TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
* A right triangle has six principal parts – three sides
denoted by a, b, c and their three corresponding angles denoted by α, β and γ. The angle γ is usually given 90 ^{o} and the other two angles, α and β , as acute.
* Trigonometric functions are names such as sine, cosine,
tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant of an acute angle. The definitions of these six functions are merely based on
the possible ratios formed out of the three sides of a
triangle.
A
sin
cos
the length of the side oppositeto
the length of the hypotenuse the length of the side adjacent to
the length of the hypotenuse
the length of the side oppositet o


the length of the side adjacent t o 

the length of the hypotenuse 

the length of the side oppositeto the length of the hypotenuse 

the length of the side adjacent to 

the length of the side adjacent t o 


the length of the side opposite t o
tan
csc
sec
cot
For example using the triangle ABC:
B
a
C
A
sin
cos
tan
a
c
b
c
a
b
csc
sec
cot
c
a
c
b
b
a
, find the other trigonometric
^{} 2
a
2
( 12)
2
13
5
13
5
13
12
csc
sec
cot
12
5
Solution of right triangles:
a. Use Pythagorean formula
b. The sum of all the angles in a triangle is 180 ^{o}
c. Use trigonometric functions
Example:
Solve the following triangles:
1. ΔABC, given α = 62 ^{o} 50’, a = 70in
Solution:
α + β + γ = 180 ^{o} β = 90 ^{o}  α = 90 ^{o} – 62 ^{o} 50’ = 27 ^{o} 10’ or 27.17 ^{o}
β
γ = 90 ^{o} =
α + β
B
To solve for b:
b a cot
b 70(cot 62o50')
b 36in
To solve c:
c
c
a
sin
70
sin 62 50'
o
c 79in
2. Solve the ΔABC, given β = 50 ^{o} , c = 14m and γ = 90 ^{o} . Solution:
α = 90 ^{o} – β
= 90 ^{o} – 50 ^{o}
α = 40 ^{o} To solve for a:
a
c
a
cos50
o
14 a = 14(cos50 ^{o} ) a = 9m
To solve for b:
b
c
b
14
sin 50
o
b = 14(sin50 ^{o} ) b = 11m
Solve the following right triangles:
1. a = 4cm , b = 11 cm 
4. 
a = 11in , c = 26in 
2. b = 84cm , α = 35 ^{o} 
5. 
a = 46.8ft , α = 86 ^{o} 
3. c = 78.1cm , α = 59 ^{o}
Find the other five trigonometric functions for each of the
following:
1.
sin
3
, QII
5
2.
cos
12
, QIV
13
3.
cot 2 , QIII
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