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FIRE AND SMOKE DAMPER TESTING WHAT IS THE CODE AND WHY IT NEEDS TO BE

FIRE AND SMOKE DAMPER TESTING

WHAT IS THE CODE AND WHY IT NEEDS TO BE DONE.

INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION • Craig Rutledge – Managing Member with Life Safety Services, LLC • Life Safety

Craig Rutledge

Managing Member with Life Safety Services, LLC

Life Safety Services, LLC

The Leading Fire and Smoke Damper Inspection Company in North America

Specialize only in the Inspection and Repair of Fire and Smoke Dampers.

TodayToday’’ss ObjectiveObjective

• • TodayToday’’ ss ObjectiveObjective – Explain what the mandatory codes are for inspecting fire and

Explain what the mandatory codes are for inspecting fire and smoke dampers.

What the inspection of dampers is so important. The importance of having a specialized fire contractor perform the inspection.

What documentation you as AHJ/Inspectors should look for after a damper inspection has been performed.

SeveralSeveral OrganizationsOrganizations RequireRequire DamperDamper Testing:Testing:

RequireRequire DamperDamper Testing:Testing: – National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) –
RequireRequire DamperDamper Testing:Testing: – National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) –

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

International Code Council (ICC)

Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

– National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) – International Code Council (ICC) – Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
– National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) – International Code Council (ICC) – Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
– National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) – International Code Council (ICC) – Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

AdditionalAdditional OrganizationsOrganizations RequiringRequiring DamperDamper TestingTesting

The Joint Commission

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)

Numerous other Local AHJs

of Life at Sea (SOLAS ) – Numerous other Local AHJs – Insurance Companies / Risk
of Life at Sea (SOLAS ) – Numerous other Local AHJs – Insurance Companies / Risk

Insurance Companies / Risk Auditors

Fire and Smoke Damper Manu factors

WhatWhat typetype ofof FacilitiesFacilities isis thethe CodeCode EnforceableEnforceable to?to?

isis thethe CodeCode EnforceableEnforceable to?to? ALLALL COMMERCIALCOMMERCIAL FACILITIESFACILITIES •
isis thethe CodeCode EnforceableEnforceable to?to? ALLALL COMMERCIALCOMMERCIAL FACILITIESFACILITIES •

ALLALL COMMERCIALCOMMERCIAL FACILITIESFACILITIES

HOSPITALS

SCHOOLS (UNIVERSITIES, K-12)

OFFICE BUILDINGS

INDUSTRIAL PLANTS

MARINE (E.G. CRUISE SHIPS)

HOTELS

• SCHOOLS (UNIVERSITIES, K-12) • OFFICE BUILDINGS • INDUSTRIAL PLANTS • MARINE (E.G. CRUISE SHIPS) •
• SCHOOLS (UNIVERSITIES, K-12) • OFFICE BUILDINGS • INDUSTRIAL PLANTS • MARINE (E.G. CRUISE SHIPS) •
• SCHOOLS (UNIVERSITIES, K-12) • OFFICE BUILDINGS • INDUSTRIAL PLANTS • MARINE (E.G. CRUISE SHIPS) •

WHATWHAT ISIS THETHE DAMPERDAMPER TESTINGTESTING REQUIREMENT?REQUIREMENT?

NFPA 19.4 MANDATES THE TESTING OF DAMPERS.

19.4.1 States that each damper shall be inspected 1 year after installed

19.4.1.1 States that testing frequency shall then be every 4 years thereafter except in hospitals.

19.4.4 If the dampers is equipped with a fusible link the link shall be removed for testing to ensure full closure and lock-in-place if so equipped.

19.4.5 The operational test of the damper shall verify that there is no damper interference due to rust, bent, misaligned, or damaged frame or blades, or defective hinges or moving parts.

19.4.6 The damper frame shall not be penetrated by any foreign objects that would affect fire damper operations

19.4.7 The damper shall not be blocked in closure in any way.

19.4.8 The fusible link shall be reinstalled after testing is complete

19.4.8.1 If the link is damaged or painted, it shall be replaced with a link of the same size, temperature, and load rating.

WHATWHAT ISIS THETHE DAMPERDAMPER TESTINGTESTING REQUIREMENT?REQUIREMENT?

CONTINUTEDCONTINUTED……

NFPA 80 19.4 CONTINUED

19.4.9 All inspections and testing shall be documented indicating the location of the fire and combination fire/smoke damper, date of inspection, name of inspector, and deficiencies discovered.

19.4.10 ALL documentation shall be maintained and made available for review by the AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction).

NFPA 105 – VIRTUALLY IDENTICAL REQUIREMENTS BUTBUT FORFOR

SMOKESMOKE DAMPERSDAMPERS V.V. FIREFIRE DAMPERSDAMPERS ANDAND COMBINATIONCOMBINATION

FIRE/SMOKEFIRE/SMOKE DAMPERS.DAMPERS.

WHATWHAT ISIS THETHE DAMPERDAMPER TESTINGTESTING REQUIREMENT?REQUIREMENT?

CONTINUTEDCONTINUTED……

NFPA 90A

Commissiong (New Installations)

After installation is completed an operation test needs to be conducted.

The damper needs to fully close (automatically) from the open position. Please note that the fusible link needs to be removed for this test. The fusible link needs to be re-installed after the completion of the test.

NFPANFPA 90A90A Continued

(Commissioning)Continued

(Commissioning)

90A90A Continued (Commissioning)Continued (Commissioning) – The operational test needs to verify that there is full

The operational test needs to verify that there is full and unobstructed access to the damper and all components.

Following the completion of the test, a visual inspection needs to be made of the assembly to ensure no obstructions have been introduced.

All inspections and testing need to be documented indicating the location of the damper, date of inspection, name of the inspector and deficiencies discovered.

NFPANFPA 90A90A (Periodic(Periodic InspectionInspection andand Testing)Testing)

InspectionInspection andand Testing)Testing) – Tests and Inspections need to be completed in all

Tests and Inspections need to be completed in all buildings every 4 years.

NOTE:NOTE: DoesDoes notnot differentiatedifferentiate betweenbetween healthcarehealthcare andand

nonnon--healthcare.healthcare.

Unobstructed access to the damper needs to be verified and corrected as required.

The damper needs to be actuated and cycled as a part of the associated smoke detector testing in accordance with NFPA 72 (as applicable). – Smoke Dampers tied to Alarm Panel.

NFPANFPA 90A90A (Periodic(Periodic InspectionInspection andand Testing)Testing)……Continued.Continued.

andand Testing)Testing) ……Continued.Continued. – If the damper has a fusible link (fire damper or
andand Testing)Testing) ……Continued.Continued. – If the damper has a fusible link (fire damper or

If the damper has a fusible link (fire damper or combination), the link needs to be removed for testing to ensure full closure.

The operation test of the damper needs to verify that there is no damper interference due to rusted, bent, misaligned or damaged frame or blades, or defective hinges or parts.

The damper frame must not be penetrated by any foreign objects that would affect fire damper operations (e.g. screws in tracks).

NFPANFPA 90A90A (Periodic(Periodic InspectionInspection andand Testing)Testing)……ContinuedContinued

andand Testing)Testing) …… ContinuedContinued – The damper must not be blocked from closure in any
andand Testing)Testing) …… ContinuedContinued – The damper must not be blocked from closure in any

The damper must not be blocked from closure in any way.

The fusible link (if applicable) needs to be reinstalled after the completion of the testing.

If the fusible link (if applicable) is damaged or painted, it should be replaced with a link of the same size, temperature and load rating.

All Inspections and testing need to be documented indicating the location of the damper, date of inspection, name of inspector and deficiencies discovered.

NFPANFPA 90A90A –– MaintenanceMaintenance

• • NFPANFPA 90A90A –– MaintenanceMaintenance – All exposed moving parts of the damper need to

All exposed moving parts of the damper need to be lubricated as required by the manufacturer. If a damper is inoperable (fails inspection), repairs need to begin without delay. Following any repairs, the damper needs to be tested for operation in accordance with the requirements for Periodic Inspection and Testing.

AnalysisAnalysis ofof thethe CodeCode

AnalysisAnalysis ofof thethe CodeCode • Why so much focus on the NFPA Code? – The other

Why so much focus on the NFPA Code?

The other organizations use the NFPA Code as the basis of their Fire and Smoke Damper Code.

For example – The International Code Council’s Code says that the NFPA’s Requirement for damper testing must be followed. The Joint Commission requires Healthcare Facilities to following the NFPA Code. SOLAS requires NFPA to be followed on Marine Vessels, and UL requires that dampers be maintained in accordance with NFPA.

Insurance Companies require that building owners have inspected dampers as required by NFPA.

AnalysisAnalysis ofof thethe CodeCode

When should the inspection be completed.

During the commissioning process.

One year after installation.

Every 4 years after thereafter.

Why the difference in the two NFPA Codes for Healthcare facilities for testing frequency?

Because Healthcare facilities were performing the testing so frequently the healthcare facilities felt that they could have a longer duration.

However – almost every AHJ requires that Healthcare facilities have the test performed in accordance with 90A – every 4 years because of the importance of fire safety in Healthcare Facilities. Damper Manufacturers also recommend more frequent testing of dampers to lessen the failure rate.

AnalysisAnalysis ofof thethe CodeCode

AnalysisAnalysis ofof thethe CodeCode • Why testing in Healthcare Facilities (Hospitals, Nursing Homes, etc.) is so

Why testing in Healthcare Facilities (Hospitals, Nursing Homes, etc.) is so important.

(Hospitals, Nursing Homes, etc.) is so important. » The Joint Commission and Local Authorities strictly

» The Joint Commission and Local Authorities strictly enforce the damper testing codes in healthcare facilities… Why?

WhyWhy DamperDamper TestingTesting isis soso importantimportant inin HealthcareHealthcare Facilities.Facilities.

Healthcare Facilities are DefendDefend inin PlacePlace facilities.

In the event of a fire – patients tied to life saving machines, or being operated on can not be evacuated from a hospital. Many patients are unable to be moved or are too sick to move quickly enough to escape danger in the event of a fire.

This is why Fire and Smoke Dampers and all life safety components MUSTMUST work and be maintained in Healthcare facilities – if not the loss of life could be immense. This is why the testing requirements have been strictly enforced at four years and in some cases annually by some AHJs for Healthcare Occupancies.

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED?

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED? • IT’S REQUIRED – THE CODES MANDATE THAT DAMPERS BE TESTED. •

IT’S REQUIRED – THE CODES MANDATE THAT DAMPERS BE TESTED.

THE CODE IS THERE FOR A REASON – DAMPERS SERVE A VALUABLE PURPOSE IN FIRE SAFETY. » The NFPA implemented the fire and smoke damper codes in large part due to fires in two The Las Vegas hotel fires (MGM Grand, and Hilton) – NFPA investigation showed that in both cases the fire spread in part because of failing fire and smoke dampers. Those fires led to over 80 fatalities and substantial damages to the facilities.

Those fires led to over 80 fatalities and substantial damages to the facilities. Picture of the

Picture of the MGM Grand Hotel Fire

Fire and Smoke Dampers are part of the overall Fire Safety Plan of a building – AllAll of the components must work for the plan to be effective.

Even if fully sprinkled a building needs other lines of fire safety defense that works. The non-profit group Center for Campus Fire Safety’s Director Ed Comeau has stated that the most common factors of fatal fires in student housing are disabled smoke alarms and poorly maintained sprinkler systems. Thus heightening the need for fire and smoke dampers to lessen the spread of fire and smoke.

Fire and Smoke Dampers Maintain the integrity of other means of Passive Fire Protection (Fire and Smoke Walls, Fire Stopping).

Without working Fire and Smoke Dampers Fire and Smoke Walls are rendered useless.

Fire and Smoke Dampers Fire and Smoke Walls are rendered useless . Fire Damper in rated

Fire Damper in rated wall

Fire and Smoke Dampers Fire and Smoke Walls are rendered useless . Fire Damper in rated

Smoke Damper in rated wall

WhyWhy areare DampersDampers Tested/Inspected?Tested/Inspected?

They often fail – the items the code looks for as reasons for failure are often found during inspection. Frequent Inspection is the only way to find failures on valuable safety protection devices.

An average of Life Safety Services, LLC projects shows that approximately 10%10% ofof dampersdampers failfail inspection.inspection. NOTE: That figure is based largely in facilities that have regular inspections. More than likely facilities that have not had regular inspections will experience a much higher failure rate.

Photographic Examples of Damper Failures.

No Actuator for Damper

• No Actuator for Damper • Wiring going through damper (obstruction) preventing closure.

Wiring going through damper (obstruction) preventing closure.

• No Actuator for Damper • Wiring going through damper (obstruction) preventing closure.

Static (e.g. gravity) Damper Installed in Vertical Shaft (needs dynamic damper).

• Static (e.g. gravity) Damper Installed in Vertical Shaft (needs dynamic damper). • Damper Rusted Open

Damper Rusted Open

• Static (e.g. gravity) Damper Installed in Vertical Shaft (needs dynamic damper). • Damper Rusted Open

Damper wired opened

Damper installed upside down

• Damper wired opened • Damper installed upside down
• Damper wired opened • Damper installed upside down

Damper with broken springs/parts prohibiting closure.

• Damper with broken springs/parts prohibiting closure. • Damper being held open by metal and mastic

Damper being held open by metal and mastic gluing damper open and blocking tracks.

prohibiting closure. • Damper being held open by metal and mastic gluing damper open and blocking

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED?

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED? • • ““DefendingDefending inin PlacePlace”” –– BeyondBeyond

““DefendingDefending inin PlacePlace”” –– BeyondBeyond HealthcareHealthcare

Often in Life Safety we have to look at the concept of defend in place. Aside from Healthcare Facilities we must “Defend in Place” in Correctional Facilities and for Ships at Sea.

There is also “defending in place” the companies assets.

Expensive IT assets, Pharmaceutical Assets, Equipment, etc.

The financial losses of a fire are substantial. Loss of assets, damage to property, loss of revenue (e.g. loss of occupancy for a hotel, loss of production for a business, etc.)

Insurance Companies when investigating whether to pay for a loss could look for the testing of dampers per code if damper are involved in the event.

HighHigh OccupancyOccupancy Facilities/HighFacilities/High RiseRise FacilitiesFacilities

Easiest Path for smoke to travel is often the Ductwork/HVAC System.

High Rise facilities have ductwork risers that allow smoke to rise floor-to-floor.

Failed dampers will often close and cause “hot” and “cold” spots in buildings and cause your building’s HVAC Systems to be out-of-balance and cause T&B problems.

HighHigh OccupancyOccupancy Facilities/HighFacilities/High RiseRise FacilitiesFacilities

RiseRise FacilitiesFacilities – Easiest Path for smoke to travel is often the
RiseRise FacilitiesFacilities – Easiest Path for smoke to travel is often the

Easiest Path for smoke to travel is often the Ductwork/HVAC System.

High Rise facilities have ductwork risers that allow smoke to rise easily floor-to-floor.

Smoke can easily fill stairwells when occupants are evacuating a facility.

fill stairwells when occupants are evacuating a facility. » Fire and Smoke Dampers are installed between

» Fire and Smoke Dampers are installed between floors to prevent the spread of fire and smoke between floors.

» Dampers need to be maintained to allow occupants adequate time to evacuate high rise buildings (e.g. office buildings, hotels) in the event of a fire.

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED?

WHYWHY AREARE DAMPERSDAMPERS TESTED?TESTED? • It is less expensive to test fire and smoke dampers on

It is less expensive to test fire and smoke dampers on a regular basis because it decreases failures and repair costs.

The leading manufacturers of fire and smoke dampers recommend frequent testing of dampers.

Stating that more frequent testing will increase the life of fire and smoke damper testing and then in turn lessen the replacement cost for new dampers and make buildings safer.

WhoWho ShouldShould PerformPerform thethe FireFire && SmokeSmoke DamperDamper Inspection?Inspection?

A company or individual that specializes in the Inspection of Fire & Smoke Damper Testing.

Why having a Specialist is Important.

Fire Safety is too important to have a contractor that does not specialize to perform the inspection.

Substantially reduces liability on the property owner.

Why select a Fire & Smoke Damper Specialist to perform the Inspection.

Companies that do not specialize too often do not find all of the dampers during the inspection.

HaveHave toto rememberremember unlikeunlike otherother firefire safetysafety inspectionsinspections thethe devicesdevices areare notnot visiblevisible soso knowingknowing thethe codecode aboutabout wherewhere thethe devicesdevices shouldshould bebe locatedlocated andand findingfinding thethe devicesdevices isis imperative.imperative.

Missing Dampers During an inspection puts the property owner, building occupants, and all stakeholders and substantially greater risk.

Our company has followed countless contractors that did not specialize in this inspection and found that they have not found very larger percentages of the dampers, often many of which are failed dampers.

Knowing all the models and types of Dampers.

There are not just Fire and Smoke Dampers.

There are HUNDREDSHUNDREDS of models of Fire Dampers and HUNDREDSHUNDREDS of models of Smoke Dampers.

Knowing how to inspect all models is only possible with a company that has been trained and specializes in the testing of dampers.

» What could happen if you don’t know all models

» It slows down the testing process which in turn is a much larger inconvience to the property owner (and more expensive.

» Could potentially close a damper and not be able to open re-open the damper. This would block the airflow for the HVAC System, which blocks off the air to all building occupants.

» Could damage the damper.

» Could wrongly report a damper inspection result. For example, stating incorrectly a damper “passed” or “failed” (e.g. false “positive” or false “negative”).

WhyWhy UseUse aa DamperDamper TestingTesting Specialist?Specialist?

UseUse aa DamperDamper TestingTesting Specialist?Specialist? • The inspection process will be faster and will not

The inspection process will be faster and will not require the assistance of property management’s staff.

Specialist will be able to inspect more dampers in a day, saving the property manger time and money and much less disturbing to the staff and occupants.

Specialist knowing how to find dampers, not set off alarms, not blocking off airflow with close dampers, etc. – will not need an escort from the property management department. Therefore not utilizing expensive human resources and money.

WhyWhy useuse aa Specialist?Specialist?

In Healthcare Facilities greatly reduces the risk to patients.

Damper testing companies that specialize will be familiar with Infection Control Measures to protect Immune Compromised Patients from the contaminants above the ceiling that can be released during the testing process.

Damper testing professionals will be familiar with the “Infection Control Risk Matrix” to determine what measures need to be used in different areas of a hospital depending on the risk.

Damper Specialist will know what an “ICRA” (Infection Control Risk Assessment) is and how to implement the ICRA.

What all of this means is that not using a company familiar with work in a healthcare environment is putting patient safety at risk but increasing the chances of infection.

WhyWhy UseUse aa Specialist?Specialist? FewerFewer NonNon--AccessibleAccessible DampersDampers

FewerFewer NonNon -- AccessibleAccessible DampersDampers – Companies that specialize in damper testing will know
FewerFewer NonNon -- AccessibleAccessible DampersDampers – Companies that specialize in damper testing will know

Companies that specialize in damper testing will know better know how to better reach hard to access dampers.

This saves the property owner money and reduces their liability.

NFPA States that non-accessible dampers must be made accessible as soon as possible.

Many insurance companies will not cover losses if a property owner knows a damper is non-accessible but does not make a damper accessible for inspection.

WhyWhy useuse aa DamperDamper TestingTesting Specialist?Specialist?

useuse aa DamperDamper TestingTesting Specialist?Specialist? • The Documentation – The Specialist Will • Know

The Documentation

The Specialist Will

Know the Code(s)

Know what the code(s) requires in regards to documentation.

Know what the AHJ requires.

Have professional, complete documentation that will not require that will meet the code requirements for the property owner.

Our company has performed inspections for property owners who have paid to have the dampers inspected by another company that was not a specialist and did not provide documentation approved by the AHJ. So the property owner paid twice for the test.

WhatWhat TypeType ofof DocumentationDocumentation ShouldShould thethe AHJAHJ RequireRequire forfor thethe PropertyProperty Owner?Owner?

RequireRequire forfor thethe PropertyProperty Owner?Owner? • Detailed Inventory of every damper. – List the
RequireRequire forfor thethe PropertyProperty Owner?Owner? • Detailed Inventory of every damper. – List the

Detailed Inventory of every damper.

List the location of damper

Type of Damper (Fire, Smoke)

Damper Number

Result of the Inspection (Pass, Fail)

If Damper Failed Why the Damper Failed

Column listing what the corrective action is for when the failed damper is fixed.

Drawings with every dampers marked with the damper number and type of damper noted.

Damper Tag and the physical location of every damper with the damper number and type (fire or smoke).

The beginning of the report needs to provide a floor by floor summary of the
The beginning of the report needs to provide a floor by floor summary of the
The beginning of the report needs to provide a floor by floor summary of the
The beginning of the report needs to provide a floor by floor summary of the
The beginning of the report needs to provide a floor by floor summary of the
The beginning
of the report
needs to
provide a floor
by floor
summary of
the inspection.

DigitalDigital PicturePicture ofof EveryEvery DamperDamper TestedTested This is the onlyonly way in a report to prove that every damper was tested.

Ensures that the contractor actually tested the dampers.

Reduces liability.

For Failed Dampers it assists the repair contractor to see the failed damper.

the dampers. • Reduces liability. • For Failed Dampers it assists the repair contractor to see

SampleSample ofof WhatWhat DocumentationDocumentation ShouldShould LookLook LikeLike inin FinalFinal ReportReport toto AHJAHJ

LookLook LikeLike inin FinalFinal ReportReport toto AHJAHJ SampleSample FireFire DamperDamper PicturesPictures
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SampleSample ofof WhatWhat DocumentationDocumentation ShouldShould LookLook LikeLike inin FinalFinal ReportReport toto AHJAHJ

LookLook LikeLike inin FinalFinal ReportReport toto AHJAHJ SampleSample SmokeSmoke DamperDamper PicturesPictures
LookLook LikeLike inin FinalFinal ReportReport toto AHJAHJ SampleSample SmokeSmoke DamperDamper PicturesPictures
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WHAT TO DOCUMENT & DO DURING YOUR INSPECTION

FIRE DAMPERS

REMOVE THE FUSIBLE LINK

CLEAN ALL TRACKS OF DIRT & DEBRIS THAT CAN PREVENT DAMPER FROM CLOSING

LUBRICATE MOVING PARTS

REPLACE BAD FUSIBLE LINKS

ENSURE DAMPER FULLY CLOSES AND THERE ARE NO GAPS

MAKE SURE ON DYNAMIC DAMPERS THAT ALL SPRINGS ARE WORKING

SMOKE DAMPERS

ELECTRIC SMOKE DAMPERS – REMOVE POWER SOURCE TO ENSURE DAMPER FULLY CLOSES AND ACTUATOR IS WORKING

PNEUMATIC SMOKE DAMPERS – REMOVE THE AIR LINE TO ENSURE THE DAMPER FULLY CLOSES AND ACTUATOR IS WORKING.

NOTE****THIS IS A DIFFERENT TEST THAN TESTING OF THE RELAY TO YOUR ALARM PANEL

QUESTIONS AND CON T ACT INFORMATION LIFE SAFET Y S ERV ICES CRAIG RU T

QUESTIONS AND CONTACT INFORMATION

LIFE SAFETY SERVICES CRAIG RUTLEDGE OFFICE: 888-675-4519 CELL: 502-836-2875 EMAIL: CRAIG@LIFESAFETYSERVICES.COM WEB: WWW.LIFESAFETYSERVICES.COM