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17 QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS

ENGINEERING

Aries Sunanda
2010

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17 QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS ENGINEERING
By Aries Sunanda, IE., DipChem, CA

Abstract
The implementation of existing management systems might not have been accurate in the
context of having consideration on the completeness of targeted quality characteristics and
the level of fulfillment of those quality characteristics. 17 Quality Characteristics Engineering
is a management system with constraints and decision taking method that can be being
used in many approaches and perspectives.

Refference:
1. Penggunaan Metoda QFD, Quality Function Deployment (Pengembangan Karakteristik
Kualitas) pada Pengukuran Kepuasan Pelanggan Sebagai Sarana Peningkatan Kualitas
Produk dan Kinerja Layanan PT. BASF Indonesia, Aries Sunanda, Tugas Akhir, Jurusan
Teknik Industri, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sahid, Jakarta, 2003.

2. Topics of Quality, Hazard Identification and Control for Continuous Improvement and
Decision Taking, Aries Sunanda, Compilation of Delivered Trainings Hands Out, Health &
Safety Department, PT. Prasadha Pamunah Limbah Industri, Bogor, 2009.

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Table of Contetnts

Cover Page 1
Abstract 2
Refference 2
Table of Contents 3
I. Introduction 4
II. Terminology 4
III. 17QCE Approach in Decision Taking 5
A. Step I : Determination of Competence and Responsibility 5
B. Step II : Prioritizing on Found Problem Problem Solving 5
C. Step III : Determination of Corrective/ Preventive Action in Following Up Problem
Finding 6
D. Step IV : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Complying with
Quality Characteristics 10
E. Step V : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Having The
Influence Strength in Its Implementation 12
F. Step VI : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Having The
Legality Requirements Completeness 12
IV. 17QCE Approach in Management System Processes and Documents Characteristics
Development 13
V. 17QCE Approach in Management System Processes and Documents Implementation
Accuracy Determination 13
VI. 17QCE Approach in Interpreting Management Activity Based On Percentage Value of
Achievement Result Based On Activity Target 14
VII. 17QCE Approach in Management Activity 15
VIII. 17 QCE Approach in Company Strategic Planning 16
Attachment 1. Process & Document Characteristics Development Form 17
Attachment 2. Management Activity Audit Checklist Form 19

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I. Introduction
The needs of to continually improve company, products and services quality has made
the development of various management systems. Various constraints and decision taking
methods in those various management systems in awareness is being dedicated in order of
to fulfill various needs so then there will be no harmed party. But in fact, within their
implementations there are some that are accurately fulfill quality improvement needs and
there are some that are not accurate.
Accurate implementation is if the targeted quality characteristics elements are complete
and can be fulfilled at the same level. In the other hand, inaccurate implementation is if the
targeted quality caharacteristics elements are not complete and or can not be fulfilled at the
same level.
The above mentioned is caused by the inavailability of proper implementation accuracy
assurance system within existing management systems.
17 Quality Characteristics Engineering (17QCE) is a management system with
constraints and decision taking method that can ensure the accuracy in its implementation.
The meant quality characteristics in 17QCE are extracted from the implication of
customer requirements attributes that are commonly used and becoming the main topics in
things that are related with customer satisfaction upon various resources. Those customer
requirements attributes are Total Customer Value and Total Customer Cost, Customer View
of Service Quality and Marketing Mix.
The implication of quality characteristics in 17QCE that have been done upon various
surveys, documents and also condition and action reports is also shows the ability of the
quality characteristics in sorting the point of concern of information source persons. Point of
concern is based on any customer requirements attributes that are most frequent in being
used by the reporter. So it is clear that the quality characteristics in 17QCE have suitable
relationship form with customer requirements attributes that are being used by various
parties and have the nature of sufficiently representative.
At the present time the quality characteristics in 17QCE are the best based on evocation
easyness in their implications and their representativity. This is applies to users that have
sufficient key vocabularies within the order of generally used vocabularies by various parties
and have the accurate decision taking ability under supervision or by independently.
The notation of evocation is discrete but is sufficient to make differentiation. In this case
discrete means that evocation is being influenced by point of concern nature that is
discontinuous by consider the obstructions in evocation process, so it has the less certainty
level and the more difficult management level compared to continuous measures.

II. Terminology
A. Quality
Quality is the dimensions of products and services that are being expected to
be able to make the products and services users freed from any harm in using the
products or services so it can deliver satisfaction.
B. Quality Characteristics
Quality characteristics are the propositions that are represent products or
services quality dimensions. The opinion upon a product or service quality is the
response upon the fulfillment of quality characteristics in the production of product
and service.
C. Activity Result Value Specification

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Activity result value specification is the value that is being intended to be
achieved from an activity.
D. Decision Taking Constraints
Decision taking constraints are the quality characteristics and activity result
value specification that are being intended to be fulfilled within every decision taking.
E. Scientific Method
Scientific method is the process of to taking a conclusion by systematically
based on factual proove in which the conclusion is usefull for resolving a problem.
F. Decision Taking Method
Decision taking method is a scientific method that is being used in the
engineering of available resources in order to fulfill the determined quality
characteristics and activity result value specification.

III. 17 QCE Approach in Decision Taking


A. Step I : Determination of Competence and Resposibility
1. Responsibility are activities and related resources that are being there under
someone’s direct management in within that someone’s work occupation scope.

2. Competence is someone’s right in the usage of related activities and resources that
are becoming that someone’s direct responsibility on other activities and resources in
within that someone’s job scope in which the quality requirements are also being
included.

3. Continuation/ extension of the usage of related activities and resources that are
being as someone’s direct responsibility on other activities and resources in within
that someone’s job scope in which the quality requirements are also being included is
becoming other person’s competence.

B. Step II : Prioritizing on Found Problem Problem Solving


1. To result good quality output is everyone’s obligation in their jobs by paying
attention on their jobs inputs quality and their jobs sequences quality in the order
of to result good quality output.
2. If we find any deficiency in our own job sequence in which the deficiency is having
the nature of invoking nuisance, every body know that the deficiency should be
fixed right away and every body feel that it is necessary to right away fixing the
deficiency then we soon or right away doing the determination and the execution
of necessary corrective/ preventive action in the context of time availability and
efforts that are being interrelated.
3. If we find any deficiency in our own job sequence in which the deficiency is not
having the nature of invoking nuisance, every body know that the deficiency does
not should be fixed right away and every body do not feel that it is necessary to
right away fixing the deficiency then we do not have to be soon or right away
doing the determination and the execution of necessary corrective/ preventive
action in the context of time availability and efforts that are being interrelated.
4. If we find any deficiency in other’s own job sequence in which the deficiency is
having the nature of invoking nuisance, every body know that the deficiency
should be fixed right away and every body feel that it is necessary to right away
fixing the deficiency then we do not have to be soon or right away make
announcement to that person about the necessity of to do the determination and

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the execution of necessary corrective/ preventive action in the context of time
availability and efforts that are being interrelated.
5. Always to remember and to understand that to result good quality output is an
obligation for every person including our selves.

C. Step III : Determination of Corrective/ Preventive Action in Following Up


Problem Finding
1. Determine the subject, verb and object of the words in the verbal information or
from the information that is being transmitted from a performance in the order of to
make it can be determined the cause (effector), the transmitted effect by the cause
and the effected (object/ effectee).

2. Determine the matters of Human, Material, Machine, Monetary and or Method


factors that are relevant that are being existing as effects that are being transmitted to
the effector.

3. Determine the relevant effects that are being transmitted by the object/ effectee to
the Man, Material, Machine, Monetary and or Method factors.

4. If the being transmitted effects are being existing as bad effects then determine and
execute the corrective and or preventive action that can eliminate those bad effects in
accordance with the time availability and also the portions of the competence and the
responsibility of each persons.

5. If the being transmitted effects are being existing as good effects then maintain or
increase the corrective and or preventive action that can invoke those good effects in
accordance with the time availability and also the portions of the competence and the
responsibility of each persons.

Picture 1. Corrective/ Preventive Action Determination Diagram

Note 1 : Do the determination and the execution of corrective/ preventive action in the
context of time availability and efforts that are being interrelated in the order of to result the
good quality product and service.

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Note 2 : The explanation of the factors (factor in this case also means resources) of Human,
Material, Machinery, Monetary and Method is as the following :

 Human Factors :

1. Employee

2. Contractor

3. Supplier

4. Community

5. Government

6. Customer

 Material Factors :

1. Environment

2. Facility

3. Stock

 Machinery Factors :

1. Heavy Machinery

2. Light Machinery

3. Equipment

4. Apparatus

 Monetary Factors :

A. Accountability :

1. Traceability

2. Measuribility

B. Business Performance :

1. Quality Assurance

2. Quality Consistency

3. Design Quality & Strength of Packaging

4. Shelf Life

5. After Sales Service

6. Quick Response in Fulfilling Requirements

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7. Service Quality of Producer

8. Image

9. Availabilty Assurance

10. Service Quality of Distributor

11. Types Completeness

12. Easyness to Get Information

13. Souvenirs & Gift Giving

14. Safety

C. Price :

1. Effective & Efficient Price/ Cost

2. Credit/ Payment Terms Time Interval Giving

3. Easy & Elastic Buying Transaction Procedure

 Method Factors :

1. Activity/ Process

2. Manual

3. Standard

4. SOP/ WI, Form & Record

5. Law & Regulations

6. Permits

Note 3 : The explanation of Human, Material, Machinery, Monetary and Methods factors
components is as the following :

 Physics Components :

1. Physiscal Characteristics

2. Mechanical

3. Electrical

4. Noise

5. Radiation

6. Odor

7. Ventillation

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8. Vibration

9. Working Weather

10. Lighting

11. Temperature

12. Air Pressure

13. Dust

 Chemistry Components :

1. Corrotion

2. Heat

3. Fire

4. Explotion

5. Toxicity

6. Gas

7. Vapour

8. Smoke

 Biolgy Components :

1. Germs

2. Fungus

3. Bugs

4. Big Animals

5. Plants

 Psychology Components :

Frequency and manner in giving :

1. Request

2. Order

3. Direction

4. Information

5. Comunication

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from one to other

 Ergonomy Components :

1. Working Motion Design Arrangement

2. Working Equipment, Apparatus and Tools

Note 4 : The hieararchy that should be taken care of in determining corrective and or
preventive action is :

1. Using alternatives : using replacer, other methods, other tools, etc.

2. Using engineering controls : technology/ standards, safety guards/ protection


system, etc.

3. Using procedures : permit to work, SOP, WI, signage, etc

4. Using personal protective equipment.

D. Step IV : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Complying
with Quality Characteristics

In this case problem solving action is in the form of the activity that involves a product
and or service that determine the activity quality.
The meant quality characteristics are :
1). Product/ Service Quality Assurance

Meaning: Product/ service must have a form of free of any loss guarantee giving
activity on the execution or the usage of the product/ service.

2). Product/ Service Quality Consistency

Meaning: Product/ service must have the characteristics that are consistent/ being
still in facing the changes at every time.

3). Design Quality & Strength of Containers

Meaning: Design quality and strength of the product’s/ service’s containers must
free of anything that can harm in the execution or the usage of the product/ service.

4). Product/ Service Shelf Life

Meaning: Product/ service must have the usage period that is sufficient in the
execution or the usage of the product/ service.

5). After Sales Technical Service Support

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by a technical service system in the


order of to meet the requirements in the execution or the usage of the product/

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service at after the sale.

6). Quick Response to Customer Complaint

Meaning: Product/ service must be able to right away meet the needs or the
complaints of the executor or the user of the product/ service in the context of time
availability and efforts that are being interrelated.

7). Service Quality of Producer

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by producer’s service that is free of


things that can harm in the execution or the usage of the product/ service.

8). Company & Product/ Service Image

Meaning: Product/ service must have the image that is good that is free from the
things that can harm in the execution or the usage of the product/ service.

9). Product/ Service Availability Assurance

Meaning: Product/ service must have a form of product/ service availability


guarantee giving activity that is free from the things that can harm in the execution
or the usage of the product/ service.

10). Service Quality of Distributor

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by distributor’s service that is free


from the things that can harm in the execution or the usage of the product/ service.

11). Completeness of Wide Range of Available Products/ Services

Meaning: Product/ service that are being prepared/ made available must have a
wide and complete range.

12). Easyness to get Product/ Services Information

Meaning: Product/ service must have the information that is easy to be obtained by
without invoking any nuisance to the executor or the user of the product/ service.

13). Souvenirs & Gift Giving

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by the gift and souvenir giving that is
free from the things that can harm the producer/ distributor and the executor or the
user of the product/ service especially in the manners that are being interrelated
with the black mailing/ bribery and corruption.

14). Credit/ Payment Terms Time Interval Giving

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by credit/ payment terms time interval
giving activity that have a nature that is free from the things that can harm to the
producer/ distributor and the executor or the user of the product/ service.

15). Product/ Service Price

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Meaning: Product/ service must have the price that has the usefulness (effective)
and is exact (efficient) that are free from the things that can harm to the producer/
distributor and the executor or the user of the product/ service.

16). Eazy & Elastic Products/ Services Buying Transaction Procedure

Meaning: Product/ service must be supported by easy & elastic products/ services
buying transaction procedure that is free from the things that can harm producer/
distributor and the executor or the user of the product/ service.

17). Product/ Service Safety

Meaning: Product/ service must have safety in the execution or the usage of the
product/ service and free from the things that can harm the executor or the user of
the product/ service.

E. Step V : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Having The
Influence Strength in Its Implementation
1. Must have scientific ness, fairness/ equality between related elements with clear
and fit correlations, compliment & fitness to applied law and regulation, including
religion law, so then it is valid.

2. Must have continuous implementation that will produce the same results at every
time so then it is reliable.

3. Must have characteristics fitness to changes that are remain the same at every
time so then it has consistency.

4. Can be justified in which it must have law base and responsibilities delegations so
then it has responsibilities.

5. Must have fitness to actual standards so then it fits to actual standards, in this
case religion values is also included.

Note : The more the action has validity, reliability, consistency, responsibilities, and fitness to
actual standard then the stronger the action is.

F. Step VI : To Make Sure that The Taken Problem Solving Action is Having The
Legality Requirements Completeness
1. The existence of authority approval
2. The witnesses of related parties
3. The existence of the transaction resources
4. The transaction itself

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5. Transaction recording
6. Transaction record that is being signed off by related parties.

IV. 17QCE Approach in Management System Processes and Documents


Characteristics Development
1. Phase I :
The determination of Quality Characteristics (QC), Technical Requirements (TR)
and TR’s weight as variables that influence the QC through the measurement of
the existance and the weight of argument or conclusion raised from the
correlation between every TR and QC elements. In this case the argument or
conclusion is the logic raised from the relationship of related propositions that are
being compared.
2. Phase II :
The determination of process steps weight as influence variables upon TR
process parameter achievement through the measurement of validity, reliability,
consistency, responsibilities and fitness to actual standard in within the
correlation to find the Critical Proces Steps (CPS).
3. Phase III :
The determination of the hows that could be usefull to fix the CPS weight as
influence variable upon CPS target achievement through the measurement of
validity, reliability, consistency, responsibilities and fitness to actual standard in
within the correlation.
4. Phase IV :
The rearrangement and feasibility study on TR(s) improvement result in which the
TR(s) have been equipped with the CPS(es) that have also been improved so
then it is ready to be applied the implementation of the TR(s) improvement result
to achieve the QC.
5. Phase V :
The implementation of TR(s) improvement result in which the TR(s) have been
equipped with the CPS(es) that have also been improved in order to achieve the
QC.
6. Phase VI :
Continual improvement; repeat development cycle from Fase 1 to Fase 5 TR(s)
improvement result in which the TR(s) have been equipped with the CPS(es) that
have also been improved in order to achieve the QC.
Note 1 : Use the Process & Document Characteristics Development Form (Attachment 1).
Note 2 : Determine the accuracy of the process or document by the determination of the
quality characteristics completeness and the quality characteristics fulfillment level.

V. 17QCE Approach in Management System Processes and Documents


Implementation Accuracy Determination
Phase I :
The determination of Quality Characteristics (QC), Technical Requirements (TR)
and TR’s weight as variables that influence the QC through the measurement of
the existance and the weight of argument or conclusion raised from the

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correlation between every TR and QC elements by being based on the
implementation facts. In this case the argument or conclusion is the logic raised
from the relationship of related propositions that are being compared.

Phase II :
The determination of process steps weight as influence variables upon TR
process parameter achievement through the measurement of validity, reliability,
consistency, responsibilities and fitness to actual standard of the implementation
facts in within the correlation to find the Critical Proces Steps (CPS).

Phase III :
The determination of the hows that could be usefull to fix the CPS weight as
influence variable upon CPS target achievement through the measurement of
validity, reliability, consistency, responsibilities and fitness to actual standard of
the implementation facts in within the correlation.

Phase IV :
The rearrangement and feasibility study on TR(s) improvement result in which the
TR(s) have been equipped with the CPS(es) that have also been improved so
then it is ready to be applied the implementation of the TR(s) improvement result
to achieve the QC.

Phase V :
The implementation of TR(s) improvement result in which the TR(s) have been
equipped with the CPS(es) that have also been improved in order to achieve the
QC.

Phase VI :
Continual improvement; repeat development cycle from Fase 1 to Fase 5 TR(s)
improvement result in which the TR(s) have been equipped with the CPS(es) that
have also been improved in order to achieve the QC.
Note 1 : Use the Management Activity Audit Checklist Form (Attachment 2).
Note 2 : Determine the accuracy of processes or documents characteristics implementation
by the determination of the quality characteristics completeness and the quality
characteristics fulfillment level and do re-improvement if necessary.

VI. 17QCE Approach in Interpreting Management Activity Based On Percentage


Value of Achievement Result Based On Activity Target
The specification of percentage value of achievement result based on activity target
is derived from the combining of the expected ideal target values with the noraml
distribution of target values that might be expected by existing various parties.
The specification of percentage value of achievement result based on activity target
is showing the ability, certainty and the sufficiency level of management activity that
have been done to achieve the result based on the gained facts.

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The meant specification is being based on the % error values (A) of the achieved
result as follows :
1. Level 1
A = 100% - 95% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having no ability, no certainty and have had not being done at all.
2. Level 2
A = 96% - 60% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, no certainty and have had being done but was in
insufficient manner.
3. Level 3
A = 60% - 50% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, no certainty and have had being done but was in
insufficient manner.
4. Level 4
A = 50% - 50% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, the certainty and have had being done in sufficient
manner.
5. Level 5
A = 50% - 40% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, the certainty and have had being done in sufficient
manner.
6. Level 6
A = 40% - 5% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, the certainty and have had being done in sufficient
manner.
7. Level 7
A = 5% - 0% : The have had being done management activity to achieve the
result was having the ability, the certainty and have had being done in sufficient
manner.

VII. 17QCE Approach in Management Activity


One management activity unit consists of the elements that are in the form of
planning, organizing, actuating and controlling processes. The definition of each of
those processes are :
1. Planning : The determination of the strong basic and the right target of a
management activity.
2. Organizing : The determination of the right method/ activity logic in the order of to
achieve the right target based on the right basic.
3. Actuating : The determined method execution activity.
4. Controlling : The activity quality analysis of the method executuion.
The improvement of the management activity is being done by the following cycle :
1. The receiving of reports or the finding of non conformites.
2. The review of the reports or the finding of non conformities.

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3. The determination of necessary corrective/ preventive action.
4. The communicating of necessary corrective/ preventive action to related parties.
5. The following up of the determined corrective/ preventive action execution and is
being communicated.
6. The corrective/ preventive action execution activity quality supervision and
controlling.
7. The making of the report of the activity result nor the non conformities finding.

VIII. 17 QCE Approach in Company Strategic Planning


1. Determine the main targets of the company based on the 17 Quality
Characteristics.
2. Deploy the main targets of the company into supporting targets in activities that
are supporting the main targets of the company, this implies for the existing
activities or the will be existed activities in within the company, and then
determine the supporting targets achievement indicators based on 17 Quality
Characteristics.
3. Determine the target and the unit of the above mentioned supporting targets
achievement indicators.
4. Do the measurement of the result value of the activity target achievement.
5. Do the necessary improvement upon the management activity.

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Attachment 1. Process & Document Characteristics Development Form

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Attachment 2. Management Activity Audit Checklist Form

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