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Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

www.elsevier.com/locate/chaos

Chaotic response of a quarter car model forced by a road proﬁle with a stochastic component

Grzegorz Litak ^{a}^{,} * , Marek Borowiec ^{a} , Michael I. Friswell ^{b} , Wojciech Przystupa ^{c}

^{a} Department of Applied Mechanics, Technical University of Lublin, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin, Poland

^{b} Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Queens Building, Bristol BS8 1TR, United Kingdom ^{c} Department of Applied Mathematics, Agricultural University of Lublin, Akademicka 13, PL-20-950 Lublin, Poland

Accepted 4 July 2007

Abstract

The Melnikov criterion is used to examine a global homoclinic bifurcation and transition to chaos in the case of a quarter car model excited kinematically by a road surface proﬁle consisting of harmonic and noisy components. By analyzing the potential an analytic expression is found for the homoclinic orbit. The road proﬁle excitation including harmonic and random characteristics as well as the damping are treated as perturbations of a Hamiltonian system. The critical Melnikov amplitude of the road surface proﬁle is found, above which the system can vibrate chaotically. This transition is analyzed for diﬀerent levels of noise and illustrated by numerical simulations. 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The problem of rough surface road proﬁles and its inﬂuence on vehicle unwanted vibrations due to kinematic excitations is still a subject of research among automotive manufacturers and research groups, whose objective is to minimize their eﬀects on the driver and passengers [1–6] . Recently many new applications of active and semi- active control procedures and special devices to minimize vehicle vibrations have been developed [7–9] . Dampers based on magneto-rheological ﬂuid with typical hysteretic characteristics have signiﬁcant promise for eﬀective vibra- tion damping in many applications [10–12] . New ideas in vehicle vibration damping, such as ‘Sky hook’ control [13] or H _{1} control [12,14] have already been implemented and tested in several car and motorcycle applications. Eﬀorts have focused on studies of the excitation of the automobile by a road surface proﬁle with harmful noise components [3,4]. Due to various nonlinearities and in the presence of harmonic excitations of a road proﬁle, chaotic behaviour may produce noise-like responses [6,15] . However one cannot exclude more complex excitations from the road pro- ﬁle. This paper analyses the case when the excitation consists of a harmonic term with a small random noise component.

^{*} Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 81 5384573; fax: +48 81 5250808. E-mail address: g.litak@pollub.pl (G. Litak).

0960-0779/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2007.07.021

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

2. The model and equations of motion

2449

The equation of motion of a single degree of freedom quarter car model (Fig. 1 ) is [6]

_{m}

d

^{2} x

d

t ^{2}

þ k _{1} ð x x _{0} Þ þ mg þ F _{h}

_{t} ð x x _{0} Þ ; x x _{0} ¼ 0;

d

d

ð 1 Þ

where F _{h} is an additional nonlinear hysteretic suspension damping and stiﬀness force dependent on relative displace- ment and velocity, given by

F h

_{d}_{t} ðx x _{0} Þ ; x x _{0} ¼ k _{2} ð x x _{0} Þ ^{3} þ c _{1} _{d}_{t} ð x x _{0} Þ þ c _{2}

d

d

d

d

t

ð x x _{0} Þ

3

ð

2 Þ

and the road proﬁle can be described by a combination of harmonic and noise terms [16–18] as

3 Þ

where v _{0} is the car velocity, k is the wavelength of a road proﬁle modulation, and the small random component w (v _{0} t ) is a random process deﬁned along the vehicle horizontal displacement coordinate z ^{0} = v _{0} t . By assuming the simpliﬁed model with one degree of freedom ( Fig. 1 ), the authors have focused on the analytical estimation of the transition to chaos by means of Melnikov’s method, which can be applied only in systems of one degree of freedom [19,20] . Choosing a one degree of freedom model was also a consequence of the assumption that the unsprung mass is signiﬁcantly smaller than the sprung mass [21] . Deﬁning a new variable for the relative vertical displacement as

ð 4 Þ

Eqs. (1) and (2) become

x _{0} ð t Þ ¼ A sin ð 2 pv _{0} t = k Þ þ w ð v _{0} t Þ ;

ð

y

¼ x x _{0} ;

d ^{2} y

dt ^{2}

þ x ^{2} y þ B _{1} y ^{3} þ B _{2}

d y

dt

þ B _{3}

d y

dt

3 ¼ g þ AX ^{2} sin ð Xt Þ ^{d} 2 ^{w}^{ð} ^{v} ^{0} ^{t} ^{Þ} ;

d

t ^{2}

ð

5Þ

where X = 2pv _{0} /k , x ^{2} = k _{1} /m , B _{1} = k _{2} / m , B _{2} = c _{1} /m , B _{3} = c _{2} / m . The stochastic component of the road excitation roughness can be modelled as a white noise process that is passed through two ﬁrst order low-pass ﬁlters with limiting

wave numbers x

g 1 ^{,} ^{x}

_{g} _{2} [3] . Thus

^{2} w ð z ^{0} Þ dz ^{0} ^{2}

d

^{þ} ^{c}

2

dw ð z ^{0} Þ dz ^{0}

2

^{þ} ^{x} wð z ^{0} Þ ¼ r ^{0} n ^{0} ð z ^{0} Þ

2

ð 6 Þ

_{g} _{2} . The resulting roughness of the road proﬁle is a coloured noise process with an

where c _{2} ¼ x

additional governing diﬀerential equation [3] . However in our case the dominant vertical proﬁle change arises from the harmonic excitation term, while the noise component deﬁnes an additional disturbance. Thus, in contrary to the above treatment [3] , we do limit the random component to one that fulﬁlls the following condition,

g 1 ^{þ} ^{x}

_{g} _{2} and x

2

2

¼ x

g 1 ^{x}

v0

x

mass

mg

z’

x0=Asin(2 π v0t/λ )+ψ(v0t)

A

λ

ψ(v0t)

Fig. 1. The quarter car model subjected to kinematic excitation of harmonic and random components with nonlinear damping and stiﬀness. v _{0} = dz ^{0} /d t is the constant velocity of the vehicle, k and A are the wavelength and amplitude of the harmonic excitation, while

2450

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

d ^{2} wð z ^{0} Þ

dz ^{0} ^{2}

ﬃ r ^{0} n ^{0} ð z ^{0} Þ ;

p

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

where the white noise has intensity r ^{0} (scaled in 1 = m units). n ^{0} ( z ^{0} ) has zero mean and unit variance, and hence

< n ^{0} ð z ^{0} Þ > ¼ 0 and

< n ^{0} ðz ^{0} Þ n ^{0} ð z ^{0} þ D z ^{0} Þ > ¼ d ð Dz ^{0} Þ :

ð 7 Þ

ð 8 Þ

Furthermore n ^{0} ( z ^{0} ) can be expressed by the Wiener process W _{z} 0 (in the z ^{0} domain), as

n ^{0} ð z ^{0} Þ ¼ d W _{z} 0 = dz ^{0} :

ð 9 Þ

Following Li et al. [6] , Borowiec et al. [22] and Litak et al. [21,23] the system parameters are deﬁned as

m ¼ 240 kg ; k _{1} ¼ 160000 N =m ; k _{2} ¼ 300000 N = m ^{3} ;

c _{1} ¼ 250 Ns =m ; c _{2} ¼ 25 Ns ^{3} = m ^{3}

and

ð 10Þ

The corresponding dimensionless equation of motion can be written for a scaled time variable s = x t as

ð 11Þ

ð X ^{0} k = 2pÞ ^{3} , n ( s) =

dW _{s} /d s (the Wiener process W _{s} in the s domain). The overdots in Eq. (11) denote the corresponding derivative with respect to s ( ^{Æ} d/ds ). Transforming the above second order diﬀerential equation into two ﬁrst order diﬀerential equations gives

k ¼ 3 : 34 m :

€y þ y þ ky ^{3} þ a y_ þ b y_ ^{3} ¼ g ^{0} þ AX ^{0} ^{2} sin ð X ^{0} sÞ rn ð sÞ ;

c 1 k _{1} m

p

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

, b ¼ B _{3} x ¼ c _{2}

q

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

k

m

1

^{3}

where k ¼ B _{1} = x ^{2} ¼ ^{k} ^{2} , a ¼ B _{2} = x ¼

k

1

, g ^{0} ¼ ^{g} _{2} , X ^{0} = X / x, r ¼ r ^{0}

x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð v _{0} = xÞ ^{3} ¼ r ^{0}

q

q

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

dy |
¼ vds |

dv |
¼ ð y ky |

ð 12Þ

These equations are the principal result of our investigation in the present section and will be analyzed, both analyti- cally and numerically, in following sections.

3. Melnikov analysis in the presence of random disturbances

The quarter car model deﬁned in Fig. 1 can be studied further by means of the Melnikov method [19,20] assuming the road proﬁle excitation and the damping as perturbations of a Hamiltonian system [21] . We start this analysis with the renormalisation of the potential V ( y ) ( Fig. 2 a). If we let y = z + y _{0} , where y _{0} is the ﬁxed (of saddle type) point, and V _{1} ( z) = V( y ) V( y _{0} ), then,

V 1 ð z Þ ¼ k z 2 ð z z 1 Þð z z 2 Þ ;

4

a

b

0.16

0.8

y

2

y

0

>

0.12

0.4

z =0

z

z

z 2

0

1

0.08

z

z

0.0

0

1

0.04

-0.4

0.00

y

1

-0.8

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.4

0.8

1.2

y

z

V(y)

>

V (z)

1

V

V

v

ð

13Þ

Fig. 2. External potential V (y) [21] for given system parameters ( Fig. 2a). V (y ) is scaled in Nm while y is in m. The ﬁxed points are y _{0} = 0.7228 m, y _{1} = 0.0147 m, y _{2} = 0.7375 m. Renormalized external potential V _{1} ðzÞ ¼ ^{k} z ^{2} ðz z _{1} Þðz z _{2} Þ for given system parameters (in our case: k = 1.875 N/m ^{3} , z _{1} 1.298 m and z _{2} 1.593 m). A homoclinic orbit for the given energy E = V _{1} (z = 0) (Fig. 2b). z is expressed in m while v x is given in m/s.

4

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

2451

where z _{1} = 1.298 and z _{2} = 1.593. Notice that the left peak (the saddle point) of the potential V _{1} ( z) occurs at z =0< z _{1} < z _{2} and that V _{1} (0) = 0 ( Fig. 2 a).

Looking for a homoclinic orbit we introduce a small parameter (formally ~a ¼ a , b ¼ b , A ¼ A and r~ ¼ r). The

equations of motion then have the following form,

~

~

z_ ¼ v;

v_ ¼ kz ^{3} þ ^{3} ^{k} ð z _{1} þ z _{2} Þ z ^{2} ^{k} z _{1} z _{2} z þ ð ~a v bv ^{3} þ AX ^{0} ^{2} þ sin ð X ^{0} sÞ rn~ ð sÞÞ :

4

2

~

~

Note that the unperturbed equations (for = 0) can be obtained from the gradients of the Hamiltonian H ^{0} ( z, v),

¼ ^{o} ^{H} 0 ;

o

where H ^{0} is deﬁned as

v_ ¼ ^{o} ^{H} 0 ;

o

z

z_

v

ð 14Þ

ð

15Þ

H

^{0} ¼ ^{v} ^{2} þ ^{k}

2

_{4} ð z z _{1} Þð z z _{2} Þ z ^{2} :

The homoclinic orbits are obtained from the unperturbed Hamiltonian, as ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

s ¼

r

2

Z

dz

k

z

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ :

ð z z _{1} Þð z z _{2} Þ

ð 16Þ

ð 17Þ

Thus, the single homoclinic orbit is given by the inverse of the above expression and the corresponding velocity ( z ^{*} ( s s _{0} ), v ^{*} (s s _{0} )), as [21,24],

z ^{} ¼

v ^{} ¼

z _{1} z _{2} exp ð s s _{0} Þ

4

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

ð z _{1} z _{2} Þ ^{2} exp 2ð s s _{0} Þ

exp ð s s _{0} Þ

4 z _{1} z _{2}

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

þ 2ð z _{1} þ z _{2} Þ exp ð s s _{0} Þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

q ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

ð z z Þ exp 2 ð t t _{0} Þ

1

2

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

ð z z Þ exp 2 ðs s Þ

1

2

2

0

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

kz z

1

2

2

þ 2 ð z þ z Þ exp ð s s _{0} Þ

1

2

q ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ _{2} :

kz _{1} z _{2}

2

Now suppose that

s _{0} ¼ s _{0}_{1} þ s _{0}_{2} ;

where s _{0}_{1} ¼ ln

2 ð z _{2} z _{1} Þ

kz _{1} z _{2}

p

ﬃﬃﬃ

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ! :

ð 18Þ

ð 19Þ

s _{0}_{1} has been ﬁxed to guarantee the proper parity (under the time transformation s ! s), and hence

20Þ

s _{0}_{2} is an arbitrary constant to be determined later in the minimization procedure of the Melnikov integral M( s _{0}_{2} ). The corresponding orbit ( z ^{*} (s s _{0} ), v ^{*} ( s s _{0} )) is plotted on the phase plane in Fig. 2 b. In the deterministic case the distance between a perturbed stable and unstable manifolds and their possible cross- sections may be examined by means of the Melnikov integral M( s _{0}_{2} ), given by [20]

z ð sÞ ¼ z ð sÞ and v ð s Þ¼ vð sÞ :

ð

þ1

Mð s _{0}_{2} Þ ¼ Z

1

h

ð z ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} s _{0}_{2} Þ ; v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} s _{0}_{2} ÞÞ ^ gð z ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} s _{0}_{2} Þ ; v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} s _{0}_{2} ÞÞ ds;

ð 21Þ

where the wedge product for two dimensional vectors is deﬁned as h ^ g = h _{1} g _{2} h _{2} g _{1} . The corresponding vector h is the gradient of unperturbed Hamiltonian (Eq. (16)),

h ¼ k z ^{} ^{3} þ _{4} ðz _{1} þ z _{2} Þ z ^{} ^{2}

3

1

_{2} z 1 z 2 z ^{}

; v ^{} ;

ð

22Þ

while the vector g consists of the perturbation terms to the same Hamiltonian (Eq. (14)),

g ¼ ½ ~a v ^{} bv ^{} ^{3} þ AX ^{0} ^{2} sin ð X ^{0} sÞ rn~ ð sÞ ; 0 :

~

~

ð

23Þ

In the deterministic case for r = 0, shifting the time coordinate s ! s + s _{0}_{2} under the integral (Eq. (21)), a suﬃcient condition for a global homoclinic transition corresponding to a horseshoe type of stable and unstable manifold cross-section (for the excitation amplitude A > A _{c} ), can be written as:

2452

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

_

s

02

Mð s _{0}_{2} Þ ¼ 0 and ^{o} ^{M} ^{ð} ^{s} ^{0}^{2} ^{Þ} –0 ;

o

s 02

ð 24Þ

where ¤ is the mathematical symbol of existence. In contrast, for the stochastic case, the direct integration of M (s _{0}_{2} ) is not relevant and one has to perform the con- dition for chaotic motion in a statistical mean-square-value sense [18,25–27] . Thus the critical conditions to be satisﬁed are

_

s

02

r _{M} ð s _{0}_{2} Þ ¼ 0 and ^{o} ^{r} ^{M} ^{ð} ^{s} ^{0}^{2} ^{Þ} – 0 ;

o

s 02

where r _{M} (s _{0}_{2} ) can be written as

1

r _{M} ð s _{0}_{2} Þ ¼ Z

1

v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} ðð ~av ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} Þ bv ^{} ^{3} ð s s _{0}_{1} Þ þ AX ^{0} ^{2} sin ð X ^{0} ð s þ s _{0}_{2} ÞÞÞd s r~

~

~

p

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

<

v ^{} ^{2} ð x ^{0} Þ S _{n} ð x ^{0} Þ > ;

ð

25Þ

ð 26Þ

where the stochastic part has to be calculated in the mean-squares sense. S _{n} ( x ^{0} ) is the probability distribution

S _{n} ð x ^{0} Þ ¼ S _{n} ¼ ^{1} _{p} :

2

ð 27Þ

This deﬁnition means that every frequency x ^{0} has an equal contribution to the white noise process. v ^{*} ( x ^{0} ) is given by the Fourier transform of v ^{*} ( s s _{0}_{1} ) as

1

v ^{} ð x ^{0} Þ ¼ Re Z

1

v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} Þ e ^{i} ^{x} ^{0} ^{t} ds:

From Eqs. (24) and (25) for relatively low levels of noise

A c ¼

I _{1}

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q

ð

X ^{0} k =2 pÞ ^{3}

I 3

1

I 1 I _{2} ðX ^{0} Þ ^{}

X ^{0}^{2} I _{2} ð X ^{0} Þ

_{X}

0 2

^{¼}

s

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

k

^{3}

I 3 p ^{3} X ^{0} I _{2} ð X ^{0} Þ

8

where

and

I 1 ¼

Z

1

1

ð a ð v ^{} ð sÞÞ ^{2} þ bð v ^{} ð sÞÞ ^{4} Þ ds _{}

I _{2} ð X ^{0} Þ ¼ sup

s _{0}_{2} 2 R

Z

1

1

v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} Þ sin ð X ^{0} ð s þ s _{0}_{2} ÞÞ ds

^{¼}

Z

1

1

;

v ^{} ð s s _{0}_{1} Þ sin ð X ^{0} s Þ ds _{} ;

ð 28Þ

ð

29Þ

ð 30Þ

ð 31Þ

where sup means supremum for various s _{0}_{2} , and is practically realized by

cos ð X ^{0} s _{0}_{2} Þ¼ 1 :

The last integral I _{3} is

I _{3} ¼ r ^{0}

s

1

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

v ^{} ^{2} ðx ^{0} Þ dx ^{0} :

2

p Z

1

1

ð 32Þ

ð

33Þ

Following paper [21] our strategy will be to calculate all three integrals I _{1} , I _{2} and I _{3} numerically. The results of A _{c} for various values of r ^{0} are presented in Fig. 3 .

4. Numerical results

Using a discretized integration schema (Euler-Maruyama [28] ) for an arbitrary small integration step Ds yields

y ð s þ D sÞ ¼ y ð s Þ þ vDs

vð s þ D sÞ ¼ vð sÞ þ ð y ð sÞ ky ^{3} a y_ by_ ^{3} g ^{0} þ A X ^{0} ^{2} sin ð zÞÞ D s r Ds C ð sÞ

p

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

^{ð}

^{3}^{4}^{Þ}

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

a

0.8

b

0.6

CHAOTIC

CHAOTIC

0.4

REGULAR

0.2

σ’ =0, 0.006, 0.012,

0.024

v

0.0

A [m]

c

A c [m]

0.42

0.38

0.34

0.30

A=0.41

A=0.405

A=0.40

A=0.39

A=0.34

A=0.33

σ’ =0, 0.006,

0.012, 0.024

A=0.31

v

2453

0.0 |
0.5 |
1.0 |
1.5 |
2.0 |
2.5 |
3.0 |
0.6 |
0.7 |
0.8 |
0.9 |
1.0 |
1.1 |
1.2 |

Ω’ |
Ω’ |

Fig. 3. Critical amplitude A _{c} versus vibration frequency X ^{0} for diﬀerent r ^{0} coeﬃcients (Fig. 3 a). Magniﬁcation of Fig. 3 a where additional black points correspond to X ^{0} = 0.8 and A = 0.31, 0.33, 0.34 0.40, 0.405, 0.41 m, respectively (Fig. 3b). In both ﬁgures ( Fig. 3a–b) r ^{0} = 0, 0.006 and 0.012 starting from the top curve.

where C (s ) is a Gaussian noise process with zero mean < C( s)> = 0 and unit variance <C ^{2} ( s)> = 1. Note that now r

plays the role of noise strength, and in the discretized algorithm it is scaled by the square root of the integration step

p

D s . Following Naess and Moe [28] the computational eﬃciency of the above schema can be improved easily for the

deterministic parts by calculating intermediate values of y and v. In a similar way one can formulate a Runge–Kutta– Maruyama 4th order integration scheme, and such a scheme will be used in this paper. The aim of our numerical inves- tigation is to illustrate the eﬀect of noise on global homoclinic bifurcations leading to chaotic solutions. The ranges of parameter values were determined by considering the appearance of chaos in the deterministic case [21] , as well as pre- dictions based on the Melnikov theory (in the previous section). The Lyapunov exponents for varying noise intensity, r ^{0} , were also calculated to gain further insight. Note that, in general, the Lyapunov exponent for a noisy system should be evaluated by a dimensional analysis of the nonlinear time series. Here, for simplicity, the algorithm of Wolf et al. [29] was used. This algorithm has limitations for dynamical systems inﬂuenced by random disturbances, but following Kapi- taniak [30] we assumed the same noise realization for neighbouring trajectories. Fig. 4 shows the dominant Lyapunov exponent versus the road noise square deviation r ^{0} for diﬀerent harmonic amplitudes chosen from the interval A 2 [0.31 m, 0.41 m]. Note that for each amplitude, A, there exists a critical value of the noise component r ^{0} for which the system escapes from the potential well. Interestingly for A P 0.39 m ( A = 0.39, 0.405 and 0.41 m) where the dominant Lyapunov exponent k _{1} is close to 0 the curve k _{1} ( r ^{0} ) is characterized by strong ﬂuctuations. This is opposite to the situation when A 0.31 (A = 0.31, 0.33 and 0.34 m), where the value of k _{1} changes within a very small range as r ^{0} varies. This could be connected with the vicinity of chaotic solutions (in the case of larger A ). In fact chaotic solutions are usually preceded by period doubling bifurcations and changing r ^{0} one can switch between various multi-frequency solutions. This could explain the non-monotonic character of the k _{1} (r ^{0} ) curve for A = 0.40. Note also that for A = 0.41 the Lyapunov exponent remains positive in the presence of noise, while the curve k _{1} ( r ^{0} ) for A = 0.405 clearly shows that the system vibrates regularly for r ^{0} = 0, but can transit to a chaotic solution with a random excitation component.

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

0.05

A=0.41

A=0.405

0.00

-0.05

A=0.39

λ

A=0.40

1

-0.10

Escape from

A=0.34

the

potential well

-0.15

A=0.33

A=0.31

-0.20

0.000

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

σ’

Fig. 4. Dominant Lyapunov exponent calculated for X ^{0} = 0.8 and diﬀerent excitation amplitudes: A = 0.31, 0.33, 0.34 0.40, 0.405, 0.41 m. Note that for suﬃciently high noise levels, r ^{0} (diﬀerent for each amplitude A ) the system escapes from the potential well.

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

2454

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

Fig. 5 a–h show results as phase portraits (with lines) and Poincare sections (with points), for the following system parameters: X ^{0} = 0.8, A = 0.31, 0.33, 0.34, 0.405 and 0.41 m, r ^{0} = 0 and 0.006. For A = 0.31 m ( Fig. 5 a and b) we observe a simple noise eﬀect of smearing in trajectory of period 1 synchronized motion. A more interesting case is

a

c

e

g

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.2

y

0.2

0.6

-0.6

-0.2

y

0.2

0.6

-0.6

-0.2

y

0.2

0.6

b

d

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.2

0.2

0.6

y

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.2

0.2

0.6

y

f

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.2

0.2

0.6

v

h

0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

y

-0.6 |
-0.2 |
0.2 |
0.6 |
-0.6 |
-0.2 |
0.2 |
0.6 |
||

y |
y |

Fig. 5. Phase diagrams (velocity v ¼ y_ versus displacement y plotted by lines) and corresponding Poincare sections (plotted by points)

Fig. 5d), A = 0.405 m

for X ^{0} = 0.8 and A = 0.31 m

(r ^{0} = 0 – Fig. 5a, r ^{0} = 0.006 – Fig. 5b), A = 0.39 m ( r ^{0} = 0 – Fig. 5c, r ^{0} = 0.006 –

(r ^{0} = 0 – Fig. 5e, r ^{0} = 0.006 – Fig. 5f) and A = 0.41 m ( r ^{0} = 0 – Fig. 5g, r ^{0} = 0.006 – Fig. 5h). vx is scaled in m/s, y in m.

G. Litak et al. / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 39 (2009) 2448–2456

2455

presented in Fig. 5 c and d (A = 0.39 m) where the deterministic case exhibits a period 2 motion. Clearly, the noise pro- duces a topological uncertainty, leading to jumps between the trajectory within one cycle of period 2. The same phe- nomenon may be seen in Fig. 5 e and f ( A = 0.405 m) where the deterministic motion has period 4. Finally the deterministic chaotic attractor ( Fig. 5 g – A = 0.41 m) retains its geometric properties when inﬂuenced by random dis- turbances. In fact the response is changed slightly by the trajectory broadening eﬀect of the noise. This leads to the con- clusion that random noise with a relatively weak intensity ( r ^{0} = 0.006) does not destroy chaotic attractor. Moreover multiple period trajectories ( Fig. 5 c and e) may be destabilized by the noise, making a chaotic solution more likely. These observations are consistent with the calculated Lyapunov exponents ( Fig. 4 ), and also the Melnikov predictions ( Fig. 3 a and b). The phase shift in the Poincare map associated with the increase of r ^{0} in Fig. 5a–h can be related to a side eﬀect of the complex harmonic-random forcing.

5. Conclusions

We have analyzed the model of a quarter car [6,21,22] under chaotic and noisy conditions. Note, chaotic vibrations have a noise-like frequency spectrum of a wide range which are very harmful for drivers. Such oscillations can be con- trolled in a sophisticated way through the chaos control methods [21] but the principal issue for a vehicle system should be to eliminate any vibrations. Introducing a small noise component, which was absent in previous treatments [6,21,22] , we used the analytical Mel- nikov theory and predicted the lowest critical amplitude where the system may transit to a chaotic motion. This pre- diction has been conﬁrmed numerically (see Figs. 3–5 for speciﬁed amplitudes). It must be underlined that a weak noise component does not destroy a chaotic attractor but in fact makes it more robust. This is consistent with a higher level of noise giving similar eﬀects as a larger harmonic amplitude. On the other hand the situation around the critical value of A A _{c} is very delicate. Here for slightly stronger noise the escape from the potential well takes place. One should remember that in reality this escape would be compensated by a sudden increase of stiﬀness. Furthermore in our single degree of freedom model chaotic vibrations appear for about A 0.40 m, which is higher than a realistic value. However it may be possible that this characteristic type of motion will appear at lower amplitudes for models with more degrees of freedom. Note also that the simulations were performed for k _{1} = 3.34 m. As this parameter varies, the noise intensity would change, and thus the conditions for cha- otic vibrations and also the critical amplitude, A _{c} , would be aﬀected.

Acknowledgement

This research has been partially supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the DAAD scholarship (G.L.). G.L. would like to thank the Institute of Physics, TU Chemnitz for hospitality.

References

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[2] Gobbi M, Mastinu G. Analytical description and optimization of the dynamic behaviour of passively suspended road vehicles. J Sound Vib 2001;245:457–81. [3] Von Wagner U. On nonlinear stochastic dynamics of quarter car models. Int J Non Linear Mech 2004;39:753–65. [4] Turkay S, Akcay H. A study of random vibration characteristics of the quarter car model. J Sound Vib 2005;282:111–24. [5] Verros G, Natsiavas S, Papadimitriou C. Design optimization of quarter car models with passive and semi-active suspensions under random road excitation. J Vib Control 2005;11:581–606. [6] Li S, Yang S, Guo W. Investigation on chaotic motion in histeretic nonlinear suspension system with multi-frequency excitations. Mech Res Commun 2004;31:229–36. [7] Guo DL, Hu HY, Yi JQ. Neural network control for a semi-active vehicle suspension with a magneto-rheological damper. J Vib Control 2004;10:461–71. [8] Liu H, Nonami K, Hagiwara T. Semi-active fuzzy sliding mode control of full vehicle and suspensions. J Vib Control

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