0 Up votes0 Down votes

108 views38 pagesNov 19, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

108 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- j 43065866
- Air Pressure science form 2 chapter 6
- 130310-130101-FLUID MECHANICS
- (Class 16) Bulk Modulus
- Lift force
- Slump and Yield
- 01-Manometers.pdf
- 538
- contoh Soal Gas Ideal
- Vapor Lock LAw
- lecture 1 to 10 basic fluidmechanics
- Assignment#2 (1)
- HFD_Catalog_12AT_50AT.pdf
- SPE-92828-MS-P
- 05. CR... - Performance Range GB
- ~pj3FAAF6C063BC466CBF651A7B2D766862
- Haldex-Barnes 2-Stage Pump for Log Splitters
- Bolgar 2018
- ELECTRICS TEST 2.pdf
- 1983 Heave Compensation Systems_ Analysis and Results of Field Testing_Azpiazu Thatcher & Schweim

You are on page 1of 38

Chapter 1

1-1 Introduction

Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids either in motion (fluid

dynamics) or at rest (fluid statics) and the subsequent effects of the fluid

upon the boundaries, which may be either solid surfaces or interfaces

with other fluids. Both gases and liquids are classified as fluids, and the

number of fluids engineering applications is enormous: breathing, blood

flow, swimming, pumps, fans, turbines, airplanes, ships, rivers,

windmills, pipes, missiles, icebergs, engines, filters, jets, and sprinklers,

to name a few. When you think about it, almost everything on this planet

either is a fluid or moves within or near a fluid.

Fig. 1.1 Flow processes occur in many ways in our natural environment

of the laws by which fluid movements are described, but makes an effort

beyond that to find solutions for flow problems, i.e. for given initial and

boundary conditions. To this end, three methods are used in fluid

mechanics to solve flow problems:

(a) Analytical solution methods (analytical fluid mechanics):

Analytical methods of applied mathematics are used in this field to solve

the basic flow equations, taking into account the boundary conditions

describing the actual flow problem.

(b) Numerical solution methods (numerical fluid mechanics):

Numerical methods of applied mathematics are employed for fluid flow

simulations on computers to yield solutions of the basic equations of fluid

mechanics.

(c) Experimental solution methods (experimental fluid mechanics):

This sub-domain of fluid mechanics uses similarity laws for the

transferability of fluid mechanics knowledge from model flow

investigations. The knowledge gained in model flows by measurements is

transferred by means of the constancy of known characteristic quantities

of a flow field to the flow field of actual interest.

From the point of view of fluid mechanics, all matter consists of only

two states, fluid and solid. The difference between the two is perfectly

obvious to the layperson, and it is an interesting exercise to ask a

layperson to put this difference into words. The technical distinction lies

with the reaction of the two to an applied shear or tangential stress. A

solid can resist a shear stress by a static deformation; a fluid cannot.

Any shear stress applied to a fluid, no matter how small, will result in

motion of that fluid. The fluid moves and deforms continuously as long

as the shear stress is applied. As a corollary, we can say that a fluid at rest

must be in a state of zero shear stress, a state often called the hydrostatic

stress condition in structural analysis. In this condition, Mohr’s circle for

stress reduces to a point, and there is no shear stress on any plane cut

through the element under stress.

Given the definition of a fluid above, every layperson also knows that

there are two classes of fluids, liquids and gases. Again the distinction is

a technical one concerning the effect of cohesive forces. A liquid, being

composed of relatively close-packed molecules with strong cohesive

forces, tends to retain its volume and will form a free surface in a

gravitational field if unconfined from above. Free-surface flows are

dominated by gravitational effects. Since gas molecules are widely

spaced with negligible cohesive forces, a gas is free to expand until it

encounters confining walls. A gas has no definite volume, and when left

to itself without confinement, a gas forms an atmosphere which is

essentially hydrostatic. Gases cannot form a free surface, and thus gas

flows are rarely concerned with gravitational effects other than buoyancy.

Figure 1.2 illustrates a solid block resting on a rigid plane and

stressed by its own weight. The solid sags into a static deflection, shown

as a highly exaggerated dashed line, resisting shear without flow. A free-

body diagram of element A on the side of the block shows that there is

shear in the block along a plane cut at an angle 𝜃𝜃 through A. Since the

block sides are unsupported, element A has zero stress on the left and

right sides and compression stress 𝜎𝜎 = -p on the top and bottom. The

liquid and gas at rest in Fig. 1.1 require the supporting walls in order to

eliminate shear stress. The walls exert a compression stress of -p. The

liquid retains its volume and forms a free surface in the container. If the

walls are removed, shear develops in the liquid and a big splash results. If

the container is tilted, shear again develops, waves form, and the free

surface seeks a horizontal configuration, pouring out over the lip if

necessary. Element A in the gas is also hydrostatic and exerts a

compression stress -p on the walls.

Fig. 1.2 A solid at rest can resist shear. (a) Static deflection of the solid; (b) equilibrium

and Mohr’s circle for solid element A. A fluid cannot resist shear. (c) Containing walls

are needed; (d) equilibrium and Mohr’s circle for fluid element A.

1-2-1 Solids & Fluids

All substances of our natural and technical environment can be

subdivided into solid, liquid and gaseous media, on the basis of their state

of aggregation. This subdivision is accepted in many fields of engineering

in order to reveal important differences concerning the properties of the

substances. This subdivision could also be applied to fluid mechanics,

but, it would not be particularly advantageous. It is rather recommended

to employ fluid mechanics aspects to achieve a subdivision of media, i.e.

a subdivision appropriate for the treatment of fluid flow processes. To

this end, the term fluid is introduced for designating all those substances

that cannot be classified clearly as solids. Hence, from the point of view

of fluid mechanics, all media can be subdivided into solids and fluids, the

difference between the two groups being that solids possess elasticity as

an important property, whereas fluids have viscosity as a characteristic

property. Shear forces imposed on a solid from outside lead to inner

elastic shear stresses which prevent irreversible changes of the positions

of molecules of the solid. When, in contrast, external shear forces are

imposed on fluids, they react with the build-up of velocity gradients,

where the build-up of the gradient results via a molecule-dependent

momentum transport, i.e. momentum transport through fluid viscosity.

Thus elasticity (solids) and viscosity (liquids) are the properties of matter

that are employed in fluid mechanics for subdividing media. However,

there are a few exceptions to this subdivision, such as in the case of some

of the materials in rheology exhibiting mixed properties. They are

therefore referred to as visco-elastic media. Some of them behave such

that for small deformations they behave like solids and for large

deformations they behave like liquids.

For further subdivision of fluids, it is recommended to make use of their

response to normal stresses (or pressure) acting on fluid elements. When

a fluid element reacts to pressure changes by adjusting its volume and

consequently its density, the fluid is called compressible. When no

volume or density changes occur with pressure or temperature, the fluid is

regarded as incompressible although, strictly, incompressible fluids do

not exist. However, such a subdivision is reasonable and moreover useful

and this will be shown in the following derivations of the basic fluid

mechanics equations. Indeed, this subdivision mainly distinguishes

liquids from gases.

As all matter consists of molecules or aggregations of molecules, all

macroscopic properties of matter can be described by molecular

properties. Hence it is possible to derive all properties of fluids that are of

importance for considerations in fluid mechanics, from properties of

molecules, i.e. macroscopic properties of fluids can be described by

molecular properties. However, a molecular description of the state of

matter requires much effort owing to the necessary extensive formalism

and moreover the treatment of macroscopic properties would remain

unclear. A molecular-theoretical treatment of fluid properties would

hardly be appropriate to supply application-oriented fluid mechanics

information in an easily comprehensible form. For this reason, it is more

advantageous to introduce quantities of continuum mechanics for

describing fluid properties. The connection between continuum

mechanics quantities, introduced in fluid mechanics, and the molecular

properties should be considered, however, as the most important links

between the two different ways of description and presentation of fluid

properties. Some properties of the thermodynamic state of a fluid, such

as density ρ, pressure P and temperature T, are essential for the

description of fluid mechanics processes and these can easily be

expressed in terms of molecular quantities.

However, there are some important domains in fluid mechanics where

continuum considerations are not appropriate, e.g. the investigation of

flows in highly diluted gas systems. No clear continuum mechanics

quantities can be defined there for the density and pressure with which

fluid mechanics processes can be resolved. The required spatial resolution

of the fluid mechanics considerations does not provide, due to the

dilution, sufficient numbers of molecules for the necessary establishment

of the mean values of the considered continuum properties. Hence there

are insufficient molecules available in the considered δV for the

introduction of the continuum mechanics quantities. When treating such

fluid flows, priority has to be given to the molecular theory rather than

continuum mechanics considerations. In the present introduction to fluid

mechanics, the domain of flows of highly diluted gases is not dealt with,

so that all required considerations can take place in the terminology of

continuum mechanics. For continuum mechanics considerations,

molecular effects, e.g. within the conservation laws for mass, momentum

and energy, are presented in integral form, i.e. the molecular structure of

the considered fluids is not neglected but taken into consideration in the

form of integral quantities.

Since in our study of fluid mechanics we will be dealing with a variety

of fluid characteristics, it is necessary to develop a system for describing

these characteristics both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative

aspect serves to identify the nature, or type, of the characteristics (such as

length, time, stress, and velocity), whereas the quantitative aspect

provides a numerical measure of the characteristics. The quantitative

description requires both a number and a standard by which various

quantities can be compared. A standard for length might be a meter or

foot, for time an hour or second, and for mass a slug or kilogram. Such

standards are called units, and several systems of units are in common use

as described in the following section. The qualitative description is

conveniently given in terms of certain primary quantities, such as length,

L, time, T, mass, M, and temperature 𝜃𝜃.

1-2-4 Pressure ( P )

The normal force pushing against a plane area, divided by the area, is

the average pressure intensity. The pressure intensity at a point is the

limit of the ratio of normal force to area as the area approaches zero size

at the point. The pressure at a point in the fluid can be expressed

mathematically as follows:

Δ𝐹𝐹

𝑃𝑃 = lim 1.1

Δ𝐴𝐴→0 Δ𝐴𝐴

where Δ𝐹𝐹 is the incremental normal force exerted on the incremental area

Δ𝐴𝐴 by the surrounding fluid particles.

From the point of view of molecular theory, the pressure effect is defined

as the momentum change per unit time felt per unit area, i.e. the force

which the molecules experience and exert on a wall when colliding in an

elastic way with the wall in the considered area. The following relation

holds

1 ���2 = 1 𝜌𝜌𝑢𝑢

���2

𝑃𝑃 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑢𝑢 1.2

3 3

where m is the molecular mass, n the number of the molecules per unit

volume and mean u the thermal velocity of the molecules.

Fig. 1.3 Fluids exert a compressive force on any surface they contact. (A) A fluid

exerting a force normal to a solid surface. (B) A fluid exerting a compressive force on an

imaginary interior surface. Note that the force exerted on the fluid above and to the

right of the imaginary surface is equal and opposite to the force exerted by the fluid

below and to the left of that same surface.

For the surface forces to be in equilibrium, the sum of the vertical and

horizontal components must be equal to zero. If the forces per unit area,

the pressures on the surface, are denoted by p1, p2, and p3, then the

forces can be written as products of the pressures and the areas, on which

they act. The following sketch shows the prismatic element with the

surface forces indicated. If another geometric shape of the volume

element would have been chosen, the equilibrium condition would always

require the vanishing of the sum of the vertical and horizontal

components of the surface forces.

𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

𝑝𝑝1 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − 𝑝𝑝3 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 cos(𝑎𝑎, 𝑐𝑐) − 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 =0

2

𝑎𝑎 = 𝑐𝑐 cos(𝑎𝑎, 𝑐𝑐) , 𝑏𝑏 = 𝑐𝑐 cos

(𝑏𝑏, 𝑐𝑐)

𝑝𝑝1 = 𝑝𝑝2 = 𝑝𝑝3 = 𝑝𝑝 1.3

For c → 0 the volume forces vanish. It

follows for every point in a fluid which

is in equilibrium, that the pressure p

does not depend on the direction of the surface element on which it acts.

The equilibrium condition for a cylinder with infinitesimally small cross-

sectional area A, and with its axis normal to the positive direction of the

gravitational force, yields the following relation

𝑝𝑝1 𝐴𝐴 = 𝑝𝑝2 𝐴𝐴 ⇒ 𝑝𝑝1 = 𝑝𝑝2 = 𝑝𝑝 1.4

The density represents the mass of the fluid contained within a unit

volume. Mathematically, the density at a point is given as

Δ𝑚𝑚

𝜌𝜌 = lim 1.5

Δ𝐴𝐴→0 Δ𝑉𝑉

where Δ𝑚𝑚 is incremental mass of the fluid surrounding the point and Δ𝑉𝑉

is incremental volume surrounding the point.

The specific weight of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol 𝛾𝛾

(gamma), is defined as its weight per unit volume. Thus, specific weight

is related to density through the equation

𝛾𝛾 = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 1.6

where g is the local acceleration of gravity. Just as density is used to

characterize the mass of a fluid system, the specific weight is used to

characterize the weight of the system.

The specific volume of a fluid is the volume occupied by a unit mass.

It is, therefore, given by

1

𝑉𝑉𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 = 1.7

𝜌𝜌

The specific gravity of a fluid, designated as SG, is defined as the ratio

of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified

temperature. Usually the specified temperature is taken as 4 0𝐶𝐶 and

specified pressure is taken as 76 cm.

𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆

𝜌𝜌

= 1.8

𝜌𝜌𝐻𝐻2 𝑂𝑂 ( 𝛳𝛳=4 0𝐶𝐶, 𝑃𝑃=76 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 )

1-2-9 Viscosity ( 𝝁𝝁 )

The properties of density and specific weight are measures of the

“heaviness” of a fluid. It is clear, however, that these properties are not

sufficient to uniquely characterize how fluids behave since two fluids

(such as water and oil) can have approximately the same value of density

but behave quite differently when flowing. There is apparently some

additional property that is needed to describe the “fluidity” of the fluid.

The shearing force F acts on the area on the top of the element. This area

is given by 𝐴𝐴 = 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 ∙ 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿. W can thus calculate the shear stress ( 𝜏𝜏 ) which

is equal to force per unit area

𝐹𝐹

𝜏𝜏 = 1.9

𝐴𝐴

The deformation which this shear stress cause is measured by the size

of angle Φ and is known as shear strain,

𝑥𝑥 Φ

Φ= , 𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑠𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 (𝑅𝑅) = .

𝑦𝑦 𝑡𝑡

𝑥𝑥 𝑢𝑢

𝑅𝑅 = = , 𝑢𝑢 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝐸𝐸 1.10

𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑦𝑦

𝑢𝑢 𝑢𝑢

⟹ 𝜏𝜏 = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = 𝜇𝜇 1.11

𝑦𝑦 𝑦𝑦

𝑢𝑢

The term is the change in velocity with y, or the velocity gradient, and

𝑦𝑦

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

may be written in the differential form . The constant of proportionality

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝜏𝜏 = 𝜇𝜇 1.11

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

This is known as Newton's law of viscosity.

Fluids may be classified a Newtonian or non-Newtonian. In

Newtonian fluid there is a linear relation between the magnitude of

applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation as shown in Fig.

1.5.

In non-Newtonian fluid there is a nonlinear relation between the

magnitude of applied shear stress and the rate of angular deformation. An

ideal plastic has a definite yield stress and a constant linear relation of 𝜏𝜏

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

to .

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

1-2-10 Kinematic Viscosity (𝝊𝝊 )

The ratio of the coefficient of viscosity to the density is called the

kinematic viscosity, a quantity in which no force is involved. That is

𝜇𝜇

𝜈𝜈 = 1.12

𝜌𝜌

When two bodies of different heat content are brought into contact

while isolated from all other bodies, there is a flow of heat until the

bodies are in thermal equilibrium. Under this condition they are said to

have a property in common; this property is called temperature.

The thermal conductivity of a substance has the same mathematical

form as the viscosity coefficient but with different variables. That is,

there is a law known as Fourier's heat conduction law which states that

the conductive heat flow per unit area 𝑞𝑞𝑛𝑛 is proportional to the

temperature decrease per unit distance in a direction normal to the area

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

through which the heat is flowing. Then 𝑞𝑞𝑛𝑛 𝛼𝛼 − , the constant of

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝑞𝑞𝑛𝑛 = −𝐾𝐾 1.13

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

1-2-13 Specific Heat ( 𝑪𝑪𝒗𝒗 , 𝑪𝑪𝒑𝒑 )

The specific heat is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of a unit mass of medium by one degree. The heat supplied

per unit mass is

𝐻𝐻 = 𝐶𝐶𝑣𝑣 (𝜃𝜃2 − 𝜃𝜃1 ) = 𝐶𝐶𝑝𝑝 (𝜃𝜃2 − 𝜃𝜃1 ) 1.14

At the interface between a liquid and a gas, or between two immiscible

liquids, forces develop in the liquid surface which cause the surface to

behave as if it were a “skin” or “membrane” stretched over the fluid

mass. Although such a skin is not actually present, this conceptual

analogy allows us to explain several commonly observed phenomena. For

example, a steel needle will float on water if placed gently on the surface

because the tension developed in the hypothetical skin supports the

needle. Small droplets of mercury will form into spheres when placed on

a smooth surface because the cohesive forces in the surface tend to hold

all the molecules together in a compact shape. Similarly, discrete water

droplets will form when placed on a newly waxed surface.

These various types of surface phenomena are due to the unbalanced

cohesive forces acting on the liquid molecules at the fluid surface.

Molecules in the interior of the fluid mass are surrounded by molecules

that are attracted to each other equally. However, molecules along the

surface are subjected to a net force toward the interior. The apparent

physical consequence of this unbalanced force along the surface is to

create the hypothetical skin or membrane. A tensile force may be

considered to be acting in the plane of the surface along any line in the

surface. The intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along

any line in the surface is called the surface tension and is designated by

the Greek symbol 𝜎𝜎 (sigma). For a given liquid the surface tension

depends on temperature as well as the other fluid it is in contact with at

the interface.

𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓

𝜎𝜎 = 1.15

𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙ℎ

1-2-15 Capillarity

Among common phenomena associated with surface tension is the rise

(or fall) of a liquid in a capillary tube. If a small open tube is inserted into

water, the water level in the tube will rise above the water level outside

the tube as is illustrated in Fig. 1.6a. In this situation we have a liquid–

gas–solid interface. For the case illustrated there is an attraction

(adhesion) between the wall of the tube and liquid molecules which is

strong enough to overcome the mutual attraction (cohesion) of the

molecules and pull them up the wall. Hence, the liquid is said to wet the

solid surface.

Fig. 1.6 Effect of capillary action in small tubes. (a) Rise of column for a liquid

that wets the tube. (b) Free-body diagram for calculating column height. (c)

Depression of column for a non-wetting liquid

The height, h, is governed by the value of the surface tension, 𝜎𝜎, the tube

radius, R, the specific weight of the liquid, 𝛾𝛾, and the angle of contact, 𝜃𝜃,

between the fluid and tube. From the free-body diagram of Fig. 1.6b we

see that the vertical force due to the surface tension is equal to

2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 and the weight is 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝑅𝑅2 ℎ and these two forces must balance

for equilibrium. Thus, 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝑅𝑅 2 ℎ = 2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐.

2𝜎𝜎 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

⟹ ℎ= 1.16

𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾

The angle of contact is a function of both the liquid and the surface. For

water in contact with clean glass 𝜃𝜃 ≈ 0𝑜𝑜 .

Chapter 2

2-1-1 Basic Equation for Pressure Field

Although we have answered the question of how the pressure at a

point varies with direction, we are now faced with an equally important

question—how does the pressure in a fluid in which there are no shearing

stresses vary from point to point? To answer this question considers a

small rectangular element of fluid removed from some arbitrary position

within the mass of fluid of interest as illustrated in Fig. There are two

types of forces acting on this element: surface forces due to the pressure,

and a body force equal to the weight of the element. Other possible types

of body forces, such as those due to magnetic fields, will not be

considered in this text.

If we let the pressure at the center of the element be designated as p, then

the average pressure on the various faces can be expressed in terms of p

and its derivatives as shown in the figure. We are actually using a Taylor

series expansion of the pressure at the element center to approximate the

pressures a short distance away and neglecting higher order terms that

will vanish as we let δx, δy, and δz approach zero. For simplicity the

surface forces in the x direction are not shown. The resultant surface force

in the y direction is

2.1

Or

2.2

Similarly, for the x and z directions the resultant surface forces are

2.3

vector form as

2.4

Or

2.5

where 𝑖𝑖̂, 𝑗𝑗̂, and 𝑧𝑧̂ are the unit vectors along the coordinate axes shown in

the figure. The vector forms the pressure gradient and can be written as

2.6

Where

2.7

Thus, the resultant surface force per unit volume can be expressed as

2.8

2.9

where the negative sign indicates that the force due to the weight is

downward (in the negative z direction). Newton’s second law, applied to

the fluid element, can be expressed as

2.10

Where ∑ 𝛿𝛿𝑭𝑭 represents the resultant force acting on the element, a is the

acceleration of the element, and is the element mass, which can be written

as It follows that

2.11

Or

2.12

And therefore

2.13

This equation is the general equation of motion for a fluid in which there

are no shearing stresses.

2.14

or in component form

2.15

Taking the most general case suppose a mass of liquid elastic or non-

elastic homogeneous or heterogeneous to be at rest under the action of

given forces. We want to determine the condition of equilibrium and the

pressure at any point. Let x, y, z be the coordinates reefed to rectangular

axis of any point B of the fluid. Let Q be any other point near it, where

BQ is parallel to the axis of x. take 𝑥𝑥 + 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧 as the coordinates of Q,

about BQ describe a small prism or cylinder terminated by planes

perpendicular to BQ and let A be the area of the section of the cylinder

perpendicular to its axis and let P the pressure in that side and 𝑃𝑃 + 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿

the pressure at the other side. Then the thrust at the point B is PA, and

BQ, its mass equal 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 and 𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋 will represent the force on BQ

parallel to its axis, if 𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋, 𝑌𝑌𝑌𝑌𝑌𝑌, 𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍 be the components of the forces

acting on a particle 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 of fluid at point x, y, z. Hence, for the equilibrium

of BQ,

(𝑃𝑃 + 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿)𝐴𝐴 − 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋𝑋

⟹ 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

= 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌, = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌, = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 2.16

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

where X, Y, and Z are the component of acceleration in the direction of x,

y, z respectively. But

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝑧𝑧

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝜌𝜌(𝑋𝑋 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑌𝑌 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑍𝑍 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑) 2.17

the equation which determines the pressure.

We now consider what condition must be satisfied by a given distribution

of force in order that it may be capable of maintaining a fluid in

equilibrium. The pressure is a function of x, y, and we know that

𝜕𝜕 2 𝑃𝑃 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑃𝑃

⎧ =

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪ 2

𝜕𝜕 𝑃𝑃 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑃𝑃

= 2.18

⎨ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

2

⎪

⎪ 𝜕𝜕 𝑃𝑃 = 𝜕𝜕 2 𝑃𝑃

⎩𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎧ � �= � �

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

� �= � � 2.19

⎨ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪ 𝜕𝜕

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

� �= � �

⎩𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕

⎧ (𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌) = (𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌)

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕

(𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌) = (𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌) 2.20

⎨ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪ 𝜕𝜕 (𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌) = 𝜕𝜕 (𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌)

⎪

⎩𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎧𝑍𝑍 + 𝜌𝜌 = 𝑌𝑌 + 𝜌𝜌

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝑋𝑋 + 𝜌𝜌 = 𝑍𝑍 + 𝜌𝜌 2.21

⎨ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

⎪𝑌𝑌 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

+ 𝜌𝜌 = 𝑌𝑌 + 𝜌𝜌

⎩ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎧𝑍𝑍 − 𝑌𝑌 = 𝜌𝜌 � − �

⎪ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝑋𝑋 − 𝑍𝑍 = 𝜌𝜌 � − � 2.22

⎨ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

⎪

⎪𝑌𝑌 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

− 𝑌𝑌 = 𝜌𝜌 � − �

⎩ 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

𝑋𝑋 � − � + 𝑌𝑌 �𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 − � + 𝑍𝑍 �𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 − �=0 2.23

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕

If the fluid be homogeneous and incompressible, it follows from

equation 2.15 that P must be a perfect differential, in other words the

forces can be represented by the space variation of a potential function.

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = −𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌

⟹ 𝑃𝑃⁄𝜌𝜌 + 𝑉𝑉 = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2.24

And this is the condition of equilibrium for a homogeneous fluid.

2-1-3 Fluid at Rest (under the action of

gravity)

Taking the axis of z vertical, and measuring z downwards X = 0, Y = 0

and Z = g. In this case of homogeneous fluid we obtain

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑃𝑃 = 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 , 𝛾𝛾 = 𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 2.25

sectional area A and height dz = z2 – z1 is shown. Derive

the equilibrium equation in z-direction. If there is diver

descends from the surface of the sea to a depth of 30 m.

what would be the pressure under which the diver would

be working above that at the surface assuming that the

density of sea water is 1025 Kg m-3 and remains constant?

Force due to P1 on area A acting up = P1A.

Force due to P2 on area A acting down = P2A.

Force due to weight of the element = mg = mass density x g x volume.

= 𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆(𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 − 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 ).

Since the fluid is at rest, there can be no shear force and, therefore, no vertical

force act on the side of the element due to the surrounding fluid. Taking upward

force as positive and equating the algebraic sum of the force acting to zero.

𝑷𝑷𝟏𝟏 𝑨𝑨 − 𝑷𝑷𝟐𝟐 𝑨𝑨 − 𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆(𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 − 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 ) = 𝟎𝟎

𝑷𝑷𝟏𝟏 − 𝑷𝑷𝟐𝟐 = −𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆(𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 − 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 ) (𝒊𝒊)

Thus, in any fluid under gravitational attraction, pressure decreases with

increase of height z. Let z1 = 0, so z2 = 30 and from (i) we get

Increase of pressure = 𝑷𝑷𝟏𝟏 − 𝑷𝑷𝟐𝟐 = −𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆(𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 − 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 )

= -1025 x 9.81 (-30 -0) = 301.7 x 103 Nm-2

Since the specific weight is equal to the product of fluid density and

acceleration of gravity changes in γ are caused either by a

change in ρ or g. For most engineering applications the variation in g is

negligible, so our main concern is with the possible variation in the fluid

density. For liquids the

variation in density is

usually negligible, even

over large vertical

distances, so that the

assumption of constant

specific weight when

dealing with liquids is a

good one. For this instance, the equation 2.25 can be directly integrated

2.26

2.27

2.28

downward from the location of p2, This type of pressure distribution is

commonly called a hydrostatic distribution, and Eq. 2.28 shows that in an

incompressible fluid at rest the pressure varies linearly with depth. The

pressure must increase with depth to “hold up” the fluid above it.

homogeneous, incompressible fluid at rest depends on the depth of the

fluid relative to some reference plane, and it is not influenced by the size

or shape of the tank or container in which the fluid is held. Thus, in the

figure, the pressure is the same at all points along the line AB even though

the container may have the very irregular shape shown in the figure. The

actual value of the pressure along AB depends only on the depth, h, the

surface pressure, p0, and the specific weight, γ, of the liquid in the

container.

Because of a leak in a buried

gasoline storage tank, water has

seeped in to the depth shown in

Fig. If the specific gravity of the

gasoline is SG = 0.68, determine

the pressure at the gasoline-water

interface and at the bottom of the

tank. Express the pressure in units

of lb/ft2, lb/in.2, and as a pressure

head in feet of water.

The required equality of pressures at equal elevations throughout a

system is important for the operation of hydraulic jacks, lifts, and presses,

as well as hydraulic controls on aircraft and other types of heavy

machinery. The fundamental idea behind such devices and systems is

demonstrated in Fig. A piston located at one end of a closed system filled

with a liquid, such as oil, can be used to change the pressure throughout

the system, and thus transmit an applied force F1 to a second piston where

the resulting force is F2. Since the pressure p acting on the faces of both

pistons is the same (the effect of elevation changes is usually negligible

for this type of hydraulic device), it follows that

The piston area A2 can be made much larger than A1 and therefore a large

mechanical advantage

can be developed; that

is, a small force applied

at the smaller piston

can be used to develop

a large force at the

larger piston. The applied force could be created manually through some

type of mechanical device, such as a hydraulic jack, or through

compressed air acting directly on the surface of the liquid, as is done in

hydraulic lifts commonly found in service stations.

We normally think of gases such as air, oxygen, and nitrogen as being

compressible fluids since the density of the gas can change significantly

with changes in pressure and temperature. Thus, although Eq. 2.15

applies at a point in a gas, it is necessary to consider the possible

variation in γ before the equation can be integrated. However the specific

weights of common gases are small when compared with those of liquids.

For example, the specific weight of air at sea level and is

whereas the specific weight of water under the same

conditions is Since the specific weights of gases are

comparatively small, it follows from Eq. 2.15 that the pressure gradient in

the vertical direction is correspondingly small, and even over distances of

several hundred feet the pressure will remain essentially constant for a

gas. This means we can neglect the effect of elevation changes on the

pressure in gases in tanks, pipes, and so forth in which the distances

involved are small.

The equation of state for an ideal (or perfect) gas is

2.29

absolute temperature. This relationship can be combined with Eq. 2.15 to

give

2.30

2.31

where g and R are assumed to be constant over the elevation change from

Although the acceleration of gravity, g, does vary with

elevation, the variation is very small and g is usually assumed constant at

some average value for the range of elevation involved.

Before completing the integration, one must specify the nature of the

variation of temperature with elevation. For example, if we assume that

the temperature has a constant value To over the range

(isothermal conditions), it then follows from Eq. 2.31 that

2.32

This equation provides the desired pressure-elevation relationship for an

isothermal layer. For non-isothermal conditions a similar procedure can

be followed if the temperature-elevation relationship is known, as is

discussed in the following section.

The Empire State Building in New York City, one of the tallest

buildings in the world, rises to a height of approximately 1250 ft.

Estimate the ratio of the pressure at the top of the building to the

pressure at its base, assuming the air to be at a common temperature of

59 0F. Compare this result with that obtained by assuming the air to be

incompressible with γ = 0.0765 lb/ft3 at 14.7 psi (abs) (values for air at

standard conditions).

2-3 Standard Atmosphere

An important application of Eq. 2.31 relates to the variation in pressure

in the earth’s atmosphere. Ideally, we would like to have measurements

of pressure versus altitude over the specific range for the specific

conditions (temperature, reference pressure) for which the pressure is to

be determined. However, this type of information is usually not available.

Thus, a “standard atmosphere” has been determined that can be used in

the design of aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, and in comparing their

performance under standard conditions. The concept of a standard

atmosphere was first developed in the 1920s, and since that time many

national and international committees and organizations have pursued the

development of such a standard. The currently accepted standard

atmosphere is based on a report published in 1962 and updated in 1976

defining the so-called U.S. standard atmosphere, which is an idealized

representation of middle-latitude, year-round mean conditions of the

earth’s atmosphere. Several important properties for standard atmospheric

conditions at sea level are listed in Table 2.1 shows the temperature

profile for the U.S. standard atmosphere.

2-3-1 Measurement of Pressure

Since pressure is a very important characteristic of a fluid field, it is

not surprising that numerous devices and techniques are used in its

measurement. The pressure at a point within a fluid mass will be

designated as either an absolute pressure or a gage pressure. Absolute

pressure is measured

relative to a perfect

vacuum (absolute zero

pressure), whereas

gage pressure is

measured relative to

the local atmospheric

pressure. Thus, a gage

pressure of zero corresponds to a pressure that is equal to the local

atmospheric pressure. Absolute pressures are always positive, but gage

pressures can be either positive or negative depending on whether the

pressure is above atmospheric pressure (a positive value) or below

atmospheric pressure (a negative value). A negative gage pressure is also

referred to as a suction or vacuum pressure.

The measurement of atmospheric pressure is

usually accomplished with a mercury barometer,

which in its simplest form consists of a glass tube

closed at one end with the open end immersed in

a container of mercury as shown in the fig.ure.

The tube is initially filled with mercury (inverted

with its open end up) and then turned upside

down (open end down) with the open end in the

container of mercury. The column of mercury will come to an

equilibrium position where its weight plus the force due to the vapor

pressure (which develops in the space above the column) balances the

force due to the atmospheric pressure. Thus,

2.32

depth of 40 m. For a barometric pressure of 598 mm Hg, determine the

absolute pressure (in Pascal) at the deepest part of the lake.

2-4 Manometry

A standard technique for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid

columns in vertical or inclined tubes. Pressure measuring devices based

on this technique are called manometers. The mercury barometer is an

example of one type of manometer, but there are many other

configurations possible, depending on the particular application. Three

common types of manometers include the piezometer tube, the U-tube

manometer, and the inclined-tube manometer.

The simplest type of manometer consists of a

vertical tube, open at the top, and attached to the

container in which the pressure is desired, as

illustrated in the figure. Since manometers involve

columns of fluids at rest, the fundamental equation

describing their use is Eq.

terms of a reference pressure po and the vertical distance h between p and

po . Remember that in a fluid at rest pressure will increase as we move

downward and will decrease as we move upward. Application of this

equation to the piezometer tube of the above figure indicates that the

pressure pA can be determined by a measurement of h1 through the

relationship where γ1 is the specific weight of the liquid in the container.

Although the piezometer tube is a very simple and accurate pressure

measuring device, it has several disadvantages. It is only suitable if the

pressure in the container is greater than atmospheric pressure (otherwise

air would be sucked into the system), and the pressure to be measured

must be relatively small so the required height of the column is

reasonable. Also, the fluid in the container in which the pressure is to be

measured must be a liquid rather than a gas.

To overcome the difficulties

noted previously, another type of

manometer which is widely used

consists of a tube formed into the

shape of a U as is shown in the

figure. The fluid in the manometer is

called the gage fluid. To find the

pressure pA in terms of the various

column heights, we start at one end

of the system and work our way around to the other end. Thus, for the U-

tube manometer shown in the figure, we will start at point A and work

around to the open end. The pressure at points A and (1) are the same, and

as we move from point (1) to (2) the pressure will increase by γ1h1. The

pressure at point (2) is equal to the pressure at point (3), since the

pressures at equal elevations in a continuous mass of fluid at rest must be

the same. Note that we could not simply “jump across” from point (1) to

a point at the same elevation in the right-hand tube since these would not

be points within the same continuous mass of fluid. With the pressure at

point (3) specified we now move to the open end where the pressure is

zero. As we move vertically upward the pressure decreases by an amount

γ2h2. In equation form these various steps can be expressed as

- j 43065866Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Air Pressure science form 2 chapter 6Uploaded bynwahidawomar
- 130310-130101-FLUID MECHANICSUploaded bysameer_m_dani
- (Class 16) Bulk ModulusUploaded byJavier Uribe
- Lift forceUploaded byvinkumar_hbti
- Slump and YieldUploaded byMr. Garghtside
- 01-Manometers.pdfUploaded byVerin Vericueto
- 538Uploaded byAnonymous 5sBa2p
- contoh Soal Gas IdealUploaded bywadukkkk
- Vapor Lock LAwUploaded byveer_s
- lecture 1 to 10 basic fluidmechanicsUploaded byapi-247714257
- Assignment#2 (1)Uploaded bywaqar
- HFD_Catalog_12AT_50AT.pdfUploaded byPartsGopher.com
- SPE-92828-MS-PUploaded byAmz Adem
- 05. CR... - Performance Range GBUploaded byMarian
- ~pj3FAAF6C063BC466CBF651A7B2D766862Uploaded byinfonetsmg
- Haldex-Barnes 2-Stage Pump for Log SplittersUploaded byPer Akkamaan Agesson
- Bolgar 2018Uploaded byKARTHIK
- ELECTRICS TEST 2.pdfUploaded byYash Srivastava
- 1983 Heave Compensation Systems_ Analysis and Results of Field Testing_Azpiazu Thatcher & SchweimUploaded byisaauad
- EXPT 2_DATAUploaded byangiejara
- Selecting a Centrifugal Pump for Viscous FlowUploaded byjoacochacoman
- GasesUploaded byHenry Languisan
- shah_et_alUploaded byEby Okvaley
- 1_Viscosity Measurement by Falling Sphere_ver2012Uploaded byJames Nevin Go
- 525B HYD Description and OperationUploaded bytinpena
- Equations of hydrodynamics.pdfUploaded byasd
- Quick Start — FLOW-3D v11.1Uploaded byXinwei Li
- 20_21Uploaded bypavel35
- 5 LP Dhole Review Article Aug 2011Uploaded bykandahar_spec

- Boundary Layer Lab 2 (Example)Uploaded byMubarak Kazmin
- PhysicsUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- Oil Correlations FEKETEUploaded byOscarCaballero
- Dissolved Air FlotationUploaded byrisakarlinda92
- NORSOK L-004 Piping Fabrication Instalation Flushing TestingUploaded byguilom4887
- FMDS1202Uploaded byyunying21
- Suva 95 (R508B)Uploaded bymdtaheri
- Pressure Drop CalculationUploaded byRaja Ji
- 746Uploaded byALEJANDRO
- Midterm Progress ReportUploaded byduncmcleod
- ImpregnationUploaded bysivamett
- BNBC-Chapter-2-6Uploaded byFaisal Ahmed
- ACCURATE PREDICTION OF TOWER RELIEFUploaded bymajope1966
- Pilot Operated Safety ValveUploaded bypoula09
- A Techinque for Measurin Permeability Anisotropy and Recoverin PVTUploaded byMarlene Marin
- docLib_1280_BGRDatasheetUploaded bynay den
- Phase DiagramsUploaded bystoicadoru
- Howarth Christian Frear 1997 Porosity Single Phase Permeability SAND94 0472-1-2 3Uploaded byYamal E Askoul T
- Line sizing reportUploaded bymichael chiwueze
- Pumps & Pumping Systems 150730Uploaded bySazali Khamsan
- 44-0 b SAMSONUploaded bypertus
- Diag Common Riel KiaUploaded bycherokewag
- PETSOC-09-07-18 Gas Condensate reservoir performance.pdfUploaded byEduardo Ustarez
- Foam and Nitrified Fluid TreatmentUploaded byFajar
- Wave interaction with a tethered buoy: SPH simulation and experimental validationUploaded by刘志远
- Tutorial 1 GD StudentsUploaded bygokuler137
- 3105e11Uploaded byamarall04
- Dynamic Modeling - UNISIMUploaded byBruno Morabito
- ME471Sample Lab Report Lab1Uploaded byThiiva Thresher
- A Five - Hole Pressure Probe for Fluid FlowUploaded bySattar Al-Jabair

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.