RELEASE NO: 63-157


August 4, 1963


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will soon attempt to launch from the Pacific Missile Range, an Ionosphere Beacon Satellite (S-66) into circular polar orbit. Designed to make global measurements of the

ionosphere, the scientific satellite is scheduled for launch aboard a Scout vehicle no sooner than August 15.


-2The Ionosphere Beacon Satellite's primary objective is to conduct measurements which will make it possible for scientists to plot the form and structure of the ionosphere and to describe its behavior under varying conditions of solar activity, season and time of day. It is the ionosphere, a region of electrically charged gases beginning about 35 miles above the surface of the Earth, which makes it possible for man to bounce radio signals from continent to continent. 'n addition to the major ionosphere experiment LASER test, will be attempted by means of glass-like reflectors attached to the spacecraft. This will be the a

first time LASER experiments have been conducted on a spaceborne satellite and chances of initial success are marginal. While the radio beacon experiment is only one of a number of ionosphere satellite experiments conducted by NASA, it is significant in that the simplicity of read-out equipment needed (antenna, radio receiver, timing device, and a recorder) to gain satellite information will permit scientists all over the world to participate in the experiment. To date, over 40 foreign and domestic experi-

menters have volunteered to take part in this program. This represents the largest cooperative group ever to take -more-

-3a direct part in a NASA space satellite experiment. More

importantly, it provides a worldwide scientific satellite read-out team contributing toward a long sought goal: to make a global survey of the Earth's ionosphere. Such a survey of the ionosphere will be as important to predicting communications frequency variations and blackouts as are the Tiros weather satellite photographs of global cloud cover in predicting the weather, because the ionosphere changes just as rapidly as does the Earth's weather. NASA will attempt to place the satellite into a near circular polar orbit, inclined 800 to the equator, at an altitude of about 600 miles. In this type of orbit,

the Earth will rotate under the satellite thus permitting the satellite to view each area of the Earth's ionosphere every 24 hours. NASA will inform experimenters of the

times when the satellite is expected to be within range of their stations. Instruments can then be turned on

to record how certain radio emissions from the satellite change as they pass through the ionosphere.


-4By studying these changes, scientists expect to: -Relate ionospheric behavior to the solar radiation which produces the ionization - vitally important, as it is solar activity which is believed to disrupt radio

communications. -Learn the bulk behavior of the ionosphere as it varies in time and space. -Measure the electron content in the ionosphere between the satellite and Earth as related to latitude, season and diurnal time. -Determine the geometry and distribution of small scale irregularities in the ionosphere. LASER tests may also be made by those wishing to experiment. However, tests will be possible only in the

northern hemisphere since the satellite's LASER reflectors point away from Earth as it orbits over the southern hemisphere. LASERS are electronic devices that generate highly directional light beams which remain in a very narrow arc with little spreading. LASER means Light Amplification

by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.


-5One surface of the S-66 bolds 360 one-inch diameter reflectors designed in such a way that light from LASER devices stricking it from any angle will be returned to its Earth source. By measuring the time it takes for the

light to go to the satellite and back, the position of the satellite in space might be determined with higher precision than through the use of conventional radio means. THE SPACECRAFT S-66 is an adaptation of the Navy's navigational satellite and was designed and built for NASA by the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. The octagonal-shaped satellite weighs about 120 pounds. A bar magnet, one-half inch wide and ten inches

long in the spacecraft) will passively orient the satellite

along the Earth's magnetic field.

This will keep the LASER

reflectors pointing toward Earth while the satellite is in the northern hemisphere, and provide more stable radio signals for the ionospheric experiments. Four blades, covered with solar cells to convert the sun's energy into electricity that recharge nickel cadmium


batteries, extend from the sides of the spacecraft. blades are 66 inches long and 10 inches wide.


The power

system is adequate to operate the satellite components for about three years. The spacecraft shell, 18 inches in diameter and 12 inches high, is ,madeof honeycomb nylon and fiberglass. An electron probe extends from the top and bottom of the satellite. Two five-foot whip antennas and two dipole

antennas for the transmitter extend from the ends of opposite blades and a whip antenna for the satellite's command receiver extends from the bottom of the satellite. In the launch configuration, the four blades are folded down over the fourth stage of the Scout launch vehicle and are held in place by the cables of the despin weight assembly. The adapter that mates the S-66 to the fourth

stage rocket contains switches that are timed to release the despin cables about seven minutes after motor burnout and injection into orbit. The adapter also contains

a small rocket that is ignited about two seconds after separation to deflect the fourth stage so that it will not collide with the payload or its extended solar blades. -more-

-7The "yo-yo" despin mechanism will reduce the 160 rpm nominal spin rate of the fourth stage and payload down to 40 rpm. The change in the spin axis moment of

inertia due to blade erection will then cause the spin rate of the satellite to decrease from 40 rpm to 4 rpm. The rate will be reduced to zero by magnetic despin rods in the satellite blades. The satellite's position will be determined by NASA's Scientific Satellite Network. A Doppler tracking system

developed for the Transit program also will be available to NASA scientists. Twice as many solar cells as needed for initial power have been fixed to the satellite blades. As the

cells deteriorate because of radiation effects, reserve banks of solar cells will be commanded into the operating system to provide electrical energy. An automatic temperature control system for the satellite has been designed by APL engineers. Vacuum insulation

between instruments and the shell of the satellite shields the interior from the great variations of temperature on the outside. Sight mercury thermostats trigger an on-

board power system fed by a separate small bank of solar cells mounted onthe blades of the satellite. When the

internal temperature of the spacecraft drops below the -more-

-8desired 60 degrees F., the thermostats trigger the special bank of solar cells which supply the power necessary to maintain the desired internal temperature. Such uniform

internal temperature should improve reliability and in" crease the operating lifetime of the satellite components. LAUNCH VEHICLE The Scout launch vehicle is a multi-stage, guided booster using four solid propellant rocket motors capable of carrying payloads of varying sizes on orbital, space probe or re-entry missions. Developed by NASA's Langley

Research Center, the Scout is currently the only operational solid propellant launch vehicle with orbital experience. The four Scout motors, Algoi, Castor, Antares, and Altair, are interlocked with transition sections that contain the guidance, control, ignition, instrumentation systems, separation mechanisms, and the spin motors needed to orient the fourth stage. Guidance is provided by an

autopilot and control achieved by a combination of aerodynamic surfaces, jet vanes, and hydrogen peroxide jets. Scout is approximately 72 feet long and weighs approximately 37,000 pounds at lift off. -more-

-9The Scout is capable of placing a 240 pound payload into a 300 mile orbit or carrying a 100 pound scientific package approximately 7,000 miles away from Earth. Launching sites are now operational on both coasts of the United States for either polar or east-west orbital launches. Because of its relative economy, reliability

and flexibility, the Scout is employed extensively for small space research payloads by the NASA, Department of Defense, and for international programs. Langley

Research Center continues to furnish Scout project management services. The West Coast Scout launch site at Point Arguello, California is operated under a joint program between NASA U. S. Air Force personnel

and the Department of Defense.

of the 6595th Aerospace Test Wing conduct the vehicle launches in cooperation with NASA personnel from the Langley Research Center. THE LASER EXPERIMENT Riding the S-66 satellite as a passenger will be a ten-pound array of glass-like reflectors designed to send back to Earth light signals aimed a LASER. at it from a device called


-10Mounted on top of the satellite's body are 360 one-inch diameter glass-like (ZuseQ silica) prisms called "cube-corner" reflectors. a way that light striking returned to its sour-e. Housed in a 60-foot high tower located 20 miles south of NASA's Wallops Station, Virginia, a LASER device mounted on an 18" telescope will optically track the satellite during periods when the spacecraft will be illuminated by the sun and the tracking station is in darkness. In attempting to illuminate the eight-sided reflective pyramid atop the satellite. scientists of' NASA's These are constructed in such them frcirm any anglc will be

Goddard Space Flight Center will use a system fabricated by General Electric Company's Missile and Space

Division, Valley Forge, .snnsylvania. With an orbital period of approximately 105 minutes, Goddard experimenters plan to attempt the first illumination of the reflectors during the first night-time pass over Wallops Island. With an orbital altitude of 600 miles,

the S-66 will be at a slant range of approximately 1,000 miles and will appear as a star of the 8th or 9th magnitude-20 times fainter than a st;av which can be seen by the naked eye, The satellite may make two to three suitable passes

over Wallops during the first night. -more-

'The Goddard LASER system is mounted



(Intercept Ground Optical Recorder) telescope normally used by Wallops personnel to track sounding rockets. Onerators will aim the telescope along the predicted path of the S-66 and when they see it, scientists will "flash" the LASER light. If all goes according to plan,

the reflector array will be illuminated and will return the light -nergy to the telescope. The reflected signal

will then be automatically amplified by a photo multiplie. tube. An electronic timing device (a digital counter)

will record how long it took for the light signal to go and come back. The measurement of time between initiation

of the light and reception at the photomultiplier will

the precise position of the satellite.

The Goddard LASER system employs a six-inch synthetic ruby rod which becomes highly energized as it gathers energy from a xenon gas-filled flash-lamp mounted closely parallel to it tn a special barrel-like metal housing. The rod is designed so that both ends are pollsho! to act like mirrors.The green light excites chromium atoms within the rod which re-emits red light.


-12As the red light is .;eflected back and forth inside the rod, the bouncing rays hit other excited chromium atoms and "stimulate" them to give off more red rays. This These

stimulated emission is where the LASER gets its name. rays are in phase with each other and all parallel with each other as they bounce back and forth between the reflecting rod endj. Within a ioaction of a millionth of a second this

chain reaction builds to a powerful beam that "bursts" out of one end of the rod which has been made more transparent than the other. The Goddard LASER uses these waves of light

moving precisely in phase with each other to achieve coherent strength in its signal so that it doesn't spread out as much as ordinary light and lose its effective strength before reaching the target. PRIME OBSERVING STATIONS The University of Illinois, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, the Central Radio Propogation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards and Goddard Space Flight Center are the primary participants in the ionosphere experiment. Volunteer international stations

will augment the United States observations.


-13NASA PROJECT PARTICIPANTS S-66 is under the overall direction of NASA Headquarters, Office of Space Sciences, Dr. Homer E. Newell, Director. Schmerling. The ionosphere program scientist is Dr. Erwin M. J. Aucremanne is the project officer.

Project management responsibliiy for the satellite rests with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Frank T.

Martin is project manager and Rcbert E. Bzurdeau is project scienit-ist. The Langley Research Center is responsible for system management for the Scout launch vehicle. The LASER program is under +,he management of Dr. Albert S. Kelly, Director of Electronics and Control of NASA Headquarter's Cff ive of Advanced Research and Technology. Dr. Henry H. Plotkin, Optical Systems Branch Head, GSFC

LASER project scientist.


On February 10 and 11, 1958, some 100 transoceanic airplanes set up an emergency radio bucket brigade. Almost without warning, their usually dependable radio l'nks with the airfields of Europe and North America had been cut. Long-distance radio communications between the hemiOnly by line-of-sight relaying mes-

spheres was blacked out.

sages were the aircraft able to maintain a minimum amount of air traffic control. Because this event occurred during a highly organized research effort--the International Geophysical Year--a large variety of measurements provided a fairly comprehensive description of what had happened. The Earth was suddenly en-

veloped in a vast cloud of electrified gases that had been ejected by the sun. This produced one of the most widespread

geomagnetic storms on record, and the complete shattering of that high-altitude radio mirror--the ionosphere-.-was but one of its symptoms. Both as a device for long-distance radio communications and as an object of scientific study, the ionosphere still is inadequately understood. It is, in fact, a kind of Hydra

of the geophysical world, constantly sprouting several new puzzles for each one that is laid to rest.


-15A new assault upon the complexities of the ionosphere-on an international scale--will begin in a few days when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration will attempt to place an Ionosphere Beacon Satellite into a near-polar orbit. Its purpose is to extend ionospheric research on a global

HISTORY Early in the 18th century, it was observed that a magnetic compass needle exhibited regular daily fluctuations, and in 1882, Balfour Stewart, an Englishman, suggested that these motions of the compass needle were induced by a strong electric current that was located high in the atmosphere. This implied that there was a substantial flow of free electric charges high above the surface of the Earth. In 1864, a Scotsman, James Clerk Maxwell, proposed that light was propagated through free space in the form of electromagnetic waves. In 1887, a German physicist, Heinrich

Rudolf Hertz, demonstrated that electrical energy could be transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. Both were building upon the discovery of electromagnetic induction, made by Michael Faraday, an Englishman, between 1821 and 1824. It was a practical application of these and other

mainstreams of research that suddenly stimulated systematic investigation of what only much later came to be called the ionosphere. -more-

-16On December 12, 1901, as he manipulated a receiver in a radio shack at St. John's, Newfoundland, an Italian, Marchese Guglielmo Marconi, captured a radio signal that had been sent from Poldhu in Cornwall, England, a good 2,000 miles away. Clearly, this experiment cast doubt upon the then generally accepted theory that electromagnetic waves traveled through air in a straight line, for a straight line connecting Poldhu with St. John's would have to pass through a substantial quantity of the Atlantic Ocean. Two groups of theOne group,

oreticians formed to offer possible explanations.

basing its position on experience with light waves, suggested that the radio waves had been bent over and along the curved surface of the Earth by a process known as diffraction. How-

ever, the long interval of curvature of the Earth and also the strength of the signal received by Marconi worked against acceptance of this theory. The foremost exponents of an altogether different explanation were Dr. Oliver Heaviside, an Englishman, and an American, Dr. Arthur E. Kennellyi who in 1902 suggested sim-

ultaneously that the radio signals transmitted in England had struck a reflecting layer in the atmosphere, which prevented them from escaping to space and instead returned them to Earth. The Kennelly-Heaviside layer theory generally was -more-

-17accepted, although almost a quarter century would pass before radio sounding techniques were sufficiently refined to permit measurements that accurately demonstrated the existence of such a reflecting layer. IONOSPHERIC PHENOMENA Any atmospheric model intended to explain a radio-reflecting layer would have to account for a substantial quantity of free electrons at some region of the atmosphere. It soon became apparent that the intense solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation bombarding the Earth was capable of separating atmospheric atoms and molecules from some of their electrons. This breaking apart of electrically neu-

tral particles into a negatively charged electron and a positively charged particle, called an ion, is called ionization. It was with the acceptance of this theory of the gen-

eration of free electrons in the atmosphere that the region where such electrons are produced came to lose the name Kennelly-Heaviside layer, and became known as the ionosphere. The interaction between the incoming ionizing solar radiation and the components of the atmosphere i.s a complex one and is not entirely understood. tudes, the atmosphere is quite thin. At extrenlely high altiWhile a great deal of

radiation is able to pass through it, this radiation encounters relatively few atoms or molecules causes little ioni-

zation, and therefore few free electrons are produced. -more-

-18Farther down, where atmospheric density increases, more tree electrons are produced, but absorption rapidly reduces the intensity of ultraviolet and X-radiation. Comparatively

little solar radiation in these wavelengths reaches to lower levels of the atmosphere, and the bottom layers of the ionosphere contain relatively few free electrons and a much higher density of neutral atoms and molecules. The number of free

electrons at any altitude, therefore, depends both upon the intensity of ionizing radiation at any level and on the density of particles available for ionization. When Hertz performed his first experiments in the generation of what later became known as radio waves, he did so by forcing a high frequency alternating current across a spark gap between two electrodes, and he discovered that the spark emitted electromagnetic waves. These waves were, in

fact, produced by free electrons in the spark that oscillated at the same frequency as the applied current. In a modern

radio transmitter, a high frequency alternating current is applied to the transmitting antenna, and the current causes electrons in the antenna to vibrate, and emit radio waves. The radio waves spread out in a pattern that is determined by the shape or geometry of the antenna. When these

waves reach free electrons in the ionosphere, they stimulate the electrons to vibrate at the same frequency, and these


-19oscillating electrons then emit radio waves, also at the same frequency. a weak one. The radio emission of any single free electron is However, the ionosphere has from 1,000 to I,,0cc000

free electrons per cubic centimeter, depending upon the altitude and other variable conditions. The sum of the individual

radio emissions is nearly as strong as the originally broadcast signal. The extent to which a radio wave will penetrate into the Ionosphere before its energy has been redirected toward the ground by reradiation from free electrons depends largely upon the frequency of the signal. Generally speaking, radio waves

of frequencies higher than about 15 megacycles (15 million cycles per second) will pass through the ionosphere and escape to space. For radio sounding--in which the time of delay of

a radio signal echo is a measure of the height of the reflecting layer--frequencies of one to ten megacycles usually are used. The efficiency of a particular ionized region for the reflection of radio waves depends both on the number of free electrons and the atmospheric density, because electrons can collide with the heavy, neutral atoms or molecules. When such

a collision takes place, it stops the radio emission of the electron because it energy is given up to the colliding particle. The lowest layer of the ionosphere, therefore, tends

to act as a kind of radio-absorbing sponge because the high -moree

-20density of atoms and molecules does not permit much free electron vibration. During times of intense solar

activity, when ionizing radiation reaches deeper into the atmosphere, this absorbing layer broadens and the result is the radio blackout associated with geomagnetic storms. By no means can the ionosphere be considered stable in its vertical structure simply because of the ionizing radiation-particle density relationship. Other phenom-

ena are superimposed upon it to such an extent that the ionosphere is a highly dynamic and ever-moving structure. The following activities occur with some

regularity: 1. At lower altitudes, great winds move and

churn the atmosphere, keeping its components thoroughly mixed. With increasing altitude, the winds subside,

and eventually atmospheric components begin to separate according to their molecular weights. Molecular Nitrogen

predominates to about 120 miles, where atomic Oxygen becomes the dominant component. Helium At about 600 miles

becomes a dominant component, and at several thou-

sand miles, Hydrogen dominates.


-212. The gravitational effect of the moon produces However, a much

a tidal motion in the atmosphere.

greater atmospheric bulge is produced by solar heating. The atmosphere tends to expand and move upward on the sunlit side of the earth, while it subsides on the dark side. The daylight rising produces a broadening This along with disappear-

of the ionospheric regions.

ance of electrons by recombination, tends to account for the experienced improvement of long-distance radio communications at night, when the lower alsorbing layer is thinnest and least dense. It also has been suggested

that the large-scale upward and downward displacement of large masses of free electrons across the lines of force of the earth's magnetic field would produce a current that could induce the daily fluctuations of a magnetic compass needle, observed more than 300 years ago. It is estimated that 50,000 amperes of electricity flow between England and the earth's Equator. 3. Periodic influxes of electromagnetic and particle

radiations from the sun produce localized and wide spread sudden ionospheric disturbances and geomagnetic storms. These generate great upheavals in the structure

and functioning of the ionosphere.


-22By a convention that recognizes the highest radic frequency reflected at a particular altitude of the ionosphere, labels have been given to various regions, although they obviously are not rigid. Region Altitude (kilometers) (iilz3S) They are:

D0 to90

.to 55

90 to 150

It 090
90 to 150 150 to 300

I,)1 F2

150 to 250 250 to 500

RECENT SPACE RESEARCH TIr use of high-altitude sounding rockets and of

earthj-orbiting satc&7 ites has opened a new era in ionosphere research. During the past three years, the major

experiments were the following:

1. November 3,

1Q60--Explorer VIII

This satellite

made measurements along its orbital path, between altitudes of 258 and 1,410 miles (415 to 2,270 kilometers) of the electron density and energy and identified chemical components of t:;e atmosphere, in particular ionized oxygen, helium, and hydrogen. 2. ti

In October 19, 1961, and March 29, 1962, respecaytime and nighttime geoprobe vertical sounding

,ockets reached attitudes In the vicinity of 4,000 miles. -more-

-23They were designed to measure electron density, ionic composition and the temperature of electrons, and afford a comparison between daytime and nighttime conditions. 3. April 26, 1962--Ariel I. This satellite,

instrumented by the United Kingdom and launched by the United States, extended the a quisition of data alorng l orbital path that varied between 212 and 752 miles (390 to 1,214 kilometers), also measuring electron density and temperatureand ion mass and temperature. 4'

September 28, 1962--Alouette.

This satellite

Peas built by Canada and launched by the United States, and, in effect, it carried miniaturized radio sounding equipmen:, above the ionosphere to sound its features from the top side. Ib was placed into a nearly circular

621N-mile orbit that also was a near-polar orbit, so that it could pay special attention to polar, artic and auroral phenomena as they relate to ionospheric perculiarities that exist over Canada. Alouette uses a radio sounder that varies its

frequency-v between 2 and 12 megacycles,

so that it car

provide more accurate profiles between the satellite and
the various maxJ.ni-im

?f]lecting layers in the ionosphere.

D-mo re -

-24The National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to launch a fixed frequency topside sounding satellite late this year. THE IONOSPHERE BEACON SATELLITE The primary misa'on of the Ionosphere Beacon Satellite is to search for variations of detail or anomalies in the structure of the ionosphere. It will do this by

measuring the total number of electrons between itself and the ground. A great many such measurements will

be possible because ground receiving stations capable of receivinrg its beacon can be set up with a modest cost, with portable equipment, and since the satellite's polar orbit will take it over almost all of the earth's surface, widespread participation in this effort is anticipated. The measurement of the electron content along the line of sight between the satellite and the ground station will be made in two ways. Both ways depend upon the

influences thac the ionosphere will exert upon the 3ignal sent out by the radio beacon. One of the characteristics of a signal received from a satellite moving in orbit is that its radio signals are subject to a phenomenon called the Doppler shift.


-25When the Eatellite mov s toward the receiving station, the frequency of the received signal is than that sent by the satellite. slightly higher

When the satellite is

moving away from the station, the received frequency will be slightly lower than the transmitted one. shift of frequency is called a Doppler shift, and varies with both the satellite velocity and electron density. By comparing the Doppler shifts at several This

frequencies, the total electron content between the observer and the satellite can be obtained. The second method of electron density measurement takes advantage of an effect known as the "Faraday rotation." This is a rotation of the plane of polarization of the radio waves that is produced by the waves through the ionosphere. terms, is the following: passing

What this means, in general The reason why American tele-

vision antenna loops are set horizontally, like bird roosts, is because the transmitting antennas at the television stations also are positioned horizontally. The plane of polarization of the TV signals is horizontal with respect to the earth's surface, and this is done. by choice and convention. If one were to set a tele-

vi.sion receivirg antenna vertically, or- 1ould receive -more-

-26little or no signal from a horizontally positioned transmitting antenna. In Great Britain, incidentally,

the television transmitting antennas are set vertically, and so are the receiving antenna loops. The plane of

polarization of signals sent through a neutral atmosphere tends to remain constant. However, if waves are sent through a layer of such as the ionosphere, then the

charged particles,

plane of polarization is helical path.

gradually twisted along a

It is like taking allong, slender This

curtain and twisting it into a corkscrew shape.

twisting is called the Faraday rotation, and is the result of interactions between the radio waves and the electromagnetic fields surrounding electrons in the ionosphere. If one could measure how many times the

plane of polarization has been rotated between satellite and earth, one could calculate the electron density. However, this is most easily accomplished by measuring the rotation at several frequencies. By using a straight dipole antenna on the ground a maximum strenght signal will be received when the polarization of the incoming radio wave is parallel to it, and a minimum signal will be received when it is perpendicular to the antenna. -more-

Variations in the received signal strength also may reveal a patchiness in the ionosphere. The study

of such variations should reveal new information on the sources of these localized variations of electron density. Thus, with simple radio receivers and antennas, a great deal of data can be acquired on the ground The extent to which variations in the vertical profile of electron deisities can be measured then is limited only by the number and locations of ground stations. And, each station will be able to make a

real-time measurement each time the satellite passes within radio range. More than 40 scientists in some 20 countries have advised NASA of their willingness to participate in this research effort, It is anticipated that data from widely

scattered geographic locations, taken over extended periods of time and 4.ncludin g many measurements from each station, .ill provide a mine comprehensire picture of

the ionosphere than it has previously been possible to obtain.




-28PARTICIPANTS IN s-66 IONOSPHERIC RESEARCH Investigator ARGENTINA Sandro M. Radicella AUSTRALIA E. B. C. G. H. B. H. N. R. C. Armstrong Briggs Gerrard Munro Webster Camden Adelaide Woomera Sydney Brisbane Australia South Australia Australia Au3tralia Australia Tucuman Argentina Station Location

AUSTRIA 0. Bunkard BRAZIL Fernando de :Mendonca Belem Natal San Jose dos Camos Concepcion Ushuaia Brazil Brazil Brazil Chile Argentina Graz Austria

CANADA A. Kavadas FRANCE .1. Papet-Lepine E. Vassy GERMANY W. Dieminger H. Kaminski K, Rawer GREECE M. Anastassiades Athens -moreGreece Lindau Bochum Breisacn Germany Germany Germany Villepreux Paris France France Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada

-29Investigator INDIA A. P. Mitra K. R. Ramannathan E. B. Rao ITALY P. F. Checcacci JAMA-CA R. W. H. Wright JAPAN Y. Nakata KENYA A. N. Hunter J. R. Koster Nairobi Nairobi Kenya Kenya Tokyo Japan Kingston Jamaica Florence Italy New Delhi Ahmedabad Hyderabad India India S. India Station Location

J. Mawdsley J. E. Titheridge Campbell Invercargill Auckland Well.Lngton New New New New Zealand Zealand Zealand Zealand

A. Romana Tortosa Spain

L. Liszka Kiruna Sweden

SWITZERLAND M. Golay Colovrex


-30Investigator UNITED KINGDOM W. B. G. K. A. J. Beynon Burgess N. Taylor deekes F. Wilkins Aberystwyth South Farnborough Jodrell Bank Sidmouth, Devon Slough Singapore Hong Kong Bangkok England England England England England Station Location

UNITED STATES J, P. C. W. L. Arons R. Arendt M. Beamer W. Bernig J. Blumle Harhjiltori Deal Cedar Rapids Aberdeen Blossom Point Johannesburg Palo Alto Honolulu College Station Durham Williamsburg Ft. Meade Boulder Huntsville University Park Huancayo Weston Hanover Thule Palo Alto Adak Baker Lake Houghton Urbana Massachusetts New Jersey Iowa Maryland Maryland S. Africa California Hawaii Texas New Hampshire Virginia Maryland Colorado Alabama Penna. Peru Mass. New Hampshire Greenland California Alaska Canada Michigan Illinois

0. K. Garriott J. P, German R. E. Houston J. D. Lawrence R. S. Lawrence E. A. Mechtly W. J. Ross G. S. Sales F. Teifeld G. W. Swenson







August 1, 1963

NOTE TO EDITORS: Please make the following change in NASA News release NO: 63-157, a press kit on the Polar Ionosphere Beacon satellite, for release Sunday, August 4, 1963: On page one, line six, change "no sooner than August 15" to "late September." The change in launch date is necessary because of difficulties with the launch vehicle.


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