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u/]sf] k'li6 eO;s]sf] 5 .
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sf7df8f}F . df]afOn clxn]sf] dflg;x?df tgfj, PSnf] k gf, dflg;x?df clgb|fsf] ;d:of a9L lgsfNg ;lsFb}g . xfdLdf ;f]Rg]
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hghLljsfsf ;jfn lnP/ ;+3if{ yfn]kl5 k|of]udf eg] Wofg lbg'k5{ . lbgdf
t l7s} 5 t/ /ftL ;'Tg'eGbf klxn]
jf:tjdf df]afOnsf] k|of]usf
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ksfpg] h:tf ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g]
u/]sf] k|d'v cWoogstf{ 8\oflgcn
ugf{n] lbdfunfO{ w]/} ;f]Rg' kg]{ x'G5 .
h;sf sf/0f d]df]/L n;sf] ;d:of
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cfk"maf6 6f9f /fVg'k5{ . olb o;f] k| 0 ffnLdf cj/f] w cfpg] o; k|sf/sf dfgl;s /f]uaf6 aRg cf“ v fdf k| ] z /
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lglDtg ;S5g\ . ;'Tg]a]nf df]afOn o'lgel;{6L ckm Unf;uf]sf k|fk] m];/x?n] cfjZos 5 . dflg;x?n] To;eGbf cfFvfdf w]/} k|z
] / k5{ . h;n] ubf{ cfFvf
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;d:of lgDTofpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 .
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vt/f klg 5]pd} x'g ;S5 . df]afOn
5]pdf /fVbf gf]6Llkms]zg cg ckm
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u/]sf] 5 . o;cl3 klg cf/fdk"0f{ lbg;Dd xftdf PS;]nf]ld6/ /flvPsf] tf} n a9\ g ] x'G5 . lgb|f k"/f ePg eg] xfdLnfO{
g]tf, sfo{stf{nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ e"m7f d'2fdf km;fPsf] lgb|f k'¥ofpg ;'Tg] ;dodf df]afOn lyof] . o;} k| l qmofkl5 ;'Tg] a]nfdf df]afOn kmf]g k|of]u sfd ug{ s7Lg k5{ .
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] df c;/ k5{ . Wofg lbg g;Sg'
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ub{ 5 g\ . oxL ljifodf cWoog
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sfo{qmd cufl8 a9fpFb5} . ;/sf/n] eg] h:tf] ul//x] s f lj1x?n] clxn] o:tf klg kQf nufOPsf] xf] . o:tf s'g} klg ;d:ofsf] ;lhn} ;dfwfg ePsf] x'g;S5 .

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/ hghLljsfsf ljifonfO{ ;Daf]wg ug'{k¥of] .
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rf/jif]{ cjlwnfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] ljifout¿kdf s'/f ug'k{ 5{ .
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x'g] b]zsf] ;"rLdf g]kfn dfly g} /x]sf ;}of} afj'cffdfx?sf] sfv l/Qkof] . pl5g]/ dxfe|i6 aGg k'u]sf 5g\ . dxfe|i6rf/L elg/x]sf 5}gg\ . ev{/} ;+ljwfg hf/Lstf{x¿n] …kmf:6 6«ofsÚdf eg] klg jf:tjdf b'O6{ f ;+ljwfg;efn]
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g]tfx¿nfO{ ;fd'lxs e]6 ug]{qmddf
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cj:yf 5 . Tof] nfdf] cjlwdf …:6]sxf]N8/Úx¿;Fu k|;:t cGt/lqmof gu/]sf]
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clxn] g]kfndf lrlgofF /fi6«klt ;L lrglkmªn]
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o;df ljleGg kIfsf c;Gt'li6x¿ oyfjt\ 5g\ . tL c;Gt'li6x¿nfO{ ;+ljwfg
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lgb]z { g lbPsf lyP . g]kfnL hgtfsf] hf/L ePkZrft\ klg ;Daf]wg ub}{ hfg'kg]{ xf] . lsgeg] ;+ljwfg eg]sf] Pp6f
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Tof] Pp6f ;+jw} flgs k|lqmofleq} k5{ . t/ o;nfO{ cjnDag ul/Psf] 5}g .
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kfngf ug'k{ g]{ s'/fdf ;dembf/L u/fpg] kIfn] g a9L bafa lbPsf] 5 g t
ltxfO ;/sf/ g} g]kfnsf g]tfx¿ dfq dxfe|i6frf/L geP/
sd{rf/LtGq, k'ln;, h+uLc•f ;d]t sfof{Gjog ug]{ kIfn] Wofg lbPsf] 5 . To;sf/0fn] ;+ljwfg hf/L ePsf] rf/
jif{ lalt;Sbf klg c;Gt'li6x¿ sfod} 5 .
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k'us
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ev{/} dfq g]kfnsf] b'O{ lbg] /fhsLo e|d0fdf g]kfndf cfPsf e| i 6 sd{ r f/Lx?nn] g] k fnnfO{ lbPsf] b]lvFbg} . s]jn ;fj{hlgs pkef]usf nflu dfq} ePsf] b]lvG5 .
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of] s'/f ;fFrf] xf] ls oL cfnf]– ;+zf]wgnfO{ s]jn ;Qfdf hfg] e¥ofªsf] ¿kdf dfq} k|of]u u/]sf] b]lvof] .
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;dfh, ljleGg hftLo ;+u7gx?, ;+ljwfgdf dte]b 5 eg]/ k|bz ] @ df s]xL lj/f]w u/]/ b]vfpg], dfOlt3/
)))) n] v s / kqsf/, d08nfdf clncln s/fpg] / To;kl5 cfkm\gf] sd{sf08 k"/f u¥of}+ eg]/
dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL ;Dk" 0 f{ a:g] . ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg s]–s]df eGg] k|Zgx¿ klg 5g\ . dw]zsf] b[li6sf]0fn]
of] s'/f ;f“rf] xf] ls oL cfnf]–kfnf] u/L ;Qf ;~rfng ;+3;+:yfx?, dlxnf, lk5l8Psf If]qsf ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg sxfF–sxfF cfjZos 5 To;sf] a'bF fut¿kdf s]nfpg'k5{ .
tL s'/fx¿ ljleGg r/0fdf cfO/xG5g\ . dw]zsf s'/f ubf{ cln efjgfTds
k| l tlglwx? cflbjf;L–hghflt,
ug]{ sf“u;]| , gfdwf/L sDo'lg:6x? e|i6 sd{rf/L b]zeQm, hgjfbL tyf k|ultzLn h:tf] nfU5 . ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ubf{ dw]zsf dfq} s'/fx¿ 5g\ eGg] 5}g .
kxf8 / lxdfnsf klg sltko d'2fx¿ 5g\ .
zlQmx? cflbsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf]
tGqaf6 g]kfn df}nfPsf] e|i6frf/nfO{ lgd{n ' ug{ ;Dej ljzfn uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf ;+ljwfgk|lt ljdlt /fVg]x¿ clxn] oxL ;+ljwfgcGtu{t g} lqmofzLn
5g\ . :yfgLo lgjf{rgdf /fhkf ;'¿df ;xefuL ePg, kmf]/d ;dfj]z eof] .
cfjZos ePsf] 5 .
5}g . To;f] eP/ oxf“ /fhgLlts kf6L{x?, gful/s @)$^–@)$& otfb]lv otfsf ToxL+ logLx¿nfO{ cK7\of/f] k¥of] . kl5 /fhkf klg lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL eof] .
To;}n,] logLx¿n] ;+ljwfg cGtu{t sfo{ klg ul//x]sf 5g\ / lj/f]w klg
;+;b ;b:ox? ;ef;b\x? ;/sf/
;dfh, ljleGg hftLo ;+u7gx?, n]vs / kqsf/, ;~rfng u/] / uPsf dGqL, ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;+ljwfgsf] sfof{GjognfO{ s;n] ;3fO/x]sf] 5 / s;n] lj/f]w
ul//x]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f g} …sGkm\oh ' Ú h:tf] 5 . lj/f]w ul//x]sfx¿ klg
k|wfgdGqLx?, /fhgLlts lgo'lQm
dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ ;+3;+:yfx?, dlxnf, kfPsf AolQmx?, sd{rf/Lx?, k'ln; ;+ljwfgs} k|lqmofcg';f/ ;a} sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ul//x]sf 5g\ eg] h;n]
of] ;+ljwfg NofPsf] 5 p;n] -sfFu; ]| n]_ klg lj/f]w ul//x]sf] 5 . To;}n] of]
/ h+uLc•fsf xflsdx? ;asf] Ps–
lk5l8Psf If]qsf k|ltlglwx? cflbjf;L–hghflt, Ps ;DklQ 5fgjLg ug]{, /fhgLlts ;+ljwfgk|lt ckgTj u|x0f ug]{ s'/f cToGt ;d:ofu|:t 5 . ^ j6f k|bz
clxn] g]skfsf] ;/sf/ 5 . g]skfdf klg Pp6f k"jd{ fcf]jfbL lsQf 5 eg]
] df
zlQmsf] cf8df ;Qfsf] cf8df
b]zeQm, hgjfbL tyf k|ultzLn zlQmx? cflbsf] e|i6frf/ u/]/ cfh]{sf] cs"t ;DklQ csf]{ k"jP{ dfn]sf] lsQf 5 . Pdfn] lsQfn] clxn];Dd klg ;+3LotfnfO{ :jLsf/
ul/;s]sf] cj:yf b]lvFbg} . sfFu; ]| klg anhkm\tL ;+3Lotfdf cfPsf] b]lvG5 .
5fgljg ug] { / ltgLx¿nfO{
k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] ljzfn uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf hg:t/af6} gª\Uofpg] / g]kfnL ;+ljwfgsf] d"n tTj ;+3Lotf xf] . t/, ;+3Lotfk|lt ckgTj u|x0f ug]{ sf]xL
klg 5}g .
;dfhaf6 lj:yflkt u/]/ ;';Eo /
cfjZos ePsf] 5 . ;';+:s[t g]kfnL g]kfnL ;dfhsf] dw]zs]lGb|t bnx¿n] klg ;+3Lotfk|lt ckgTj u|x0f ul//x]sf] b]lvFbg} .
ltgLx¿n] ;du| b]zs} ;+3Lotfsf] ckgTj lnPsf] 5}g . dw]zs]lGb|t bnx¿n]
lgdf{0f ug{ uf]nd]r ;efsf] cfof]hgf
ug{ cTofjZos 5 . of] af6f] ;ftj6} k|bz ] sf] ;+3Lotfsf] ckgTj lnPsf] 5}g . pgLx¿nfO{ t dfq k|bz ] @
w'ldn ePsf] 5 . 6f]kL nufpg] g]kfnL afWo eP . aGg k'u]sf 5g\ . cjnDag gu/L g]kfndf g]kfndf sf] lrGtf 5 . s]Gb|Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ul/;s]kl5 pgLx¿sf] lhDd]jf/L
ljZjsf] h' g s' g fdf k' u ] klg @)$^–@)$& b]lv otf cfP/ clxn] g]kfndf sDo'lg:6x?sf] e|i6frf/sf] cGTosf] ljifo t w]/} klg /fli6«o x'G5 lg t . ;a} k|bz ] sf] lhDd]jf/L ;a} kf6L{x¿n] lng'k5{ lg .
e| i 6frf/Lsf] b] z sf] gful/ssf] g]kfnL sfFu;]| , tTsfnLg Pdfn], dfn] b'O{ ltxfOsf] ;/sf/ 5 elgPsf] 5 6f9fsf] s'/f xf], e|i6frf/sf] Go"lgs/0f To;}n,] dw]zs]lGb|t bnx¿nfO{ k|bz ] @ sf] dfq} lrGtf 5 c¿sf] 5}g .
klxrfg agfpg' kg]{ cj:yf 5 . / @)^#–^@ sf] !( lbg] P]ltxfl;s / ToxL gfdwf/L sDo'lg:6x?sf] b'O{ ug{ ;Dd klg ;+ej 5}g . To;f] eP k|bz ] @ sf] klg e"ldsf t /fli6«o x'gk' ¥of] lg . k|bz ] @ sf
b] z sf] ;Qfdf a:b} cfPsf hgcfGbf]ngkZrft e"k" dfcf]jfbLx? nflu dfq} ;+3Lotf cfPsf] xf] ls ;du| b]zs} nflu xf] < b]zdf t ;ft j6f
dxfe|i6x?n] /fhgLlts ;Qfsf]
cf8df h3Go k|sl[ tsf e|i6frf/ ub}{
cfnf]–kfnf] ub}{ zf;g ;Qf rnfpg
k'u] . oL gfdwf/L sfFu|]; / gfdwf/L
cf}iflwsf] k5fl8 x'g] /ftf] wsf{sf] cy{ k|bz ] x¿ 5g\ .
dw]zs]lGb|t eGbf klg logLx¿ k|bz ] @ s]lGb|t 5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ k|bz ]
cfPsf 5g\ . e|i6f/Lx?nfO{ ;Qfdf 7u sDo'lg:6x?n] k~rx?nfO{ ;d]t sf7df8f}F . 8fS6/sf] ;'emfj cf} i flw / PlG6afof] l 6S;df @ afx]s k|bz ] !, #, u08sL, %, s0ff{nL / ;'b/" klZrdsf] lrGtf 5 <
a;]sf dxfe|i6frf/Lx?n] lg/Gt/ dfy dfb}{ d'n'snfO{ e|i6frf/sf] lagf cf}iflw vfg' x'Fb}g . Jojxf/df ljz]ifu/L . logsf] vf]ndf klg o:tf] s}nfnLdf yf¿x¿sf] cufl8 7"nf] efif0f dfq} u/]/ x'G5 < pgLx¿sf] s'g
?kdf ;+/If0f lbFb} cfPs} sf/0fn] /;ftndf k'¥ofP . oL sfFu|]; – of] nfu" gug]x{ ¿ eg] w]/} 5f}+ . 6fpsf] w;f{ x'G5 . of] eg]sf] s] t < – …sG;g{ÚnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ul//x]sf 5g\ < s0ff{nL k|bz ] afx]s ;a} k|bz ] df
cfh g]kfn g]kfnLx?s} :jfledfgLsf sDo'lg:6 gfdsf e|i6x?n] g]kfnnfO{ b'v]b]lv emf8fjfGtf;Dd s'g cf}iflw 8fS6/sf] ;'emfj jf k|];lqmK;glagf dw]zLx¿ 5g\, pgLx¿sf] ;/f]sf/ / rf;f]sf] ljifodf /fhkf / ;dfhjfbLn]
sf/0fn] xf]Og, e|i6frf/Lx?s} sf/0fn] ljZjdf abgfd b] z sf] kl/ro vfg] eGg] w]/}nfO{ …sG7Ú eO;s]sf] vfg gx'g] . xfn} ef/tsf] :jf:Yo s]xL klg af]ln/x]sf 5}gg\ . oL ;a} OsfO{x¿nfO{ ;~rflnt ug]{ lhDd]jf/L
Pp6f abgfd / ;fF:s[lts ?kd} Pp6f u/fpg k'u] . 5 . olt yfxf gx'gx] ¿sf nflu csf{ dGqfnon] klg o;af/] hfgsf/L lbFb} dw]zs]lGb|t bnx¿sf] klg xf] . To;}n,] ;+3Lotfsf] …cg/l;kÚ lng' eg]sf]
abgfd / s'?k b]zsf] ?kdf lrlqt @)$^–$& ;fnb] l v otf lj1 …d]l8sn ;~rfnsÚ x'g\, xfd|f hyfefjL cf}iflw gvfg ;'emfPsf] b]zs} ;+3Lotfsf] …cg/l;kÚ lng' xf] .
aGg k'us] f] 5 . g]kfnL hgtfsf] nflu, cfh;Dd sfFu|]; / sDo'lg:6x?n] 8fS6/ pxL . o;/L hyfefjL cf}iflw lyof] . dGqfnosf] l6\j6/df …/ftf] xfd|f] l5d]sL d'ns ' d'VotM ef/t / rLg g} x'g\ . b'j} l5d]sL d'ns ' ;Fu
g]kfn /fi6«sf] nflu of]eGbf a9tf ;Nnfx u/] / ;dembf/L u/] / lsga]r / vfg] ug{'x'Fb}g eGg] xfdLn] wsf{ ePsf cf}iflw 8fS6/sf] ;Nnfx ;/sf/n] ;Gt'lnt 9+un] g} ul//x]sf] 5 . lsgeg] oL b'O{ d'ns ' aLrsf] åGå /
lj8Dagf c? s] x'g ;S5 / Û /fhgLlts ?kdf e|i6frf/ ub}{ cfP/ ga'em]sf] xf]Og . 8fS6/x¿n] klg lagf gvfg';\ . tkfO{+ lhDd]jf/ eP ljjfbdf gk/]/ cfkm\gf] lxtdf dfq ul//x]sf] 5 . To;df s]xL sdLsdhf]/L /
k~rx? e|i6 lyP, lg/+sz ' lyP, cfh;Dd klg g]kfnnfO{ Pp6f duGt] eG5g\ . cem x/]sh;f] cf}iflwdf cf}iflwn] klg /fd|f] sfd u5{ .Ú d'DaO{ q'l6x¿ klg 5g\ . clxn] rLg / ef/tnfO{ klg ;fgf d'ns ' x¿sf] ;fy rflxPsf]
tfgfzfxL lyP, clwgfosjfbLx? b]zsf] ?kdf lrgfpg nfh z/d n]lvPsf] x'G5 . olt dfq} xf]Og, ld//sf cg';f/ vf;df of] /ftf] w;f{ 5 . lrlgofF ljb]zdGqL g]kfn cfPs} a]nfdf g]kfn–ef/t k]6f« l] nod kfOknfOgsf]
lyP, lgb{nLo, e|i6 lyP . ToxL eP/ dflg/x] s f 5} g g\ . rKkn lsg] / hyfefjL vfF b f uDeL/ hf] l vd ePsf] cf}iflw d]l8sn k;nx¿df pb\3f6g eof] . g]kfnsf] k|oTgeGbf klg rLg / ef/tsf] cfcfkm\g} k|oTgsf
g]kfnL hgtfn] #) aif{;Dd hLjg– nufpg g;Sg] sfFu; ]| – sDo'lg:6sf cfOkg]{ ;Defjgf ePsf cf}iflwdf klg 8fS6/sf] ;' e mfj n] l vPsf] sf/0f l5d]sL d'ns ' x¿;Fusf] ;DaGw ;Gt'lnt 9+un] cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 .
d/0fsf] n8fOF n8]/ @)$^ ;fndf g] t f sfo{ s tf{ x ? cfh /ftf/ft t ljz]if ;+s]t klg x'G5 . tkfO{+n] kqlagf a]Rg kfOFb}g . To;}n] Wofg rLg / ef/tsf aLrdf klg g]kfnnfO{ lnP/ Ps lsl;dsf] ;dembf/L 5 .
lgb{nLo k~rfotL Joj:yfnfO{ ˆofFs/] s/f]8klt, v/aklt alg/x]sf 5g\ . Psk|lt 6\ofAn]6 cf}iflwsf] k5fl8 k'¥ofpg'xf];\, r]tfjgL;lxt cfPsf] ef/tsf] Pp6f b[li6sf]0f 5 . Tof] b[li6sf]0fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ vfnsf]
k| h ftflGqs elgPsf] ax' b nLo lxhf] e|i6frf/Lx? eg]/ !) jif]{ x]g{'eof] eg] clwsf+zdf /ftf] wsf{ cf}iflw o;} vfFbf HofgnfO{ /fxtsf] k|ltj]bg ag]sf] 5 ls 5}g eGg] s'/fdf ;DejtM ef/tn] cWoog ul//x]sf]
Joj:yfsf] k'g:yf{kgf u/] . of] Joj:yf hgo'4sf] a]nf sfFu|]; / Pdfn]sf b]Vg ;Sg'x'G5, b'vfO sd ug]{ s8f ;f6f] hf]lvd a9L xf]nf Û 5 . -dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_
4 @)&^ ;fn sflQs !& ut] cfOtaf/

c6f]dl] 6s sf/ rnfp“bf Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx?


k'/fgf] jf lh4L bfb lgd"n{ kfg]{ eP
sf7df8f}F . z/L/sf] 5fnfdf x'g] slG:6Ro';gn_ /f]u xf] h'g z/L/leq ufFh/, d]jf, s]/f vfg] . b] l vPsf] 5 . -@_ ;Nkm/ @))
sf7df8f}F . c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g -PPd6L_ sf/sf] k|of]u g]kfndf klg tLj|
ultdf eO/x]sf] 5 . w]/} 6«flkms hfd x'g] 7fpFdf c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/ rnfpg
;lhnf] klg x'G5 . oxL sf/0fn] c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/ w]/n} ] dg k/fpg yfn]sf
bfb, vfh, lrnfpg]af6 ;fob g} sf]xL wft'bf]ifsf] sf/0f pTkGg x'G5 . ctM s] gvfg] M t]ndf tf/]sf], lk/f], zlQm– olb bfbsf] ;fy} /f]uLdf k]6sf] 5g\ . To;f] t ;fdfGotof c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/ rnfpg] qmddf s]xL o:tf
JolQm ckl/lrt xf]nf . hLjgdf Ps o; /f]unfO{ 7Ls ug{sf nflu aflx/L d;fn]bf/ vfgf gvfg] . bxL, cldnf], u8a8L cldnf] 8sf/ cfpg' , ;fdfGo uNtLx? klg x'G5g\ . h;n] luo/aS;nfO{ 7"nf] gf]S;fgL k'¥ofpF5 . oxfF xfdL
k6s of] ;d:of k|foh;f] ;a}n] k|of]u ug]{ dNxdsf] ck]Iff cfGtl/s cDnLo kbfy{ gvfg] . o;}u/L df;', jfsjfs nfUg', vfg lr gx'g,' 6fpsf]
ef]us
] f] x'gk' 5{ . h;nfO{ of] x'G5 Tof] ;]jg ug]{ cf}iflwsf] k|of]u ug{' clws df5f, ;Vv/, ltn, /S;L gvfg] . ud{ / v'§f tftf] 5 eg] /f]uLn] o;
JolQm 7fpF g s'7fpF s]xL x]bg{} . nfh, nfebfos x'G5 . cf}iflwsf] ;]jg vfgfdf g'gsf] k|of]u sd ug]{ . cf}iflwsf] ;]jg ubf{ kmfObf x'G5 . -
;d{ 5f]8/] sGofpg yfN5 . sGofpFbf ugf{n] bfbsf hLjf0f'x¿n] ljsf;sf /f] u lgjf/0fsf] pkfo #_ l;lkof– l/ª jd{sf nflu of]
p;nfO{ a8f cfgGb cfpF5 . sf]xL– nflu plrt jftfj/0f kfpFb}gg\ . xft v'§fsf] gª ;kmf /fVg] of cf}iflw a8f] pkof]uL ;flat ePsf]
sf]xL t olt;Dd sGofpgdf d:t h;n] ubf{ hLjf0f' :jo+ cfkm}+ gi6 sf6\g] . /f]uLn] k|of]u u/]sf] 6f]kL, 5 . @)) zlQmsf] ;ftfdf PskN6
x'G5g\ ls /ut cfpFbf klg sGofpg eP/ hfG5g\ / /f]u 7Ls klg x'G5 . dfn, tf}lnof, l;/fgL, sfOFof], a]8l;6, ;]jg ubf{ nfebfos x'G5 . o;sf]
of] /f]usf] sf/0f ljleGg k|sf/sf] 6'y a|; tyf n'uf c¿n] gnufpg] . /f]uLnfO{ hf8f] a9L nfUg] x'G5 . $_
km+un OGkm]S;gsf] ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0fn] bfb ePsf] 7fpFnfO{ lgdkQLn] of sns] l /ofsfa{ ; @)) zlQm
ubf{ bfb -l/ª jd{_ x'G5 . h;sf] d]l8s]6]8 ;fa'gn] ;w}F ;kmf ug]{ . xftv' § fdf a9L dfqfdf kl;gf
;+qmd0fsf] sf/0f of] z/L/sf] ljleGg JolQmut ;/;kmfOdf Wofg lbg] / cfpF5 . z/L/ df]6f]3f6f] 5 . x]bf{
c+udf ;lhn}l;t km}lnG5 . bfb ;kmf ;'U3/ sk8f nufpg] . 5fnf, eLdsfo b]lvG5 t/ z/L/df tfut
ePsf] JolQmn] k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf] gª, cf}n + fsf] aLr tyf r]krfk, xft, 5}g . df;'sf] y'k|f] dfq} 5 . o:tf c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/ rnfpg] qmddf x'g] ;fdfGo kfFr o:tf uNtLsf ljifodf
rLhx¿sf] pkof]u ugf{n] klg of] v'§f 6fpsf]sf] lgoldt ;kmfO ug]{ . JolQmsf nflu of] cf}iflw /fdjf0fsf] s'/f ug{ uO/x]sf 5f},F h;sf sf/0f x'g] gf]S;fgLaf6 aRg] pkfo klg yfxf kfO/fVg'xf];\ .
/f]u x'G5 . o;} k|sf/ 3/df kfn]sf] ;w}+ g'xfpg] . sfd u5{ . %–& lbg laxfg–a]n'sL != cf]/fnf] af6f]df w]/h
} ;f]sf] Go'6ndf sf/ rnfpg] afgL x'G5 . OGwg arfpg
kfNt' hgfj/ h:t}– s's/' , la/fnf]sf s] g ug] { M bfbaf6 kLl8t ;]jg ugf{n] kmfObf ub{5 . o;sf] klg s]xL o:tf] u5{g\ . t/ o;f] ug{n' ] c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/sf] luo/aS;nfO{
dfWodn] klg of] /f]u ;g]{ x'G5 . c+unfO{ gªn] gsGofpg] . lrnfPsf] k|of]un] bfbsf ls6f0f'x¿ x'ls{g gf]S;fgL k'¥ofpg ;S5 . Go'6ndf OGwg ;KnfO{ aGb x'G5 . h;n] 6«fG;ld;gnfO{
5f]8\b}gg\ . o:tf] x'G5 P]lUhdf . of] nIf0f M 5fnfdf bfb @%, %) xftn] z/L/sf] cGo c+u gsGofpg] . kfpFb}gg\ / ;dfKt eP/ hfG5g\ . ;lhn} sfd ug{sf nflu kof{Kt dfqfdf No'la|sG] 6; kfpFbg} . o;n] sf/sf] luo/aS;df
/f]u xft, v'§f, 6fpsf], 5ftL, sfvL, k};f of Ps ?k}ofFsf] l;Ssfsf] h:tf] bfbkLl8t c+usf] ;Dks{df cfPsf] -%_ 6]Nno'l/od– @)) zlQm gf]S;fgL k'Ug ;S5 . o;sf ;fy} o:tf] l:yltdf sf/sf] k]8ndf cS;]n/]6 ul/Fbg} .
bfx|L, gª, ln+u, hfF3, k]6sf] tNnf] uf]nf] cfsf/df jl/kl/ ;fgf] –;fgf] sk8f ;kmf gu/Lsg g nufpg] . z/L/sf] s'g} efudf bfbsf] nIf0f h;sf sf/0f rfnsn] sf/df k"/} sG6«fn] ug{ ;Sb}g . of]eGbf 7"nf] vt/fsf] s'/f x'g
efu / cG8sf]ifdf w]/}h;f] x'G5 . lald/fh:tf] b]lvG5 . t/, aLr ;w}+ g'xfpg] cN5L gug]{ . g'xfpFbf b]lvPdf of] cf}iflwsf] k|of]u pkof]uL ;Sb}g . To;}n] cf]/fnf] af6f]df sf/nfO{ Go'6ndf grnfpg' g} pQd x'G5 . lsgls
lrlsT;sLo efiffdf cfo' j ] { b df efudf ;fdfGo -;kmf_ Tjrf x'G5 . ;fa'gsf] k|of]u sd ug]{ . x'G5 . xftsf] a'9Lcf}+nfsf] cfsf/sf] OGwg arfpg] rSs/df luo/aS;df gf]S;fgL k'lu/x]sf] x'G5 .
o;nfO{ bb\ / Pnf] K ofyL of tfn' v'On]sf] /f]uh:tf] jl/kl/sf] /f}+ 3/]n' pkrf/ M d]jfsf] b"w of bfb, xhfdsf] p:t/fn] pTkGg bfb, @= c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/ rnfpg] qmddf of] uNtL klg ef/L kg{
xf]ldof]KofyLdf o;nfO{ l/ª jd{ cyf{t\ em5{, k'/fgf] lald/f x/fP/ gofF d'nfsf] lapnfO{ sfutLsf] /;df lk;]/ v'hnL, v'§fdf uGxfpg] kl;gf cfpg', ;S5 . DofGo'cn sf/h:t} olb tkfOF rln/x]sf] sf/ /f]Sg'cufl8 g} l/e;{
uf]nf] cfsf/sf] bfb eg]/ lrlgG5 . lald/f lg:sg', bfb ;fgf] /ftf] ds]sf] tftf] agfpg] / laxfg–a]ns' f bfb ePsf] sfgsf] k5fl8 of 6fpsf] k5fl8sf] luo/ xfNg'xG' 5 . o;n] sf/sf] luo/aS; km]n x'g ;S5 . ha tkfOF luo/nfO{
c6f] 6«fG;ld;gdf xfNg'xG' 5 ta Dofs]lghd luo/ l;ˆ6 ug{sf nflu 6«f;ld;g
bfb cf}Fnfsf] cfsf/sf] h:tf] uf]nf] bfgf h:tf]af6 ;' eP/ la:tf/}– 7fpFdf nufpg] . @ rDrf lgdsf] kftsf] PlUhdf, uf]nfsf/ PlUhdf, of bfb -
AofG8 / Snrsf] k|of]u x'G5 . To;}n] hlxn] klg sf/ /f]lsPkl5 dfq 8fOe
x'G5, h;df lrnfO/xG5 . of] /f]u la:tf/} 7"nf] uf]nf] cfsf/df kl/0ft emf]n Ps lunf; kfgLdf /fv]/ laxfg l/ª jd{_ cflb o; k|sf/sf Tjrfsf] df]8af6 l/e;{ df]8df luo/ abNg'k5{ .
Ps lsl;dsf] ;?jf /f]u xf] . Psaf6 x'G5 . 5fnf df]6f] x'g', cTolws / a]ns ' f ;]jg ug]{ . gl/jnsf] t]n /f] u df 6] N no' l /od gfds #= c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/x? nGr -cufl8 a9fpg]_ sG6«fn] lkmr/ /x]sf]
csf{df km}lng] lsl;dsf] /f]u xf] . lrnfpg' cflb . bfb -l/ª jd{_ sf bfb ePsf] 7fpFdf nufpg] . xf]ldof]Koflys cf}iflwsf] k|of]u cToGt x'G5 . tLj| ultdf jf slDkl6;gsf qmddf of] lkm/r/ /fd|f] :6f6{ lbG5 . nGr
of] /f]u Ps JolQmaf6 csf]{df ta nIf0fx¿ d'Vo ¿kdf b]lvG5 . xf]ldof]Koflys pkrf/ M -!_ nfebfos x'G5 . sG6«fn] sf] k|of]u ug]{ qmddf c6f]dl] 6s sf/ rnfpg] w]/h } ;f] gofF rfnsn] /]e
km}lnG5 . ha sf]xL JolQm o; /f]uaf6 s] vfg] M ux's F f] kL7f]sf] /f]6L, j]l;lngd !))) zlQm– !% lbgsf] pk/f]Qm cf}iflwx¿sf] cfˆgf] s'g} a9fpF5g\ / To;kl5 8«fOe df]8df hfG5g\ . o;n] OlGhg / luo/aS;df gf]S;fgL
u|:t JolQmn] k|of]u u/]sf] lrh h:t} eft, d'uF sf] bfn, b"w, vfg] . t/sf/Ldf cGt/fndf o; cf}iflwsf] k|of]u @ glhssf] of] U o tyf cg' e jL k'Ug ;S5 . ;fy} sf/ em6\sf lbP/ cufl8 a9\5 . c6f]dl] 6s sf/nfO{ nGr ug]{ ;xL
tf}lnof, dfn, n'ufx¿ jf lqmd a]y,' d'nf, n;'g, cfn', Kofh / xl/of] dlxgf;Dd ug{' nfebfos dflgG5 . lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx lnO{ k|of]u u/]df tl/sf sf/fnO{ 8«fOe df]8df /fVg'k5{, a|s ] k]8n bafpg'k5{, /]e a9fpg'k5{ / ha
cflbsf] k|of]u ub{5 . bfb wft'ut - ;fu;AhL . kmnk"mndf– cgf/, sfutL, o;sf] ;]jgn] l/ª jd{ 7Ls ePsf] pkof]uL x'g5 ] . nGrsf nflu tof/ x'G5 ta Snrh:t} a|s ] k]8n 5f]8g\ k' 5{ .
$= c6f]dl] 6s 6«fG;ld;g sf/df kfls{ª ug]{ qmddf …kLÚ df]8sf] k|of]u

pd]/cg';f/sf] tf}n slt x'gk' 5{


sf7df8f}F . ;fwf/0ftM pd]/cg';f/ eP !!=* s]hLeGbf a9L x'gk' 5{ . xf] @*=% s]hL;Ddsf] x'gk' 5{ . %# s]hLsf] x'G5 . 5f]/f zf/Ll/s
x'G5 . of] df]8df sf/ kfls{ª ubf{ cufl8–k5fl8 ;g]{ ;Defjgf x'bF g} . ha
tkfOF sf/ kL df]8df /fVg'xG' 5 ta luo/aS; su 3'Dgaf6 /f]Sgsf nflu
kfls{ª kfjnsf] k|of]u ug{x' G' 5 . olb u'l8/x]sf] sf/df olb tkfOF o:tf] ug{e
eg] 6«fG;ld;gdf v/faL cfpg ;S5 . o:tf] ha sf/ l:y/ x'G5 ta dfq of]
df]8sf] k|of]u ug{k' 5{ .
' of]

tf}n x'gk' 5{ eGg] dfGotf 5 . h:tf] ls @ aif{bl] v # aif{sf] aRrfsf] cf}zt !@= ca 5f]/f !) aif{sf] 5 eg] #!=$ ?kdf ;zQm aGg] x'bF f p;sf] tf}n %= 6«flkms nfO6df /f]lsg] qmddf c6f]dl] 6s sf/nfO{ Go'6n df]8df /fVg] afgL
s'g} dlxnf ue{jtL 5g\ eg] pgsf] k]6df tf}n !@ b]lv !$=% s]hL;Ddsf] s]hL / 5f]/L xf] eg] p;sf] tf}n klg :jefljs ?kdf !$ b]lv !* klg cfdeO;s]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L OGwg agfpgsf nflu o:tf] ul/G5 . t/, of]eGbf
a9\b} u/]sf] aRrf xKtfcg';f/ slt x'gk' 5{ . #@=% x'gk' 5{ . of] pd]/af6 5f]/Lsf] aif{sf] pd]/df XjfQ} a9\5 . 5f]/Lsf] /fd|f] afgL olb 6«flkms nfO6df /f]lsg'k¥of] eg] cfˆgf] sf/nfO{ 8«fOe df]8df /fVg'k5{
lasf; eO/x]sf] 5 x]g{ ] ul/G5, ha aRrf &= olb # aif{bl] v $ aif{ pd]/df xf] zf/Ll/s j[l4 lasf; 5f]/Lsf] eGbf tf}n eg] l:y/ klg /xg ;S5 . / a|s
] nufpg'k5{ . o;f] ug{n' ] af/Daf/ luo/aS;sf] k|of]u ug{k' g]{ x'bF g} . ;fy} olb
hGdG5 ta klg aRrf slt dlxgfdf eg] 5f]/fsf] tf}n !$=^ s]hL / tLa| x'g] x'bF f 5f]/feGbf 5f]/L a9L !*= ha !& aif{sf] pd]/ x'G5 ta tkfOFsf] sf/df :6k / :6f6{ l;:6d 5 eg] To;sf] k|of]u ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5 .
slt tf}nsf] eof] / tf}ncg';f/ slt
:j:y 5 eGg]af/] ljZn]if0f ul/G5 .
5f]/Lsf] tf}n !$=! s]hLeGbf dfly
x'gk' 5{ .
tf}nsf] x'G5g\ .
!#= 5f]/f !! aif{sf] 5 eg] p;sf] pd]/
5f]/fsf] dfq zf/Ll/s lasf;
a9\5 eg] 5f]/Lsf] l:y/ x'G5 . cf]v/ vfg'sf] kmfOb} 5'§}
laz]ifu/L hGdbfb]lv !* aif{;Ddsf] *= olb afns $ aif{ k'us ] f] xf] eg] #@=@ s]hL 5 eg] 5f]/Lsf] cf}zt o; pd]/df 5f]/f dfG5]sf] cf}zt sf7df8f}F . cd]l/sf ul/Psf] Ps cWoogcg';f/ lgoldt cf]v/ vfgfn]
dflg;df ;f/Ll/s tf}nsf] dxTjk"0f{ p;sf] tf}n 5f]/f eP !^=& s]hL tf}n @@=& s]hL x'gk' 5{ . tf}n ^@ s]hL x'bF f 5f]/Lsf] cf}zt l8k|z
] gsf] vt/f sd x'G5 / Psfu|tfsf] :t/ /fd|f] x'bF } hfG5 . Soflnkmf]lg{ofsf]
e"ldsf /xG5 . / 5f]/L ePdf !^ s]hL x'gk' 5{ . !$= ca 5f]/f !@ aif{sf] 5 eg] p;sf] tf}n l:y/ cyf{t %$ sf] cf;kf; cg';Gwfgstf{x?n] lgoldt cf]v/ vfg] dflg;x?df l8k|];gsf] ;d:of @^
s' g pd] / sf dflg;sf] tf} n (= ca afns % aif{sf] 5 eg] p;sf] pd]/ #& s]hL / 5f]/Lsf] tf}n #*=& x'G5 . k|ltzt sd kfOPsf] 5 . of] cWoog Go'6G]« 6 hg{ndf k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 .
cf}zt slt x'Fbf /fd|f] x'G5 < !(= ca 5f]/f dfG5]sf] pd]/ !* aif{ cWoogdf lgoldt cf]v/ vfg] dflg;x?sf] z/L/df phf{ a[l4 x'G5, ;fy}
!= ev{/ hlGdPsf] aRrf 5f]/f xf] eg] 5 eg] p;sf] tf}n ^% s]hL x'bF f Psfu|tfdf ;'wf/ NofpF5 . o'lgel;{6Lsf] k|d'v ;f]wstf{ n]gf]/ c/an] Ps
p;sf] tf}n sDtLdf klg #=# s]hL 5f]/L dfG5]sf] cf}ift tf}n l:y/ g} cWoognfO{ pNn]v ub}{ eg]sf 5g\–…cWoogdf ;fd]n ul/Psf ^ hgf o'jfx?df
jf ;f]eGbf dfly x'gk' 5{ eg] 5f]/L /xG5 . Ps hgf rfFlx l8k|];gsf] l;sf/ ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . o;af6 aRgsf nflu
ljleGg cfly{s pkof]uLtfx?sf] cfjZostf, vfgkfgdf kl/jt{g cflb
xf] eg] #=@ s]hL eGbf dfly oxfF xfdLn] !* aif{;Ddsf] pd]/df
cfjZostf kb{5 .Ú ;f]wstf{ c/asf cg';f/ o; cWoogdf @^ xhf/ eGbf
x'gk' 5{ . hlGdFbf aRrfsf] tf}naf/] x'g] cf}zt tf}n af/] hfgsf/L lbof}+ . a9L cd]l/sL o'jfx?nfO{ ;fd]n ul/Psf] lyof] . o:tf 5g\ lgoldt cf]v/
w]/} rrf{ x'gs ' f] sf/0f :j:ytf g} g]kfnLx?sf] !* aif{bl] v dfly $)
xf] . aif{;Ddsf] cf}zt tf}n ^) b]lv *%
@= olb # b]lv % dlxgfsf] aRrf xf] ;Dd x'g' :j:y g} dflgG5 . s;}sf]
eg] p;sf] cf}zt tf}n 5f]/f xf] zf/Ll/s agf}6cg';f/ tf}n a9L x'g'
eg] ^ s]hLeGbf a9L jf 5f]/f xf] c:j:y eGg ldNb}g t/ c:jefljs
eg] %=$ s]hL;Dd x'gk' 5{ . df]6fpg', k]6 nfu]/ tf}n a9\g,' lxF8b\ f jf
#= olb ^ b]lv * dlxgfsf] 5f]/f xf] s'g} sfd ubf{ l56f] yfSg' h:tf
eg] p;sf] tf}n slDtdf &=* s]hL cj:yfdf c:j:ytf x'g ;S5 . To;}n]
x'gk' 5{ eg] 5f]/Lsf] tf}n &=@ jf o:tf] cj:yfdf vfgkfg / Aofofddf
;f]eGbf a9L x'gk' 5{ . Wofg lbg'g} pko'Qm x'G5 . o'jf cj:yfdf
$= ca aRrf ( b]lv !! dlxgfsf] pd]/ cf}ztdf !* s]hLsf] jf/kf/ s]hL cyf{t 5f]/fsf] eGbf emG8} @ dflg; a9L Jo:t x'g,] bf}8w'k tyf ljljw
k'us ] f] 5 eg] p;sf] cf}zt tf}n x'gk' 5{, Plsg eGg] xf] eg] 5f]/f s]hL a9L tf}n x'G5 . sf/0f zf/Ll/s ?kdf :j:y x'g;S5
*=^ s]hLeGbf a9L x'gk' 5{, 5f]/f ePdf !*=& s]hL / 5f]/L eP !%= olb !# aif{sf] 5f]/f 5 eg] p;sf] t/ oxL pd]/df vfgkfgsf] Aofn]G;
xf] eg] ( s]hLeGbf a9Lsf] x'gk' 5{ . !&=& s]hL;Ddsf] x'gk' 5{ . tf}n $)=( s]hL x'gk' 5{ eg] 5f]/Lsf] ldnfpg g;Sbf Jofofd gubf{, vfg]
%= ! aif{b]lv dfly @ aif{;Dd !)= olb afns ^ aif{bl] v * aif{sf] tf}n To;} aif{sf] pd]/df 5f]/fsf] s'/fdf ;do gldNbf tyf dBkfg, vfFbf :jf:ynfO{ x'g] kmfObfx?… .
aRrfsf] tf}n Tolt w]/} a9\bg} t/ aLrdf 5 eg] p;sf] pd]/ @) eGbf emG8} $ s]hL a9L cyf{t\ w'dk| fgsf] sf/0f c:j:y x'g ;S5 . SofG;/ / Xbo /f]uaf6 arfp"5
klg cf};t p;sf] tf}n (=% aif{bl] v @% s]hLsf] x'gk' 5{ . $$ s]hL x'gk' 5{ . o'jf pd]/sf] nfk/jfxL laleGg /f]usf] cf]v/sf] lgoldt ;]jgn] SofG;/, Åbo3ft /f]unufPtaf6 klg arfpF5 .
s]hLb]lv !@ s]hL;Ddsf] x'gk' 5{ . pd]/sf] s'/f ubf{ ^ aif{sf] aRrfsf] !^= ha 5f]/fsf] pd]/ !$ aif{sf] x'G5 ?kdf $) aif{ sf6]kl5 b]lvg ;S5 . o;sf ;fy} sf]n:] 6«fn] klg sd ug{ ;xof]u u5{ .
of] pd]/df aRrf w]/} rNg] zf/Ll/s cf}zt tf}n @)=% s]hL 5 eg] & ta km]l/ 5f]/fsf] zf/Ll/s j[l4 / $) aif{bl] v ^) aif{;Ddsf] pd]/df klg z'qmf0f' u'0f a9fpg d2t u5{
?kdf lxF8g\ sf]l;; ug],{ bfFt cfpg], aif{sf] x'bF f @@=( / * aif{sf] x'bF f lasf; tLa| aGbf p;sf] tf}n a9]/ l:y/ tf}n x'gk' 5{ . t/, To;kl5 eg] ljZje/ k'?ifx?sf] z'qmf0f' u'0fsf] ;d:of 7"nf] ;d:ofsf] ?ndf lnOG5 .
af]Ng], v]Ng dg k/fpg] x'G5 . tf}n @% s]hL;Ddsf] x'gk' 5{ . of] pd]/df $& s]hLsf] x'G5 ta 5f]/Lsf] tf}n tf}n qmdzM 36\b} hfG5 . a'9;] sfndf j}1flgsx?sf cg';f/ k'?ifx?sf] z'qmf0f'u0' f a9fpgsf nflu w]/} pkfox? 5g\ .
!) b]lv !@ s]hL;Ddsf] Aofn]G;df 5f]/Lsf] tf}n 5f]/fsf] eGbf cfwf $* s]hLsf] x'G5 . klg lgoldt Aofofd / vfgkfgdf Wofg cWoogdf klg cf]v/ ;]jg ugf{n] k'?ifx?sf] z'qmf0f' u'0f a9\g] atfOPsf] 5 .
x'bF f /fd|f] x'G5 . s]hLb]lv ! s]hLhlt sd x'g !&= ca !^ aif]{ hjfgL ;'? x'G5 ta lbg] xf] eg] :j:y eOG5 . t/{t:, l/;r{sf] cfwf/df &% u|fd cf]v/sf] ;]jg ubf{ @! b]lv #% jif{aLrsf o'jfx?sf]
^= olb aRrf @ aif{ k'us ] f] 5 eg] ;S5 . zf/Ll/s ?kdf 5f]/f5f]/L b'js } f] pd]/cg';f/ /f]u;Fu n8\g] zlQm / z'qmf0f' u'0fdf a[l4 x'g] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 .
ca p;sf] tf}n slDtdf 5f]/f !!= olb ( aif{sf] 5f]/f xf] eg] @*=! cf}zt :j:y z/L/sf] tf}n 5f]/f zf/Ll/s zlQmdf ;d]t x|f; cfpg] x'bF f cf] v / PlG6clS;8] G 6 klg xf]
eP !@=# s]hLeGbf a9L / 5f]/L s]hL;Ddsf] tf}n x'gk' 5{ eg] 5f]/L eP %* s]hL;Ddsf] / 5f]/L eP :jefljs ?kdf tf}n 36\b} hfG5 . cf]v/ vfFbf hlt ld7f] x'G5, plQs} cf]du] f–# ˆof§L Pl;8–cNkmf–lngf]nl] gs
Pl;8sf] ;fGbf/ >f]t klg xf] . To:t} cf]v/df dfOqmf]–Go'l6«zgx? klg kfOG5g\ .
@)&^ ;fn sflQs !& ut] cfOtaf/ 5

gn'sfpg';\ dfgl;s ;d:of


ljZje/df g} dfgl;s :jf:Yo If]qdf cfFvf kg{ g;Sg', /fli6«o cj:yfdf afx]s Pp6f JolQmn] Ps}
dnd"qaf6} yfxf x'G5 dflg;sf]
cfDbfgL / hLjgz}nL
sf7df8f}F . c:6«l] nofsf] lSjª\;NofG8 o'lgel;{6Ll:yt Pp6f k|of]uzfnfdf
s]xL c;fdfGo gd'gfx? ;+sng u/]sf 5g\ . oL gd'gf c:6«]lnofsf] @)
;d:of Pp6f 7"nf] r'gf}tLsf] ?kdf dfgl;s :jf:Yo gLlt gx'g,' h:tf k6s cfTdxTofsf] k|of; ub}{g .
k|ltzteGbf a9L cfjfbLsf] dfgj dnd"q xf] . c:6«l] nofe/af6 dfgj dnd"q
b] v f k/] s f] 5 . ljZj :jf:Yo sf/0faf6 dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] If]qdf cfTdxTof ug]{ JolQmnfO{ g]kfnsf]
hnzf]wg ;+oGqaf6 gd'gf ;+sng u/L ltgnfO{ lr;f] agfP/ o'lgel;{6Lsf]
;+u7gsf cg';f/ ljZjdf $% s/f]8 pGglt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . dfgl;s sfg'gn] ck/fwL 7fG5 . wd{zf:qn]
zf]wstf{nfO{ k7fOPsf] 5 . oL gd'gfnfO{ c:6«]lnofsf ljleGg ;d'bfosf]
dflg; o; ;d:ofaf6 kLl8t 5g\ . :jf:Yo ;d:ofnfO{ n'sfpg], eGg / kfkL eG5 . ;dfhn] kfgL d?jf,
cfxf/, cf}iflw / afgLsf af/]df hfgsf/L lgsfNg] vhfgfsf ?kdf lnOPsf]
g]kfndf klg ^) nfveGbf a9L pkrf/sf] vf]hL ug{ 8/fpg], cK7f/f] nf5Lsf] pkdf lbG5 . cfTdxTof
5 . oL gd'gfx? ;g\ @)!^ df c:6«l] nofdf ePsf] kl5Nnf] /fli6«o hgu0fgfsf]
g]kfnLx? s'g} g s'g} lsl;dsf] dfGg] u/] s f] kfOG5 . cfˆgf] ug]s{ f] cg'xf/ x]l/of] eg] cult kl/G5
;dodf dflg;sf] 3/3/sf] gfnLaf6 hDdf ul/Psf] lyof] . l/;r{ km]nf] h]s
dgf];fdflhs ;d:of Pj+ dfgl;s ;d:ofeGbf ;xof]u kfpg'sf] ;§f eg]/ cg'xf/ n'sfpFb} / gfs v'DrfpFb}
cf]af| og / kLPr8L SoflG88]6 lkmn rf]On] c:6«l] nofsf ljleGg ;d'bfosf
/f]uaf6 k|efljt ePsf] cg'dfg ;fyLefO, ;xsdL{af6 ckdflgt lxF 8 \ g ] x ¿ klg xfd| f ] ;dfhdf
cfwf/ / hLjgz}nL;DaGwL afgLsf] dfkgsf nflu oL gd'gfx?sf] ljZn]if0f
ul/Psf] 5 . ljZjel/df dfgl;s ePsf] pbfx/0f klg k|;:t e]l6G5g\ . e]l6G5g\ . cfTdxTof ug]s { f] kl/jf/df
u/]sf x'g\ . ;fdflhs / cfly{s ?kdf ;DkGg Onfsfx?df kmfOa/ -/]z]bf/
/f] u Lx?dWo] sl/a @@ s/f] 8 n] cfTdxTof klg g]kfndf hg:jf:Yosf] c? JolQmx¿sf] cfphfp sd x'g]
ef]h_, l;6«; -cldnf] kmn_ / Soflkmg -lrof–skmL_ sf] vkt clws b]lvPsf]
pgLx? atfpF5g\ . sd ;DkGg Onfsfx?df lrlsT;sLo cf}iflwsf] vkt
a9L b]lvPsf] pgLx? hfgsf/L lbG5g\ .
uf]kfn 9sfn, dgf]ljb\ ;+lIfKtdf eGg] xf] eg] zf]wstf{x?n] wgL ;d'bfo a9L vfgkfgdf Wofg
5 . dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] If]qdf sfd
ug]{ hgzlQmsf] sdLnfO{ a[l4 ug{k' 5{ .
dfgl;s :jf:Yo sfo{stf{ lgdf{0f
ug{'k5{ . :yfgLo tx;Dd dfgl;s
:jf:Yo ;]jf k'/fpg h?/L b]lvG5 .
hLjgdf sl7gfO cfOkbf{, b'Jo{jxf/,
cGofodf kbf{, lje]b / nfG5gf
nufpbf cflbh:tf cj:yfdf
dfgl;s ;d:ofdf kg]{ ;Defjgf a9L
x'g] ePsfn] a]n}df dgf];fdflhs
;xof]u lng / lbg l9nf ug{' x'Fb}g .
ljBfno afnd}qL x'gk' 5{ . ljBfyL{nfO{
hLjg pkof] u L ;Lk l;sfP/
dgf];fdflhs ;d:ofsf] hf]lvdnfO{
lbg] / pgLx?sf] cfxf/ :j:ys/ /x]sf] kfOPsf] atfP . zf]wstf{x?n] klxn]
sd ug{ ;lsG5 . j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf
g} ;}4flGts ?kdf o:tf] lsl;dsf] hfFr ;Dej ePsf] atfPsf lyP .
hfg] o'jfx?sf] nfuL dfgl;s :jf:Yo
gfnLsf] kfgL hfFr ubf{ s'g} klg ;d'bfosf] ef]hg / cf}iflwsf] vktaf/]
tflnd, tgfj Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ;Lk
e/kbf]{ hfgsf/L cfpg ;Sg] pgLx?sf] egfO lyof] . rf]O{ / cf]a|fogsf
pkrf/af6 al~rt x'g' k/]sf]5 . Pp6f 7"nf] ;d:of / r'gf}ltsf ¿kdf tyf kfgL af/faf/;Dd u/]sf] kfOG5 . l;sfpg h?/L b]lvG5 .
cg';f/ o; tl/sfn] dflg;sf] hLjgz}nLdf eO/x]sf] abnfjsf] jf:tljs
g]kfn h:tf] ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zdf eg] b]vf kb}{ uPsf] 5 . g]kfndf klg dfgl;s /f]u tyf cfTdxTofk|ltsf] dfgl;s :jf:YonfO{ ;jn agfpg
;+st] kfpg ;lsG5 . o;n] ;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo gLlt agfpg klg d2t ldNg]
% hgf /f]uLdf $ hgfn] t pkrf/} cfTdxTof ug]{sf] ;+Vof k|To]s jif{ unt a'emfO{ wf/0ff / ;f]rdf kl/jt{g cfˆgf b}lgs /xg;xg, vfgkfg,
pgLx?sf] bfaL 5 . gfnLsf] kfgLsf] hfFr u/]/ s'g} klg ;d'bfosf] vfgkfg
kfpFbg} g\ . dfgl;s :jf:Yosf ljifodf j[l4 x'Fb} uO/x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf w]/} cfpg cfjZos 5 . hLjgz}nLdf ;'wf/ ug{k' 5{, hLjgdf
/ cf}iflwsf] vktaf/] hfgsf/L lgsfNg] lj1fgnfO{ cklzi6 hn dxfdf/L
hgr]tgf km}nfpg], o; If]qdf ePsf cfTdxTof x'g] !) cf]6f b]zx¿dWo] dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] ;Da4{ g / cK7] / f] cj:yf cfOkbf{ cfkmGt
lj1fg elgG5 . of] lj1fg sl/a b'O{ bzsb]lv k|of]udf 5 .
;d:of, r'gf}tL Pj+ pknlAwsf ljifodf g]kfn & cf}F :yfgdf kb{5 . g]kfndf cfTdxTofsf] /f] s yfdsf pkfo ;fyLefO / lj1sf] ;xof]u lng kl5
o'/f]k, pQ/ cd]l/sf / cGo b]zdf of] lj1fgsf] k|of]u ljz]ifu/L gZn
5nkmn tyf k}/jL ug]{ h:tf ljljw k|To]s lbg ;/b/ !^ hgf JolQmn] dfgl;s ;d:ofnfO{ klg zf/Ll/s kg{' x'bg} . dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] ;Da4{g
cf}iflwsf] k|of]udf lgu/fgL /fVg ul/G5 . lgsf]l6gh:tf] j}w cf}iflwsf] k|of]usf]
p2] Z osf ;fy k| T o] s jif{ !) cfTdxTof ug] { u/] s f] ;/sf/L ;d:of em}+ ;xh ?kdf lng' k5{ . / k|j4{gsf nflu ;a} lgsfoaLr
lgu/fgLsf nflu klg of] lj1fg sfd nfU5 . s]xL zf]wstf{x?n] la/fdL
c:6'a/sf lbg ljZj dfgl;s :jf:Yo cfFs8fn] b]vfpF5 . kl5Nnf] ;do dfgl;s ;d:ofsf] ljifodf 5nkmn– ;xsfo{ x'g' k5{ . ;a} ;/f]sf/afnf
km}lng'cl3 To;nfO{ kQf nufpg]df o;sf] k|of]u ug]{af/] ;f]lr/x]sf 5g\ .
lbj; dgfOFb} cO/x]sf] 5 . j} b ] l zs /f] h uf/Ldf uPsf s'/fsfgL ug]{ / ;d:of kbf{ pkrf/sf] AolQm, lgsfo ;+3;+:yf P]Soj4tfsf]
t/, dflg;sf] cfxf/sf af/]df kQf nufpgsf nflu o; lsl;dsf] hfFr
ljZj dfgl;s :jf:Yo ;+3sf] o'jfo'jtLx¿df ;d]t cfTdxTof vf]lh ug{ kl5 kg{' x'Fb}g . dfgl;s h?/L k5{ . cfˆgf] dfgl;s :jf:Yo
clxn];Dd ;}4flGts g} lyof] . cfxf/ / cf}iflwsf] vkt kQf nufpgsf nflu
cu'jfOdf ;g\ !((@ b]lv ljZj el/ 8/nfUbf] ¿kdf a9]/ uPsf] 5 . /f]u lgsf] x'g] /f]u xf] . cf}ifwLsf] cj:yfk|lt AolQm :jo+ klg hfgsf/
;j]{If0f ul/G5 . t/, gfnLsf] kfgLsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ s'g} vf; hnu|x0f
g} of] lbj; dgfpg yflnPsf] xf] . ljZjdf k|To]s $) ;]s0] 8df Ps ;] j g, dgf] k /fdz{ tyf / rgfvf] x'g'k5{ . cfTdxTof /
If]qdf To;sf] cf};t pkof]usf] dfkg ug{ ;lsG5 . rf]Osf cg';f/ ;j]I{ f0fx?df
of] jif{sf] ljZj dfgl;s lbj;sf] gf/f hgfn] cfTdxTof u5{ eg] k|To]s # k'g:yf{kgfh:tf pkrf/ ljlwåf/f of] dfgl;s /f]usf] af/]df v'n]/ s'/f
cf}iflwsf] k|of]u jf ef]hgsf af/]df ;f]Wg dflg;n] slxn]sfxLF cfˆgf]
dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] ;Da4{ g / ;]s0] 8df ! hgfn] cfTdxTofsf] k|of; /f]usf] pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . dlxnf ug{'k5{ . wd{ kl/jt{g u/]/, efsn
jf:tljstfeGbf a9L /fd|f] /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . dflg; :j:y ef]hgsf] vktsf
cfTdxTofsf] /f] s yfd elg to ug]{ ub{5 . o;/L x]bf{ k|To]s jif{ afnaflnsf o'jfo'jtL h]i7 gful/s u/]/, wfdLemfFqmL nufP/, dfgl;s
af/]df w]/} / ;]S;sf af/]df sd s'/f u5{g\ . cf]a|fogsf cg';f/ cklzi6
ul/Psf] 5 . g] k fndf dfgl;s ;/b/ * nfveGbf a9L JolQmn] o; ;d:ofaf6 a9L k|efljt x'g] /f]u lgsf] x'bF g} . a]nd} f o;sf lj1nfO{
hnsf] ljZn]if0f b'O{ k|dv ' tl/sfn] pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . klxnf] ;d'bfoaLr
:jf:Yosf] If]q cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5 . cfTdxTofaf6 cfˆgf] Hofg u'dfpg] ePsfn] o:tf au{ / ;d"xk|lt a9L b]vfpg' k5{ . dfgl;s :jf:Yosf]
u}/a/fa/L klxrfg ug{ / bf];f| ] ;dosf ;fy tL ;d'bfodf cfpg] abnfjdfly
dfgl;s /f]uLnfO{ ckx]ngf ug]{, u/]sf 5g\ . of] ;+Vof o'4, b}jL k|sf]k, ;+j]bgzLn x'g'k5{ . cfTdxTofsf] ;Daw{g / k|jw{g tyf cfTdxTofsf]
gh/ /fVg . …olb tkfOF ;sf/fTds abnfjsf nflu s]xL nfu" ug{ uO/xg'ePsf]
pkrf/ gu/fpg], afFw/] jf y'g/] /fVg], ;8s b'3{6gf, dxfdf/Lnufotsf k|d'v sf/0f dfgl;s /f]u ePsfn] /f] s yfddf ;~rf/ dfWodfsf]
5 eg] oL pkox?sf] ;kmntfsf] dfkgdf ;Ifd x'g' cfjZos 5Ú, pgn] eg] .
vfg glbg], sfd / lhDd]jf/L tyf sf/0fx¿af6 x'g] d[To'´eGbf w]/} xf] . dfgl;s /f]usf] a]n}df pkrf/ ug{' dxTjk"0f{ e'ldsf /xG5 . o;df
gfnLsf] kfgLdf s]jn dnd"q dfq xf]Og, To;df k;{gn s]o/ pTkfbg,
clwsf/af6 al~rt u/fpg], e"t– ljZjdf dlxnfsf] t'ngfdf k'?ifsf] cfTdxTof /f]syfdsf] k|dv ' pkfo xf] . ;~rf/ dfWodx?n] ;+j]bgzLn eO
ef]hgsf 6'qmfx?, cf}Bf]lus / Jofj;flos kmf]xf]/ klg x'G5 . zf]wstf{n]
k|]t jf af]S;L nfUof] eg]/ pkrf/sf] cfTdxTof ug]{ b/ emG8} b'O{ u'0ffn] dfgl;s /f]u cfTdxTofk|ltsf] unt ;sf/fTds e'ldsf v]Ng' k5{ .
ef]hgsf] Tof] ;+s]t kQf nufpg'Yof] h;df s]jn dfjg dnd"qdf x'G5 .
gfddf tftf] kGo'n] 8fDg] h:tf a9L 5 . kGw|b]lv @( aif{ ;d"xsf wf/0ffnfO{ x6fpg o; ljifodf -n]vsM 9sfn dfs{ g]kfn dgf];j] f
cWoogn] kmfOa/sf] vkt;Fu hf]l8Psf b'O{ ;+s]tsf pkof]u u¥of] . klxnf]
Jojxf/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;n] /f]uLsf] AolQmsf] d[To'sf] bf]>f] sf/0f cfTdxTof r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{' s]Gb|sf cWoIf x'g\_
af]6la?jf / cGgdf kfOg] / bf];|f] cldnf] kmnk"mndf kfOg] . kmfOa/ /
cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/df;d]t 7"nf] xf] . g]kfnsf] kl/k]Iodf dlxnfx¿df clt h?/L 5 . cfTdxTof ug{' cufl8
cldnf] kmn b'j} ;]jg :j:y cfxf/df ;fd]n ul/G5 . ;fdflhs / cfly{s
pkxf; eO/x]sf] 5 . cem} klg xfd|f] klg cfTdxTof ug]{ ;+Vof a9L 5 . ljleGg lsl;dsf nIf0fx¿ jf
;dfhdf dfgl;s :jf:Yok| l t
JolQmsf] a' e mfO{ , wf/0ff, ;f] r
ljZjdf dlxnfx¿n] a9L cfTdxTof
ug]{ b]zx¿df g]kfn tf];|f]df kb{5 .
;+s]tx¿ b]vfpg] ub{5 . cfTdxTof
ug{'k"j{ AolQmn] b]vfpg] nIf0fk|lt
5f]/f;/x pGglt u/]sf ;d'bfodf oL b'j} lrhsf] vkt a9L b]lvof] . pRr ;fdflhs
tyf cfly{s ;d"xdf eg] Soflkmgsf] ;]jg clws b]lvof] . vf;u/L dxFuf
Onfsfdf .
;sf/fTds x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . dfgl;s n}lËs lx+;f, 3/]n' lx+;f, of}g zf]if0f, ;+jb] gzLn eO p;nfO{ plrt ;xof]u
:jf:YonfO{ sn+ssf] ?kdf x]l/G5 .
dfgl;s :jf:Yo ;d:of b]vfkbf{ s'n
anTsf/, nf~5gf, n}lªus lje]b,
cfly{ s k/lge{ t f, bfOhf] k| y f,
ug{k' 5{ . o:tf] cj:yfdf p;n] a]nd} f
3/kl/jf/, ;fyL;ËL jf ljz]if1sf]
5f]/LnfO{ bf];f| ] cWoogn] of] k'li6 u¥of] ls :gfts jf Tof]eGbf a9L l8u|L kfpg]x?
P:k|];f] / u|fpG8 skmLsf] ;]jg af/Daf/ u5{g\ . ;fdflhs cfly{s ?kdf
sdhf]/ ;d'bfodf 6«df8f]n -b'vfO sd ug]{_, P6]gf]nf]n -xfO{ An8 k|];_ /
lju|s] f], b]ptf r9]sf], dftf r9]sf], >Ldfg\n] ;f}tf Nofpg' tyf dlxnfx¿ ;xof]u kfPdf cfTdxTofsf] ;f]r jf
k|U] ofalng -PG6Ll;h/_ h:tf cf}iflwsf] vkt clws b]lvof] . oLdWo] P6]gf]nf]
af]S;L nfu]sf], wfdL pq]sf] eGb}
gh/cGbfh ug] { kl/kf6L xfd| f ]
;'Ts]/L ePkl5 x'g] Ps k|sf/sf]
dfgl;s /f]u/l8k|];g -kf]i6kf6d
k| o f;nfO{ /f] S g ;lsG5 .
ljBfnox?df dfgl;s :jf:Yosf
:s'n k9\g / k|]Uofalng cf}iflwsf] j[4j[4f / sd cfP ePsf ;d'bfon] a9L u/]sf]
kfOPsf] 5 . leS6f]l/ofsf] l8lsg o'lgel;{6Ldf dxfdf/L lj1fgsL k|f]km];/
;dfhdf 5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df o; l8k| ] ; g_sf sf/0f g] k fndf ljifodf cem} klg k7g–kf7g x'bF g} ,
Sofyl/g a]g]6sf cg';f/ of] cWoognfO{ gofF :t/df nlug'k5{ . pgn]
jif{sf] gf/fsf] ;fGble{stf cem} a9L
5.
dlxnfx¿sf] cfTdxTof ug]{ b/ a9L
ePsf] x'g ;S5 . cfTdxTof ug]{
kf7oqmddf dfgl;s :jf:Yo ljifo
;dfj]z ug{k' b{5 . dfgl;s :jf:Yosf] k7fcf}+ . elgg\, …dxfdf/L lj1fgdf xfdLn] of] tl/sfn] kl/l:yltsf] cWoog ug{ ;S5f}F .
xfdL JolQmut cfFs8f geP/ ;fd"lxs cfFs8fsf] cWoog u5f}{+ .Ú
h}ljs /f;folgs, ;fdflhs Pj cj:yfdf k'Ug'sf] k5fl8 w]/} sf/0fx¿ ah]6 guGg] 5 o;nfO{ a[l4 ug{' h?/L
dgf]a1} flgs sf/0fn] dfgl;s ;d:of x'g ;S5g\ . cfTdxTofsf] () k|ltzt

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+


b]vf kg]{ xf] . ablnbf] ;dflhs sf/0f eg] dfgl;s /f]u g} ePsf]
kl/j]z, a}bl] zs /f]huf/L, j]/f]huf/L, kfOG5 . To;df klg l8k|];g d'Vo
u/LaL, cfw' l gs/0f, ;fdflhs xf] . l8k|]zgdf k/]sf em08} !% b]lv
;~hfnsf] k|efj, nfu'kbfy{sf] ;]jg, @) k|ltzt AolQmn] cfTdxTof ug{
kfl/jfl/s emd] n f, /fhgLlts ;Sg] hf]lvd x'G5 . Ifl0fs cfj]udf
cj:yf, h:tf sf/0f tTjsf] sf/0f
g]kfndf dfgl;s ;d:of a9\b} uPsf]
kfOG5 . dfgl;s ;d:of h'g;'s}
pd]/, lnË, hft, wd{, au{ / ;d"xsf
JolQm hf];s ' n
} fO nfUg ;S5 . lzIff,
cfP/ lg0f{o lng] Ifdtf u'dfpFbf jf
cToflws hfF8, /S;L, nfu" kbfy{sf]
;]jg tyf s8fvfnsf dfgl;s /f]u
nfu]/ klg JolQmn] cfTdxTof ug{
;S5 . cfTdxTofsf] ;f]r cfpg' k|of;
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
r]tgfsf] sdL, dfgl;s :jf:Yosf
If]qdf ljBdfg cGwljZjf;, bIf
ug{', dfgl;s /f]us} Pp6f nIf0fsf]
?kdf lng' k5{ cfTdxTofsf] k|of;
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
hgzlQmsf] sdL, ;/sf/L pk]Iff, jf:tjdf ;xof] u sf nflu Ps kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
ah]6sf] sdL, bft[ lgsfosf] o; k|sf/sf] lrTsf/ g} xf] . ljz]if
6 @)&^ ;fn sflQs !& ut] cfOtaf/

k|d] / ljjfx M dgf]j1} flgs ljZn]if0f


k|d] / ljjfxn] dfgj hLjgdf 7"nf]
dxTj /fVb5 . xfdL ljjflxt hf]8LnfO{
clt g} dxTjk"0f{ 5 t/ o;sf cg]sf}F
cfofdx? 5g\ . ltgLx?sf] AofVof 5'§}
cj:yfcg';f/ clt sf]dn x'G5 .
j}jflxs hLjgdf jf:tljs k|d ] sf]
xf}+, To;}n] xfdL b'O{hgf ldn]/ Ps}
;fy lxF8f},F Ps} ;fydf a;f}+ .Æ h:tf
em'k8Lsf] ;kgf
– k|lt/f]w
b]Vbf kfpFb5f} ls ljjfx kl5 k|d] cln 5 . j}aflxs ;DaGw k|d] / cGt/ cToGt} dxTj 5 . zAbx? bofn' efjfgfdf eg{df
sd x'bF } hfG5 . t/, kl/jfl/s hLjg cfTdfsf] ldngsf lgldQ g} agfOPsf] h;sf] hLjg;fyLsf] efjgfTds Pscsf{ s f] k| ] d nfO{ ;lha of] lemlnldnLeGbf
;kmn agfpg dflg;df k|d] sf] cToGt xf], To;nfO{ a9fpg g} o:tf] ;DaGw k|d] sf] ufu|f] el/Psf] x'G5, p;}sf] k|d] sf] agfpFb5g\ .
cfjZostf kb{5 . k|d] nfO{ cToflws ufFl;G5 . ljjfx g} Tof] 7fFp xf], Tof] ;'/Iffsf] cg'ej ug{ ;S5 . To;af6 k|d
] n] cfu|x u5{ dfu ub{g} .
n'6sf] :ju{eGbf
k|efjsf/L ?kn] cleJolQm ug{] tkfO{sf] sfd xf] h'g 7fpFdf -k|d] dfof lk/tL_ g} ;Dk"0f{ ;+;f/ /ª\uLg b]lvg yfN5, ljjflxt hf]8Ln] cfTdLotfnO{ ljsl;t ;of}+ lsnf]ld6/ 6f9fsf] em'k8Laf6
k|of;, hLjg;fyLsf] Jojxf/df e/ sf] ufu|fn
] fO{ eg{ ;lsG5 . hltv]/ htf;'s} pHofnf] b]lvg yfN5 . ug{] xf] eg] t Psn] csf{sf] OR5f
v'l;ofnL pTkGg x'g yfN5 clg kl5 hfGg cfjZos x'G5 . To;}u/L d x/]s /ft Pp6} ;kgf b]lv/xGy]F
ldng cfkmGt cfˆgf] hLjgsf]] v';LofnLsf] prfO;Dd
;lhn} k'Ug ;S5 . dflg;n] ug{] k]d|
Pscsf{k] l| t k|d] ug{ rfxG5g\ eg] t
cfˆgf];fd' /x]sf] JolQm jf dg k/fPsf]
Tof] ;kgf g} d]/f] hLjg lyof]]
k|d] / ljjfxsf] cleGg c+u xf] . eg]sf] :jR5 dgf]ejgf / /fd|f] JoflQmn] s] s'/f rfx]sf] 5, Tof] s'/f d]/f] hLjg bz{g lyof]]
;a}vfn] ;+:s[ltdf pkfxf/ lbg' Jojxf/åf/f g} ug{ ;S5 . dflg; a'em\g' kb{5 . ha tkfO{n] cfˆgf]
eg]sf] k|d] / ljjfxsf] k|lqmofdf 9'u+ fnfO{ b]jtf dfGg ;S5 eg] Ps hLjg;fyLl;t cfu|x ug{x' G' 5, ta of] wtL{sf ;ft ca{ dfG5]
Pp6f c6'6 c+u g} dflgG5 . dfgjn] csf{] dfgjnfO{ k|d] ug{ lsg tkfO{ n ] p;sf] of] U otf / / ltgsf efjL ;GttLsf] eljio lyof]]
;Sb}g < t/, dfgjn] dfgj aGg :jfledfgLnfO{ ;sf/fTds ;dy{g lbg'
pkxf/ lbg' / lng' k|d] sf] cleJolQm
klg xf] . pkxf/ eg]sf] k|d] nfO{
;Sg'k5{, bfgj xf]Og . x'g t k|d] df x'G5 . pl;t klg Ifdtf 5, p;n] t/ crfgs
8'as ] f] cg'ej clt g} /f]DffGrs x'G5 s]xL ug{ ;S5 eGg] efjgf bzf{pg'
b]vfpg] vfnsf] k|lts xf] . t/ Tof] yf]/} ;dosf nflu cfTds]lGb|t x'G5 eg] tkfO{sf nflu cy{k0" f{ tyf lxhf] ;Qfn] x'sd' hf/L u¥of]
pkxf/nfO{ ljrf/sf] ;"rs klg eGGf ;lsG5 . pkxf/ eg]sf] x'G5 . h'g k|d] n] tkfO{sf] hLjg;fyLsf] dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . Psn] csf{] JolQmnfO{ ;kgfdfly k|ltaGw nufOof]
Ps ?k}ofF klg Ps s/f]8 h:t} x'g ;S5 . pkxf/sf] 5gf]6 efjgfTds cj:yf k|d] df ;fFrf] ?kn] ul/Psf] cfu|xdf 5gf]6 ug{ kfpg]
ug{' klg Pp6f 7"nf] snf xf] . cfk"mnfO{ dgkg{] dflg;nfO{ of]ubfg lbG5, Tof] ts,{ OR5f / tTj n'ss ] f] x'G5 . tkfO{sf] ;fyLn] d]/f] hLjg bz{gnfO{ cft+ssf/L s/f/ ul/of]
cfˆgf] /f]hfO{sf] pkxf/ lbg' eg]sf] dxfg\ sfo{ xf] . cg'zf;gdf cfwfl/t x'G5 . o;}u/L Tof] cfu|xnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ klg ;S5g\,
g} k|d] df kl/jt{g / k"0f{tfsf] ;Defjgf lsgeg] k|d] sf] cy{g} 5gf]6 ug{' xf] . clg, ;Qfsf] /]l8of]n] km'Sof]
kb{5 . cfˆgf] hLjg ;fyLsf] k|d] ;"q k]d| b'at} km{ ;dfg x'G5 ta ljjfxsf] /x]sf] x'G5 . h'g;'s} k|]dL / k|]dLsfsf] lardf em'k8Ldf a:g]x¿n] ;kgf b]Vg' x'bF g} Û
hfGg / To;nfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ pRrtd k|:tfj /fVg ;'/ ug'k{ 5{ lsgeg] ;a} kltkTgLn] j}jflxs hLjgdf k|d] do cfk;L ljZjf; / ;xdtLsf sf/0fn]
k|of;sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . k|]d dflg;x?n] o; s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]sf jftfj/0f Nofpg Ps csf{sf] tfl/km g} k|d] lbuf] x'G5g\ .
ljleGg k|sf/sf x'G5g\ . t/, ljz]if 5g\, k|d] df 8'Ag' g} /fd|f] / ;'vbfoL ug{ kl5 kg{' x'bF g} , lgoldt ?kdf k|rlnt c+uh ]| L plQm 5 hLjgdf
?kdf k|]d zAbn] k]|dL–k]|ldsf jf j}jflxs hLjgsf cfjZos hu xf] . ul/Psf] k|of]un]] j}jflxs hLjgdf pRRf ;kmntf k|fKt ug{] Pp6f l;4fGt 5,
kltkTgLx? aLrdf cGt/cfTdfb]lv ljjfx x'ge ' Gbf klxn] xfd|f] ;kgfx? :t/df p7fpg ;lsG5 . klt b]jn] Tof] xf] –k|d] ug{ l;Sg' . k]d| nfO{ lbuf] ;Qfn] k|ltaGw nufPsf]
g} b|ljt eP/ aflx/ b]lvg cfpg] Jf}jflxs hLjgsf] ;'v / cfgGbsf s'g} /fd|f] sfd ug{e' of] eg] To;sf] k|z;+ f agfpg] xf] eGf] kltkTgL Ps} ;fydf
efjgfTds :j?k / lqmofsnfkx? af/]df x'G5g\ . ha tkfO{ k|d] df 8'Ag' ug{ kTgL kl5 kg'{ x'bg} eg] KfTgLsf] a;]/ ;do Joltt ug{' kb{5 . d]/f] Tof] ;kgfdf
Kfb{5g\ . x'G5 ta c? s'/fdf ljZjf; ug{klg ?ksf] ;d]t ktLn] v'n/] } tfl/km ug{' kltkTgL zfGt jftfj/0fdf cfgGb
;fF9] b'O{ cIf/n] ag]sf] …k|d] Ú zAb ufx|f] x'G5 . To;}n] elgG5 k|d] cGwf] kb{5 . ta dfq j}jflxs hLjg a;]/, lbgdf s]xL ;do dfq eP klg g zf]if0f lyof]
cltg} dxTjk" 0 f{ 5 . ;fdflhs x'G5 . olb s'g} JoflQm g} k|d] df 8'as ] f] ;kmntfsf] uf]/]6f]df cufl8 a9\g cfˆgf dgf]efj JoQm ug{ ;Sg'k5{, g pTkLl8t lyof]]
lrGtsx? Dfflg;sf] hLjgdf k]d| sf] cg'ej JoQm u5{ eg] p;n] cfˆgf] ;Sb5 . cfˆgf] hLjg;fyLsf] nflu To:tf] k|ltj4 ;do g} k|d] sf] ;"q
s]lGb|o e"ldsf x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf Psdt r/d ;Ldf;Dd /f]dflGrt x'G5 . pT;fxj4{s of k|/] 0ff lbg] vfnsf leq k5{ . kltkTgL ;f]kmfdf a;]/ g t o'4 g}
5g\ . cg]sf} bfz{lgs, j}1flgs tyf xfdLx? efjfgfTds ?kn] Psn] zAbx? Kf|of]u ug{' kb{5 . pT;fxsf] cy{ l6=eL= x]ge {' Gbf To;nfO{ aGb u/]/
ljrf/sx?n] k| ] d sf dxTjk" 0 f{ csf{l] ;t olt w]/} k]d| u5f{} ls x/]s xf]– ;fx; lbnfpg', xf};nf lbg' . xfdL Psn] csf{n ] fO{ x]g,]{ Ps cfk;df s'/f ToxfF t jf:tljs zflGt lyof]]
kIfx?nfO{ pRr :yfg lbPsf 5g\ . ;do Pscsf{sf] ljifodf ;f]lr/x]sf ;a}hgfn] s'g} g s'g} 7fpFdf c;'/Iffsf] ug{] -rfx] cfˆgf dgf]efj x'g jf ;dfgtf lyof]]
dgf]j1} flgsx? Kflg cfˆgf] cWoog x'G5f}F . xfdL hLjgel/ Pscsf{sf] cg'ej u5f{,} xfdLdf ;fx;sf] sdL x'G5, 3/fo;L / Jojxfl/s x'g_\ ug{k' b{5 .
tyf dgg kl5 o:tf] lgisif{df k'us ] f ufnfdf DjfO{ vfg yfN5f} clg cFufnf] o;}sf] sdLsf] sf/0f hlt;'s} /fd|f] sfd o;sf] cy{ of] klg xf] ls Ps} ;fydf ;fFrf] d'lQm lyof]]
5g\ ls k|d] kfpg' xfd|f] klxnf] dfgjLo dfg{ kfof}F eg] ljjfx / k/d cfgGbsf] ug{ rfx] klg ug{ ;Sb}gf}F . tkfO{s + f] ldn]/ 3'D' g hfg' jf s'g} /]i6'/0] 6 cyjf
efjgf xf] . cflTdo cfjZostf xf] . ;kgf cem alnof eP/ hfG5 . hLjg;fyLsf] leq cGt/cfTdfdf n'ss ] f] xf]6ndf vfgf vfg hfg' clg cfdg]– Gofo lyof]]
xfdL dfgjsf lgldQ k]d| olt cfjZos xfdL b'O{ bDktLsf nflu k]d| eGbf of]Uotf, Ifdtf Tolta]nf dfq b]lvg ;fdg] -d'vfd'v_ eP/ s'/f ug{' . :jfwLgtf lyof]]
5 ls o;sf l;dfgf g} 5}g . Pshgf 7"nf] s'/f s]xL x'g ;Sb}g . xfdLx? ;S5g\, ta tkfO{n] pT;fx a[l4 ug{] k|ltj4 ;dosf] d'Vo p2]Zo xf], ;Fu;Fu}
k|l;4 k|rf/ssf] egfO 5, æk|]d Pscsf{sf] ;'Gb/tf / cfsif{0fdf g} vfnsf zAbx?sf] k|of]u u/]/ pl;t a:g' PsTjkg d]/f] cy{df eg] k|d] lyof]
gul/sg xfdLn] h]hlt / h:tf] s'/f cfj4 x'g5 ] f} . of] ;do o:tf]–o:tf] af]Ng'xG' 5, ta p;df /x]sf] c;'/Iffsf] lgs6tf dfq xf]Og . Ps} ;fydf
kfpF5f}, Tof] clGtddf uP/ Joy{ g} x'G5, h;n] xfdLnfO{ k|d] do hLjgsf] efjgf ;dfKt eP/ hfG5 . tkfO{sf a:g'sf] cy{ xf], Ps csf{l;t s]lGb|t ;kgfd} eP klg b]z slxNo} ?Fbg} Yof]
x'G5 . hLjgdf k|d] ePg eg] ;a}s } /' f ;a}eGbf crDdsf] cg'ej ePsf] pT;fxk"0f{ zAbn] tkfO{s} hLjg;fyLsf] /x]sf] Psfu|tf . xfdLn] Ps} ;fydf xTof x'bF g} Yof] of]4fx?sf]
vfnL g} x'G5, clg hLjg lg/; x'G5 .Æ k|lts x'G5 . xfdLn] k]d| sf] jf:tljstf nflu hLjgsf] klxnf] sbd rfNgsf a;]/ Ps} vfn] ;f]r ljrf/ tyf
hLjgdf tLgj6f rLhsf] clt g} dxTj yfxf kfpg' kb{5 . Ps dflg; k]d| sf] nflu cfjZos / ;fxl;nf] k|/] 0ff lbg ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df hLjg rnfpg' /ftf/ft x/fpFbg} y] l;dfgfsf :tDex?
5– ljZjf;, cfzf / k|]d . t/, ;fy;fy} Jojxfl/s aGb5, Toltv]/ ;S5 . clg hLjg;fyLk|lt Psfu| ?kdf Wofg
logLx?dWo] k|d] g} dxfg\ dflgPsf] 5 . OR5f cfsfFIffx?df km/s cfpg k|d
] df uNtLx?sf lx;fa–lstfa lbg'kb{5 . s'g} ;dfg ultljlwdf ;do lbgfg'lbg n'l6b}gYof]
k]|dn] g} 3lgi7tf / lgs6stfdf
NofpbF 5 g\ . zflGt tyf cfgGb
yfN5 . t/, kltkTgLn] ;Demf}tf u/]/
cfˆgf] hLjgofqfnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg'
/flvg' x'Gg . k|d ] df lalt;s]sf ;do
/ sfdsf] c;kmntfsf] klg s'g}
ljtfpg' jf /fd|f] s'/fsf] k|bz{g ug{'
eg]sf] Psn] csf{k] l| t Wofg lbg' xf] .
Ps caf]w aflnsfsf] cl:dtf
lbnfpg] sfd ub{5 . k|]d k|z:t kb{5 . hLjgdf kmf]6f] Nofpg' x'bF g} . dxTj /xF b } g , o;sf] n] v fhf] v f lsgls xfdLx? Ps csf{l] ;t ldn]/ d'lQmsf] cfsf+IffnfO{ ck/fw 7x¥ofpFbg} Yof]
dfqfdf kfP/ dfq aRrfx? Jfo:s / j}jflxs hLjgdf ;Rrf k|d] Tolt a]nf ul/Fb}g . xfdLx?dWo sf]xL klg sfd ug{ dg k/fpF5f} . j}jflxs
lhDd]jf/ aGg ;Sb5g\ . k|d] geO{sg dfq ;'? x'G5, hlta]nf To;k|lt cfbz{jfg 5}gf}F . bfDkTo hLjgdf hLjgnfO{ k|d] do agfpg kltkTgLn] r]tgf dfly aGb]h nufOb}gYof]
h'g;'s} aRRff klg ejgfTds ?kn] cfzlQmkgfn] dl/d]6g\ ] sfdnfO{ TofUg xfdL ;a}n] ;a} sfd 7Ls u5f}{ eGg] af]nLrfnLdf klg Wofg lbg'kb{5 . ;kgfd} eP klg a]lrb}gy] gf}hjfgx?
;dfh leq Go'g ?kdf dfq ljsl;t ;lsG5 . To;kl5 ;xh / oyfy{ x'Fb}g . xfdLdWo] sltn] s}of}F k6s ;xfg'e"tL k"0f{ jftf{nfk h;df
eP/ a:g ;S5g\ / Tolts} ?kdf cj:yfdf :yfoL k]d| sfod x'g ;S5 . cfˆgf] hLjg;fyLnfO{ efjgfTds rf]6 b'Oh { gfn] cfˆgf] cg'ej, ljrf/, efjgf s]xL xhf/ 8n/sf] l;qmLdf afFlwP/
ljsl;t ePsf klg 5g\ . k|]ddf jf:tljs k|d] eg]sf] Tof] k]d| xf] h'g k'¥ofPsf 5f} . h]xf];\ xfdLn] clttnfO{ / OR5f ldqtf k"0f{ k[i7e"lddf
8'Agsf lgldQm klg ;j{ky| d k]d| g} ;f]rljrf/ u/]/, ts{ ljts{ u/]/ abNg ;Sb}gf}F t/ cfˆgf uNtLx?nfO{ cfbfgk|bfg ug{;S5g\ . o; ljifodf o'/f]ksf uNnLx?df
rflxG5 . clg ha;Dd xfdL hLljt 5flgPsf] ljsl;t cj:yfdf x'G5 . eg] ;xh} :jLsf/ ug{ / ;Rofpg kltkTgL rgfvf] x'gk' b{5 . k|ltj4 vf8Lsf d?e"ldx?df Û
/xG5f},F ta;Dd o;sf] cfjZostf OlGb|osf] cfjZostf k'/f ug{} lqmof t ;S5f} . hlt v]/ s'g} uNtL u5f}{ s'/fsfgLdf ;xfg'el' tk"js { s'/f ;'GGf'
kl/g} /xG5 . s;}åf/f k|d] , dfof ddtf af;gf dfq xf] . xfdL ;a}n] o:tf] Toltv]/ ;Rrf Åbon] dfkmL dfUof} dfq xf]Og, Tolt g} dfqfdf af]Ng klg
kfpg' eg]sf] klg d'Vo ?kdf xfd|f] efjgfsf] ljsf; ug{ ;Sg' k5{ . ædnfO{ eg] t xfdLl;t Gofodf dfkmLsf] cfjZos x'G5 .
k|sl[ t xf], To;}n] xf]nf, cfˆgf] hLjg dfof lbg tyf ug{ s;}sf] cfjZostf ljsNk /xF b } g . olb xfdLn] pkxf/ M k|d] / ljjfxsf] cleGg Tof] d]/f] ;kgfdf
;fyLåf/f OR5f ul/g' jf dg k/fpg' 5 . dnfO{ p;n] 5fgf];,\ k|d] ug{sf Pscsf{ k | l t cGt/+ u ;DaGwdf, c+u xf] . ;a}vfn] ;+:s[ltdf pkfxf/ lgzfsf] sfnf] ;fd|fHonfO{ lr/]/
cyfjf k|]d ul/g' x/]s JolQmsf] lgldQ To:tf] s'g} /fd|f] u'0f b]vf];\ cfTdLotf agfOPsf] xf] eg] xfdLn] lbg' eg]sf] k|d] / ljjfxsf] k|lqmofdf
cfsf+Iff leq g} k5{ . clg dfq ;xL k|d] x'g / ug{ ;lsG5 .Æ Pscsf{ s f] OR5f, efjgf hfGg Pp6f c6'6 c+u g} dflgG5 . pkxf/ x/]s /ft log} b[Zox? pbfpFy]
dfgj hfltsf] cl:tTjdf s;}åf/f k] | d sf lgldQ cg] s f} F k| o f; / cfjZos x'G5 . olb xfdLn] cfk;df lbg' / lng' k|d] sf] cleJolQm klg
ul/g] leqL OR5f n's/] a;]sf] x'G5, cg'zf;gsf] ;d]t cfjZostf k5{ . k|d ] ug{ rfxG5f}F eg] cfˆgf] k]d | L jf xf] . pkxf/ eg]sf] k|d] nfO{ b]vfpg] em'k8Ldf cfzfsf] /Qm;~rf/ x'GYof]
oxL OR5f k" l t{ cyjf cGt/+ u of] t cfˆgf] OR5fåf/f cfk"mn] rfxgf k]|ldsfn] s] rfx]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f vfnsf] k|lts xf] . pkxf/nfO{ ljrf/sf] h;nfO{ ;Qfn] vt/f ;lDemof]
;DaGwsf] kl/k"lt{sf lgldQ ljjfx ug{] u/]sf] JolQmn] ;d]t kmfObf lng ;sf];\ a'em\g'k5{ . cfˆgf] hLjg;fyLsf] ;"rs klg eGGf ;lsG5 . pkxf/
Joj:yf ul/Psf] xf] . o; sf/0f eGg] x'gk' b{5 . o:tf] vfnsf] k|d] åf/f efjgf a'em]/ sfd u/] dfq j}jflxs eg]sf] Ps ?k}ofF klg Ps s/f]8 h:t} /, Pp6f ;kgf la?4
kltkTgLnfO{ Ps ?k jf Ps /ysf cfk"mn] rfx]sf] JoflQmsf] hLjg klg hLjg ;kmn x'g]df s'g} z+sf 5}g . x'g ;S5 . pkxf/sf] 5gf]6 ug{' klg
b'O{ kfªu|f elgPsf] xf] . o;sf] o:tf] v';L ;d[l4zfnL x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] lxhf] s f lbgx?sf] Pp6f 7"nf] snf xf] . cfk"mnfO{ dgkg{] aGb'ssf] kN6g kl/rflnt u¥of]
kbf{ klg nufpg vf]lhPsf] xf]Og, k'li6 ug{] vfnsf] x'G5 . k|d] df 8'aN' sL c;kmntfaf6 d'Qm eP/ jt{dfgsf] dflg;nfO{ cfˆgf] /f]hfO{sf] pkxf/ lbg' h;sf] k|ltpQ/df
pgLx?n] cfˆgf] JolQmut cl:tTj g} dfg{] cj:yfdf k]d| L–k]l| dsf] u'0fnfO{ klg lbgx?df cfGfGbn] afFRgsf lgldQ eg]sf] dxfg\ sfo{ xf] . k|d] / ljjfxdf
u'dfpg' k5{ jf u'dfpF5g\ . a? dxTj lbg'kb{5 . ?kdf dfq 8'a/] k|d] k|lt1f ug{ ;S5f} . dfkmL lbg'eg]sf] w]/} s'/fn] dxTj /fVb5g\ . To;nfO{ d}n] ;kgfnfO{ lakgfdf abNg
pgLx?n] Ps csf{sf] hLjgsf] ulx/fO ug{' x'bF g} . cfˆgf] dfG5]sf] afgL Joxf]/f, k| ] d sf] cleJolQm xf] . uNtLsf] olt ;fgf] n]vdf ;d]6g\ ] c;Dej 5
/ 3lgi7 ;DaGwåf/f cfGtl/s a'l4, OR5f, Kf|lti7f ;a}sf] Wofg lbg' abnfdf d ltdLnfO{ dfof u5{' d}n] t/ klg k|d] / ljjfxdf dgf]j1} flgs gofF df]rf{ s;]sf] 5'
;DaGwlt/ k|az ] u5{g,\ pgLx?sf] kb{5 . cfj]z / xtf/df cfP/ ul/Psf ltd|f] Vofn /fv]sf] 5', d}n] ljl;{Psf] 9Ën] ljZn]if0f ug{] k|oTg u¥of}+ . xfdL qmflGt jf alnbfgsf] df]rf{
aLrdf cflTdotf a9] / hfG5 . s'g} klg sfd nfdf] ;do;Dd rNg 5}g, To;}n] ltdLnfO{ dfkm ug{] ;f]rfO{ klg Pscsf{nfO{ dfof u¥of}+ / ljZjnfO{
dflg;x?sf Jojxf/df k|d] sf] :yfg ;Sb} g . To;df klg k| ] d t agfPsf] 5' . ltdL d]/f] hLjg;fyL k|d] do agfcf}=F == . ljho jf d[To'sf] df]rf{ Û Û
@)&^ ;fn sflQs !& ut] cfOtaf/ 7

;+s6u|:t k'h“ Ljfb / ;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf ;'gf}nf ca;/x?


xfdLn] k| f oM x/] s 36gfsf] k]; ug{ k]rbf/ k|Zgsf] lgdf{0f Tolts} ;dfhnfO{ laefhg u/]/ Aofkfl/s hf]8]kl5 ;a{xf/f >lds au{ / la:tf/n] ljZj ;fd| f HojfbLx? dfS;{ j fbLx? c;kmntfsf] d" n
;+Zn]if0f / laZn]if0f clwe"tjfbL plAhPsf] 5 . k'FhLjfbsf] k|of]unfO{ a9jf lbP . dhb' / au{ Ps 7fpF d f pleg cflQPsf 5g\ . dfS;{jfbsf] lasf; sf/0f
pQ]hgfsf] 6'kf]af6 u/]/ k'Ub}g ;dfh dfS;{jfbsf] a}1flgstf / ;dfh lrlgofF gf}nf] hgjfbL qmflGtn] afWofTds kl/l:yltdf laZjAofkL k|lqmofdfnfO{ tL; xhf/ aif{ k'/fgf] Pp6f o'udf Pp6fsf] larf/n]
lasf; / h;sf] AofVof P]ltxfl;s lasf; lagfz / ljsNk Aofkfl/s k' F h Ljfb;F u n8] / ;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf nflu ;'Gb/ dfgj ;Eotf / emG8} cf7 xhf/ aif{ ;dfh lasf;sf] qmddf u/] s f]
ef}ltsjfbL sf]0faf6 u/]/ dfq ;Dea ;dfh bf;o'u ;fdGtjfbL o'u laZjAofkL k'h
F Ljfbsf] k|fosf] ;Gb]z jftfj/0f to x'g] b]lvG5, h;n] k' / fgf] alu{ o dfgj ;dfhsf] lasf;nfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] dfS;{jfbL
x'G5 a:t'sf] P]ltxfl;s ef}uf]lnsjfbL x'bF } laZj k'h
F Ljfbdf k|jz
] x'bF f;Dd lbg ;kmn /Xof] . To;kl5 ;+;f/el/ e'd08lns[t k'FhLjfbsf] Ph]G6sf] P]ltxfl;s cWoog ug]{ xf] eg] Ps sDo' l g:6 cfGbf] n g ;kmntf /
AofVofn] dfq} p:sf] unt / ;xL dlxnf / >lds au{n] pTkL8gsf sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngk|ltsf] cfsif{0f ¿kdf v8f ul/Psf ax' / fli6« o ;o Ps xhf/ aif{sf] dfS;{jfbsf] c;kmntfsf] af6f]nfO{ uDeL/ cWoog
hGd d[To'sf] af/]df :ki6 1fg k|fKt xhf/f}+ sfnv08df gf/sLo lhag 3lge"t a9]/ uof] emG8} t]x|–rf}w k'FhLjfb / bnfn k'FhLjfb Ps ;fy Oltxf; t'ngf ubf{ dfS;{jfb tf]ta] f]nL u/f}F h;n] hgtfsf] au{al} /n] cfˆgf]
;vfk x'G5g\ h;sf] a}1flgs k|of]u af]Ng yfn]sf] lzz' h:t} xf] . o;sf] cflwkTo sfod} /fVg ?kx? abn]/
;+;f/;]g k[ys lasl;t ¿kdf dfS;{jfbsf] x'g]
b]lvG5 . t/, jf:tljs ¿kdf b]v]
v'zL / ;'Gb/ kf6f] s] 5 eg] k|rf/
lasf; k|of]usf] Oltxf; x]bf{ ;f9]
cfpF5 . Tof];uF k|ltjfb ug{ ;Sg]
ljrf/df b]lvPsf] ck'Utfg} dfS;{jfbL
x/]s /fi6«df ePsf] ju{;3+ if{sf] Oltxf; klg ;d:of eg] s } dfS;{ j fbsf] b'O{ xhf/ aif{ klxn]bl] v lgdf{0f ePsf] c;kmn b]lvG5g\ . csf]l{ t/ emG8} cf7
cWoog ubf{ kmf]6f]skL u/]/ qmflGt a}1flgstf eg]s} lasl;t 36gfsf] wfld{s bz{gsf] ;d]tsf] k|of]u cWog xhf/ aif{ k'/fgf] juL{o cv8f t'?Gt}
u/]/ cufl8 a9\g] aLrdf cfOk/]sf] lasl;t r]tgfsf] lasf; ug{df ePsf] 5}g . af}4 bz{g cWoog eTsfpg To;sf] cfwf/ /
laZj ;a{xf/f ju{;+3if{sf] g]t[Tjsf] gu/]sfx?df ;d]t dfS;{jfb a'‰g] / pkl/;+/rgfnfO{ gofF ¿kdf lng
lasl;t c;lhnf] cj/f]wnfO{ a}1flgs ;d:of xf] . x/]s /fi6«df ePsf] cWoog ug]{ k|lqmofdf 5g\ . laZjsf dfS;{jfbLx?n] a}1flgs s;/t gug{'
tj/n] l5rf]Ng g;s]/ jl/kl/ 3'dL ju{;+3if{sf] Oltxf; cWoog ubf{ tL; k|ltzt ;d'bfodf O:nfd wd{sf klg xf] . x/]s /fi6«df ljleGg ;dodf
/fVg] 3'dGt] uf]nrSs/df km:g] kmf]6f]skL u/]/ qmflGt u/]/ cufl8 af/]df yfxf 5}g . emG8} !%% nfO{ ;sf/fTds ;dfhjfbL qmflGt ePsf
a9\g] aLrdf cfOk/]sf] lasl;t O;fO{ wd{sf af/]df yfxf 5}g . t/, 5g\ . t/, sDo'lg:6 g]tT[ j 5}gg\ hxfF
cGttf]uTjf blIf0fkGyL ca;/jfb tyf c;lhnf] cj/f]wnfO{ a}1flgs tj/n] dfS;{jfb laZjsf &)% ;d'bfosf] sDo'lg:6sf] g]tT[ jdf ;dfhjfbL qmflGt
cfTd;dk{0fjfbsf] nfOgdf /f]lsg' g} l5rf]Ng g;s]/ jl/kl/ 3'dL /fVg] lbdfudf k' u ] s f] 5, kfZrfTo ePsf] 5 . ToxfF dfS;{jfbdf yk
d"n ;d:of b]Vof] e'd08lns[t pbf/ 3'dGt] uf]nrSs/df km:g] cGttf]uTjf larf/sx? ;d] t n] dfS;{ j fb a}1flgstf x'g g;Sg' cg'ejjfbsf]
cy{gLltsf lj?4df ;zQm k|ltsf/ ug{ blIf0fkGyL ca;/jfb tyf clxn];Dds} ;a}eGbf pTs[i6 bz{g af6f] lxF8\g' h;sf] k5fl8 cfpg]
cfTd;dk{0fjfbsf] nfOgdf /f]lsg' g} xf] eg]/ :jLsf/ u/]sf] cj:yf xf] . dxflakQLdf qmdeËtf cu|ufdL
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qmflGtsf/L g] t fx?s} g] t [ T jdf cj:yfdf @)&^ sflt{s % ut] /ftL prfOdf p7fcf}ÚF zLif{ssf] /fhgLlts ePsf] atfPsf] 5 . O{;6] sf h]s d'/ eG5g\ æcfˆgf] df]afOndf s'g s'g Pkx¿ 5
c;dfgtf / cGofosf] cGTo unf{ !@ ah] kmfl;i6 ;/sf/sf] k|x/Låf/f eg]/ x]g{] / ;do;dodf efO/; 5 ls eg]/ x]g{] ug{k' 5{ .Æ æcfk"mnfO{ yfxf gePsf]
eGg] ck]Iff u/]sf lyP t/ ;/sf/sf] k|ltqmflGt, oL cfhsf s6';To ag]sf k|:tfj / kl/kq cWoog / 5nkmn
5g\ . To;sf/0f oxL cj:yfdf g]kfnsf] slyt ;+ljwfgsf] alv{nfkm ul/of] h;nfO{ kf6L{sf ;Dk"0f{ lgsfodf Pk b]lvPdf Tof] s] xf] eg]/ OG6/g]6df vf]Hg] / d]6g\ ] ug{k' 5{ .Æ æ;lhnf]sf] nflu
ofqf 7Ls pN6f] ePsf] 5 . ub}{ ;Dk"0f{ tfdfª hflt, ;d'bfosf] s'g} klg Pk tkfO{F rnfpg' x'Gg eg] To;nfO{ d]6g\ ' g} pko'Qm x'G5 .Æ >Ldfg\ jf
c;kmntf 9fs5f] k ug{ k| l taGw ;/sf/n] jftf{sf] k|oTg ug{ ;Sb}g . ;Dk|i] f0f ug]{ / To;nfO{ s8fOk"js {
jftf{nfO{ s]jn if8\oGqsf ?kdf dfq efjgf, dd{nfO{ 7]; k'¥ofpg] u/L bnfn sfof{Gjogdf n}hfg] lg0f{o ul/of] . >LdtLn] cfk"mdfly :6s/j]c/ k|of]u u/]/ hf;';L u/]sf] yfxf kfPdf To;n]
/ bdg dfgl;s ;d:of Nofpg] atfOG5 . ;]km/ Kn];sL h]Ddf 6\jG] 6g elG5g\ æo;n]
k|of]u ug{ ;S5 . ;/sf/n] cdfgjLo, ceb|, lgs[i6 $= a}7sn] ;Qfsf] ;fdflhs bnfn
s'ga} n] f o:tf] ;do lyof] dgdf]xg Jojxf/ kb| z { g ub} { ljgfsf/0f dflg;sf] ljZjf; ug]{ Ifdtf sd u5{ . pgLx¿n] pks/0fnfO{ ;xof]uL j:t'eGbf
clwsf/Lsf] k|wfgdGqLsfndf s]lk ljKnj / k| s f08nfO{ l;Wofpg] kmfl;jfbL rl/q, kf6L{leq b]vfk/]sf]
/0fgLlt lu/ˆtf/ u/L lx/f;tdf /fVg] sfd cfTd;dk{0fjfb, ju{;dGjojfb / klg xltof/sf ¿kdf b]V5g\ .Æ æpgLx¿sf nflu k|ljlw hfn aG5 / w]/n } ] k|ljlw
cf]nL u[xdGqL lyP / s]xL dfG5]x?n] u/]sf]k|lt 3f]/ eT;{gf ;d]t u/]sf] k|of]u ug}{ sd u5{g\ .Æ æo;n] tkfO{s F f] afFr~' h]n k|efj kf5{ . :6s/j]c/sf]
:t'ltufg ufPsf lyP– æcf]nLsf] g]kfnsf] qmflGtsf/L cfGbf]ngdf cfTd;'/Iffjfb, g]kfndf cGt/f{li6«o
Pp6f gofF ;fx; / phf{sf ;fy 5 . tfdfª /fli6«o d'lQm df]rf{, If]qaf6 x:tIf]ksf ¿kdf b]vfk/]sf] k|of]u a9\g' uDeL/ s'/f xf] .Æ -lala;L_
u[xdGqLsfndf Pp6f dfG5] klg g]kfnsf sfo{afxs cWoIf k]ª bf]h]{
3fOt] x'g' k/]g .Æ t/ ha pgL cufl8 a9]sf] g]tT[ jsf ?kdf ljKnj lxGb–k|zfGt /0fgLlt, ef/tLo lxGb'jfb,
/ k|sf08sf] g]tT[ j :yflkt ePsf] nfdfn] cfOtaf/ k|; ] lj1lKt lgsfnL o'/f]kn ] L lqmlZrofgLs/0f / ;‹Lotf, Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg] lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . Pjd\ j}1flgs ;dfhjfb—;fDojfbsf
k|wfgdGqL eP pgL Pp6f z}tfg tfdfª ;d'bfosf] juL{o d'lQm;Fu} !!= a}7sn] s]kL jnLsf] bnfn nflu nl8/x]sf xfd|f] kf6L{, xfd|f g]tf
h:tf] k|wfgdGqLdf kl/0ft eP . of] 5 . t/, clxn] ;fd|fHojfbLx? s'g} b]zleqsf] ;fdflhs ljs[lt, lj;Ëlt,
klg axfgfdf ljKnj / k|sf08nfO{ hftLo d'lQm, tfD;flnª :jfoQ k|bz ] e|i6frf/nufot lj?4 Jofks e08fkmf]/ ;/sf/n] rnfPsf] bdg, w/ks8 / / sfo{stf{x¿ of] d"No r'sfP/ g}
r/d ;QfpGdfbsf] ljifo lyof] . / cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/;lxtsf] g/;+xf/sf lj?4 ;a} lhNnfx¿df ;ef, dxfg\ p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]df
;Qfdf k'us ] f] zf;sx?n] a'l4 k'¥ofP l;Wofpg] /0fgLlt agfO/x]sf 5g\ . tyf ;‹if{ ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 .
s;}n] ljKnj / k|sf08nfO{ n]lgg / :jfoQtfsf] lglDt lg/Gt/ lqmofzLn %= s]kL jnLsf] ;fdflhs bnfn h'n;' , cGt/lqmof, ljrf/–uf]i7Lnufot :ki6 5f}F . o;sf nflu xfdL tof/
eg] b]z / hgtfn] d'lQm kfpF5g\ dlxnf g]t[ ;'GtnL yf]s/ tfdfªnfO{ sfo{qmd ug],{ kf6L{ :yfkgf lbj;, x'Fb}gYof}F eg] dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf]
eg] zf;sx?n] xf]; k'¥ofPgg\ eg] :6flngsf] ?kdf ;d]t ljZn]if0f ug]{ ;/sf/n] xfd|f] kf6L{lj?4 ckgfPsf] e|d
u/]sf 5g\ . k|ltlqmofjfbLx? ljKnj t' ? Gt l/xfO{ gu/] cfd tfdfª 5g]{ / bafa lbg], jftf{sf] xNnf ug]{ / hgo'4 lbj; / ;lxb ;KtfxnfO{ eJo v/fgLaf6 xfd|f] hglk|o kf6L{ g]kfn
7Ls pN6f] x'G5 . cf]nL / bfxfnsf] ;d'bfo k|lt/f]w ;+3if{df pqg afWo ¿kdf dgfpg], ;lxb kl/jf/, a]kQf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / PsLs[t hgqmflGt
u7aGwgn] b]znfO{ hah{:t u[xo'4df / k|sf08nfO{ km'6fpg ;lsG5 ls jf bdg a9fpg], ;j{bnLo ;xdlt u/L
s'g} k|nf]egdf s'g} PsnfO{ tfGg x'g]5 / o;af6 pTkGg s'g} klg kmfl;jfbL bdgnfO{ a9fP/ u[xo'4df kl/jf/, 3fOt], ckfË of]4f, aGbL hGdfpg ;Dej x'g] lyPg . xfdL x/]s
ws]Nb} 5 . hl6n kl/0ffdsf] lhDd]jf/ :jod\ kl/jf/, k'/fgf / kfsf cfbz{jfg\ u2f/L, 7Ss/ / alnbfgaf6 lsl~rt\
s] u[xo'4af6 b]zn] d'lQm kfpF5 ;lsG5 ls eGg] k|oTgdf 5g\ t/ ws]Ng] / cfly{s gfsfaGbL u/]/
Tof] ;Defjgf gb]vk] l5 pgLx? xTof ;/sf/ x'g] r]tfjgL;d]t lbPsf x'g\ . 3]/faGbL ug]{ /0fgLltsf lj?4 rf}tkmL{ /fhgLltssdL{x¿nfO{ ;Ddfg tyf ljrlnt geO{ c¿ :kfltnf] aGb}
t < cfh ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn tfdfª /fli6«o d'lQm df]rf{, g]kfnsf clegGbg ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . hfg]5f}F . xfd|f] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw dfq jf cfhLjg h]ndf ;8fpg] if8\oGqdf ¿kdf e08fkmf]/ / hfu/0f Jofks kfg],{
tlNng ePsf] ;xh} b]Vg / a'em\g sfo{afxs cWoIf k]ª bf]h]{ nfdfn] kf6L{ rf}tkmL{ x'g] / hg;DaGw lj:tf/ cGTodf a}7sn] cfjZos ;fË7lgs k'Ug] ofqfnfO{ s;}n] /f]Sg ;Sg]5}g .
nufOPsf] 5}g ls OGsfpG6/sf] lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\, …;fdflhs lhDd]jf/L x]/km]/;lxt bnfn k'h F LjfbL h;n] /f]Sg vf]Hb}5 clGtddf pm g}
gfddf xTof;d] t ul/Psf] 5 . ;lsG5 . ljKnj, k|sf08, s~rg / ug],{ ;lqmo /Iffdf /xL ;'b9[ eP/
;'bz{gsf] Pp6f ;fd'lxs g]tT[ jaf6 bnfn kmfl;jfbL s]kL jln g]t[Tjsf] k|lt/f]w ;‹if{nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] lg0f{o ;Qf / ;fdflhs bnfn ;/sf/sf] r/d v/fgL x'g]5 . PsLs[t hgqmflGt
u}/Goflos lx/f;t, bdg / oftgfsf c;kmn–e|i6 ;/sf/sf] lgb]{zgdf bdg / k|ltaGwsf aLr klg k|lt/f]w ljhoL eO5f8\g5 ] .Ú
ldzg g} rnfOPsf] 5 . cfTd;dk{0f g]kfnL qmflGt cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . a}7sn] u/]sf] 5 .
of oftgfsf] /f0fgLlt ljsf; ul/Psf] kmf;LjfbnfO{ k5fg] { lhNnf k| x /L sfof{ n o sfe| ] a f6 ^= a}7sn] tTsfnLg ;‹if{sf ¿kdf ;‹if{nfO{ lg/Gt/ cufl8 a9fpg] g]tf– g]kfns}====
k| l t/f] w sf] ck] I ff vl6Psf k|x/Låf/f xfd|f] dxfg\ tyf ;' b vf] / , ld6/Aofh] , e" d flkmof, sfo{stf{, ;xof]u ug]{ hgtf, ;dy{s– ofqf ug{k' g]{ cj:yf lyof], t/ k'n
5 . kl5Nnf] k6s jL/h+u;lxtsf] uf}/jzfnL ;+u7g tfdfª /fli6«o z'elrGts / ldq zlQmx¿k|lt xflb{s lgdf{0f eP;Fu} !% ldg]6leq} jf/kf/
hDaf] 6f]nLnfO{ lx/f;tdf lnP/ lglZrt} ?kdf k|ltaGw kl5 dfgjt:s/, nfu"kbfy{ sf/f]af/L, ljiffbL
cfhsf lbg;Dd qmflGtsf/L zlQm d'lQm df]rf{, g]kfnsf] s]Gb|Lo ;lrj /S;L a] r lavg, sfnf] a hfl/of, wGojfb;lxt cfef/ k|s6 u/]sf] 5 . ug{ ;lsg] ePsf] 5 . …k'n gx'bF f
;/sf/n] ljhof]T;j h:t} dgfPsf] /fKtL gbL jf/kf/ ug]{ b'j}tkm{sf
5. a9L /IffTds / sd cfqmfds ;'GtnL yf]s/ tfdfªnfO{ ljgfsf/0f
3/df ;'lt/x]sf] cj:yfdf ldlt
of}gJofkf/, wd{Jofkf/, e|i6 /fli6«o– j} 1 flgs==== :yfgLojf;LnfO{ w]/} ufx|f] lyof] .
;/sf/L kmf;Ljfbsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . ;/sf/ cfqmfds 9+un] cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿dflysf] jnLsf] kmfl;jfbL ;/sf/n] xfd|f]
cufl8 a9]sf] 5 / p;n] cfk"mnfO{ @)&^ sflt{s % ut] /flt !@ ah] hgsf/afxLnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] lg0f{o kf6L{sf] /fKtL Ao'/f]sf] a}7s tyf avf{sf] ;dodf vf]nf a9]/ jf/kf/
cf} l rTo k' l i6 x' g ;s] g ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf g} x'bF g} Yof]Ú, pgn]
;kmn ePsf] lgisif{ lgsfln/x]sf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/ tyf nf] s tGqsf] u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} xfd|f] kf6L{sf lj?4 /fhgLlts k|lzIf0f eO/x]sf] 7fpFaf6
/fhgLlts ?kdf ;/sf/n] h'g Go"gtd\ d"No dfGotfsf] pkxf; ub}{ eg], …eg]sf] a]nf ;jf/L;fwg klg
cf/f]ksf cfwf/df ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] cfdhgtfn] ;/sf/sf] lj?4 cln ;LcfO{8L – ;'/fsL ug],{ h]n–lx/f;tdf kf6L{ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf dWoklZrd
7"n} k|lt/f]wsf] ck]Iff u/]sf 5g\ . dlxnf clwsf/sf] b'xfO{ lbg] kmfl;i6 /x]sf xfd|f sd/]8x¿dfly s'6lk6 / sdfG8 OGrfh{ sd/]8 jL/hË, /fKtL gkfP/ jf/kf/ ug{ x}/fg x'GYof] .
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw ;/sf/sf] k|x/Låf/f cdfgjLo, ceb|, ca k'n lgdf{0f eP;Fu} !% ldg]6df
nufPsf] lyof], To;sf] cf}lrTo k'li6 hgtfn] kmf;LjfbL gfËf] gfr b]Vg b'Jo{jxf/ ug]{ ;'/IffsdL{, h]n/ / gfOs]– Ao'/f] OGrfh{ sd/]8 ;'jf;, Ao'/f]
rfx]sf 5}gg\ . ;/sf/n] b]znfO{ km]l/ lgs[i6 Jojxf/ kb|zg{ ub}{ lx/f;tdf rf}sLbf/dfly klg s8f lgu/fgL / ;b:ox¿ sd/]8 ;ljg, o'jf ;Ë7gsf cfjthfjt ug{ ;lsg]5 .Ú
x'g ;s]g . ;/sf/n] k|ltaGwsf /fVg] sfd u/]sf] 5 . cfd tfdfª of] k' n lgdf{ 0 f ePkl5
;fy;fy} g] t f sfo{ s tf{ x ?sf] klg bL3{sfnLg hgo'4df ws]Ng sf/afxL ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . cWoIf kf6g, a]kQf of]4f kl/jf/
rfx]sf] 5 eg] ljb|fx] L zlQm PsLs[t ;d'bfosf] juL{o d'lQm;Fu} hftLo &= a}7sn] ck/ s0ff{nL, Pg;]n, ;dfhsf cWoIf ;'Gb/, ?s'd OGrfh{ cfocfh{gdf 6]jf k'Ug]5 . lhNnfsf]
u}/Goflos lu/ˆtf/L, lgu/fgL, bdg, d'lQm, tfD;flnª :jfoQ k|b]z / b]pv'/L If]q s[lif pTkfbgsf nflu
oftgf x'bF } OGsfpG6/sf] gfddf uf]nL hgqmflGtsf] cfwf/x? ljsf; ug{df slyt j}1flgs jg, cj}w 9'Ëf, lu§L, rGb|, /f]Nkf OGrfh{ ;Gtf]if, bfª
nfluk/]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts / j}rfl/s cfTdlg0f{ o sf] clwsf/;lxtsf] afn'jf pTvgg\, h8La'6L t:s/, sAhf OGrfh{ ljqmd, ;Nofg OGrfh{ dxTjk"0f{ dflgg] ePsfn] oxL If]qdf
xfgL xTof ug]; { Ddsf xs{tx? u/\of] . :jfoQtfsf] lglDt lg/Gt/ lqmofzLn k|wfgdGqL s[lif kl/of]hgfcGtu{t ds}
;/sf/ cfqmd0f, xTofx?sf] z[+vnf ?kdf kmf;Ljfb k/f:t ePsf] 5 eg] hldg laqmL u/L vfg] bnfnx¿dflysf] ljZj;lxt b' O { bh{ g g] t f tyf
;}Go ?kdf dfq pm l6s]sf] 5 . cfh dlxnf g] t [ n fO{ g] k fnsf] slyt sf/afxLnfO{ lg/Gt/ cufl8 a9fpg] sfo{ s tf{ x ¿nfO{ /ftsf] @ ah] ;'k/hf]g sfo{qmd klg ;~rfngdf
g} rNbf klg ljKnjsf] kf6L{n] xltof/ ;+ljwfgsf] alv{nfkm ub}{ ;Dk"0f{ tfdfª 5 . t/, k'nsf] cefjdf :yfgLo
rnfPsf] 5}g . oxfF;Dd ls kl5Nnf] cf]nL / bfxfnsf] ;Qf oltlj£g tyf lghL 3/x¿df /fv]sf Pg;]n 6fj/ lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] 5 . pQm ;fdflhs
cnf]slk|o ePsf] 5 ls of] cfkm}+ hflt, ;d'bfosf] efjgf, dd{nfO{ 7]; / clkm;x¿ x6fpg hgtfnfO{ cfXjfg kmfl;jfbL luˆtf/Lsf] kf6L{ 3f]/ lj/f]w ls;fgn] s[lif pTkfbgsf] ahf/Ls/0f
k6s g]tf jL/h+u;lxtsf] @! hgfsf] k'¥ofpg] u/L of] bnfn ;/sf/n] u/]sf] ug{ ;s]sf lyPgg\ . k'n lgdf{0f ePdf
6f]nLnfO{ dWo/ftdf lu/ˆtf/ ug{ lj36gsf] ;+ 3 f/df k' u ] s f] 5 . ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . Pjd\ eT;{gf ub{5 .Ú
;/sf/sf jfSslbSs ePsf 5g . lu/ˆtf/Lsf] 3f]/ eT;{gf ub{5f}F . ;fy} *=a}7sn] kf6L{leq b]vfk/]sf] dxf;lrjsf] lj1lKtdf cufl8 /fKtL gbLkfl/sf ls;fgsf] s[lif
hfF b f klg p;n] Pp6f xltof/ lu/ˆtf/ g]t[ ;'GtnL yf]s/ tfdfªnfO{ pTkfbgsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ 7"nf]
k8\sfPg . bdg u/]/ lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ hgtfsf] l56f]eGbf l56f] oL e|i6 cfTd;'/Iffjfb, cfTd;dk{0fjfb, elgPsf] 5, …;fy} >lds hgtfsf]
g]tfx?nfO{ h]n xfNg] zlQmsf] vf]hLdf t'?Gt l/xfO{ ug{ clkn ub{5f}+ . ju{;dGjojfb, cy{jfbsf lj?4 ;‹if{ clwsf/, b]zsf] :jfwLgtfsf kIfdf ;xof]u k'Ug ;f] If]qsf k|bz
] ;ef ;b:o
jf s] x L g] t fx?sf] xTof u/] / cGoyf, cfd tfdfª ;d'bfo k|lt/f]w OGb|lht yf¿n] atfP .
qmflGtsf/L zlQmnfO{ l;WofpF5' eGg] ef}tfl/Psf 5g\ . klxnf] s'/f hgtfn] ug]{ k|lta4tf;lxt s]kL jnLsf] bnfn / /fi6«3ft, e|i6frf/, s/5nL, dxFuL,
pGdfbn] ;Qf?9 g]tfx?sf] ;+sL0f{tf qmflGt rfxG5g\ . klxnf] rfxgf k"/f ;+3if{df pqg afWo x'g5 ] / o;af6 /fHo;fd' cfTd;dk{0f ug]{ kf6L{ / t:s/Lsf lj?4 nl8/x]sf xfd|f g]tf– g] s kfåf/f ls;fgnfO{ = ===
geP hgtf lg/fzf / k|ltzf]wsf] pTkGg s'g} klg hl6n kl/0ffdsf] h=j=;=sf ;Dk" 0 f{ ;b:ox¿nfO{ sfo{stf{dflysf] bdgsf] s8f k|lt/f]w nflu C0f lnPsf] atfP . pgn] ls:tf
/ tfgfzfxL k|j[lQnfO{ cfdhgtfsf lhDd]jf/ :jod\ ;/sf/ x'g5 ] .Ú
;fd'Gg] 5tf5'Nn kfl/lbPsf] 5 . ctM af6f]lt/ hfG5g\ To;n] csf]{ j}slNks clglZrt sfnsf nflu lgnDag u/]sf] ul/g] klg :ki6 ub{5 .Ú dxf;lrjsf] a'emfpg] qmddf ;xsf/Ls} z]o/
Oltxf;sf] s7\3/fdf cf]nL / bfxfnsf] zlQmsf] xf/u'xf/ u5{g\ . g]skfåf/f==== 5. lj1lKtdf n]lvPsf] 5, …s]kL ;/sf/ ;b:ox?aLr ljjfb pTkGg x'Fbf
u7aGwg s] j n lg/+ s ' z , ;f/df eGbf hlt;'s} plk|mP klg hgtfsf] Gofgf] dfof, ;xof]u / hgd'lQm (= s]kL jnLsf] ;fdflhs bnfn b]zsf] cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;f+:s[lts, ;xsf/L sf7df8f} F ;fl/Psf] /
clwgfosjfbL / kmf;LjfbL ;fljt kmf;Ljfb ;kmn x'g ;Sb}g . kmf;Ljfbsf] ;]gfsf] ;'/Iffdf a;]sf] P]ltxfl;s ;/sf/n] b]z / hgtfnfO{ b'MvL g]kfnL ;fdflhs If]qdf gofF pknlAw / ls:tf;d]t a'emfpg gkfPsf] u'gf;f]
ePsf] 5 . ;Qf pGdfb o:tf] x'G5, cGTo jf k/fho clgjfo{ 5 . hgtfn] a}7sn] lnPsf dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox¿ / bl/b| g]kfnLdf abNb} nu]sf] tyf ljsf; lbg c;kmn ePkl5 hgjfbL u/] . C0fsf] cfwf ;fFjf / Aofh
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