering process.

Auto Reflect/ Refract Maps


The Auto Reflect/Refract Maps section lets you specify a Rendering Iterations value for
reflection maps within the scene. The higher the value, the greater are the objects included in
the reflection computations, and the rendering time is longer

Color Range Limiting

Color Range Limiting lets you handle over-brightness by toggling between Clamping and
Scaling color components (RGB) that are out of the range (0 to 1). Typically, specular
highlights can cause color components to rise above the range while using filters with
negative lobes can cause color components to be below the range.

Memory Management

The Memory Management section allows you to optimize the rendering process to use the
least amount of memory possible by using the conserve memory option.

Scene Creation

Scene Creation

You have read and perceived various aspects of scene creation in the previous chapters. In
this chapter, some exercises related to the concepts of modeling, texturing, animation and
lighting setup, to create an indoor room scene are elucidated.

To create a new scene, choose “File>New” Menu command or use “Ctrl+N” Keyboard
shortcut. On the new scene dialog box, select “New All” and click on OK. This will create a new
workspace with default setup.

Modeling

Starting with the modeling phase, we will make a room with a window and a few objects in the
room- a bed, a small table with a flower vase and a ceiling fan. Create a box in the top
viewport by selecting the box button on the create panel and click-dragging it in the top
viewport. Settings will be- Length 400, width 320 and height -3.0. You have to rename it 'floor'.
Again in the top viewport on the left side of the box, create a box of length 400, width 10 and
height 110. Put it in place as a wall and rename it “wallleft”. Copy this by pressing “Shift” and
dragging it with the mouse to the other side of the 'floor' box and rename it as “wallright”.
Select the floor and copy it by pressing “Shift” and dragging it, move it up to the edges of the
walls and rename it as “ceiling”. In the front viewport create another box length 115, width
333 and height -5.0, rename it as “wallback” and move it to the back so now you will have
this, once you move your perspective viewport correctly in the figure given above.

Now you will boolean a window in the left wall so that you can let some sunlight through,
create another box in the middle of the scene with the specifications: Length 65 width and
height 80. You have to place it as shown in the picture below:
Now you boolean the hole in the wall, select the box you just created and go to compound
objects, located in 'create' > 'geometry', then select the rolldown menu.

In the compound menu, click on 'Boolean' and in 'operation'. Change from subtract (A-B) which
is the default one to subtract (B-A). Now press the 'pick operand B' button and move the
mouse over to the front viewport and click on 'leftwall' where the window will be. So now you
have a 'window'.
Now you have to create a small table at the right corner of the room. Start by making a box in
the top view with the specifications: length, width 35 and height 3. Position the box as shown
in the figure below.

To create the legs for the table, create a box with length, width 4 and height 25. Make three
more copies of the box and place the 4 legs as shown in the given figure.

The lathe modifier will be used to create a flower vase. Lathe modifier works on a shape
object.

Create a spline shape by selecting the tool “Line” on the shapes panel. Draw a line in the left
panel just above the table.
Click on Modifier List above the modifier stack display. This is a drop-down list of various
modifiers.

From the list, choose Lathe. The Lathe modifier revolves the outline around a central point to
create a shape, much like the way wood is turned on a machine lathe.

The vase is now a 3D object. On the parameters rollout of the lathe modifier, click on “Min” in
the align section. The object will appear as shown in the figure below.
You may need to check “Flip normals” if only the inner surface of the shape is visible while the
outer is not.

To create a bed, create a box in the top view with length 10, width 190 and height 50. Place it
along the backwall with its base touching the floor. Create another box from the top view with
length 10, width 190 and height 50 and place it as shown in the given figure.

To make the platform of the bed, create a chamfer box by selecting “Chamfer box” from
extended primitives on the create panel with length 168, width 198, height 10 and fillet
25.Position the chamfer box as shown in the figure.

Now the model of a bed is complete.

Next you need to model a ceiling fan. You start by drying a profile of the core of the fan with
line too. It is done very similarly to the way you did for the flower vase.

Draw a shape in the front view and make it similar to the one shown in the figure below, The
topmost end of the shape should touch the ceiling line.
Apply the lathe modifier on this shape. Select “Min” option in the align section. This will give
you the core of the fan. Position the core as shown in the given figure.

To make the wings for the fan, draw a closed line shape in the top view, on the side of the fan
core, as a wing would be.
Apply extrude modifier on the wing shape to give it thickness. Keep the extrude amount to 1.
Now you have one wing of the fan ready. You can shift-drag the original wing two times to
create two other copies and position them evenly around the core of the fan.

Right click on the original wing and select “covert to>Editable mesh”. In the modify panel, click
on “Attach” in the geometry rollout and select the other two wings to make a single mesh. So
now you have a single structure of fan wings that you are going to animate.

Texturing

In this phase, material properties will be given to the objects in the scene. Different colors and
different textures will be given to each of the objects that you created.
Open the material editor by pressing “M” on the keyboard. You shall create a material for
applying on the walls in the room.

Select an empty sample slot and rename it as “walls”. Click on the diffuse color swatch and
select color R:252, G:248, B:183 from the color selector.

Apply the material to the walls by clicking on the sample slot and dragging it onto the walls
geometry in the scene.

Select another sample slot and rename it as “wood”. Click on the “standard” button on the
right of the name field. This will open up the material/map browser.

Select “Mtl Library” in the Browse from area.

Select “Wood_Burloak” from the materials list.

Apply this material to the small table as well as the wooden blocks of the bed, except for the
platform, which is supposed to made of fabric.

For applying material on the mattress, select another empty sample slot and click on the map
button in front of the diffuse color swatch. In the material/map browser select the “new”
option in the browse from area. Select “bitmap” from the list. This will open up a file dialog
box. Browse to the maps/fabric folder in the 3ds max directory and select “TUTFRAME.TGA”
bitmap.Now apply this new material to the mattress on the bed. Your perspective viewport will
look somewhat like this figure:

For the fan and the flower vase, you can give any color the same way you did for the walls. You
can also apply any material from the library, the same way you applied for the wood. If you
want to apply a bitmap texture, you can do it the way you did for the mattress.

Lets apply a simple material to the fan with a diffuse color R:251, G:221, B:186. For the
flower vase, a diffuse color of R:255, G:255, B:255 i.e., pure white, will look the best.

Animation

A fan does not serve its purpose if it does not rotate. This is where animation comes into the
picture. In real life, the core of the fan remains still while its wings move. Similarly, here you
have to animate the fan.

Switch to the top view and select the wings. Turn on the auto key in the lower interface bar.
Move the time slider to frame 5. Now rotate the wings by an angle of 120 degrees clockwise
from the top view. Again move the time slider to frame 10 and give another rotation of 120
degrees. Move the time slider to frame 15 and give a third rotation of the same degree. This
process creates four keyframes at an equal interval of five frames. When you run the
animation between frame 0 and 15, you can see a fan rotating 360 degree, i.e., exactly one
turn.
Lighting and Camera

Next you have to light up the room, considering the daylight streaming inside through the
window. This effect will be achieved by creating a direct source of light incident through the
window.

The first thing to be done is to add a direct light aimed at the window to let it filter into the
room. In the direct light parameters, turn on shadows and set the shadows to 'shadow map',
change the multiplier to 1.8 and the color to 254, 255 and 211. Change the hotspot to 60. To
soften the edge of the window change the 'shadow map params' to size 250 and sample
range to 6.
Now you have to place an omni just above the floor and in the middle of where the sunlight
hits the floor, as the most light will come from there. Once the omni is placed, set the
multiplier to 0.4 and set the color to RGB 235, 215, 154. The next step would be to check
‘use’ in the 'far attenuation', set the 'start' to 200 and 'end to 400. In the 'advanced effects',
click on 'ambient only'.

Press F9 to test render the scene.

Copy the ambientonly omni and move it straight up till it is above the cylinder in the front
viewport, set the omni's parameters on these settings. Uncheck the “ambient only” in the
advanced effects settings for this new light.
Test render the scene by pressing F9.

You have to set up the camera for the scene. The perspective view that you had been using to
preview the scene can also be used for rendering, but it’s always a good idea to have a
dedicated camera for the rendering perspective.

To create a free camera for this scene, click on the “free camera” button on the camera panel.
Click on the top viewport at the position where you want the camera to be.

Rotate and move the camera and set it as shown in the figure below:
Select camera view in one of the viewports. It should be somewhat like the view in the given
figure:

Now you are all set up and ready to render the scene to a small video clip.

Rendering

Activate the Camera viewport, if it isn't already active. From the Rendering menu, choose
Render. Now you will define the animation range. In the Time Output group, turn on Range if it
isn't already on. Set the Range to be from 0 to 100. In the Render Output group, click on the
Files button. The Render Output File selector appears. Navigate to a directory where you want
to save your work. You can use the Create New Folder button to establish a new location, if
necessary.

Now you need to define the type of still image file you will render. In the Save As Type field,
click the drop-down arrow and choose AVI File, (.avi). In the File name field, type
“helloworld.avi”, then click on Save. Make sure Save File is turned on in the Render Output
rollout. Make sure the Viewport field at the bottom of the Rendering dialog reads Camera01
(not Top, Front, or Left), then click on Render.

The Rendering dialog appears.

Once all the frames are rendered, the rendering process stops automatically. Now you can
open the saved avi file with any video player of your choice and play it.
3D Studio MAX Hotkeys and Mouse
Essentials

F1 – Opens 3D Max Reference (Help)


F2 – Shade selected faces toggle
F3– Toggle between Wireframe and
Smooth + Highlights
F4 – View Edged Faces
G – Hide/Show Grid
J – Show Selection Bracket Toggle
Q – Select
W – Select and Move
E – Select and Rotate
R – Select and Scale
H – Select by Name
CTRL-A – Select all
CTRL-D – Deselect all
Spacebar – Selection Lock toggle
1 - Vertex

2 - Edge

3 - Border

4 - Polygon

5 – Element
7 – Polygon counter
8 – Open Environment and Effects
Dialog
F – Switch to the Front viewport

T – Switch to the Top viewport

L – Switch to the Left viewport

R – Switch to the Right viewport

P – Switch to the Perspective viewport

B – Switch to the Bottom viewport

C – Switch to a Camera viewport


CTRL-C – Create camera from viewport
V – Open view shortcut menu
Z – Zooms in on the current selection
CTRL-X – Toggle Expert mode
ALT-Q – Isolate Object
O – Adaptive Degradation Toggle
X – Transform Gizmo Toggle
D – Disables the viewport
Shift-Z / Shift-Y – Undo /Redo viewport
operation
+ and - – Increase/decrease Gizmo
size
F9 – Render last rendered viewport, or,
in case of the first render, render
selected viewport.
Shift-Q – Quick render, renders
selected viewport.
F10 – Opens the Render Scene
window allowing you to set rendering
options.
M – Opens the Material Editor
CTRL-V – Clone object
Alt-X – Display As See-Through Toggle
Alt-L – Select Edge Loop
ALT-C – Cut
SHIFT -E / ALT-E – Extrude poly