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1.5K views10 pagesStrain Guage Technique, NUS lab report

Nov 19, 2010

© © All Rights Reserved

Strain Guage Technique, NUS lab report

© All Rights Reserved

1.5K views

Strain Guage Technique, NUS lab report

© All Rights Reserved

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Gauge Technique

by

Lin Shaodun

Student ID: A0066078X

Sub Group: Lab 2B

Date: 19th Mar 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

OBJECTIVES 1

INTRODUCTION 1

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 2

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 3

DISCUSSION 11

CONCLUSION 15

1

OBJECTIVES

To practice using strain gauge rosette and strain meter to measure strain of

aluminum cantilever beam under a point load at its free end.

To study the static behavior of aluminum cantilever beam subjects to bending

moment.

To have a better understanding on two dimensional strain transformation

equations.

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT.

A commonly used instrument for strain measurement is a strain meter and its

circuit is based on the principle of a Wheatstone bridge. For most applications

strain gauges are connected using the quarter bridge configuration. This bridge

arrangement contains one active strain gauge in the circuit as shown in Fig. 1.

The meter readings record the strain of one active gauge.

Strain gauges can also be connected using the half bridge configuration. This

bridge arrangement contains two active gauges in the circuit as shown in Fig. 2.

The meter readings in this case record the total strains of two active gauges. The

half bridge configuration is often used in the measurement of bending strain.

P- P-

R R R R

M M

Active Active

Active R Gauge Gauge

Gauge P+ P+

2

(3) Cantilever Test Rig (Fig 5) and Strain Gauge Locations (Fig 6)

Weights (0.25 Kg x 6)

Strain Gauge A

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

1. The given average dimensions of the Aluminum beam as follow: Width (b) =

25.60mm, Thickness (t) = 6.06mm and Length (L) = 0.300m.

2. Zero the dial indicator before measurement of end deflection YL. Connect the

strain gauges which measuring the surface strains at locations A (Fig 7) to SB-10

Balancing Unit channel 10 using quarter bridge configuration. Adjust the channel

10 VR until the Strain indicator reading is zero.

3

3. Load the weight onto the hanger at the end of aluminum beam with 0.25Kg

increment, record the deflection YL and the strain readings A at each stage, until

the total weight reaches 1.50Kg.

deflection YL and the strain gauge reading A during unloading.

5. Repeat above steps 3~5 for strain gauge e , f, and g (Fig 7), record the strain

gauge reading for each loading and unloading stages.

6. Connect the strain gauges measuring the surface axial strain at locations A and B

(Fig 7) to the strain meter using half-bridge configuration. Load and unload the

beam and at 0.25 increment following similar steps as above described and

record the strain reading AB.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

⁄

[( ) ( ) ]

⁄

[ ]

⁄

[( ) ( ) ]

⁄

[ ]

4

RESULTS (TABLES & GR APHS)

A. TABLES

YL (mm) Theoretical

P in

Strain

Kg Loading Unloading Average Loading Unloading Average

0.25 0.68 0.70 0.69 33 33 33 33.5

0.50 1.37 1.44 1.41 66 68 67.5 67.1

0.75 2.10 2.18 2.14 99 102 100.5 100.6

1.00 2.81 2.86 2.84 135 135 135 134.2

1.25 3.53 3.57 3.55 169 170 169.5 167.7

1.50 4.27 4.27 202 202 201.2

P in

Kg Loading Unloading Average Loading Unloading Average Loading Unloading Average

0.25 48 48 48 19 18 18.5 -13 -14 -13.5

P in

Kg Loading Unloading Average

0.25 64 68 66 48.0

0.50 132 138 135 97.1

0.75 200 206 203 148.1

1.00 266 270 268 197.2

1.25 336 339 337 246.2

1.50 402 402 295.4

5

B. GRAPHS

i. P against YL

ii. P against A

6

iv. P against e

v. P against 1

b) Fit the best straight line through the above experimental results and obtain the

slope for each line.

i. Slope for the P against YL = 0.3497 Kg/mm

ii. Slope for the P against A = 0.0074 Kg/µStrain

iii. Slope for the P against AB = 0.0037 Kg/µStrain

iv. Slope for the P against e = 0.0051 Kg/µStrain

v. Slope for the P against 1= 0.0050 Kg/µStrain

7

c) From the graph of a(i) and Eq. (1), compute the Young's modulus of the material.

DISCUSSION

d) Obtain the ratio of the slopes of a(ii) and a(iii) for the beam. Comment on the

values obtained.

Slope for the P against A = 0.0074 Kg/µStrain

Slope for the P against AB = 0.0037 Kg/µStrain

The ratio of both graphs is 1:2. This shows that the half bridge configuration

output is twice of the quarter bridge configuration. This is obvious as in a

quarter-bridge configuration, transducer A located at the top of the beam is

measuring the tension strain of the beam, while in a half-bridge

configuration, the strain output is the sum of A and B hence the strain shows

in the meter is twice of A.

e) Plot the theoretical P vs. A on the same graph as a(ii) and comment on the

results.

8

From the above graph we can see the two trend lines are almost the same.

This shows that the experimental data are very close to theoretical data. The

slight variations are due to experimental errors like:

Instable strain meter

The weight of the hanger at the end of beam is not considered.

Strain gauge mounting position tolerance, etc.

Modulus is 70Gpa, this might not be the exact property of the test specimen.

f) Compare the slopes of a(iv) and a(v) and comment on the results.

Slope for the P against e = 0.0051 Kg/µStrain

Slope for the P against 1 = 0.0050 Kg/µStrain

Slope of Graph (iv) and Graph (v) are almost the same. This means the

maximum principle strain value and direction is the same as the normal

strain at 0°direction when the beam is subjected pure bending stress. The

slight different might due to the strain gauge rosette was not mounted at

exact0°direction or other measurement error.

g) Have you used the values of A, e , f and g for unloading in your calculations?

Why?

important to make the experiment result more accurate as we can double

confirm the material is loaded within elastic limit, when the material is

applied load under elastic limit, the stress-strain curve will be linear, which

means the loading curve should be the same as unloading curve in theory. By

taking the average values of the strain of both loading and unloading, we can

minimize the measurement errors as well.

CONCLUSION

All the objectives of this experiment is achieved, the experimental data is very close

to theoretical data. I have familiarized the use of the strain meter and the quarter and

half bridge configurations. I also have better understanding of behavior of cantilever

beam subjects to pure bending stress.

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