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The degree of personal involvement is a key factor in shaping the type of decision that consumers will
follow. Involvement is the level of perceived importance and interest evoked by a stimulus within a specific
situation. To the extent that a consumer is involved, the consumer acts to minimize the risks and to maximize
the benefits gained from purchase and use.

Involvement ranges from low to high. The degree of involvement is determined by the important
consumers perceive the product or service to be.


The concept of involvement focused on the issue of whether or not a customer cares much about brand
choice decision while buying a product. Low involvement is a situation where a consumer needs to buy a
product (say bread) but does not need to patronize a particular brand. Such will be the case while selecting a
bathing soap, biscuits, etc. Usually, such products are low priced, frequently purchased convenience goods. The
available choices are seen to be not much different from each other, and the cost of a poor decision is rather

On the other hand, a highly involved customer carefully selects a brand due to significant price, style,
attractiveness, quality or other difference among various brands that are available. The purchaser has to have a
definite positive attitude towards the selected brands prior to the purchase.

Products like consumer durables, high priced items, goods that are unfamiliar or infrequently purchased,
or products where offerings are dissimilar fall in this category. So in such cases the cost of a wrong decision is
perceived to be high. That is why there is greater involvement with purchase.

While a highly involved purchaser is termed as an active consumer, a passive consumer treats a
purchase as low involvement. A marketer has many lessons to learn from this kind of distinction since it
provides him valuable insights into the consumer decision making process.

For example, in case of low involvement category a tentatively held attitude (i.e., an attitude that is not
so strongly held that it cannot be changed) will be sufficient enough to motivate a person to go in for trial
purchase. This is not the case for the high involvement category.

For a highly involved purchase, the favorable attitude must be held fairly strongly. Thus, in case of high
involvement category the marketer will have to choose a source of information that carries a lot of credibility in
the eyes of the consumer.


Factors Highly Involved (Active) Lowly Involved (Passive)

Customer Customer
Information search Seeks out information from Passively gathers information
various commercial and non- that comes his way
commercial sources
Information Processing Processes that information Learns the information in a
carefully random fashion
axpectation Chooses that brand which is Subject to minimum
expected to provide maximum acceptable level of
satisfaction satisfaction, the customer
chooses that brand which is
likely to give the least
Influence on customer of Group norms and values Group norms do not exist. So
group norm dictate product choice; so reference group influence does
reference group acts as a not work here
source of information
Influence personality & Behavior is influenced by Personality and lifestyle as
lifestyle personality and lifestyle influences are not very
Marketer¶s role as information If perceived as sponsored Since all information
provider information (say, advertising) including advertising claims
the impact is limited since all are accepted uncritically,
information is processed advertising proves to be
carefully to avoid risky effective here



1.? #$%&&'ccÄ Because issue is often more involving than are products,
this linkage could increase involvement regarding the product.
(') Linking a breakfast cereal to problems of deficient performance among school children who have not
had a wholesome breakfast. The advertisement for Promise represents another example.
2.? #  $%&  ' $* c $' ' On some occasions, a message can be
targeted to audiences at the time they are engaged in an activity related to the product. At this time, their interest
could be sufficiently high to quality as high involvement.
3.? )"c
%Ä Because consumer¶s involvement in a product is low, it does
not necessarily mean that they cannot become involved in advertisements for the product. The use of humor,
dramatic events, or other methods can create an involving advertisement to which the product could then be
(') It might include the active scenes in many sportswear commercials and other television ads showing
the humorous woes of people who failed to use the advertised brand.
4.? '  c)'& + $%& !+ This option is quite difficult to pursue, because it attempts a
frontal attack on consumers¶ perceptions of product benefits.
(') If consumers could be convinced that the fiber content in dried cereal is very important to their
health, they might become more involved in their choice of cereal. The brands that possess this attribute are
then likely to be the recipient of favorable consumer attitudes.
5.? '  c%& c)' $%& ''&& New attributes can be associated with a product,
and consumers can also be made aware that some favorable attributes have been product characteristics for a
long time. These have the potential for increasing involvement levels.
(') The absence of caffeine and sugar or the addition of calcium in a number of soft drinks certainly
appears to capture the interest of many consumers because of their implications regarding the health and
appearance of the body. Fortification of milk and other foods with vitamins represents another example.

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1.? ' ( !+ ',  -& + !' Consumers often hold incomplete or
incorrect beliefs about the consequences of purchasing and using particular brands. Modification of those
beliefs that will positively influence attitudes can increase intentions to purchase. One way to accomplish
this is for advertisements to focus on brand benefits.
Here, the message would be that purchase of the brand will yield certain benefits. Here, the message
would be the brand will yield certain beneficial results (consequences) for the consumer.
2.? '.''+-&+'$'&'
& In many cases, consumers
may believe that using a brand will lead to certain consequences, but these consequences are not evaluated
very positively. Measures taken to increase evaluations of the consequences can have positive results.
(') An advertisement for Listerine mouth wash has stresses that its strong taste is associated with
effectiveness in killing germs and giving fresh breath ± ³It tastes strong because it is strong.´ Potential
results are more positive evaluation of the strong taste and enhancement of attitudes toward the brand.
3.? c%&  !+/ '' ,' In some cases, marketers can add or delete product
attributes and generate positive consequences for the consumer. In other cases, the presence or absence of
existing product attributes can be stressed in terms of their favorable consequences for the consumer.
4.? ' ( ' !+ In some situation, consumers may hold favorable attitudes toward
certain behaviors but be reluctant to take action because of an unfavorable reaction on the subjective norm
component. Such a situation could occur when the consumer holds a belief that others who are important to
her react favorably to the actions in question.
5.? '')*,0&  A second strategy to modify the subjective norm
component of behavioral intentions is to alter consumers¶ motivations to compel with the influences of
people important to them. One way this can be accomplished is to diminish or increate the perceived
importance or status of these influential others for at least the decision in question. (')
Advertisements for a particular brand might stress the importance of being an individual and not always
heeding the opinions of friends or important others.
6.? c%&  ') Subjective norms can also be influenced by the addition of new
normative components which will be strong in their influence on the consumer. This can be done through
introducing additional individuals the consumer deems important, or additional norms that the consumer
might think important.

A promotion showing how family, friends and so on react to certain purchase decisions and why these
reactions might be important to the consumers are possibility, as is introducing new standards of behavior that
others may expect.

Change beliefs about consequences of behavior

Chang evaluations of consequences

Change beliefs about perceptions of others

Change motivations to comply

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&$&The Consumer Decision Process (CDP) is a road map of consumer¶s minds that
marketers and managers can use to help guide product mix, communication and sales strategies.
1.? %&refers to the buyer¶s acceptance that the category (a product or service) is necessary to
remove or satisfy a perceived discrepancy between the current motivational state and the desired
motivational state.
[ ? '&++'
? InternalÄ retrieving knowledge from memory or genetic tendencies.
? axternalÄ collecting information from peers, family and the marketplace.
? Marketer dominatedÄ Anything the supplier does to inform and persuade.
? Non-marketed dominatedÄ friends, family, opinion leaders, media, WOM.
r ? c+')&
Ëaxposure ËAttention ËComprehension ËAcceptance Ë etention
‰ ? $1)&'''''
? avaluative criteriaÄ standards used to compare different products & brands.
? Salient attributesÄ the most important.
? Determinant attributesÄ Details that determine which brand or store consumers choose.
? Purchase to decide whether to purchaseÄ
? Choose one retailer (catalogues, aids on TV...)
? In-store choices (salespersons, product displays at POP...)
  ? $1)&'''
ConsumptionÄ the point at which consumers use the product ± satisfied?
Post-consumption evaluationÄ possible resultsÄ
? SatisfactionÄ consumers¶ expectations are matched by perceived performance.
? DissatisfactionÄ experiences and performance fall short of expectations.

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Purchase intentions get converted into purchase actually only when situational factors act favorably.
Situational factor refer to physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal considerations and finally
antecedent conditions.


Physical and social surroundings (location, size, lighting, temperature, etc.) should be favorable. Social
physical surroundings refers to time availability, time of the day, day of the week, and week of the month
chosen for shopping. Finally antecedent condition refers to conditions like availability of money, appropriate
mood, etc.
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There are several important factors that influence consumer store-choice behavior; although the
influence of these elements differs, depending on such variables as the type of product purchased, the type of
store (such as discount, department, or other), and the type of consumer.

1.? &'+Location has an obvious impact on store patronage. Generally, the closer consumers are to a
store, the greater their likelihood to purchase from that store. The farther away consumers are from a store, the
greater the number of intervening alternatives, and thus the lower the likelihood to patronize that store.
esearch on the influence of location on store choice has taken several directions.
2.? '%$*&' '& These design characteristics of a store visibly reflect its image and can
dramatically influence patronage. Many consumers appear to ³size up´ a store based on its outward appearance
of architecture and signs and hence are drawn to the store or repelled by it, based on their perception of whether
this store looks ³right´ for them. Interior design continues the image-fostering process. Such design features as
store layout, aisle placement and width, carpeting, and architecture, as well as physical facilities in a store,
including elevators, lighting, air conditioning, and washrooms, influence store assessment by consumers.
3.? &'% This image element has to do with the goods and services offered by a retail outlet. There are
five attributes considered to be important hereÄ quality, selection or assortment, styling or fashion, guarantees
and pricing.
%'%'$Within this category, such influences as advertising, sales promotion,
displays, trading stamps and even symbols and colors are considered important. etail advertising does not have
a consistent impact but instead appears to vary in influence, depending on product and story type. Nevertheless,
it is certainly true the retail advertising can be important in fulfilling any of its three goalsÄ
? To inform consumers, such as for a new store opening.
? To persuade consumers that they should patronize a certain store or buy a particular brand and
? To remind customers of the store that they are appreciated.
5.? $ amployees of a retailer also very instrumental in influencing the store¶s image. Consumers
generally desire to trade where store personnel, particularly salespeople, are perceived as helpful, friendly, and
6.? & etail stores may offer numerous services in order to attract customers. One scheme
classifies services according to those whichÄ
? Increase product satisfaction (such as credit, alterations, installation, and shopper information)
? Increase convenience (such as delivery, telephone ordering, and parking) and
? Provide special benefits (such as gift wrapping, product returns, and complaint offices).
7.?  Consumers¶ store choices have much to do with their social-class membership. Consumers will tend
to patronize those stores where persons similar to themselves are perceived to be shopping. Thus, an important
matching process occurs between the consumer¶s self-image and the store¶s image to influence where people
shop, with choices being made of stores that possess images, which are similar to the images that consumers
perceive of themselves.


After purchasing the product, the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
If performance falls short of expectations, the customer is disappointed; if it meets expectations the customer is
satisfied; if exceeds expectations the customer is delighted. Satisfied customers will continue to purchase
dissatisfied customers will stop purchasing the product and are likely to spread the word among their friends.
For this reasons, companies must work to ensure customer satisfaction at all levels of the buying process.

a)? Post purchase evaluationÄ






Consumer Complaint Behavior (CCB)

If dis-satisfaction is experienced, the outcomes possible are

1.? Create bad image by telling others

2.? Do not purchase again
3.? May result in many complaints




In addition to the overt types of behavior that result from purchase, the consumer also engages in an
evaluation of the purchase decision. Because the consumer is uncertain of the wisdom of his decision, he
rethinks this decision in the post purchase stage. There are several functions, which this stage servesÄ

1)? It serves to broaden the consumer¶s set of experiences stored in memory.

2)? It provides a check on how well he is doing as a consumer in selecting products, stores, and so on.
3)? The feedback that the consumer receives from this stage helps to make adjustments in future purchasing

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Consumers form certain expectations prior to the purchase. These expectations may be aboutÄ

1)? The nature and performance of the product of service (that is, the anticipated benefits to be derived
directly from the item),
2)? The costs and efforts to be expanded before obtaining the direct product or service benefits, and
3)? The social benefits or costs accruing to the consumer as a result of the purchase (that is, the anticipated
impact of the purchase on significant others).


Brand loyalty implies that consumers bind themselves to products or services as a result of a deep-seated


Brand loyalty is not a dichotomous construct. It may operate at different levels. Five levels of brand
loyalty can be distinguished, extending from committed buyer at one extreme to switcher or indifferent buyer at
the other extreme. aact state implies a different type of brand equity asset and different type of marketing
1.? c%++!* At the lowest level, the indifferent buyer does not attach any importance to the
brand. The buying is done on a basis other than brand, like availability or price. These buyers are
switchers and are indifferent to the brand.
2.? ','!* The second category of buyers comprises the ones satisfied with the brand (absence
of dissatisfaction). These buyers have no reason to switch but may actually switch given the stimulations
from the competitors. These can be called µhabitual buyers¶.
3.? &1&*'& The third category of buyers is satisfied with the brand, though they
have switching costs in terms of time, money and risk. This category is somewhat safe because they
would switch only when competition is able to overcome switching costs for them. This set can be
called µswitching cost loyal¶ customers. In all these categories of customers, a virtually negligible
element of attitudinal commitment to the brand is visible. They all signify different shades of behavioral
++&% *'*& The fourth category of loyalty implies that the buyers like the brand.
They tend to have some sort of emotional attachment to the brand. This attachment may get developed
as the result of prolonged relationship (usage over a long period of time) or use experience or perceived
high quality. People in this category consider a brand as a friend. It is an effect driven loyalty.
5.? % At the next level of loyalty, the customers tend to be committed to the brand.
The commitment is µan enduring desire to continue the relationship and to work to ensure its
continuance¶. Customers get committed to a brand when the brand achieves personal significance for
them. It happens when buyers perceive it to be a part of themselves. They identify with the brand. It
becomes a vehicle of self expression. The strong identification may be based on functionality or images/
symbolism that it signifies.


1.? %%%*'* is exhibited by families purchasing brand A in the following sequenceÄ AAAAAAA
2.? %%*'* is exhibited by the family purchasing brands A and B in the following sequence
3.? ',*'* is shown by the family buying brands A and B in the following sequenceÄ AAABBB
4.? *'* is shown by families buying brands A B C D a & F in the following sequenceÄ A B C D a F

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1.? ,+,'%''',Ä The smaller the number of brands to choose from, the more likely it is
that we are brand loyal.
2.? -&*+)&'Ä The more frequently we purchase a product, the more likely we are brand
3.? $&%++&'!'%Ä If we perceive significant differences among brands, we are
likely to be brands, we are likely to be brand loyal to the one, which comes closest to our requirements.
4.? +cÄ We are more likely to remain loyal to brands of high involvement products. The
reason is that we spend more time and energy initially to make a good decison and then stick to it.
5.? +$&%#Ä Brand loyalty is high when the level of perceived risk associated with the
choice is high.
6.? !'%,+Ä Brands that provide the benefits that best suit our needs the strongest candidates for
customer loyalty.


Customer repeats a brand purchase because it is the only one available at the store. Often consumers buy
from a mix of brands within their acceptable range (i.e., their evoked set). The greater the number of acceptable
brands in a specific product category; the less likely the consumer is to be brand loyal to one specific brand.
Conversely, products having few competitors, as well as those purchased with great frequency are likely to have
greater brand loyalty. Purchase loyalty leads to a higher price for the brand relative to competition.






Brand Loyalty as a function of relative attitude and patronage behavior