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GKM College of engineering & technology


1. Define modulation.
2. What is the need for modulation?
3. Draw the block diagram of communication system.
4.Give the types of modulation.
5.What is amplitude modulation
6.Define sensitivity
7.For an AM commercial broadcast band receiver(535KHz-1605KHz) with an input filter
Q factor of 54 , determine the bandwidth at low and high ends of the RF spectrum.
8.Define AM envelope
9.Draw the frequency spectrum of an AMDSBFC wave.
10.Define modulation index and percent modulation in AM.
11.What are the types of conventional AM modulators. State the difference.
12.What is meant by repetition rate of an AM envelope.
13.When there is 100% modulation ,what is the relationship between voltage amplitudes
of the side frequencies and the carrier.
14.What is the predominant disadvantage of AMDSBFC.
15 State disadvantage of low level modulator(AM).
16. What is the maximum modulating frequency that can be used with an AMDSBFC
system with a 20Khz bandwidth.
17.For an unmodulated carrier amplitude of 16Vp and a modulation coefficient
m=0.4,determine the amplitudes of the modulated carrier and side frequencies.
18. For m=0.4 ,Pc=2000W ,Determine i)Total sideband power ii)Total transmitted
iii) Power of the modulated and unmodulated carrier
19.What is image frequency. Give the expression of IFRR.
20..For an AM receiver using high side injection with an RF carrier of 27MHz & an IF
center frequency of 455KHz,determine Local oscillator frequency, Image frequency,
IFRR for a preselector Q of 100
21.What is heterodyning.

1 .Explain with neat sketches the different types of amplitude modulator.
2. Explain the voltage distribution of AM wave.
3. For an AM modulator with fc=200kHz and fm(max) = 10KHZ Determine
a. limits for upper and lower sidebands,
b. bandwidth,
c.upper and lower side frequency when fm=3kHz tone
d. Draw output frequency spectrum.
4.. Explain AM Receiver parameters
5.Draw and explain the block diagram of low level AM transmitter
6. Draw and explain the block diagram of high level AM transmitter
7. Explain the working of a super heterodyne receiver with suitable block diagram.
8. Explain the working of a tuned radiofrequency receiver with suitable block diagram.
9. Explain the working of a double conversion AM receiver with suitable block diagram.



1. Define Angle modulation

2. What is frequency modulation?
3. Define frequency deviation.give an expression for modulation index.
4. What is the bandwidth required for an FM signal in which the modulating frequency is
2KHz and maximum deviation is 10KHz.
5. What is deviation ratio in FM.
6. If frequency deviation is 5Khz for a 10v modulating signal, determine deviation
7. What are the types of FM demodulators?
8. What is the bandwidth required for an FM signal in which the modulating frequency is
2KHz and maximum deviation is 10KHz.
9. What is phase modulation?.
10 What are the types of FM modulators?
11. What are the types of PM modulators & demodulators??
12. Define Adjacent channel interference
13. Define Carson’s rule.
14. calculate the bandwidth using carson’s rule for maximum frequency deviation and
modulating signal
15. Give the modulation index for FM and PM

1. Explain the working of FET Reactance modulator with circuit diagram.
2. Explain the working of Varactor diode FM modulator.
3. Explain the working of direct PM modulators
4. Explain the working of foster seeley discriminator with diagram.
5. Sketch and explain the working of direct FM transmitter.
6. Sketch and explain the PLL FM demodulator.
7. Explain about Direct FM transmitter.
8. Explain about Indirect FM transmitter
9. Explain the commercial Broadcast band FM.
10.Explain about FM Noise Suppression



1.Determine the 12 bit linear code,8 bit compressed code and recovered 12 bit code
for resolution of 0.01V and analog sample voltage of 0.05V.
2. What are the types Pulse Modulation.
3.Define Sampling rate.
4. Define Nyquist rate
5. What is alising?
6. what is Companding
7. Define SNR.
8. what is Redudancy.
9. What is the use of Eyepattern.
10.Define Modem.
11.Give data communication codes.
12.Draw the block diagram of DPCM.
13. what are the errors occur in Delta Modulation.

1 .Explain the working of Delta modulation
2 Explain the working of PCM transmitter and receiver
3. Explain the working of Adaptive Delta modulation
4.What is ISI. How can it be determine.
5. Explain the operation of RS-232 serial interface with timing diagram.
6 .Explain low and high speed modems.
7. Explain delta modulation and DPCM
8.Explain about data communication circuit.
9.Explain about data communication codes.
10.Explain about MODEM Control .


1. State Shannon’s Fundamental theorem of information theory.
2. Give the applications of spread spectrum modulation
3. Define Processing gain. Give an expression for processing gain.
4. What is spread spectrum modulation. State its advantages
5. Differentiate between FDM and TDM
6. Mention the Processing gain of DS and FH Spread spectrum techniques.
7. What is Time division multiple access?
8. Draw the Signal Constellation diagram of 8-PSK Modulation.
9. State the correlation property of Maximal Length Sequence.
10. Define Pulse amplitude modulation.
11. What is fast and slow frequency hopping?
12. What are the three Properties of PN Sequences?
13. Define MSK.
14. Define LPC
15. Give the applications of wireless communications.
16. What is Near-far problem?
17. what is Frequency reuse?
18. What is Code division multiple access?
19. Draw the waveform of ASK,FSK for a sequence.
20. Define DPSK

1. What is PN sequence. Explain the operation of direct spread spectrum with
coherent BPSK.
2. Sketch and explain working of RAKE receiver.
3. What are the different types of multiple access techniques.
4. Explain working of costas loop.
5. Explain the working of Multi pulse excited LPC and Code excited LPC by
Suitable diagrams.
6. Explain in detail about QPSK modulation scheme.
7. .Write about the performance of M-ary PSK.
8. .Explain the function of DBPSK transmitter and receiver.
9. .With neat block diagram explain the operation of QAM transmitter. Draw its
output signal constellation diagram.
10. Discuss about the power spectrum and bandwidth efficiency of M-ary
modulation schemes.
11. Explain BPSK transmitter and receiver with help of block diagram ?
12.The bit stream 1011100011 is to be transmitted using DPSK. Determine the
encoded sequence and transmitted phase sequence.
13. Explain about Wireless Communications.
14. Derive the Processing gain of SS Modulation.
15. Explain about Carrier and Clock recovery.