You are on page 1of 8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

* A right triangle has six principal parts three sides

denoted by a, b, c and their three corresponding angles denoted by α, β and γ. The angle γ is usually given 90 o and the other two angles, α and β , as acute.

* Trigonometric functions are names such as sine, cosine,

tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant of an acute angle. The definitions of these six functions are merely based on

the possible ratios formed out of the three sides of a

triangle. B
c
a
C
b

A

sin

cos the length of the side oppositeto

the length of the hypotenuse the length of the side adjacent to

the length of the hypotenuse

the length of the side oppositet o

  the length of the side adjacent t o  the length of the hypotenuse the length of the side oppositeto the length of the hypotenuse  the length of the side adjacent to  the length of the side adjacent t o  

the length of the side opposite t o

tan

csc

sec

cot For example using the triangle ABC:

B

a

C c
 θ
b

A

sin

cos

tan

a

c

b

c

a

b

csc

sec

cot

c

a

c

b

b

a 3
4
Given tanθ =
, θ in quadrant II, find the other five
trigonometric functions.
5
c  (3) 2  4
2
csc 
3
3
sec  
5
sin  
c=?
5
4
3
cot  
4
cos  
4
θ
5
3
-4
0 cos 
12 
 ,
Given
 
13 ,
 
functions.
-12
θ
?
13
sin  
5
13
cos 
12
13
tan 
5
12 , find the other trigonometric

 

2

a 2

( 12)



2

13

5

13

5

13

12

csc

sec

cot

12

5 Solution of right triangles:

a. Use Pythagorean formula

b. The sum of all the angles in a triangle is 180 o

c. Use trigonometric functions

Example:

Solve the following triangles:

1. ΔABC, given α = 62 o 50’, a = 70in

Solution:

α + β + γ = 180 o β = 90 o - α = 90 o 62 o 50’ = 27 o 10’ or 27.17 o

β

γ = 90 o =

α + β

B β
c
a = 70in
γ
α
A
C
b To solve for b:

b a cot

b 70(cot 62o50')

b 36in

To solve c:

c

c

a

sin

70

sin 62 50'

o

c 79in

2. Solve the ΔABC, given β = 50 o , c = 14m and γ = 90 o . Solution:

α = 90 o – β

= 90 o 50 o

α = 40 o To solve for a:

a

c

a

cos50

o

14 a = 14(cos50 o ) a = 9m

To solve for b:

b

c

b

14

sin 50

o

b = 14(sin50 o ) b = 11m Solve the following right triangles:

 1. a = 4cm , b = 11 cm 4 a = 11in , c = 26in 2. b = 84cm , α = 35 o 5 a = 46.8ft , α = 86 o

3. c = 78.1cm , α = 59 o Find the other five trigonometric functions for each of the

following:

1.

sin

3

, QII

5

2.

cos

12

, QIV

13

3. cot2 , QIII