Relation between Machining Process and Tolerance Grades

Designation of Standard Fits








Preferred Fits
Preferred Fits (ANSI)



Limi u
W i Limi u ?
y Aftei piouucing a paitǡ it is necessaiy to ensuie paits aie within specifieu limitsǡ so piotecting
the uesign intentǡ the type anu methou of inspectoi ueciueu foi eveiy featuie toleianceu
inuiviuuallyǤ
y 0ne of the impoitant tools useu foi inspection aie limit gaugesǤ
y uauges aieǣ
‡ Inspection tools of iigiu uesignǡ
‡ Without a scaleǤ
‡ seive to check the uimensions of manufactuieu paitsǤ
‡ Becieases the inspection cost anu time
y uauges uo not inuicate the actual value of the inspecteu uimension on the woikǤ
y They can only be useu foi ueteimining as to whethei the inspecteu paits aie maue within the
specifieu limitsǤ



Classification of Li it Ga ges
y Accoi i to th ii t
‡ t i anu li it gauges
‡ i it gauges
y Accoiuing to theii puiposes
‡ oi shop
‡ Inspection
y Accoiuing to the foi of the testeu suifaceǣ
‡ lug gauges foi checking holes
‡ nap anu iing gauges foi checking shafts
y Accoiuing to theii uesignǣ
‡ ingle li it anu uou le li it gauges
‡ ingle enueu anu uou le enueu gauges
‡ ixeu anu aujustable gauges


Plain Pl g Ga ges
̵o̵ anu ̵o o̵ foi sizes up to ͳͲ mmǡ ሺsoliu
t peሻǤ
̵o̵ anu ̵o o̵ foi sizes ovei ͳͲ anu up to ͵Ͳ mm ሺ apei Inseiteu t peሻǤ



o anu o o foi sixes ovei ͵Ͳ mm anu up to ͸͵ mm
ሺasteneu t peሻǡ











y The plain gauges aie maikeu with the following on theii hanules foi theii iuentificationǣ
‡ ominal si e
‡ lass of toleianceǤ
‡ The woiu ̵uo̵ on the ̵uo̵ siue
‡ The woius ̵o uo̵ on the ̵o uo̵ siueǤ
‡ The actual values of toleianceǤ
‡ anufactuiei̵s name oi tiaueǦmaikǤ
Pl i Ri Gau










uo anu o uo foi si es
ovei ͳͲͲ mm anu up to
ʹͷͲ mm ሺlat typeሻǤ
uo anu ̶o uo̶ foi si es ovei
͸͵ mm anu ͳͲͲ mm
ሺasteneu typeሻǤ

Snap uauges









late Snap uauges





̵o uo̵ Snap gauge foi
uimension vaiying fiom ͵
mm to ͳͲͲ mm
̵o uo̵ Snap gauge foi
uimension vaiying fiom
ͳͲͲ mm to ʹͷͲ mm
̵o uo̵ late Snap gauge foi
uimension vaiying fiom ͵
mm to ͳͲͲ mm
̵o uo̵ late Snap gauge foi uimension vaiying
fiom ͳͲͲ mm to ʹͷͲ mm



Com i Limi Gau
y seu foi cylinuiical holesǡ
y ombineǡ both the ̵uo̵ anu ̵o uo̵ uimensions of a
plug gaugeǤ
y It is achieveu by employing a spheiically enueu gauge
of the same uiametei as the lowei limiting uimension
of the holeǤ
y Towaius the outei euge of the spheiical membeiǡ a
spheiical piojection S is pioviueuǤ
y oi checking the hole foi ̵uo̵ positionǡ the gauge is
inseiteu into the hole with the hanule paiallel to the
axis of the holeǤ
y oi checking the hole foi ̵o uo̵ limitǡ the gauge is tilteu so that the spheiical piojection S is
noimal to holeǤ The gauge in this position shoulu not entei the holeǤ

Posi ion Gau s
y The uesign of position gauges is baseu on the shape of the woikǤ
y A uiffeient position gauge is iequiieu foi each uesign of woikǤ
y Theii uesign can be baseu eithei on the piinciple of sighting the gauge anu woikǡ oi on the
methou of feelǤ




.



hecking the location of a
iecess in ielation to a flat
suifaceǤ
Checking the location of a
surface parallel to the reference
surface is to be located
y o light will pass with ̵uo̵ siue
y light will pass with ̵o uo̵ siueǤ

.

.

.

Preferred Fits Preferred Fits (ANSI) .

Limi W y u i Limi u ? ˆ–‡”’”‘†—…‹‰ƒ’ƒ”– ‹–‹•‡…‡••ƒ”›–‘‡•—”‡’ƒ”–•ƒ”‡™‹–Š‹•’‡…‹ˆ‹‡†Ž‹‹–• •‘’”‘–‡…–‹‰ –Š‡†‡•‹‰‹–‡– –Š‡–›’‡ƒ†‡–Š‘†‘ˆ‹•’‡…–‘”†‡…‹†‡†ˆ‘”‡˜‡”›ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡–‘Ž‡”ƒ…‡† ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›  ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ––‘‘Ž•—•‡†ˆ‘”‹•’‡…–‹‘ƒ”‡Ž‹‹–‰ƒ—‰‡• ƒ—‰‡•ƒ”‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

•’‡…–‹‘–‘‘Ž•‘ˆ”‹‰‹††‡•‹‰  ‹–Š‘—–ƒ•…ƒŽ‡ •‡”˜‡–‘…Š‡…–Š‡†‹‡•‹‘•‘ˆƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡†’ƒ”–• ‡…”‡ƒ•‡•–Š‡‹•’‡…–‹‘…‘•–ƒ†–‹‡ y y y y ƒ—‰‡•†‘‘–‹†‹…ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ…–—ƒŽ˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹•’‡…–‡††‹‡•‹‘‘–Š‡™‘”  Š‡›…ƒ‘Ž›„‡—•‡†ˆ‘”†‡–‡”‹‹‰ƒ•–‘™Š‡–Š‡”–Š‡‹•’‡…–‡†’ƒ”–•ƒ”‡ƒ†‡™‹–Š‹–Š‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹‡†Ž‹‹–• .

Classification of Li it Ga ges y ……‘” ‹ –‘–Š ‹”–  – ” ƒ†Ž‹ ‹–‰ƒ—‰‡• ‡ ‡ y ‹ ‹–‰ƒ—‰‡• ……‘”†‹‰–‘–Š‡‹”’—”’‘•‡• ‡ ‡ y ‘” •Š‘’ .

•’‡…–‹‘ ……‘”†‹‰–‘–Š‡ˆ‘” ‘ˆ–Š‡–‡•–‡†•—”ˆƒ…‡ ‡ ‡ y Ž—‰‰ƒ—‰‡•ˆ‘”…Š‡…‹‰Š‘Ž‡• ƒ’ƒ†”‹‰‰ƒ—‰‡•ˆ‘”…Š‡…‹‰•Šƒˆ–• ……‘”†‹‰–‘–Š‡‹”†‡•‹‰ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‹‰Ž‡Ž‹ ‹–ƒ††‘— Ž‡Ž‹ ‹–‰ƒ—‰‡• ‹‰Ž‡‡†‡†ƒ††‘— Ž‡‡†‡†‰ƒ—‰‡• ‹š‡†ƒ†ƒ†Œ—•–ƒ„Ž‡‰ƒ—‰‡• Plain Pl g Ga ges ‘ ƒ† ‘ ‘ ˆ‘”•‹œ‡•—’–‘ – ’‡  ‘ ƒ† ‘ ‘ ˆ‘”•‹œ‡•‘˜‡”    •‘Ž‹† ƒ†—’–‘  ƒ’‡”.

•‡”–‡†– ’‡  ‘ƒ†‘ ‘ˆ‘”•‹š‡•‘˜‡” ƒ•–‡‡†– ’‡  ƒ†—’–‘  .

‘ƒ† ‘ ‘ ˆ‘”•‹ ‡•‘˜‡”   ƒ†   ƒ•–‡‡†–›’‡  ‘ ƒ† ‘ ‘ ˆ‘” •‹ ‡• ‘˜‡”   ƒ† —’–‘  Žƒ––›’‡  y Š‡’Žƒ‹‰ƒ—‰‡•ƒ”‡ƒ”‡†™‹–Š–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰‘–Š‡‹”Šƒ†Ž‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡‹”‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‘‹ƒŽ•‹ ‡ Žƒ••‘ˆ–‘Ž‡”ƒ…‡  Š‡™‘”† ‘ ‘–Š‡ ‘ •‹†‡ Š‡™‘”†• ‘ ‘ ‘–Š‡ ‘ ‘ •‹†‡  Š‡ƒ…–—ƒŽ˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–‘Ž‡”ƒ…‡  ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡” •ƒ‡‘”–”ƒ†‡ ƒ”  Pl i Ri            Gau .

 ƒ’ ƒ—‰‡• ‘ ‘  ƒ’ ‰ƒ—‰‡ ˆ‘” †‹‡•‹‘ ˜ƒ”›‹‰ ˆ”‘  –‘           ‘ ‘ ƒ’‰ƒ—‰‡ˆ‘” †‹‡•‹‘˜ƒ”›‹‰ˆ”‘ –‘  Žƒ–‡ƒ’ ƒ—‰‡• ‘ ‘ Žƒ–‡ƒ’‰ƒ—‰‡ˆ‘” †‹‡•‹‘˜ƒ”›‹‰ˆ”‘  –‘       .

‘ ‘  Žƒ–‡ ƒ’  ‰ƒ—‰‡ ˆ‘” †‹‡•‹‘ ˜ƒ”›‹‰ ˆ”‘ –‘     Com i y y Limi Gau •‡†ˆ‘”…›Ž‹†”‹…ƒŽŠ‘Ž‡•  ‘„‹‡ „‘–Š–Š‡ ‘ ƒ† ‘ ‘ †‹‡•‹‘•‘ˆƒ ’Ž—‰‰ƒ—‰‡ .

–‹•ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡†„›‡’Ž‘›‹‰ƒ•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽŽ›‡†‡†‰ƒ—‰‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ‡†‹ƒ‡–‡”ƒ•–Š‡Ž‘™‡”Ž‹‹–‹‰†‹‡•‹‘ ‘ˆ–Š‡Š‘Ž‡  ‘™ƒ”†•–Š‡‘—–‡”‡†‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ‡„‡” ƒ •’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ’”‘Œ‡…–‹‘‹•’”‘˜‹†‡† ‘”…Š‡…‹‰–Š‡Š‘Ž‡ˆ‘” ‘ ’‘•‹–‹‘ –Š‡‰ƒ—‰‡‹• ‹•‡”–‡†‹–‘–Š‡Š‘Ž‡™‹–Š–Š‡Šƒ†Ž‡’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡Ž–‘–Š‡ ƒš‹•‘ˆ–Š‡Š‘Ž‡  ‘”…Š‡…‹‰–Š‡Š‘Ž‡ˆ‘” ‘ ‘ Ž‹‹– –Š‡‰ƒ—‰‡‹•–‹Ž–‡†•‘–Šƒ––Š‡•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ’”‘Œ‡…–‹‘‹• ‘”ƒŽ–‘Š‘Ž‡ Š‡‰ƒ—‰‡‹–Š‹•’‘•‹–‹‘•Š‘—Ž†‘–‡–‡”–Š‡Š‘Ž‡  y y y y  Posi ion Gau s y y y Š‡†‡•‹‰‘ˆ’‘•‹–‹‘‰ƒ—‰‡•‹•„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡•Šƒ’‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”  †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘‰ƒ—‰‡‹•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”‡ƒ…Š†‡•‹‰‘ˆ™‘” Š‡‹” †‡•‹‰ …ƒ „‡ „ƒ•‡† ‡‹–Š‡” ‘ –Š‡ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡ ‘ˆ •‹‰Š–‹‰ –Š‡ ‰ƒ—‰‡ ƒ† ™‘”  ‘” ‘ –Š‡ ‡–Š‘†‘ˆˆ‡‡Ž   Checking the location of a surface parallel to the reference surface is to be located Š‡…‹‰–Š‡Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ ”‡…‡••‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘ƒˆŽƒ– •—”ˆƒ…‡    .    y y ‘Ž‹‰Š–™‹ŽŽ’ƒ••™‹–Š ‘ •‹†‡ Ž‹‰Š–™‹ŽŽ’ƒ••™‹–Š ‘ ‘ •‹†‡  .

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