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Biochemistry Mumtaz Programs

1. Give the definition of Carbohydrates.

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2. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plants and animals. Explain the distributions in

(a)Plant

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(b)Animals

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3. List the Classification of the Carbohydrates.

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4. Explain each classification of Carbohydrates and give examples.(hydrolysis and number of


sugar units).

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Monosaccharide.

5. Give the general formula of Monosaccharide.

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6. Monosaccharides can be classified according to 3 reasons. List them out.

(a)
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(b)
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(c)
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7. What are the meanings of all the words.

Aldoses: …………………………………………………………………………………………..

Ketoses: …………………………………………………………………………………………..

Trioses: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Tetroses: …………………………………………………………………………………………..

Pentoses: …………………………………………………………………………………………

Hexoses: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Heptoses: …………………………………………………………………………………………...

Aldotrioses: ………………………………………………………………………………………...

Ketotrioses: ………………………………………………………………………………………
Aldotetroses: ……………………………………………………………………………………….

Ketotetroses: ……………………………………………………………………………………….

Aldopentoses: ………………………………………………………………………………………

Ketopentoses: ………………………………………………………………………………………

Aldohexoses: ……………………………………………………………………………………….

Ketohexoses: ………………………………………………………………………………………

Aldoheptoses: ………………………………………………………………………………………

Ketoheptoses: ………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Draw the structural formula

(a) Aldotrioses and Ketotrioses(L-Glyceraldehyde,D-Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetones)

(b) Aldotetroses and Ketotetroses.(Erythrose,threose,erythrulose)


(c) Aldopentoses and Ketopentoses.(Ribose,Arabinose,Xylose,Lyxose,Ribulose and Xylulose)

(d) Aldohexoses and Ketohexoses( Glucose,Mannose,Galactose, Fructose)


(e) Aldoheptose and Ketoheptose( Heptose,Heptulose)

8. Give the Physical Properties of Monosaccharides.

(a)…………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b)…………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(c)…………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(d)…………………………………………………………………………………………………

(e)…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9. Explain about Asymmetric Carbon Atoms.

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10. What is the meaning of Optical Activity?

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11. Explain the Direction of Rotation of Optical Activity.

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12. What is the cause of Optical Activity?

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13. Explain about Ordinary Light and Plane Polarized Light.

(a) Ordinary Light

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(b)Plane Polarized Light

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14. The direction and angle of rotation of the optical activity can be measured by

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15. Glucose rotates the ppl to the right side is named as

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16. Fructose rotates the ppl to the left side is named as

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17. What is the meaning of Configuration of Sugar.

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18. If (OH) group is present on the right

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19. If (OH) group is present on the left

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20. Draw the two forms of glyceraldehydes.

21. Glyceraldehydes is called as “reference sugar’ because

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22. Explain about Racemic Mixture.

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23. In solution, monosaccharides are present in cyclic form. Name the two types of the cylic
form.

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24. Draw the structural formula for this eqution.

D-glucose ------------------> Aldehyde hydrate ----------------------a-D-gluco-pyranose

25. In the cylic form of glucose “a-gluco-pyranose” can be describe by Haworth. Explain.

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26. Draw the structural formula for this equation.

D-fructose -----------------Ketohydrate “unstable” ----------------------a-D-gluco-furanose

27. Draw the cyclic form

(a) a-D-glucopyranose

(b)B-D-glucopyranose

(c) a-D-fructofuranose
(d) B-D-fructopyranose

28. Explain about Anomeric Carbon Atom

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28. What is the meaning of Mutarotation.

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29. Give the value of specific rotation of a-glucose and specific rotation of B-glucose.

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3o. List all the 3 types of Isomers and explain.

(a)
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(b)
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(c)
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31. Names the 3 Chemical Properties of Monosaccharides.

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32. Free carbonyl group is called

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33. Explain the Ester Formation and draw the structural formula of the formation.

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34. Oxidation of monosaccharides give

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35. The oxidation of sugar by bromine,H20’Mild oxidation” gives


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36. The oxidation of sugar by nitric acid”strong acid’ gives

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37. Based on question no. 35, draw the structural formula for the oxidation.

38. Based on question no. 36, draw the structural formula for the oxidation.

39. The reduction of monosaccharides give

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40. Complete the reduction

(a) Glyceraldehyde-------------------…………………………………………………….

(b) Glucose ---------------------------……………………………………………………..

(c) Mannose ------------------------ ……………………………………………………..

(d) Galactose ---------------------- ………………………………………………………

(e) Fructose ---------------------- ………………………………………………………….