Fan Repair Guideline


Fan Repair Guideline
1007082 Technical Update, July 2002

EPRI Project Manager Kent Coleman

EPRI • 1300 W.T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina 28262 • PO Box 217097, Charlotte, North Carolina 28221 • USA 800.313.3774 • 704.547.6176 • •




Charlotte. NC: 2002. NC 28262 Principle Investigators K. Charlotte. The publication is a corporate document that should be cited in literature in the following manner: Fan Repair Guideline.CITATIONS This report was prepared by EPRI Repair & Replacement Applications Center 1300 W.T Harris Blvd. EPRI Repair & Replacement Applications Center. 1007082. Coleman G. iii . Hudgins This document describes research sponsored by EPRI.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to recognize Johnny Johnson of Barron Industries for reviewing this document and providing industry practices. v . They would also like to thank Derek Overcash of the EPRI RRAC for his assistance in writing and reviewing this document.

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and erosion damage mechanisms. centerplate/sideplate. repair techniques.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material REPORT SUMMARY The successful repair of a fan component is affected by a number of different factors. hubs. high/low cycle fatigue. blades. Typical problems arise in fan units due to vibration. bearing. This guideline is aimed at the system. centerplates/sideplates. However. implementation of proper repair procedures. Given these six main areas of interest. Background In modern power plants. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in the area of induced draft forced draft fan repair. Finally. bearings. and shafts. This information is assembled in a coherent guide. Objectives • • • To identify the most prominent damage mechanisms and repair technologies applicable to fan casings. To incorporate a repair decision matrix and weld repair schedule to implement the most cost-effective repair solutions. and compliance with applicable codes and standards. maintenance and welding engineers responsible for maintaining the fans. To illustrate proper maintenance actions to reduce the likelihood of component damage. centerplates / sideplates. vii . Except for turbine generators and pumps. The fan component repair and/or replacement process can be an area of large cost or potential savings depending on the proper selection and implementation of repair options. Specifically. These include. and shaft repair issues and repair technologies. common materials. fans represent some of the greatest capital investment in the plant. This guideline will also lead the engineer through the repair process. fans represent one of the largest groups of rotating equipment. hub. Approach This guideline was developed through research and investigation of the most prominent fan casing. correctly assessing the root cause of failure. this document deals with the repair of fan blades. associated damage mechanisms. and shafts. the guideline expands on descriptions of the components. and maintenance actions. in many situations the proper solution is not clearly evident. determining the best repair option. which provides the knowledge needed to effectively direct repair. bearings. hubs. casings. corrosion. blade. Secondary audiences are the design engineers and others interested in understanding the types of problems that affect fans and available repair techniques utilized to correct those problems. This document is intended to provide repair guidance for the six most important components.

EPRI has produced numerous reports concerning the maintenance. One of the main methods of communicating these repair solutions is through the development of guidelines. these documents do not specifically address the subject of fan repair. there is an on going effort to identify and implement the most cost-effective repair solutions.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material the guideline will assist the engineers in writing the repair specifications and provide them with knowledge to help them better understand the operations they will oversee. Consequently. utilities are looking for faster and more cost-effective approaches to getting back on-line quickly. with the emphasis on shorter refueling outages and tighter radiation exposure limits. viii . EPRI Perspective Today. However. and monitoring of fans. The goal of this document is to move beyond the aspect of maintenance and focus more on the aspects associated with fan repair. In the past. operations.

shaft. Below is a list of the general topics of this report. In order for fans to operate at peak performance. The fan repair section is divided into the repair of the six most important components. surface and weld preparation issues. both through efforts of maintenance and repair. a decision matrix (Table 3-1) and a weld repair schedule (Table 3-2) was developed by a welding engineer to assist in the welding techniques of various materials for centerplates. which includes topics such as the general safety precautions. casing. vibration. sideplates. noise control. vibration and balancing issues. code required inspections. The fan maintenance section was primarily taken from EPRI document “Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Draft Fans. damage analysis and repair option evaluation. and essential welding variables. blades. describes fan components. It is the purpose of this technical report to allow the user of this document to ix . These systems can be extremely costly and important maintenance and repair issues must be addressed to limit their expenses. basic maintenance checks. Each of the component repair sections was broken down into subcategories that include general information. In addition. erosion. and the various types of fans. and repair techniques. This section includes a general introduction to maintenance. the maintenance and repair cost of power plant fans will drastically decrease. and bearings. These components are essential to proper operation of the fans and include the blades. and maintenance actions to conserve energy. • Fan Background Information • Common Damage Mechanisms • Fan Repair Issues • Fan Maintenance Issues • Sample Vendor Welding Procedures The information found in the fan unit background section introduces the purpose of fans in fossil power plants. Various welding procedures were included in the appendix to assist the user of this document in developing a proper repair routine. dust collection devices.” report number TR-101698. and it is vital that these systems operate at peak performance to contribute to optimum combustion efficiency. inspection methods.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Various fans are used in fossil power plants to transport air and fuel to and from the boiler. Then detailed descriptions of four common damage mechanisms. associated damage mechanisms. This document is not intended to replace any O&M repair techniques. and high/low cycle fatigue are introduced. hub. cleanup issues. pre-examination techniques. common materials. welding qualifications. and due to its abundance of information was essential to include with the repair issues of fan units. they must be in acceptable working condition. and wear plates. flue gas desulfurization equipment. but should only be used as a supplemental reference. corrosion. There is also a section entitled Field Welding Procedures and Guidelines. With the proper usage of this document and O&M recommendations. centerplates/sideplates.

repair issues. x . common damage mechanisms. With this information and sample vendor welding procedures an effective repair routine can be developed.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material become familiar with fan units and their various components. and maintenance issues.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material CONTENTS 1 FAN UNIT BACKGROUND.................................................... 3-22 Hub Repair ........................................................................................ 3-20 Types of Centerplates / Sideplates .......................................................................... 3-24 Hub Damage ........................................................................................................................ 1-2 Types of Power Plant Fans ............................................................................................................................................... 1-7 2 DAMAGE MECHANISMS ... 3-1 Field Welding Procedures and Guidelines............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-4 Fan Blade Repair................................................................................................ 3-20 Materials .......................................................................... 3-25 Hub Repair................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-24 Hub Materials................... 3-3 Surface and Weld Preparation Issues................................................................... 3-2 Safety Precautions ........................................... 2-7 3 INTRODUCTION TO FAN REPAIR........... 3-10 Types of Blading ................................................... 3-20 Centerplate / Sideplate Damage .............................................................................................................................. 3-26 xi ...................................................................................................................................... 3-2 Damage Analysis and Repair Option Evaluation............................................................................................ 1-1 Fan Components................................................................................................................. 2-1 Erosion ......................................... 2-3 Vibration .............................................................................................................. 3-10 Blade Damage .................................................................................................................. 3-12 Blade Materials ................... 3-24 Types of Hubs............................................ 3-25 Shaft Repair ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3-3 Essential Welding Variables................................... 3-3 Welding Qualifications...................................... 1-1 Introduction.................................... 3-21 Centerplate / Sideplate Repairs ..................................................................................................................... 2-1 Corrosion...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-17 Centerplate / Sideplate Repair .......................................... 3-14 Blade Repair ................................................ 2-5 Low / High Cycle Fatigue................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-2 Code Required Inspections..............

....................................................................................................................................................................... 3-29 Casing Damage .......... 3-31 Improper access doors / plates maintenance............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-30 Improper clearance between housing and fan wheel ......................... 4-2 Surface Preparation ................................................................................................................ 4-7 Vibration and Balancing....................................................... 4-7 Liquid Penetrant ................................................... 4-3 Inspection Methods . 3-30 Cracking and breaking caused by insufficient bracing / welding ......................... 3-34 Casing Repair .................. 4-9 Vibration Causes........................................................EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Types of Shafts ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-36 Rolling Element Bearings........................................................................................... 3-33 Casing Materials .......... 4-6 Ultrasonic Inspection....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-35 BEARING REPAIR ............................................................................................................. 3-27 Shaft Materials .. 3-31 Improper fly ash / gas distribution to / from the fans..................................................................................................... 4-8 Vibration Parameters .......... 4-1 Introduction to Fan Maintenance ................................................................................................................................. 3-30 High vibrational bolt failures ............................................................................................. 3-29 Types of Casings ............................................. 4-3 (Wet/Dry)-Magnetic Particle Testing ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-3 Visual Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-33 Damaged lagging / insulation......... 4-8 Vibration Analysis......... 3-36 4 FAN MAINTENANCE ................................................................................ 3-27 Typical Usage................................................................................................ 4-1 Pre-Examination Techniques .................................. 4-11 Balancing ........................................ 4-12 xii ..................................................................................... 4-2 Surface Cleaning...................... 3-36 General ................................................................................... 3-26 Shaft Damage ................................Surface Cleaning & Surface Preparation............................................................................................................................. 3-33 Damaged slide plates......................................................................................................................................... 3-28 Fan Casing Repair....... 3-31 Foundation Deterioration......... 3-28 Shaft Repair ...................................................... 3-32 Ductwork misalignment ..................... 3-31 Corrosion / leaking ductwork.............................................................................

.............................. 4-12 Electrostatic Precipitators.................................................................................................. 4-18 Maintenance Actions to Conserve Energy.................................................................................................... 4-15 Out-of-Service Checks .............................................. 4-13 Bag Filterhouses ............................................................................................................................ 4-14 Operational Checks........................................... 4-13 Noise Control.....................................A-1 xiii ................................................................................... 4-22 5 REFERENCES ......................... 4-12 Dust Collection Devices............................................. 4-12 Mechanical Collectors .................................................................... 5-1 A APPENDIX. 4-13 Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-14 Pre-startup Checks ........................................................................EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Cleanup .................................................................... 4-14 Basic Maintenance ........................................................................................

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................................................... 28 Table 3-6: Casing Materials [6] .............................................................................................................................................EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1: Effect of Blade Type on Erosion Resistance and Efficiency [3] ...... 12 Table 3-3: Typical Blade Materials [6] .......................................................... 21 Table 3-5: Shaft Materials [6] ..................................................................................................................... 22 xv ............................................................................. 15 Table 3-4: Centerplate and Sideplate Materials [6]..................... 7 Table 3-2 Weld Schedules.......................... 9 Table 3-3: Typical Industrial Applications for Heavy-Duty Fan Blades ................ 5 Table 3-1: Fan Repair Decision Matrix.................................................... 34 Table 4-1: General Maintenance Actions for Energy Conservation [2] .....

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........................3-38 Fig.......... 3-9: Corroded / Leaking Ductwork [2] ...... 3-16: Cylindrical Roller Bearing [9].................EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material LIST OF FIGURES Fig........3-32 Fig................................................... 3-12: Single-Row Radial Ball Bearings [7] ..................................................... 3-10: Corrosion Buildup on Ductwork [2]......... 1-4: Close-up of adjustable airfoil blading of an axial-flow fan [3] .... 3-17: Needle Bearing [9] ............3-27 Fig....................................3-39 Fig........................................................... 1-7: Coal-fired utility power plant schematic (gas-recirculation fan not shown)[4] 1-8 Fig.........3-24 Fig.....................3-38 Fig................3-38 Fig................... 1-2: Two-stage variable-pitch axial-flow fan for induced-draft service [3] .............................................. By adjusting the angle of vanes.... 3-11: Self-Aligning Ball Bearings [7]............................................ 3-1: Typical blade types for heavy-duty fan operation [11] ........................................... 1-5: Inlet vanes give an initial spin to air entering a centrifugal fan............................................. 3-5: Blade Repair Flow Chart ..................................................1-4 Fig.............................................1-6 Fig................................................. 3-6: Centerplate / Sideplate Locations [10] ..3-38 Fig.....................................................3-10 Fig....................... 3-7: Hub location in a fan unit [10] .....................1-2 Fig...................3-11 Fig............................ the degree of spin and volumetric output are regulated [3]........ 1-6: Louver Damper [4] ........................................................................ 3-3: Fan rotor blades with heavy erosion [3] ........................................................... 3-14: Single-Row Angular-Contact Ball Bearings [7].... 3-18: Tapered-Roller Bearing [9] ..................................... 3-15: Double-Row Angular-Contact Ball Bearings [7] ...................................................................................1-4 Fig..1-3 Fig.......3-20 Fig..............3-37 Fig..................3-13 Fig.............3-32 Fig.....................1-6 Fig.......3-40 xvii ................... 1-3: Centrifugal (radial) fan blade types [3] ................... 3-8: Shaft location in a fan unit [10].........3-40 Fig..................................................................................................................3-16 Fig....................3-19 Fig. 3-13: Double-Row Radial Ball Bearings [7] ................................... 3-4: Blade Alloys ..................................... 3-2: Specific diameter and efficiency versus specific speed for single-inlet fan types [1].................. 1-1: Airfoil-blade centrifugal fan with inlet-vane control [3]...............................................................

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Introduction Steam generators use thermodynamic energy in order to convert water into steam for the generation of electric power. Modern utility coal-fired furnaces use the process of combustion in order to obtain the necessary thermodynamic energy for this phase transformation. The combustion reaction within the furnace provides the heat source for the boiler or steam generator. Combustion can be defined as: The rapid chemical combination of oxygen with the combustible elements of a fuel, which ultimately results in the production of heat. Combustion is accomplished by mixing fuel and air at elevated temperatures. The air supplies oxygen, which unites chemically with the carbon, hydrogen, and a few minor elements in the fuel to produce heat. [5] Ideal combustion conditions will lead to the release of all of the energy in the fuel while minimizing any losses due to fuel imperfections and excess air. In this respect, it is vital that a plant’s air and fuel handling systems operate at peak performance. Auxiliary fan systems provide the draft necessary to supply the airflow to the furnace for the combustion reaction or can provide a negative pressure in order to exhaust combustion products. Fossil power plant fan systems are also responsible for the transportation of coal from the pulverizer to the furnace and for steam temperature control within the furnace. In order to maintain optimum combustion efficiency, the engineer and field operators must be assured that the plant’s auxiliary fan systems are operating properly and at peak performance. Improper draft control could lead to inadequate combustion or even boiler room fires. Because of the harsh environment and stringent duty cycles associated with most utility fan operation, concerns arise over the propensity for component damage, such as corrosion, erosion, and fatigue to occur. Material degradation of the blading or wheel of the fan or any rotational system can lead to serious vibration problems and possibly catastrophic mechanical failure. Other mechanical issues such as improper lubrication to bearings, flow control devices, and couplings, as well as shaft misalignment and a poor hub fit can also lead to mechanical failure of the fan and improper combustion conditions. Fan maintenance issues are one of the leading causes for unit availability problems for coal-fired power plants. In order to maintain sufficient fan operation with minimal downtime due to fan damage, a thorough fan component repair plan must be implemented should repair issues arise.


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Through this fan repair guideline, the FRAC intends to provide utilities with the proper repair procedures and relevant fan repair experience information needed to implement field repairs for damaged fan components such as rotors, shafts, and bearings. This guideline will address damage mechanisms, defect removal, welding, surfacing, mechanical repairs, and heat treating issues associated with fan repair. Fan Components A fan can be considered a mechanical device that moves a volume of fluid such as air, gas, or vapor through a pressure driven flow. Large capacity fan units typically consist of a bladed, rotating impeller enclosed in a stationary casing. The rotor system causes the motion of the fluid and the casing directs the output flow. The rotor can be powered and controlled through a driver such as a variable speed motor, a single-speed motor, a turbine driver, or a fluid-driver, which is directly connected to the shaft of the impeller. A fan is classified by the direction of its flow through the bladed passages of the impeller. A centrifugal fan moves the air perpendicular to the rotational axis of the impeller and an axial fan moves the air parallel to the rotational axis of the impeller. Figures 1-1 and 1-2 denote the typical configuration of a centrifugal and axial fan. These fans can be further classified as either a single suction fan, one with a single air inlet, or a double suction fan, which has two inlets.

Fig. 1-1: Airfoil-blade centrifugal fan with inlet-vane control [3]


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Fig. 1-2: Two-stage variable-pitch axial-flow fan for induced-draft service [3]

The blading on the rotating impeller causes the excitation or motion of the fluid particles through the fan. There are essentially three different types of fan blading. These blades include radial, forward-curved, and backward curved. Blading can be further modified depending upon the desired flow conditions. The selection of blade type is dependant upon the desired output air speed, the specified loading conditions, the environmental conditions, allowable noise levels, and the required flow efficiencies. For example, backward-curved blades will produce lower velocities than the forward-curved blades for a given tip or peripheral speed. A radial blade fan runs slower than the backward incline fan but deflects any particulates in the flow away from the blade surface which can significantly minimize fan vibrations. Fly-ash erosion is the most common type of blade damage. The high temperature combustion of coal involves the decomposition of such compounds as aluminum, iron, potassium, sodium and sulfur. This reaction releases volatile alkali compounds and sulfur oxides (predominately SO2 with small amounts of SO3). The remaining minerals from this reaction form glassy particles known as fly ash. Most blades are protected by wear plates or liners to minimize fly-ash erosion. It is clear that blading design is key to fan performance. Centrifugal fans usually utilize radial, radial tip, backwardly inclined solid, or airfoil type blading. Axial fans use airfoil shaped blades or blades of uniform thickness. Depending upon the fan environment, certain types of blading may be inappropriate for use due to a higher susceptibility to flyash erosion. Figure 1-3 denotes typical blade cross sections for centrifugal fans and Figure 1-4 shows an adjustable airfoil blading of an axial fan. Table 1-1 reveals typical efficiency ratings and erosion resistance for common blade types.


1-3: Centrifugal (radial) fan blade types [3] Fig.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. 1-4: Close-up of adjustable airfoil blading of an axial-flow fan [3] 1-4 .

A fan’s total efficiency is defined as the ratio of the fan output power to the fan input power.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 1-1: Effect of Blade Type on Erosion Resistance and Efficiency [3] Blade Type Radial Radial Tip Backwardly Inclined Solid Airfoil * Typical Max. The fan can be “throttled” by the inlet vanes to provide the flow and pressure necessary for lower operating conditions. Inlet box dampers provide a similar flow control or spin to the air as inlet vanes except that the inlet boxes are upstream from the rotor system where as the variable inlet vanes immediately precede the rotor system. A centrifugal fan utilizing inlet vanes controls the airflow via the first method by altering the flow of gas within the fan. Variable inlet vanes can provide swirl to the impeller. 1-5 . which tends to increase fan efficiency compared to other methods of damper control. By controlling the speed of the fan. which controls the flow by altering the internal geometry of the flow pathway. A fan that is run with a variable speed motor can adjust the speed to control the output flow properties (method two). The output flow of a fan can be controlled or adjusted during operation in two ways: 1. The angle of variable inlet vanes can be adjusted to control the volumetric output of a centrifugal fan as seen in Figure 1-5. depicts a typical louver style damper which can be used to alter flow distribution. Fixed pitch axial fans will use inlet vanes to control the flow. Static Efficiency (%)* 70 80 85 90 Tolerance to Erosive Environment High Medium to High Medium Low A fan’s static efficiency can be defined as the total fan efficiency multiplied by the fan static pressure to fan total pressure. Damper controlled flow usually consists of a constant speed operation which is throttled through a variable obstruction (the outlet damper box) downstream from the impeller. Figure 1-6. By manipulating the aerodynamic flow into or within the fan 2. Most axial fans are operated by variable pitch axial blades. An axial fan can control the flow within the fan using variable pitch blading.

1-5: Inlet vanes give an initial spin to air entering a centrifugal fan. the degree of spin and volumetric output are regulated [3] Fig. By adjusting the angle of vanes. 1-6: Louver Damper [4] 1-6 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig.

A more detailed discussion on each of the four power plant fans will follow. Types of Power Plant Fans There are four main types of fans used in fossil power plants.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material As with all rotating equipment. If a plant utilizes only forced draft. If the flow through the system is achieved through the stack alone then it is considered natural draft. In order to maintain stable rotation and minimize vibration and wear. Proper lubrication and cooling methods should be maintained for all couplings to prevent wear. Improper alignment. a large unit forced draft fan is placed upstream from the boiler and it applies a positive pressure to push the air and flue gases through the system. and natural draft. primary air fans. A balanced draft system uses both a forced draft fan at the inlet of the system and an induced draft fan at the outlet of the boiler system. These fans include forced draft fans. induced draft. The balanced draft system tends to be the most efficient by minimizing the amount of hot gas that can escape the system. Improper or contaminated bearing lubrication could present bearing oil film stiffness and damping concerns. 1-7 . Draft fans are generally responsible for maintaining the flow of gases through the boiler. then the fan placed at the boiler system outlet supplies a negative pressure or suction to exhaust the air and flue gases through the system into the atmosphere. Fans that are not primarily used to maintain draft through the system are the primary air fans and the gas-recirculation fans. bearings play an important role in maintaining stable rotation and therefore should be well maintained through proper lubrication and cooling systems. respectively. A power plant can create draft through forced draft. These fans are used for the drying or transport of pulverized coal and for steam temperature control. Figure 1-7 shows a schematic of a typical balanced draft coal-fired power plant. • • • • • • Sleeve-ringed oiled bearings Self-aligning water-cooled sleeve bearings Grease lubricated bearings Anti-friction oil bearings Thrust ball bearings at the blade root of variable pitch blading Pedestal mounted journal bearings for large centrifugal fans It is equally important to maintain proper alignment and balance of the fan during operation. Special attention should be paid to possible expansion differentials between the shaft and hub of the impeller. induced draft fans. as well as any change in weight distribution due to fly-ash erosion or other material degradation could throw the fan into an unbalanced state causing severe vibration problems and possible fan failure. If the plant utilizes an induced draft fan. balanced draft. and gas-recirculation fans. the motor or driver should be properly aligned with the shaft of the fan. Some of the typical types of bearings used in power plant fans are listed below.

these fans are centrifugal fans utilizing radial airfoil blading or variable pitch axial fans. clean air upstream from the hot flue gas exhaust. forward-curved. If the ID fan system can maintain sufficiently clean surfaces then an airfoil-bladed centrifugal fan or a variable bladed axial fan is appropriate for service. These fans can either provide a positive pressure upstream of the coal pulverizer and handle relatively clean air or be located downstream from the pulverizer providing negative pressure while handling coal-dust laden air. Induced draft fans (ID) are placed at the outlet of the boiler system and exhaust all gaseous combustion products. they handle cool. or flue gas. However. because these fans handle hot flue gas. These fans tend to have particulate catching screens upstream from the impeller to minimize abrasive damage from foreign debris. Forced draft fans create a positive pressure which drives the flow throughout the air ducting and other heating systems between the fan discharge location and the furnace. These fans are typically the most efficient fans in the power plant because they have the cleanest operating environment. which leads to the furnace. they are generally more susceptible to erosion and corrosion even with particulate removal or scrubber systems. A PA fan 1-8 . Typically. The pulverizer exhauster fan or “hot” PA fan. If greater wear resistance is necessary. located downstream from the pulverizer. Primary air fans (PA) are high pressure fans used to supply the air for the transportation of coal either directly from the pulverizer to the furnace or to an intermediate bunker. These fans are usually placed downstream from a particulate catching system in order to help maintain a clean fan surface.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. Forced draft fans must supply enough airflow to overcome any frictional resistance and air-heater leakage problems. transports the coal/air mixture for ignition from the pulverizer to the fuel pipes. 1-7: Coal-fired utility power plant schematic (gas-recirculation fan not shown)[4] Forced draft fans (FD) supply the air necessary for fuel combustion by pushing the air through the combustion air supply system and into the furnace. or backward-inclined blading can be used at the expense of efficiency loss. from the boiler by creating a negative pressure or suction within the furnace. a modified radial.

Straight or modified radials or forward curved. straight radial or modified radial blades are more appropriate. expansion differentials between the hub and shaft are of great concern. These fans extract gas from the economizer outlet and the pre-heater inlet and then discharge the gas either to the bottom of the furnace for steam temperature control or to various locations in the furnace. Due to the high temperature excursions associated with the gas-recirculation fan environment. Mechanical dust collectors should be installed ahead of this fan to minimize the impact of some of the abrasive particles. and possibly high temperature excursions. Cold PA fans typically are airfoil centrifugal fans or multi-stage axial fans similar to FD fans. furnace heat absorption. may be more appropriate to handle these temperature changes. An integral hub. If the fan is located downstream from the pulverizer (pulverizer exhauster fan) there are severe particulate concentrations.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material upstream from the pulverizer. as opposed to a shrink-fit. The duty cycle of a gasrecirculation fan is very stringent due to heavy dust loads and extreme temperature excursions. backwardly inclined centrifugal wheels are appropriate for gas-recirculation fans. pushes the coal/air mixture through the pulverizer and is most commonly used. 1-9 . Gas-recirculation fans are used to control steam temperature. or a “cold” PA fan. Thermal shock could present problems for this fan as well during shutdown and startup operations. and slagging of heating surfaces.

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The rate of erosion depends on the following characteristics of the suspended particles in the flue gas. which include the forced-draft. and gas-recirculation fans. These fans must be reliable due to the rugged environment in which they operate. One particular concern is how the fan hub is mated with the shaft as the often-used shrink-fit method may not be adequate. power plant fans can be placed into four distinct categories. which causes softening of metals. which is responsible for serious and costly maintenance. shaft. The seven factors above directly relate the particulate matter to the erosion problem that exists in boiler fan units. and the overall result is known as surface thinning. Gas-recirculation fans tend to suffer the most from erosion because of the heavy dust and operation elevated temperatures. there should be a symmetrical mass distribution about the center of rotation. When gases pass through a fan unit particulate matter strikes and abrades the fan unit surfaces. such as the casing. This allows a 2-1 . must be utilized. which can lead to further failure at the joint known as fretting. The effects of erosion can lead to extreme unbalance and high vibration. centerplates. Erosion of fan units is characterized by the loss of fan material through the mechanical action of particulate matter in the flue gas impinging on or abrading on the fan surfaces. primary-air. an examination of how the damage mechanism occurs is explained. where two metals in constant contact abrade one another. As discussed in Section 1. engineering. Since those factors can not directly be influenced under operating conditions. • • • • • • • Fly ash mass flow rate / Ash load Particle size Particle shape (spherical or sharp) Particle surface texture (jagged or smooth) Particle hardness Particulate contamination Impact angle and velocity In a more detailed description of erosion. hub. Fretting is a problem associated with shrink fits. the opposing side. This can further cause vibration due to the unbalanced rotation of the fan caused by the improper distribution of the mass about the axis of rotation. and repair of fan units. Erosion can occur between these two surfaces and cause slight slippage.0. sideplates. which is the maintenance. induced-draft. blading. Ideally.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 2 DAMAGE MECHANISMS Erosion One of the most common damage mechanisms associated with power plant fan failure is erosion. Slight surface material is abraded from the fan unit and carried though the power plant’s route gradually producing what is known as an erosive environment. The primary cause of erosion is fly ash contact with the fan surfaces during operation.

However. Therefore. If ID fans are downstream of the wet scrubbers. FD fans have screens to protect the fans from any entrained particles in the incoming air. In cases with severe particulate concentrations or high temperatures. Reducing fan speed 2-2 . or renewable coatings. blade tip erosion does impede the performance of the fan. Primary-air fans are usually equipped with centrifugal airfoil or multi-stage axial fans as they draw air from the environment but frequently have recirculated air for temperature control. wear pads can be placed on blades and center plates. ID fans installed downstream of wet scrubbers. and replaceable nose sections can be attached. A modified radial or forward-curved. Erosion in axial fan designs is somewhat less serious because most of the damage occurs on the blade tips and does not usually pose as great a threat to the structural integrity or balance of the fan. Forced-draft fans operate in the cleanest environment associated with boilers. Where greater wear resistance is needed because of dust burden. and vice versa. the heaviest erosion occurs in the region where the blades and center plates are joined and in advanced stages. it can cause serious structural damage. They are typically replaced when they have worn halfway down. Induced-draft fans are typically located downstream of any particulate removal system and consequently operate in a much cleaner environment than gas-recirculation fans. Those with integral hubs are preferable and straight or modified radials or forward-curved and backwardly inclined centrifugal wheels meet those needs the best.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material more profound effect of erosion on the mating surfaces and can lead to catastrophic failure. the ID fans are frequently ahead of the removal systems and have high ash loading. the airfoil-bladed centrifugal or variable pitch axial fans can be implemented. In older plants that have been retrofitted with particulate removal systems. The rate of erosion experienced by fans used in harsh applications is often controlled by the use of repairable liners. This will enable superior static efficiencies. This limits the passage of abrasive particulate matter. carryover can cause erosion and buildup. In the case of centrifugal fans. This creates an environment for slight erosion to occur without affecting the fan unit. backward-inclined design can be used. Through the examination of all types of fan blades it was observed that the greater the static efficiency the lower the tolerance to an erosive environment. because high tolerance to the erosive environment is not a concern. It is less serious because the blade root stress is actually reduced as the blade erodes. the fan blade arrangement is dependent upon the particulate environment within the fan unit. Additionally. Therefore. Air handled by the cold primary-air fans can decrease the size requirements of the FD fans. straight radial or modified radial fans are recommended. Airfoil bladed (extending in the radial direction from the rotor) centrifugal or variable pitch axial fans are typically used for FD service in boiler units. replaceable liners. It also limits the passage of large matter that might cause structural damage upon contact. They are generally the most efficient and quietest of all fans in the power plant. which creates a less erosive environment. erosion can result due to limestone buildup and the solutions previously mentioned can be employed.

intergranular corrosion. The most common associated with fans units are intergranular corrosion. the problem has been brought to the utility industry. and general (wastage) corrosion will be given for explanation of the types of corrosion damage that exists in boiler fan units. This environment is more susceptible to erosion and its wall thinning effect becomes more profound due to the vulnerable corrosive fan surface. The following list is the most common types of corrosion problems found in boiler power plants. where entering flue gas has properly been dehumidified and heated at least 30°F above the adiabatic saturation temperature (approx. Corrosion Chemical corrosion was limited to chemical process plants in the past. but can exist outside of this range. 130°F) from experience have shown excellent corrosion resistance. • Fluid film flow rate • Temperature. general corrosion (wastage). Consequently. However. The parameters below are influencing factors for erosion corrosion. which are exposed to the fan surface. and erosion corrosion. • Erosion corrosion • Crevice corrosion • Galvanic corrosion • Pitting • General corrosion (wastage) • Differential Oxygenation • Biological corrosion • Intergranular corrosion A brief introduction to erosion corrosion. The corrosion buildup is then swept away though the boiler route by the impact of incoming gases with the corroded fan surfaces. typically between 250°F and 500°F. • pH of the solution – corrosion is more active at low pH values 2-3 . Fans made of standard carbon-steel or low-alloy-steel. erosion problems are still significant and account for a larger portion of fan repair in fossil power plants. Corrosion is the loss of material through the reaction of various chemicals in the flue gas. Erosion removes the oxide film on the surface and exposes the base metal to higher levels of corrosion. there is a need for systematic inspection and improved repair guidelines to address the fan erosion problems. but with the introduction of FGD (flue gas desulfurization) systems. High alloy steels have also proven an expensive alternative to flue gas drying and re-heating.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material and selecting a fan blade type that is more resistant to erosion will slow down the abrasive wall thinning experienced by fan unit surfaces. Erosion corrosion is an accelerated form of corrosion that results from the flow of fluid through a component.

Coal-ash corrosion starts with the deposition of fly ash on surfaces around 1000-1300°F. This reaction releases volatile alkali compounds and sulfur oxides (predominately SO2 with small amounts of SO3). surface condensation is unavoidable. and is primarily a problem in austenitic steels. Several efforts have been made to reduce the effect of corrosion caused by wet scrubbers. The high temperature combustion of coal involves the decomposition of such compounds as aluminum. General corrosion (wastage) is a mechanism that affects the entire metal surface resulting from exposure to an aggressive fluid. These droplets are usually acidic and contain high concentrations of dissolved sulfides. 2-4 . The process of re-heating the flue gas has been accomplished using the following systems. Intergranular corrosion damage can result from a slow cooling rate experienced during the heat treating process as well as when the steel is heated by welding to a temperature between 900°F and 1500°F. The strongly bonded matrix of the metal grains is destroyed due to the attack of grain boundaries in the corrosive environment. iron. sodium and sulfur. Since water vapor exists in the flue gas. The two approaches that have been used to minimize these effects are flue gas re-heat techniques and flue/stack lining. however knowledge of it is important to help clarify the different types of corrosion. the volatile alkali sulfates and sulfur compounds condense on the fly-ash deposits to form complex alkali sulfates. The remaining minerals form glassy particles known as fly ash. Over time. The fans that are primarily affected by corrosion are those located downstream of wet scrubbers. This corrosion process doesn’t really affect fans.0) that forms on the surface of the fan leads to rapid and severe corrosion. The potential for severe corrosion arises from a combination of several factors. The flue gas re-heat technique involves re-heating the flue gas that leaves the scrubber to reduce the moisture content and the associated condensation that forms on the surface of the fan. which promote a chemical reaction between the metal surface and the alkali sulfates. The acidic condensation (pH less than 1. The material properties can be drastically reduced without any apparent surface damage. Rust is an example of general corrosion. potassium.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Steel composition – chromium. especially when the wet scrubbers are used to reduce the sulfur dioxide content of the flue gas for environmental purposes and ID fans operating below the dew point temperature. One of the primary factors is slurry droplet carryover from the saturated flue gas. This electrochemical process may result in the complete dissolution of the metallic part unless an oxide or paint protective layer is implemented. which is caused by steels being contained in a moist environment. molybdenum and copper reduce the corrosion rate (2% Cr is enough to suppress it) Intergranular corrosion is the corrosion that occurs at the grain boundaries of the material. This chemical reaction corrodes the metal surface and causes thinning and material degradations at the location of the fly-ash deposit. It occurs as a result of chromium carbides precipitating out at the grain boundaries leaving the boundaries depleted of chrome and therefore making them susceptible to corrosion.

Attack angles less than the maximum values relative to their corresponding air or gas velocities create a noisy and unstable fan unit. Another problem that results when the droplets are evaporated is that the corrosive constituents in the slurry become concentrated. a systematic inspection and improved repair guidelines are needed to address the fan corrosion problems. but it is no longer subjected to stalling. a stall occurs when the angle of attack exceeds a certain value relative to the air or gas velocity. Understanding the mechanism of vibration is very important and will be explained in a brief example. no clear solution effectively eliminates the corrosion problem that affects fans or other components that are downstream of a wet scrubber. which can create severe vibrations throughout the entire region of the fan. Possible reasons as to why vibration occurs in boiler fan units are listed below. The reheating method that uses bypass gas reduces the overall effectiveness of the FGD system. the fan can operate without separation of airflow over the blades and the stall limit has been attained. The result is a very unstable oscillatory pressure force on the blade. Vibration Excessive vibration is a common damage mechanism associated with fan unit failures. the convex side of the blade experiences airflow separation. Consequently. Therefore. Operation in either of these limits should be avoided so that substantial reduction in fatigue life is not obtained. When an axial fan operates near the peak of the pressure-curve at a particular blade angle corresponding to the minimum flow rate.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Steam coil heaters • Mixing with hot flue gas that is bypassed around the scrubber • Mixing with hot air • Mixing with hot gases generated by the combustion of clean fuels • Regenerative heater exchanger which transfers heat from the hot flue gas inlet to the cooler flue gas outlet Each of these methods has been used with a limited degree of success. When this angle of attack is exceeded. Consequently. Air trapped in the separated portion is directed in the radial direction to the outer tip of the blade via centrifugal force. utilities are forced to manage the corrosion problem and implement effective repair strategies. There is also a reduction in head capability and fan flow during this operating mode. When a centrifugal fan operates near the peak of the pressure-curve corresponding to the minimum flow rate at which the fan can operate without instability the surge limit has been attained. • Improper balancing 2-5 . One problem that occurs with systems using heat exchangers is corrosion development upon itself. which creates the need for corrosion resistant flue liners and stacks lined with acid resistive bricks. Pressure then builds up until it is relieved through the blade tip clearance. Through the examination of an axial fan.

damaged rings or rolling elements.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • • • • • • • • • • • Loose components Worn/damaged parts Improper Lubrication Improper clearance of moving parts. high/low cycle fatigue effects Misalignment or bent shaft Flow induced vibrations from rotating stall or secondary vortex generation Cracking of fan components Improperly designed or deteriorated foundations Build-up of material on the rotor Vibrations occur in several parts of the fan unit. rotor unbalance/bent rotor. The resonant frequency of the members should not be excited during operation. When there is uneven mass distribution the unbalanced rotation (vibration) is produced. ice buildup on the rotor. If it does a possible cause of the vibration is that the blades fill with dust particles. If any parts are loose the fan unit will have a lot of flexibility and therefore can exhibit a wobbling motion during operation. loose thrust collars. the solution should be to examine methods for installing more stiffness. erosion. 2-6 . Dampers should not prematurely close or fail partially open. which includes no excessive clearance. and lubrication contamination. coupling unbalance. loose hub-to-shaft fits. The foundation should be crack-free with no loose bolts. and centerplates also produces uneven mass distributions. running off magnetic center. worn or damaged couplings. This creates high level vibration that can cause catastrophic failure of the fan unit. It is also important that the fan is properly balanced. Careful consideration must be paid to cracked shafts. and motor internals should be working properly. The shaft/hub is another area that should be investigated to avoid vibration in fan units. sideplates. The structure of the fan unit is also an important area to examine for vibration damage. or shaft misalignments. Blade/rotor deposits on the fan surface. and weld cracking on blades. If the problem does occur. Bearings should be damage free. and all components are rigid to produce proper wheel rotation. and bent or distorted shafts during high-temperature shutdown. which affects the mass distribution. If hollow airfoil blades are not implemented the fan unit has several areas that need to be investigated to find out if the fan is properly balanced. it is important to note if the fan has hollow airfoil fan blades. there is sufficient wheel clearance. Excitation of a resonant frequency Corrosion. missing balance weights. All of these cases can cause a vibration damage mechanism associated with fan wheels in fan units. Through examination of the fan blades. The oil temperature should also be in the proper operating range. loose fasteners in housing. which can affect its total performance. Inspection of the bearing pedestal for cracked welds should also be implemented. There should be no dry gear couplings. There should be no coupling misalignments. ingested foreign object debris. misalignment.

axial fatigue. For example. Therefore. This occurs early in the material’s fatigue life. The filler material must not only be compatible with the blade material. If the material surpasses the yield point. Low / High Cycle Fatigue Cyclic fatigue is another common damage mechanism associated with boiler fan units. The last grinding procedure produces the exact shape as the other fan blades in the unit. and bending fatigue. or torque. Ideally. which include torsional fatigue. but as the crack opens. These small stress fractures begin to propagate eventually leading to material failure. and ground back down to exactly the same shape. Boiler fan cyclic fatigue is a consequence of residual tensile stresses left in the surface due to defects and other indications during cyclic operation. usually <5% of the number of cycles to failure.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Vibration problems arise during fan start up and during operation. eventually leading to plastic flow failure. Fatigue life can be described by a standard number of 10. these parallel slip bands are relieved and the result is usually limited to one single crack. Surface defects are usually located at the slip bands where cyclic plastic flow occurs due to a material extrusion or intrusion. with all material properties being compatible. the material is subjected to crack formation. Vibration is a very broad damage mechanism in fan units and consequently is the most challenging to prevent. Failure occurs due to local strains repeatedly exceeding the yield point of the material. It is the failure of a material under cyclic loading. These slip bands occur along the maximum principal shear stress planes although the opening is directed towards that of the maximum principal normal stress. There are generally three ways to classify the types of material fatigue. Axial 2-7 . Careful consideration must be taken during the repair of fan units. the air resistance and improper mass distribution can lead to the vibrational damage mechanism. repairing a crack on a fan blade ideally should be ground out.000 cycles with “high-cycle fatigue” above this quantity and “low-cycle fatigue” below it. Once the crack initiates it will continue to propagate under cyclic loading eventually leading to material failure. Then during the weld repair careful consideration must be taken as to what filler material to use. Slip bands originate parallel to the crack propagating motion. weld repaired. the material becomes strain hardened due to local distortions in the lattice structure. but if the yield point is repeatedly exceeded small cracks appear due to the largely distorted lattice. The first grinding procedure is used to remove the crack entirely. guidelines for the repair of fan units must be developed to assist repair specialists with adequate solutions and procedures to prevent and control vibrational damage mechanisms. one would like to have the material in compression because that is where a material has the most strength. This can not be physically achieved so therefore careful attention must be paid to accomplishing a reasonable equivalent. If not. Torsional fatigue is a direct consequence due to the fluctuating or alternating twisting moment. but due to the residual tensile stresses. it must also be approximately the same density so that the mass distribution from the center of rotation remains even.

• Longitudinal Grooves • Manufacturing Defects • Wear (Abrasion/Adhesion) • Corrosion • Fretting The repair of fatigue cracking in fan units usually involves metal removal. weld repair. therefore creating a stronger resistance to crack formation. Any of the following may be the root cause of fatigue cracking. guidelines for the repair of boiler fan units must be established for damage mechanisms associated with high/low cycle fatigue.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material fatigue results from alternating tension and compression loading or fluctuating tension loading. which ultimately lead to cyclic torsional fatigue. it is just a mere example. and thus creating a more fatigue resistant material. Shot peening can be utilized as a preventative technique to help reduce the vulnerability of materials to fatigue failure. thus producing repeated increases and decreases in torque. The majority of cracking and failures are from the manufacturing defects in the fabricated structure of the rotor. Therefore. The reason for this is that the shot peening technique induces compressive forces upon the material. and keyways. Other typical areas of interest include the vanes. reducing the residual tension stresses. This alone is not the only cyclic fatigue problem associated with boiler fan units. Fan units experience high/low cycle fatigue problems at the shaft due to the torsional effect. hub portions of the impeller. Bending fatigue can be subcategorized into two types of bending loads which include unidirectional (one-way). Compressive residual stresses hold a material’s lattice structure together with more strength. reversed loading (two-way) and rotating. and a final metal removal. The load produced by the fan motor can be variable. 2-8 .

all other components are well maintained (Section 4). 3-1 . Other components are of similar importance for proper fan operation. and repair techniques. but their discussion will be limited to the maintenance techniques. which both contribute to better operational success. In addition. forced draft. Fan units consist of many components however only six were chosen to establish the foundation for this guideline. The repair guideline is targeted towards establishing the background necessary for the development of a proper fan repair schedule that should be utilized by power plant operations. • • • • • • • Welding Procedures and Guidelines Blade Repair Centerplate / Sideplate Repair Hub Repair Shaft Repair Casing Repair Bearing Repair Section 3. collections of utility procedures are located in the appendix of this report so that established proper guidance is readily available. It should be characterized as a supplement to OEM recommendations and procedures. which are discussed in Section 4. common damage mechanisms. The results are well intended if the six major components are properly repaired (Section 3). gas-recirculation. Repair techniques will provide cost savings as well as prevent catastrophic failure mechanisms. materials. The results include increased savings due to a decrease in downtime and increased electrical energy production. and primary-air fans are a few of the most important and largest energy consuming components in power plant operations. and there is sufficient knowledge for the maintenance technician to replace smaller damaged components (Sections 1 & 2). A reliable repair guideline is helpful to ensure component availability and adequate power plant efficiency.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 3 INTRODUCTION TO FAN REPAIR Fans units such as induced draft. A repair decision matrix (Table 3-1) and a weld repair schedule (Table 3-2) were created to assist maintenance technicians in obtaining and utilizing the proper welding repair schedule for a given application.1 differs from the others in that it incorporates the field welding procedures and guidelines for each of the six major components. The six components that will be thoroughly examined are listed below with each section concentrating on general types.

The fan wheel should be “chained out” so unexpected drafts do not cause “windmilling.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Field Welding Procedures and Guidelines Weld repair demands attention to detail. the WFMT method shall be used. and radiographic methods of inspection. scaffolding and walk boards to eliminate potential accidents. it is 3-2 . access by scaffolding and/or ladders will be required as well as adequate lighting. It is important to properly secure all ladders. Since linear discontinuities are those which may grow into cracks during service.” Welding personal should also be sure that the welding machine is properly grounded prior to performing the repair. magnetic particle. Tarps or welding screens can be used to prevent drafts. Before beginning a repair. and postweld heat treat) Safety Precautions In order to perform the required repairs and inspections on fans. Examining non-magnetic materials such as austenitic stainless steels is accomplished by using the WFPT method.6. This is especially true for high strength steels subject to fatigue stresses. interpass temperature.6 allows the usage of the liquid penetrant. AWS D14. which have been taken off-line. which will influence the success of the repair: • Shaft requirements • Code related requirements • Repair options • Surface preparation • Welding qualifications • Essential welding variables -Type and grade of material -Type of filler material -Welding Technique -Proper welding procedures (preheat. Upstream dampers should be closed to reduce airflow to a minimum. Annex C of AWS D14. Code Required Inspections FD and ID fans are generally fabricated according to the American Welding Society – Specification for Welding of Rotating Elements of Equipment. maintenance personal should be aware of the following factors. The time of examination is contained in the “Weld Schedule” of Table 32. All welding personal should wear safety harnesses when working at heights greater than six feet. For ferromagnetic materials. It is strongly recommended that the fluorescent examination methods be used for both liquid penetrant (WFPT) and/or magnetic particle inspections (WFMT). especially when preheating or postweld bakeout is being performed. Fans are to be disengaged from the drive systems and air quality checked prior to entrance (follow plant procedures).

burring. Damage Analysis and Repair Option Evaluation The repair plan should include a figure locating the damage relative to the other fan components.1. 3-3 . Generally. Welding Qualifications Most FD/ID fans were designed and fabricated according to the AWS D14. Preparation of areas to be weld repaired is performed using conventional grinding. especially in the corners. Regardless of the type of damage the reader of the document will have to determine whether “repair or replacement” is necessary. Past equipment history files can prove to be a good source for evaluating damage based on previous inspections and repairs. Localized indications are most commonly found near blade tips. Damage analysis can be divided into the categories of erosion/corrosion. (1) inspection and material identification and (2) excavation and preparation for welding. Minimum preheat temperatures can be found in Table 32 and is required to minimize distortion and reduce restraint stresses. including the weld metal. Structural Welding Code and ASME Section IX Welding Procedure and Performance Qualifications for alternate qualification of the procedures and welder. when preparing weld repair areas on high strength-low alloy (HSLA) or quenched and tempered (Q&T) base metals. erosion shields. Other codes that deal with repairs are AWS D1. heat affected zone (HAZ). or fatigue.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material recommended that NO linear indications be considered acceptable in the weld repair area. localized wear. A WFMT or WFPT examination will be required on the final excavation to assure that all discontinuities have been removed.6 Specification for Welding of Rotating Elements of Equipment. The excavated areas should be mapped out and included in the equipment history file. Regardless of the code chosen for repair. thus degrading the base material properties. Surface and Weld Preparation Issues Surface preparation is divided into two categories. Contacting the insurance carrier for concurrence is also advised. the variables and techniques discussed in the following section. the oxyacetylene gouging method must be avoided. foreign object damage. The high heat input required to remove material may exceed the final tempering temperature. However. and air-arc gouging. and the adjacent base material. Surfaces that have been prepared by thermal gouging must be ground to a bright metal to remove any carbon deposits or scale. This is the most applicable code for conducting fan repairs in the guideline. service damage and/or localized unacceptable indications revealed by NDE can be weld-repaired in place. including toughness. in welds joining the blades to the centerplates or sideplates and blade to hub welds.

Chipped.” Weld filler metal control must be strictly adhered to.” Localized preheating may be used for small repair areas. Filler metals should be purchased to the H4R condition whenever possible and be maintained in heated ovens or portable rod warmers at 250 °F to 300 °F until utilized. The preheat and maximum interpass temperatures should be in accordance with Table 32. “Weld Schedules. However. However. the electrodes are only to be rebaked once per the manufacturer’s recommendation. NDE materials. This table refers the user to the proper welding procedure in Table 3-2. dust. or solvents.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material including the welder’s knowledge and nature of the materials to be welded are of paramount importance for the completion of a successful repair. grinding. In this case. cleaners. the material should be found in Table 3-1. Selection of welding filler materials for the various alloys used in the fan fabrication should be in accordance with Table 3-2. “Weld Schedules”. “Weld Schedules”. Fabricated electrodes (EXXT-X) are to be kept in a container or packaged to prevent contamination until use and spools should be removed and stored likewise at the end of the work shift. and hub) be wrapped and preheated with electric resistive heaters. This is 3-4 . the user should utilize the filler metal types and grades recommended in Table 3-2. it is recommended that the blades and adjoining base material (centerplates. Exposure time should not exceed 4 hours and if rebaking is required. it shall be sufficiently wrapped or covered to prevent contamination from moisture. sideplates. contaminated. those types should govern the selection process unless the weld metal itself has failed. This approach may seem conservative but has proved to be successful in making quality repairs. if it was determined in the “material” sections of this document that other filler metals were utilized. or wet electrodes are to be discarded. because of the required hydrogen bakeout for HSLA or Q&T alloys. “Weld Schedules. If the spool is to remain at the work site. Essential Welding Variables The critical variables that must be addressed in any welding procedure specification are: Selection of electrodes (filler metals) Weld filler material control Preheat and interpass temperatures Welding heat input Welding technique Inspection Replacement of wear plates / liners To select the proper filler material for a repair.

Inspection shall be performed at the following work points. Forced cooling is prohibited. Temperature monitoring can be achieved by utilizing contact pyrometers or crayons indicating temperatures in the repair areas. Delayed examination on weld surfaces after bakeout and 48 hour dwell period for HSLA and Q&T alloys. Examination at 1/3 and 2/3 weldout for a section of thickness or cavities exceeding 3/8” in depth. where the outer layer is intended to control and prevent some of the erosive effects and be easily weld repaired in the field. Welding heat input is calculated as volts X amps X 60 divided by travel speed and expressed in units of kilo-joules per inch. Initial inspection of previous weld repairs by the WFPT or WFMT examination. Large weld cavities shall be “buttered” and receive a WFMT or WFPT examination on HSLA or Q&T alloys before depositing additional filler metal. subsequent weld beads should not be deposited until the base material has cooled to a temperature between the preheat and the maximum interpass temperature. All wear plates or liners must be accounted for in the fan blade design. Surface examination of final weld layer after weldout and after grinding off the temperbead layer. Automatic temperature controlling devices can also be used. For HSLA or Q&T alloys. Blade liners also protect the blade from erosive particles.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material particularly true in cold or inclement weather when air drafts are difficult to prevent. i. The wear plates and/or liners are generally made of air-hardened low alloy steels such as ASTM AR360 and ASTM AR400. such as tungsten carbide coatings or more methods of 3-5 . Examination of excavated cavities in preparation for weldout. Wear plates and/or liners are typically applied to fan blades in order to reduce the effect of an erosive or corrosive environment.e. Wear plates are typically attached to centrifugal fan blades through bolts or welding techniques. but must be disconnected and reconnected if the fan requires rotation during the repair process. these maximums shall not be exceeded. the maximum weave shall be two times the electrode diameter for the SMAW process and ¼ inch for the GMAW process. When the plates become worn down to about ½ the original thickness. Welding techniques shall incorporate the stringer bead method. This may be too time consuming to be cost effective and meet schedule requirements. as applicable. For vertical welding. The final weld layer or cover pass shall receive a tempering layer of weld metal. A lined blade is designed with two material layers. The final temperbead deposit shall not touch the parent metal. This also applies to reinforcing fillet welds. Airfoil blades typically are lined with hard erosion resistant materials. Table 3-2 gives the heat-input requirements based on the alloy type. they should then be replaced.

3-6 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material commonly quenched and tempered steel plate. Axial fan blades also use renewable coatings on the blade leading edge and surface.

C.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 3-1: FAN REPAIR DECISION MATRIX GRADE ALLOY CLASS APPLICA -TION P No.33 .33 . (11) 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 5 2 8 3 A 2 8 3 B 2 8 3 C 2 8 3 D 3 0 2 A 3 0 2 B 3 0 2 C 3 0 2 D 3 8 7 11 5 8 8 65 5 8 8 A 5 8 8 B 5 8 8 C 5 8 8 D 5 8 8 K ALLOY GRD.40 . M No.33 .33 .37 .47 .33 .E .50 A A A A A A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A A A A A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A A A A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A A A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A A B B C C C C B B B B B B B A B B C C C C B B B B B B B B B C C C C B B B B B B B B C C C C B B B B B B B C C C C C B B B B B B C C C C B B B B B B C C C B B B B B B 10 C C B B B B B B 10 C B B B B B B 6 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Application Key: (a) Center plates (b) Side Plates (c) Blades (d) Wear Plates (10) See note 10 on weld schedule C (6) See note 6 on weld schedule C 3-7 . WELDING SCHEDULE (refer to diagonal letters below) A242 A242 A242 A242 A242 A283 A283 A283 A283 A302 A302 A302 A302 A387 A588 A588 A588 A588 A588 A588 1 2 3 4 5 A B C D A B C D 11 65 A B C D K (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

A GRADE WELDING SCHEDULE (refer to diagonal letters below) A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A514 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A517 A B C F H J K M R S T A B C TRADE NAME A B C F NAXTRA100 (1297) T-1 type A Jalloy100* T-1(1204) T-1 type B RQ100A Algoma (CHT) RQ100B ______ - (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) (a)(b)(c) 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B 11B D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Application Key: (a) Center plates (b) Side Plates (c) Blades (d) Wear Plates H J K D D D D D D M ______ RQ 100b NAXTRA100 (1297) T-1 type A D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Jalloy100* T-1(1204) T-1 type B RQ100A Algoma (CHT) RQ100B ______ RQ 100b F H J K M S T 3-8 . M No.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material A 5 1 4 A 5 1 4 B A 5 1 4 C A 5 1 4 F A 5 1 4 H A 5 1 4 J A 5 1 4 K A 5 1 4 M A 5 1 4 R A 5 1 4 S A 5 1 4 T A 5 1 7 A A 5 1 7 B A 5 1 7 C A 5 1 7 F A 5 1 7 H A 5 1 7 J A 5 1 7 K A 5 1 7 M A 5 1 7 S A 5 1 7 T ALLOY GRADE ALLOY CLASS APPLICA -TION P No.

heat input for T1A and T1B 10. Range Prep. Post Weld Bake NDE MT 48 hr. ER80SD2 E11018M (H4R) E110T5-K3 ER100S-1 String or Weave N/R Visual +Mt Dry N/R (1) (11) Visual + Mt Dry or WFMT 150F 600F No Max String or Weave N/R Visual + Mt Dry or WFMT N/R (1) (2) (11) (1) (3) (4) (6) (11) (1) (7) (8) (9) (11) C Over 0. NDE Prep. IPT Max.41 to 0. 7. = C+ (Mn+Si)/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15 3-9 . 6. side pl and ½” for blades Increase preheat to 200F for over 1” Oxy-Acetylene gouging not recommended Preheat may be reduced to 150F for greater than or equal to ½” thickness 48 hr WFMT required if postweld bake not performed Fro A387 Gr11 to itself. use E8018-B2 (H4R) or E81T1-B2 electrodes Oxy-Acetylene gouging not allowed for A514 or A517 materials 8. 3. 5. Notes A To 0. Preheat to 300F for A302 Grades C or D over 1 inch thick 11.6 Or ER70S-B2L E7018-B2L E71T-1.E.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 3-2 Weld Schedules WELD SCHEDULES Weld Sched.5.4 B 0.6 Or ER70S-B2L E9018-D1 (H4R) E91T1D1. Pl. Preheat Min. Use 40 Kj max.55 Grind or Air Arc or Oxy-Ace Gouge OK Grind or Air Arc Or Oxy-Ace Gouge OK Grind or Air Arc Visual + Mt Dry 50F 600F No Max E7018-B2L E71T-1. Pl. heat input for type T1 and T1c. Kj/in Electrode Tech. 2. The temperbead technique shall be utilized on ctr. use 26 Kj max. side pl and blade repairs 9. AR-400 Parameters based on 1” thickness for ctr.55 & HSLA Visual + WFMT 200F (10) 500F 45 String (5) Visual + WFMT (5) D A514 or A517 Grind or Air Arc Visual + WFMT 200F 400F 55 String Yes Visual + WFMT Yes E Notes: 1.5. C. 4.E. Carbon Equivalent determined by AWS method C.

and required output efficiencies. Fig. allowable noise conditions. straight or modified radials. or backwardly 3-10 . The following figures depict the cross-section of common fan blades. environmental conditions. Centrifugal ID fans operating under “clean” conditions tend to use airfoil blades and axial ID fans will use variablepitch airfoil blading. Depending upon the required duty cycle. such as the primary-air and gas-recirculation fans. Fans under heavy loading or harsh environmental conditions (higher pressures. 3-1: Typical blade types for heavy-duty fan operation [11] Centrifugal FD fans will typically operate with airfoil impellers. certain blade types are more appropriate for use than others.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fan Blade Repair Types of Blading There are several variations of fan blades that typically are used for fan operation in coalfired power plants. and/or erosive environments). Straight or modified radials are common for PA fans and radial tip. will tend to use the more hardy radial blades. higher temperatures. while an axial FD fan will commonly utilize variable-pitch full airfoil impellers. required output speed. loading capacity.

Fig. Scrubber exhaust fans tend to utilize radial-tip blading. The following figure relates the efficiency of the fan as a function of specific fan speed. 3-2: Specific diameter and efficiency versus specific speed for single-inlet fan types [1] 3-11 . specific fan diameter.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material inclined centrifugal wheels work well for gas-recirculation fans. the lower the blade efficiency. Table 3-2 denotes the limiting environmental and operating conditions associated with the use of certain blade types. The more abrasion resistant the blade. and blade type.

ID after baghouse process blowers. flat spots. ID process combustion. Centrifugal fans tend to see erosion problems at the leading edge of the blade or just between the blade and the sideplate. the severest erosion occurs on the front outer tip of the blade. Increasing the efficiency of centrifugal fan blading decreases the blade’s resistance to erosion. 450. 120. and blade thinning. combustion air. Medium efficiency. FD on fluid bed boilers. If the particles are moving relatively fast there is an increase in the probability of particle impact on the component.000 Clean to slightly dirty gas.100" 800 Forward Curve 8" 1500 Backward Incline 30" 800 300. The less efficient radial blade promotes a more turbulent flow. Decreasing the speed of the fan can also help to minimize fly-ash erosion. 90.40" 8" .40" Radial Tip CFM Radial Blade Airfoil 20". However. process exhaust.000 High temperature applications with low operating speeds. The high flow velocities of fly-ash particles within the air or gas stream tend to promote abrasive wear of fan blades. Low efficiency. wear-resistant materials.000 Moderately dirty environment. which can scour ash-particles away from blade surfaces. Fly-ash erosion can be controlled by coatings or other hard. For axial fans. ID. High efficiency. ID on coal fired boilers. which increases the probability of particle impact on the blade.000 Relatively clean gas.000 Severe duty environment. (F) Max 800 Applications Range (WG) 10". Figure 3-3 reveals erosion damage to centrifugal fan blades. Erosion by fly-ash causes polishing. Blade Damage Erosion by solid particles is a form of abrasive wear. Medium efficiency. Medium efficiency. pitting.000 Clean gas.35" 1250 800 Backward Curve 20" . Airfoil blades are very streamlined and promote higher gas stream velocities and more attached flow. High efficiency. 60. ID on boilers. Erosion is a common threat to fan blades and sideplates.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 3-3: Typical Industrial Applications for Heavy-Duty Fan Blades Blade Type Pressure Max Temp. 3-12 . FD. 120. it is dangerous to describe wear patterns in a general way because of their complex nature and the number of variables that drive them. FD on boilers. baghouses.

especially at the outer edge of the blade. Any pitting in blades will allow for the buildup of fly ash or moisture within the crevice and alter the center of balance. When the plates become worn down to about ½ the original thickness. 3-3: Fan rotor blades with heavy erosion [3] Erosion of fan blades poses a serious threat to the stability of the fan. Blade liners also protect the blade from erosive particles. Particulate removal systems upstream from the fan are very helpful in eliminating blade abrasion as well. Airfoil blades typically are lined with hard 3-13 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. Typically. they should then be replaced. will tend to skew the rotor mass distribution and can cause the system to become unbalanced and subject to high vibrations. Wear plates can either be bolted or welded to centrifugal fan blades. blades are fitted with wear pads or repairable liners to combat the effects of abrasive particles in the air stream. where the outer layer is intended to control and prevent some of the erosive effects and be easily weld repaired in the field. Any type of wear plates or liners must be accounted for in the fan blade design. The material loss associated with blade erosion. A lined blade is designed with two material layers.

Another. The fan operating conditions will determine which blade material is most appropriate for use. such as quenched and tempered steel plate. Typically ID fans will see some corrosive effects from flue-gas contact if the gas has not been properly dehumidified. high temperature or pressure conditions. but fan manufacturers do not always use matching strength filler metals in every situation. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) could occur in scrubber exhaust fans as well. High alloy steels often proves to be very expensive alternatives for corrosion resistant blading and are not commonly used. Because fan blading can be highly stressed either due to rotational or thermal stresses or both. high temperature or ambient environmental conditions. somewhat less common type of blade damage. gas-recirculation fans use high strength-low alloy blading because of the excellent high temperature impact strength and corrosion resistance properties of the material. abrasive. Furthermore.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material erosion resistant materials. is corrosion. Highstrength-low alloy steels are more commonly used for blading used under heavy-duty. the original blade material. and the propensity for abrasive or corrosive wear. and the current condition of the blade to be repaired. Axial fan blades also use renewable coatings on the blade leading edge and surface. in applications that handle relatively clean air. Construction of fan blades tends to vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Fans placed downstream from wet scrubbers or flue-gas desulferization systems will also encounter severe corrosion if the entering gas is not re-heated above saturation temperature. like FD fans. loading. 3-14 . The weld metal utilized in blade repair should ideally match the tensile strength properties of the original blade material. the blade material must be carefully chosen based on environmental conditions including temperature. All weld-repaired blades should conform approximately to the original blade material property and design requirements. The wheel material must have sufficient strength to withstand rotational stresses. the manufactured characteristics or properties of the original blade material. Low alloy steels are used in blading for their excellent resistance to wear and material degradation. Typically. Any material handling fans would benefit from the use of low alloy steels. when a blade weld repair is necessary. Carbon steels can be used for blading. The following table lists typical alloys used for blade construction. and it must be suitable for operation in either corrosive. environmental conditions must be considered. Blade Materials There is a variety of materials used for heavy-duty industrial fan blading.

3-15 . and forgings Nickel-chromium alloy sheet. and plate Blades * Similar to A514 but with specified impact testing Note: A588 & A242 are essentially the same steel. and 316L Alloy 625 Blades Chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel plate. 316. bar. bar. sheet.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 3-3: Typical Blade Materials [6] Alloy Type Typical Usage Alloy Description Wrought Steels (Structural Quality) ASTM A283 ASTM A514 ASTM A242 ASTM AR360 ASTM AR400 ASTM A588 grade A ASTM A441 Blades Blades Blades Wear Plates Wear Plates Blades Blades Low or intermediate-strength carbon steel plates Quenched and tempered alloy steel plates with higher yield strengths High strength-low alloy structural steel Air-hardened low alloy steel Air-hardened low alloy steel High Strength .Low alloy structural steel Wrought Steels (Pressure Vessel Quality) ASTM A517 ASTM A302 ASTM A387 Blades Blades Blades Quenched and tempered high strength alloy steel plates* Manganese-molybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel plates for elevated temperature service Wrought Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Types 304. 304L.

Fig.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material The following pages contain the ASTM required alloying contents (by heat analysis) of the specified blade material. 3-4: Blade Alloys 3-16 . ASTM A514 and ASTM A517 are very similar to one another except that ASTM A517 is of pressure vessel quality with specified impact testing.

Fan blades damaged by erosion or corrosion usually require that the damaged surface be restored to its original thickness through welding and subsequent grinding. A definitive repair plan should be available and easily implemented in the field describing the repair need. Due to fan balance. Follow the prescribed weld procedure for the job at hand. which promotes good welding practice. Know the handling procedures of the electrodes specified for the job. interim and post repair inspection criteria. 3-17 . All applicable code requirements. blade weld repair procedures will require the following steps: 1) Inspect the blade with the appropriate flaw detection method to determine location and amount of blade damage. Blade Repair Process The following list describes a general weld procedure. it is important that the repair return the blade to its original configuration.1 should be used to perform repairs. The guidelines provided below and the information in Section 3. inspection criteria. Know the material type and grade of the parent metal. Typically. although in some cases this is not done. Follow all instructions concerning preheat. Typically.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Blade Repair Once blade damage is detected either visually or through NDE techniques. Proper welding procedures can be selected using the decision matrix and weld schedule provided in Tables 3-1 and 3-2. actual repair process. and post repair clean-up and testing should be determined and codified before any actual repair is conducted. for any weld repair: Make sure weld matches the strength of the parent metal. interpass temperatures. pre-repair process. there are certain steps and preliminary measures the engineer and welder should take prior to the actual repair work. Use the specified electrodes. Make sure the weld is not a source of any undue hardening or softening of the parent metal. Care must also be exercised in selecting the proper filler material. they will have to be ground out and verified prior to weld repair. respectively. and postheat. If cracks are discovered. Since fan blades can be fabricated from a variety of materials is important to determine the material type prior to performing the repair. These repair guidelines are meant to outline general welding requirements and best practices for blade damage repair. each utility should generate specific in-house welding procedures within their specified jurisdiction.

perform final machining to contour blade to original manufactured dimension. perform PWHT. The following figure is a flow chart that depicts the general repair sequence recommended for the repair of damaged fan blades. 4) If necessary weld repair cavity or overlay blade using the appropriate welding process. 7) Balance re-assembled fan to ensure proper operation. 8) Utilize damage prevention techniques such as protective coatings and wear plates. 5) If necessary.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 2) Remove blade damage or defect using appropriate flaw removal techniques such as grinding or gouging 3) Surface grind and verify defect removal by NDE techniques. 3-18 . 6) If necessary.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. 3-5: Blade Repair Flow Chart 3-19 .

3-6: Centerplate / Sideplate Locations [10] Centerplate / Sideplate Damage Typical damage mechanisms are listed below: • Erosion • Weld cracks and flaws • Insufficient weld penetration • Loose rivets / bolts caused by oversized holes (commonly found on older fans) • Foreign object debris and deposit buildup on the rotor surface • Rubbing contact with inlet piece or housing • Ice buildup • Improper wheel rotation It is particularly important to ensure that the fan wheel is properly balanced before initial operation to expel the possibility of vibrational damage. This problem can be reduced by increasing the size of the fan and decreasing the speed. The factor that distinguishes the various types of centerplates or sideplates can only be identified by material composition. Any loose components. but older fans utilized bolt/rivet attachments. and unbalance of the fan wheel will instigate 3-20 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Centerplate / Sideplate Repair Types of Centerplates / Sideplates Centerplate and sideplate materials can be summarized as structural and pressure vessel quality wrought steels or wrought corrosion and heat resistant alloys. Erosion problems of fan units occur heaviest where the blades and centerplates are joined via welding applications. excessive contact between two components. Fig. The blades are attached to the plates via a welding procedure. The centerplates and sideplates combine to create the structural support system for the centrifugal fan blades as shown in the photograph below.

If replacement wheels are being considered a high priority should be given towards developing acceptability standards for the welds. cracking. Centerplates & Sideplates Chromium-nickel austenitic 316. and forgings Alloy 625 Centerplates & Sideplates Nickel-chromium alloy sheet. Increasing the frequency of inspection is strongly recommended for fan units with cracking that continues to increase in severity. or costly structural damage. and plate 3-21 . 304L. Older fans should be inspected via ultrasonic testing where insufficient weld penetrations are suspected. Materials The first step in making a successful repair on sideplates / centerplates is to identify the type/grade of base materials to be repaired as well as the welding filler metal utilized in the OEM fabrication or in subsequent weld repairs. sheet. and 316L stainless steel plate. bar. a list of materials for centerplates and sideplates is given with their corresponding alloy descriptions and types. Table 3-4: Centerplate and Sideplate Materials [6] Alloy Type ASTM A283 ASTM A514 Typical Usage Alloy Description Wrought Steels (Structural Quality) Centerplates & Sideplates Low or intermediate-strength carbon steel plates Centerplates & Sideplates Quenched and tempered alloy steel plates with higher yield strengths ASTM A242 Centerplates & Sideplates High strength-low alloy structural steel Wrought Steels (Pressure Vessel Quality) ASTM A517 Centerplates & Sideplates Quenched and tempered high strength alloy steel plates ASTM A302 Centerplates & Sideplates Manganese-molybdenumnickel alloy steel plates ASTM A387 Centerplates & Sideplates Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel plates for elevated temperature service Wrought Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Types 304. In Table 3-4. An inspection routine encompassing both VT and NDE techniques will significantly assist maintenance personnel in detecting the problems prior to destructive damage. bar.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material warping.

• After the base material has been restored to its original dimension. • Utilizing Table 3-1 (Fan Weld Repair Selection Matrix) for the base material and Table 3-2 (Weld Schedule groups).EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Centerplate / Sideplate Repairs The following guidelines provided below and the information found in Section 3. perform a final visual and WFMT examination on the weld repair area.e. weld schedule D should be used for performing the repair including a postweld bake and 48-hour delay WFMT examination. • After welding and removal of the additional temperbead layer. Preheat should be increased to 150-200 °F if the carbon steel base material exceeds 2 inches in thickness or if the carbon equivalent number exceeds 0.1 should be used to perform repairs. respectively. This is performed so that corrosion on the centerplate / sideplate surfaces are prevented. Note that if analysis determined that the rotor/impeller material is either A514 or A517. Stringer bead techniques are advisable and an additional weld layer above the “flush” layer should be deposited and subsequently ground or machined off prior to performing NDE inspections. because of the high corrosion resistance of chromium. a final high chrome weld layer is to be deposited with a filler metal. • Perform a WFMT examination on the excavated area to be repaired to assure removal of all discontinuities or damaged areas. inherent casting anomalies may exist which should be disregarded as damaged areas. However. The 3-22 . Carbon Steel Sideplates and Centerplates • Excavate base material where cracks or other discontinuities exist until they have been visually removed. The ground off layer should be replaced by a final weld layer deposit of the high chrome overlay material. select the applicable weld schedule for performing the weld repair. • For repairs of cavities.50. i. increasing the preheat temperature should not be applied to quenched and tempered materials. Note that if it has been determined that the rotor/impeller was made from a casting alloy. a buttering layer of weld filler metal should be initially deposited. temperbead technique used to enhance the HAZ and base material properties and to avoid PWHT after welding. Proper welding procedures can be selected using the decision matrix and weld schedule provided in Tables 3-1 and 3-2.

Filler metals recommended are the ENiCrFe-X types. the same repair approach shall be followed as for the carbon steel plates with the exception of the additional high chrome overlay. wrap with insulating blankets. Postweld inspection shall be conducted by the fluorescent liquid penetrant method. rewelded and reinspected by utilizing conventional welding procedure specifications for 3xx base metals. or more commonly matching filler metals for stainless steels. 3-23 . When performing weld repairs on 4xx rotors or impellers it is recommended that a nickel based alloy weld filler metal is utilized. The preheat and interpass temperatures of 4xx base materials should be in the range of 300-400 °F. Weld sequencing and weld bead placement must be employed to reduce warpage and minimize distortion of the rotor/impeller.e. turn off heaters. Stainless Steel Sideplates and Centerplates For weld repair of stainless steel (3xx or 4xx) sideplates or centerplates. Slow cooling after completion of weld repairs is imperative. either the SMAW process or GMAW process (solid or tubular electrode) is recommended.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material welding procedure specification for either a 3xx or 4xx alloys is used depending on the original chrome content analysis and hardness. utilizing the SMAW process for large repairs and the GTAW process for smaller repairs. Filler metals should match the base materials. the preheat and interpass temperature must not exceed 400 °F to avoid underbead or reheat cracking of the substrate. and allow cooling to room temperature in still air. inspected. Existing welding procedure specifications can be used for these repairs. • Excavated cavities and the final weld surface are to be examined by the fluorescent liquid penetrant method. • If weld repair schedule D was used to restore the base material (A514 or A517). Maximum heat input values found in weld schedule D and stringer bead welding techniques shall also be utilized. i. The entire rotor/impeller should be wrapped with electric resistance heaters to maintain and control dimensional stability. • Depending on the size and extent of the repair. • Austenitic stainless steel base materials should be excavated.

which creates material loss. Propeller type fans incorporate very small hubs. 3-7: Hub location in a fan unit [10] Hub Damage The following is a list of common hub failures experienced in fan units. integrally made with centerplates/sideplates unit. abrasion rarely. In centrifugal fan configurations hubs are typically attached to the shaft via keyway locks. • • • • Failure of rivets / bolts that connect the hub to the centerplate Cracks / inclusions on faulty castings Erosion Loose hub-to-shaft fit (Abrasion damage amongst the two components. if 3-24 . Fig. the hub combines with other small fan components such as the bladeactuating levers and oil hydraulic pistons and cylinders to support the rotating blades. The following information will be separated into axial and centrifugal fan equipment in order to distinguish them for clarity. The connecting faces of any contacting components should be flush with one another so that abrasion does not occur due to any misalignment or rough surface texture. The photograph below shows the hub on a given centrifugal fan for better understanding of how the component is utilized in a fan unit. overheating. In axial fan configurations. and power loss).7 in hub-to-tip diameter ratios. This creates a friction barrier between these two rotating elements thus eliminating slippage and loss of fan power generated during operation. friction. These typically range from 0.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Hub Repair Types of Hubs The hub is the portion of the fan unit that connects the shaft to the rotor. In steel hubs.4 to 0. rivet / bolt connections. or shrink-fit methods. It is important to have an inner cylinder approximately the hub size located downstream of an impeller fan unit when larger hub sizes are implemented.

Loose fasteners connecting the hub and rotor A regular visual examination (VT) should be conducted in order to prevent these damage mechanisms from occurring. or SAW. Hub Repair The approach to performing weld repairs on hubs is the same as that for shafts except that welding is normally performed on the ID surfaces of the hub where damage has occurred due to corrosion. It can be programmed and setup to “skip” over keyways and may be setup to weld on tapered bores if necessary. filler metal. inclusions. Large bores can be successfully repaired using SMAW. Proper welding procedures can be selected using the decision matrix and weld schedule provided in Tables 3-1 and 3-2. fretting or corrosion. FCAW. cracks in hubs. depending on the extent and nature of the damage. For external repairs to hubs. and bore diameter. however the GTAW process can also be employed for these repairs. and inspections shall be the same as for shafts. 3-25 . Hub Materials Typical forced draft or induced draft fans implement a forged steel hub in boiler power plant operations. the SMAW or GMAW processes lend themselves well. separates hubs from shafts. a “bore welder” is ideal.e. cracked fasteners. respectively. For this type of repair. or erosive wear. For a situation where a hub has lost its shrink fit to the shaft. or bearing spin. i. analysis and/or calculations are required to design the weld joint to withstand operating stresses and conditions. fretting. location of repairs.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • ever. The SMAW process is NOT recommended for hub bore repairs because of limited access and the probability of slag entrapment or lack of fusion due to weld bead rollover. selection of welding process. a weld joint detail must be designed (usually a partial penetration groove weld with a fillet reinforcement). with the assumption of the two base materials being compatible. Centrifugal fan hubs are generally made of fabricated steel for larger fan units and cast steel for the smaller fan units. Axial fans commonly utilize cast aluminum material for the fan hub. A VT inspection in accordance with hubs could easily be incorporated in any fan maintenance routine without committing an excessive amount of time. The following guidelines that are provided below and in Section 3. The GMAW process is normally used for ID repairs. Weld surface preparation. Selection of welding process depends on extent of repairs. technique. In such cases.1 should be used to perform repairs. the hub may be rejoined by welding. For internal weld repair of the inside diameter. An ultrasonic examination (UT) can accompany any VT approach in order to check a hub for cracks.

NDE should be performed prior to and after heat treatment methods and following rough machining if it was necessary. Impellers are either mounted between bearings or overhung in the case of a single inlet fan. Interference fits are created by boring the hub several thousandths of an inch smaller than the shaft. and the parts are mated and allowed to return to room temperature. and the impeller weight by the application of the proper diameters.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Localized postweld heat treatment is strongly recommended if the hub/shaft were made from ferritic alloys. Less commonly. and a more reliable source would be to insert a key. Shafts are designed according to fan arrangement. Some single inlet fans may be centerhung as well. with proper prevention measures such as the aforementioned. The majority of the fan shafts are mounted by utilizing both interference fits and a key. the hub is heated or the shaft is cooled. The shaft connects the motor to the fan hub and along its length creates an axis of rotation for the rotor. Shafts are guided along journal bearings that contain Babbitt material for anti-frictional rotation. not touching the surface. The primary purpose is to prevent slippage between the shaft and hub bore. The heat from the flue gases is conducted from the shaft to the bearings and must be cooled in order to prevent overheating. they can be made of wrought corrosion and heat resistant alloys. 3-26 . but above this temperature. a key is also utilized. Interference fits are used to ensure that the impeller hub bore is centrally located on the shaft at all times. Shaft Repair Types of Shafts Shafts are the innermost driving components for any fan unit’s rotation and are usually made of plain carbon and low alloy steels. but dissipating heat from the shaft into the cooled water by convection. Interference fits are used in the mounting of shafts in operating environments of 200 °C. bearing centers. A typical shaft is shown in the following photograph to understand its importance in a fan unit. Therefore. Sleeve-ring oiled bearings are commonly used in fan units in order to penetrate cool water by the shaft surface. no movement between the shaft and impeller would transpire during operation.

material. and diameter selections. bearing application. and misalignment are common reasons as to why shaft damage occurs. Follow-up NDE inspections should be conducted to confirm and/or eliminate the possibility of cracking at the steps due to surface indications found during a visual examination or an increase in vibration levels. misalignment. 3-8: Shaft location in a fan unit [10] Shaft Damage Shaft damage typically is found to be experienced through operational modes and ranges from bowing to scored journal surfaces. but the maintenance action is hard to justify due to the small amount of reported incidents and the low-stress levels placed on the shaft. This is most common in gas-recirculation and ID fans with leaks around the shaft/housing seal. or looseness. A cracked shaft may develop due to vibration. Shaft Materials Table 3-5 contains typical materials for fan shafts with their corresponding alloy descriptions and types. improper lubrication and cooling of the fan shaft. Corrosion may develop in areas outside the gas stream. imbalance. Technology is available to determine the presence of cracks on a shaft. but may exist with shaft bowing. environment. The seal must be replaced and the corrosion removed in the case of steam leakage. In addition. Shaft seal rub. Shafts are subjected to torsion and bending stresses that can be minimized through the right support. cracking is commonly found at the step/change of section. Inspecting for cracks on a fan shaft is recommended in case of misalignment.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. or catastrophic wheel failure. operating load. 3-27 .

1 should be used to perform repairs. Shafts Chromium-nickel austenitic and 316L stainless steel plate. and plate Carbon Steels Shafts Carbon alloy sheet. bar. bar. This will also provide a fresh surface to perform the required weld buildup. and forgings Alloy 625 Shafts Nickel-chromium alloy sheet. The following guidelines provided below and information located in Section 3. Shafts are best restored by utilizing the GTAW or GMAW process with a continuous wire feed. Proper welding procedures can be selected using the decision matrix and weld schedule provided in Tables 3-1 and 3-2. and plate Low Alloy Steels Shafts Alloy sheet. 3-28 . Thermal methods of removal are not recommended. For such repairs on shafts. an acid etching reagent can be applied (such as Nital or Ammonium Persulfate). 316. or rubbing from seals or other internal components. the overlay must be removed prior to performing any weld repairs and then restored by overlay welding after the substrate repairs have been completed. bar. 304L.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Table 3-5: Shaft Materials [6] Alloy Type Typical Usage Alloy Description Wrought Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Types 304. respectively. although SAW works as well. fretting. Occasionally repairs to worn keyways are also required. Hardness measurements and determining the overlay chemistry shall be performed to assist in restoring the component to its original OEM design. or galled due to bearing spin. bar. The machined surface should receive a liquid penetrant examination after machining and prior to welding. sheet. Removal of high chromium overlays shall be achieved by grinding. and plate Shaft Repair Weld Repair of shafts is normally performed on areas that have been scored. worn. The shaft should be placed on rolls with the welding arc near or at the 12 o’clock position. For fan rotors. which have carbon steel shafts with a chromium rich overlay. To determine if all the high chromium overlay has been removed in the areas to be weld repaired. The result will reveal unstained areas where any of the high chromium overlay material may remain. it is suggested that the area of repair be turned down by machining to remove at least 1/8” of material away to obtain access to clean unaffected base metal.

” report TR-101698. “in house” welding procedure specifications can be employed to perform shaft repairs. Generally. Both the centrifugal and axial fan casings enclose the impeller system completely. Orbital welding may also be employed in the same manner as above. inlet vanes. Welding filler material should match the base material. Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2 depict the casing configuration for a typical centrifugal and axial fan. The casing should be securely attached to the fan’s foundation in order to ensure proper fan balance and stability. The report is extremely informative on maintenance of various fan parts. The lower heat input parameters on the procedure specification should be selected without weave or oscillation to control dimensional stability. the weld-repaired area shall receive a final examination by the liquid penetrant method. Access doors are installed on fan casings so that maintenance and inspection methods are easily implemented. After any localized small repairs are performed and final machining is complete. 3-29 . These components are usually separate and are directly secured to the fan foundation with the motor or driver enclosed in its own casing. Fan Casing Repair The information in the following sections entitled Types of Casings and Casing Damage were found in an EPRI document “Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Draft Fans. Types of Casings Centrifugal fans utilize radial flow which enters the fan casing parallel to the rotational axis and exits the fan casing perpendicular to the fan’s rotational axis. in combination with the impeller. and some of its information was used in this section to supplement the repair side. The centrifugal fan casing is of a compact volute or scroll type shape designed to accommodate the centrifugal or circular wheel and the 90o change in flow direction. The design of a fan casing should be such so that the static pressure is maximized and the loss within the fan is minimized. The weld repair should extend 3/32”-1/8” above the final machined surface. The only components not enclosed in the impeller casing include the shaft journal bearings and the driver system. Centrifugal casings are designed to promote the most efficient draft. The impeller casing usually has removable sections to allow for rotor access.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Weld deposits are to be made circumferentially starting at the inboard edge of the repair area and progressing towards the end of the shaft in a spiral or helical manner. An axial fan casing can redirect inlet flow axially along the rotor axis. including all blading. to direct the airflow from the tip of the blade to the housing scroll. The completed weld repair area is then to be rough machined to within 1/32”-1/16” of the final diameter and examined by the liquid penetrant method. or inlet dampers.

• • • • • • • • • • • Cracking and breaking caused by insufficient bracing/welding High vibrational bolt failures Erosion. but bolts are used to connect expansion joints and dampers. or breaking associated with inlet cones Improper clearance between housing and fan wheel Improper access doors/plates maintenance Foundation deterioration Improper fly ash/gas distribution to/from the fans Corrosion/leaking ductwork Ductwork misalignment Damaged lagging/insulation Damaged slide plates Cracking and breaking caused by insufficient bracing / welding The following four actions should be conducted to find the root cause of cracks experienced at welds or other areas: • • • • Check original weld quality through NDE inspection or visual examination Check the original weld procedure quality Inspect the bracing for damage Reevaluation of the bracing requirements for the duct / housing may be necessary High vibrational bolt failures The vibrational damage mechanism is a direct consequence of extreme vibration levels and can be prevented by restraining this range. corrosion and cracking of tack welds on bolts / nuts during regular inspection intervals in order to phase out this damage mechanism. 3-30 . The ultimate result of casing damage includes an increase in capital expenditure and a requirement for more labor so repairs can be made. The majority of the ductwork construction is welded. Fasteners must be checked for proper torque values.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Casing Damage It is important to fully understand the proper maintenance routines for ductwork and fan housing units. Examples of problems encountered in fan casings are listed below [2]. cracking. corrosion.

cracking.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Erosion. or crack. This could possibly cause damage to the slide bearings on the 3-31 . Possible solutions are protective coatings or hardening surface techniques. which also are susceptible to wear.Failure to do so will cause cold air to condense and initiate a corrosive attack on the immediate area. corrosion. Improper fly ash / gas distribution to / from the fans A properly designed system will prevent this condition by ensuring that the gas stream velocity is adequate. Foundation Deterioration Long term deterioration will cause unplanned stresses on the ductwork. corrode. Improper access doors / plates maintenance The following conditions are likely to occur if a door poses a problem such as a large crack or leak: • • • • Corrosive / erosive gas emission into the environment Poor fan performance by not providing a gas-tight surface Corrosive gases escape and attack the surrounding lagging Reduced capacity and corrosion because of air leakage on the ID and GR fan inlet Maintenance techniques for the prevention: • Proper securing of the holddown bolts • Missing / damaged bolt replacement • Door gasket replacement / inspection • Insulation cover reinstallation over the access plates . This may further lead to cracking. which can allow flue gases to escape and negatively impact fan performance. which can further lead to improper fan operation. Cycle-loaded units or units firing at a lower rate may experience this for a short period. or breaking associated with inlet cones Inlet cones operating in an erosive environment can erode. Improper clearance between housing and fan wheel Improper wheel clearance can act as an abrasion catalyst amongst the two contacting surfaces.

3-10: Corrosion Buildup on Ductwork [2] 3-32 . 3-9: Corroded / Leaking Ductwork [2] Fig.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material ducting. The upper region grows faster than the lower cooler section and therefore causes an uneven growth with consequent damage to the expansion joints and slide bearings. Fly-ash formation on the lower region of the duct creates an insulation blanket. Corrosion / leaking ductwork Below are two illustrations indicating corroded / leaking surfaces of ductwork designs: Fig.

Lagging and insulation removed for maintenance should be replaced as soon as possible to limit the “open patch” pathway for heat to enter. Cracking of the inside welded ductwork will allow corrosive flue gases to escape which attacks the lagging and damages the ductwork. Damaged slide plates Self-lubricating and spherical bearings are used to allow thermal growth in a duct system. Installation of telltale markers throughout various points in the hot flue gas draft system may provide an early warning to station personnel. inside/outside corrosion of the ductwork can develop as the damaged section is exposed to the environment. Damaged lagging / insulation Damage to lagging and insulation may result from the following causes: • Horizontal ductwork used as a walkway • Corrosion • Water damage Cracks may develop over time on aluminum lagging if personnel are allowed to step on the ductwork. The ductwork below this damaged area may also develop problems due to the cracking and/or compression. Problems associated with this are: • • • • Corrosion buildup on the facing plate Paint on the facing plate surface Improper installation Edge loading 3-33 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Ductwork misalignment Misalignment in ductwork can result from various conditions: • • • • • Improper installation Inadequate thermal growth capability Fly-ash buildup causing improper function of expansion joint Inadequate bracing Foundation deterioration If misalignment is not corrected cracking in the ductwork and/or expansion joints can be expected. This affects personnel working around the area. and if located outside.

Severe erosive or corrosive environmental conditions can cause cracking or pitting that might lead to altered internal flow conditions or pressure loss within the fan. which is lined with protective coatings such as epoxies / eurothenes or from corrosion resistant alloys such as stainless steels / nickel based alloys. durable steel to prevent environmental damage and increase wear resistance.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material The most common type of damage seen in ID fans is either fly-ash erosion or corrosion and is caused by (boiler) gases that pass through the fan during operation. 3-34 . weld deposited hard surfacing. Table 3-6: Casing Materials [6] Alloy Type Typical Usage Alloy Description Wrought Steels (Structural Quality) ASTM A285 Grade C Casings ASTM A36 Stainless Steel (4XX) Ni Alloys Casings Casings Casings Applicable in non-wear areas Applicable in non-wear areas Applicable in wear areas Applicable in wear areas ID fan casings are constructed either of carbon steel. the risk of material damage due to particulates is greatly minimized. Casing Materials Table 3-6 provides typical materials for fan casings with their corresponding alloy descriptions and types. and induced vibrations. Protective coatings will further ensure minimal environmental degradation due to either erosion or corrosion. which do not see the severe internal environment experienced by ID fans. Casing distortion might arise over time due to excessive operating temperatures and pressures with inadequate foundation support. Protective coatings on fan casings include epoxies. corrosion. leading to vibration or system stability problems. if the fan operates in a relatively clean environment. It is imperative that the casing be constructed with a high-strength. and eurothenes. Improper fan foundation could also put undue stresses on the casing walls causing a weakened material state more susceptible to the effects of erosion. and/or vibration problems. FD fan casings. frictional wear. ceramics. hardened plate. are normally constructed of a carbon steel plate material such as ASTM A36 or ASTM A285 Grade C. Distortion of the casing might also misalign the fan. Improper casing to foundation connections could lead to casing distortion. As with all fan components.

which utilizes as F43 (nickel based) filler metal is suggested. Casing Repair In order to determine if erosion/corrosion or wear damage exists. A thorough review of the OEM and plant equipment history files is mandatory to perform successful weld repairs. If this condition exists. and to avoid cracking failures after weld repair or during subsequent operation. Hardness readings should be taken across the weldments. but for certain nickel alloys this may be too high. Contacting OEM technical representatives is also strongly recommended to determine if the specific fan to be weld repaired had included any material substitutions during manufacture. and the type/grade of welding filler metal used in the original fabrication or in previous weld repairs. Nickel based alloy casings are best repaired by utilizing a welding procedure specification with matching base material chemistry. Either 3/32" or 1/8" diameter electrodes are suitable depending on the position and access to the repair area.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Prior to performing weld repairs on casings or other FD/ID fan components. respectively. The user can also perform local material checks using portable material identification instruments. • • 3-35 . it is imperative that the user of this document identify the alloy and grade of the components to be weld repaired. Proper welding procedures can be selected using the decision matrix and weld schedule provided in Tables 3-1and 3-2. the fan can be returned to service without the need for performing a weld repair. For carbon steel casings. Furthermore. If damage to the substrate is severe. additional lining should be removed to determine the extent of damage. repair by welding is required to return the casing to its original configuration. protective linings must first be inspected to determine if they have become detached from the substrate material.1 should be used to perform repairs. Weld filler metal types and any post weld bakeout / PWHT performed by the OEM or other repair organizations should be gathered and considered as part of the fan weld repair plan. • For stainless steel (4xx) casings. The following guidelines that are provided below and that appear in section 3. Completed weld repairs shall be blended by grinding to restore the surface to its original configuration. Typical filler metals used are ENiCrFe-2 or ENiCrFe-3. If the damage is localized and found to be shallow in nature (such as pitting or localized erosion/corrosion) localized replacement of the protective coating can be accomplished. A preheat of 350 °F is recommended and the weld repair areas should be allowed to gradually cool. The SMAW procedure should be used with a maximum interpass temperature of 400 °F. an as-welded carbon steel (P1) welding procedure specification should be used with the SMAW process and E7018 electrodes to restore the casing to its original configuration as outlined in weld schedule “A” in Table 3-2. This interpass temperature is for nickel alloys in general. a welding procedure specification.

Most power plant fans utilize oil film journal bearings. The load is carried on a single point of contact between the ball and the race. This enables them to support a greater load. Of these two types. speed. 3-36 . Rolling Element Bearings The basic components of a rolling element bearing are [9]: • • • The inner and outer rings.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • After blending of the weld repairs and adjacent base material and prior to relining or recoating the casing. problems. Ball bearings are generally better suited for higher speeds and lighter loads. BEARING REPAIR General The function of a bearing is to maintain correct alignment with stationary parts and support the action of radial and transverse loading. the thrust and radial bearings are combined. but some applications use rolling element bearings. Bearings that support radial loads and positions are known as line bearings and those that align and support the shaft axially are known as thrust bearings. and space limitations. Deciding which type of bearing that will satisfy the performance requirements best depends on factors such as load. but they also have a greater coefficient of friction and therefore generate more heat than a ball bearing. which have one or more rolling tracks The cage that maintains an equal space between the rolling elements (balls or rollers). Ball bearings are better suited for high-speed applications because of the small coefficient of friction associated with the rolling elements in the bearings. and repair procedures. the same basic fan design can use different bearing types. Roller bearings are generally preferable in applications involving heavy loads because they operate on a line contact. In some fan applications. both a visual and surface non-destructive examination shall be conducted. The point of contact does not rub or slide over the race and no appreciable heat is generated. The following is a discussion of each type of bearing. while roller bearings are used for relatively slower speeds and heavier loads. Various bearing types have been used in fans and in many cases. which includes descriptions. ball bearings are the most commonly used in small to medium size fans and roller bearings are used in applications involving larger shaft sizes. depending on service conditions or owner preference. misalignment sensitivity. which guide them and/or retain them inside the rolling bearing The rolling elements (balls or rollers).

and double-row self-aligning. Fig. and long bearing spans. It is good for radial thrust and combined loads but requires careful alignment between the shaft and the casing. Thrust bearings are used primarily in applications involving axial loads. it is best for the purchaser to leave the choice up to the manufacturer. double-row deep groove. The two common types of angular-contact bearings are single-row or double-row. Although several types might be acceptable. Its double row of balls run in fixed grooves in the inner race and its outer race is ground to a spherical seat. 3-11: Self-Aligning Ball Bearings [7] Single-Row Radial The single-row deep-groove ball bearings are the most commonly used bearings associated with smaller fans [7]. The most common radial contact ball bearings used in fans are single-row deep groove. As a result the bearings can accommodate slight vibration or shaft deflection within approximately ± 4°. Angular-contact bearings are used in applications involving combined radial and axial loads where precise axial positioning of shafts is required. It is sometimes used with seals built into the bearing to exclude dirt and maintain lubrication. Sealed prelubricated bearings require special attention if the fan for which they are used is not operated for long periods of time.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Ball Bearings Ball bearings are divided into three categories: radial contact. and thrust type [7]. but they can not withstand high thrust loads [7]. Self-aligning The self-aligning radial contact bearings are a popular choice in applications involving heavy loads. Sealed ball bearings. Radial contact ball bearings are designed for applications in which loading is primarily radial with low axial thrust loads. angular contact. adapter ball bearings and other modifications have also found special applications. high speeds. All except the double-row selfaligning bearings are capable of carrying thrust loads as well as radial loads. 3-37 .

Fig. 3-14: Single-Row Angular-Contact Ball Bearings [7] Fig. Single-row angular bearings are good for thrust in one direction whereas double row angular bearings can carry thrust in either direction. and have a greater capacity for both radial and thrust loads [7].EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fig. 3-15: Double-Row AngularContact Ball Bearings [7] 3-38 . Two single row bearings are commonly matched face to face and their races ground so that they can be used in tandem for large one-directional thrust loads or back to back for two-directional thrust loads. Fig. 3-12: Single-Row Radial Ball Bearings [7] Double-Row Radial The double-row deep-groove ball bearings consist of two single-row bearings placed side by side. 3-13: Double-Row Radial Ball Bearings [7] Angular-Contact Angular contact bearings are common in applications involving heavy thrust loads [7].

thus avoiding large loads between the rollers and the rings. The cage maintains the rollers inside the ring without a shoulder. needle. roller bearings are commonly used in applications involving high loads and relatively slow speeds [9]. This configuration lets the inner ring move relative to the outer ring. Non-cage types should be used for 3-39 . Cylindrical Roller Bearings Cylindrical roller bearings utilize cylinders with approximate length/diameter ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:3. The main types of roller bearings consist of: cylindrical. Fig. Because of the increase in contact surface. Variations of this type of bearing have two rows of rollers. which gives a better distribution of the load on the rollers. it must be hardened and ground. 3-16: Cylindrical Roller Bearing [9] Needle Bearings These bearings have rollers whose lengths are at least 4 times their diameter [9]. these roller bearings support large radial loads. The rollers are not perfectly cylindrical and their shape varies with the manufacturer. If the shaft is used as an inner race. They are most useful where space is a factor and are available without inner races. which allows for increased loading capacity.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Roller Bearings As discussed. which are guided by a shoulder on one of the rings [9]. tapered-roller. They are slightly bulged at the ends. and spherical roller. The various roller bearing styles can be seen in the following examples.

oscillation. The bearing is designed so that all elements in the rolling surface and the raceways intersect at a common point on the axis. 3-17: Needle Bearing [9] Tapered Roller bearings Tapered roller bearings are generally used in applications involving heavy radial and thrust loads [9]. Cage types should be used for rotational motion. or slow speeds. Fig. Fig.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material high loads. 3-18: Tapered-Roller Bearing [9] 3-40 . Needle bearings can not support any amount of thrust load. Tapered bearings can also be preloaded to achieve maximum system rigidity. therefore allowing true rolling.

Its lifetime is dependent on the loads applied and the rotational speed. Types of Damage Mechanisms A rolling element bearing is a mechanical component that wears. Under ideal conditions. which would lead to subsequent bearing failure. 3-41 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Spherical Roller Bearings These bearings are designed for heavy radial loads and moderate thrust [9]. Fine or soft particles will be ground by the balls or roller and will act as an abrasive. in operation there are a variety of damage mechanisms that accelerate wear and lead to premature bearing failure. The bearings also have some self-aligning capability. Eventually. a rolling bearing should only degrade due to its normal wear. However in practice exposure to dirt. which is helpful in many applications. Some of the more common damage mechanisms include the following [8]: • • • • • • • • • Wear Electrical pitting Galling Spalling Fretting Corrosion Extreme operating conditions Improper Installation Improper Lubrication Wear Although the frictional effects in rolling element bearings are low they are not negligible and lubrication is essential [8]. or corrosive fluids will initiate wear. hard particles. if a bearing is lubricated properly wear should not occur. Hard particles present in the bearing could cause the inner ring to turn on the shaft or on the outer ring of the housing. which will wear away the raceways and balls. causing increases in the running clearances of the various parts of the bearing. and may lead to noisy operation and early failure. the bearing will become loose and fail. However. The amount of damage caused by different types of foreign matter will vary considerably depending on the constancy of the particles. Theoretically.

however it is found in the bearings of machines subjected to vibrations while at rest. After some slippage has occurred. The effects of the arcing result in local vaporization of the metal. and misalignment results in non-uniform spalling. Galling appears either around the rolling parts of the ball when they rotate. At the contact areas between the rolling elements and raceways. and bearing misalignment. This type of fretting does not occur during normal running. or when slippage occurs and seizes the ball or roller from rolling. Galling Galling occurs when sufficient heat is generated in dry contact areas. lubricant is squeezed out. 3-42 . This type of fretting is frequently referred to as false brinelling. Some of the more common causes of spalling include permanent overload. This spark-erosion effect frequently gives rise to rapid vibration. The common areas where galling appears is between the races of the two rings and the roller or balls. shaft bending causes spalling on the edge of the races. resulting in metal to metal contact and localized wear. Fretting One form of fretting damage that is experienced in bearings results from contact corrosion that takes place between the bore of the bearing and the shaft.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Electrical Pitting Bearings that are exposed to electric current in the form of arcing or sparks could become damaged and fail prematurely [8]. Another common area where fretting occurs is within the bearing contact area. Spalling Spalling generally results from repeated high contact pressure within the rolling bearing [8]. and speed of rotation can also lead to galling. Application of excessive heat. This condition usually occurs where dry metal is present due to the absence of lubrication or the break down of the fluid film due to friction. galling can also exist on the guiding surface of the cage between the bore of the inner ring and the shaft. Overloading causes spalling to occur between the two races. which causes craters and pits to form in the bearing. pressure. which results in welding of the surfaces and simultaneous scraping between the areas in contact [8]. which is caused by vibration or oscillation over a few degrees of arc between the rolling element and the raceways in a nonrotating bearing. shaft bending. This may also occur between the outside surface of the bearing and the bore of the housing [8].

seal damage. excessive tightening. which leads to noisy operation and provides surface discontinuities at which cracks can originate [8]. oil. However. Any damage experienced by the bearing can lead to premature bearing failure. Some of the most common bearing damage that occurs during installation includes bending. Rolling element bearings used in fan applications can be lubricated using water. Extreme Operating Conditions One common source of bearing failure results from excessive operating conditions [8]. it is important to understand the application and all of the associated loads and other service conditions prior to selecting an appropriate bearing. high temperatures. the majority of bearings are grease lubricated. Both inadequate and excessive quantities of grease can lead to bearing failure. An excessive amount of grease will cause the bearing to heat up and cause the grease to flow out of the seals. Therefore. or grease depending on the service conditions and/or owner preference. Improper Lubrication Improper lubrication is a common cause of premature bearing failures [8]. casing defects.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Corrosion General corrosion of the hardened bearing surfaces often takes the form of minute pitting. and misalignment. To prevent these types of damage it is important to follow all recommended tolerances and tightening procedures provided by the manufacturer. insufficient tightening. Corrosion of bearings can occur during periods of non-operation or even when the bearings are being stored prior to installation. Factors such as: continuous or momentary overloads. Corrosion damage may not be externally visible and may only be evident by subsequent noisy operation. Improper Installation Proper installation is key to bearing longevity [8]. vibration during start-up and shutdown. and bending of the shaft can all result in bearing failure. contamination. This method of lubrication requires a minimal amount of attention and provides good service when the proper amount of grease is maintained in the bearing. eccentric loads. excessive speeds. Care must also be taken not to contaminate or force the bearing into place during installation. Then after the selection is made it is important to periodically monitor the equipment so that any excessive operating conditions that may develop can be identified and corrected prior to bearing failure. Unless the excess grease can escape through the seal or 3-43 .

However. In most cases it is not cost effective to repair damaged rolling element bearings.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material through the relief cock the bearing could fail. supplying cooler oil while the shaft is rotating can disrupt the oil film that has been formed.000 hours) and will generally last for the expected life of the machines. It is recommended that only one-third of the void space in the housing be filled with grease to facilitate proper lubrication. 3-44 . rolling element bearings do not require extensive maintenance [9]. Periodically. manufacture specifications. The oil quality is also important and should be properly maintained. viscosity. Maintenance / Repair In practice. This level should be at about the center of the lowermost ball of a stationary bearing. dirt load. and conditions of oil additives. and owner preference. Personnel should proceed with caution when adding oil to the bearing while the fan is in operation. oil samples can be taken and analyzed for water-content. these types of bearings are usually replaced when problems arise with the bearings. In critical applications bearing metal temperatures should also be monitored. Monitoring of bearing vibration is also useful for indicating problems that might lead to bearing failure. total acid/base content. In oil-lubricated bearings. Therefore. Oil-lubricated systems can also present a problem when a low-level condition is discovered during operation. there are a few key parameters that should be checked on a regular basis such as: • • • Lubrication Temperature Vibration Bearing lubrication should be checked on a daily basis and be changed periodically. a suitable oil level must be maintained in the housing. This will provide an indication of how well the bearing is operating and will allow the maintenance engineers to respond to problems prior to bearing failure. or when they have been dismounted for other maintenance activities. If this condition occurs metal-tometal contact could occur and damage the bearing. In addition. bearings are designed for long operating lives (>150. Typically. depending on service conditions.

The primary limitation of a babbitt bearing is operating temperature. These 3-45 .001 to 0. and antimony are the most commonly used. fans. which is approximately 300°F max. The thinner the babbitt layer the greater the fatigue resistance. Copper and lead based babbitt are also frequently used in various applications. and the bearings are generally split into two halves for ease of assembly. which means that the load-carrying surfaces of the bearing are separated by a relatively thick film of lubricant that prevents metal-to-metal contact. Cylindrical Bearings Cylindrical bearings are the most common type of journal bearings used in industry [7]. These types of bearings utilize hydrodynamic lubrication. pumps. so that it can conform to slight irregularities and absorb and release foreign particles. There is a variety of journal bearing designs used in the industry and each of the different types of bearing designs have advantages and disadvantages that make them suitable for a particular application. The bearing must be soft. Tin-based babbitt materials composed of 65-90% tin plus small amounts of lead. The bearing material must also have sufficient compressive and fatigue strengths to resist externally applied loads. Some of the more common types of journal bearings include the following. and in automotive applications [7]. The specific type of babbitt material required depends on the service conditions that will be experienced by the bearings. copper. It consists of a cylindrical steel backing plate with babbitt bonded to the inside bearing surface. The film pressure is created by the moving surface or shaft pulling the lubrication into a wedge-shaped zone at a velocity sufficiently high enough to create the pressure necessary to separate the surface against the load on the bearing. Types of Journal Bearings Journal Bearings are used in a variety of rotating equipment such as turbines. The second set of requirements is necessary to permit the material to wear or break in. thickness ranges from 3/32 to 1/8 in. For less critical applications. In applications where fatigue is important babbitt thicknesses range from 0. The thicker layer provides good conformity and accepts embeded particles easier without damage. which helps prevent shaft damage. have a low melting point. and large fans that operate at high speeds and temperatures [7]. Babbitt material is bonded to a backing shell of another material such as steel or bronze because they are not good structural materials. large pumps.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Fluid Film Bearings Fluid film or journal bearings are commonly used in turbines. and a low modulus of elasticity. Journal bearings are coated with a layer of white metal or babbitt material that serves as the bearing surface.005 inches.

Cylindrical Bearings with Grooves A typical configuration of this type of bearing is a plain cylindrical bearing with four equally spaced longitudinal grooves extending the majority of the way through the bearing [7]. because the groove consumes some land area. However. The principal advantages of cylindrical bearings are simple construction and high load capacities relative to other bearing configurations. These advantages make the plain journal bearings a leading choice for most applications. they are difficult to manufacture and are clearance and tolerance sensitive. As a result they are generally used in high-speed low-load applications where whirl might be a problem. One of the most important parameters that govern the performance of these types of bearings is the pre-load on the pads. This effect can be damaging to the bearing and lead to possible failure. Plain cylindrical journal bearings are used in applications involving medium speed (500 in/s) and medium to heavy loads (250 to 400 lb/in2).EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material bearings also have lubricating feed grooves at the parting line. There is usually a slight land area at either end of the groove to force the inlet flow to each groove into the bearing clearance region rather than out the groove ends. One disadvantage is whirl instability in that the bearing is prone to allow the shaft to whirl at high speeds and low loads. Elliptical bearings are two-lobe bearings and are often used because they provide better resistance to whirl than plain cylindrical bearings. However. Tilting Pad Bearings Tilting-pad bearings are used extensively in high-speed applications. A lobe bearing consists of three lobes which can be either symmetrical or canted lobed. because of their whirl-free characteristics [7]. but they do not have high load capacities. Unloaded pads reduce the overall stiffness of the bearing and results in a deterioration of stability because the unloaded pads do not aid in 3-46 . a motion that is superimposed upon the normal journal rotation. Elliptical and Lobe Bearings Elliptical and lobe bearings have noncircular geometries [7]. However. These disadvantages are largely due to the absence of grooves that allow the contaminates to escape and the large uninterrupted surface area. Canted lobed bearings provide excellent whirl resistance and reasonably good load capability. This configuration can tolerate more contamination and will run cooler than the plain bearing. They are the most whirl-free of all bearing configurations. these types of bearings also have several disadvantages that must be considered. Whirling is an orbiting of the shaft in the center of the bearing. this configuration has less loading capacity than plain cylindrical bearings. These bearings are also very easily contaminated and therefore they generate a larger viscous power loss than other types of bearings.

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resisting cross-coupling influences. In the unloaded position they are also subject to flutter instability and to a phenomenon known as leading edge lockup. It occurs where the leading edge of the pad is forced against the shaft and held in that position by the friction between the shaft and the pad. This is especially prevalent in bearings that operate with low viscosity lubricants. Consequently, it is important that these bearings are preloaded. Some of the other major characteristics of tilting pad bearings include. • • • • They are not as clearance sensitive as other bearing types. Because the pads can move, they can operate safely at a lower minimum film thickness than other bearings. They do not provide as much squeeze film damping as rigid configurations. Generally they are more expensive than other bearings.

Hybrid Bearings

A hybrid bearing derives loading capacity from the normal hydrodynamic pressure generated and an external high-pressure supply that introduces oil into recesses machined into the bearing surface via orifices [7]. External pressure significantly enhances load capacity. These type of bearings also have excellent low or zero speed load capability. One disadvantage is that these bearings require an external fluid supply.

Damage Mechanisms Journal bearings are susceptible to a variety of damage mechanisms. The most common damage mechanisms that affect journal bearings include the following [8]. • • • • • • • • • • • • Abrasion Bond Failure Cavitation Erosion Corrosion Electrical Pitting Erosion Fatigue Fretting Non-homogeneity Overheating Seizure Surface Wear


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• •

Tin Oxide Damage Wiping


Abrasion occurs when a large number of solid particles that is harder than the bearing surface is circulated in the lubricant and begins to wear down the bearing surface [8]. In some instances both the bearing surface and the shaft material can be damaged due to abrasive particles. In most cases where a small amount of particles are present they eventually embed themselves harmlessly in the bearing surface. However, when a large number of particles are present they circulate through the clearances causing wear and scoring. The particles found in the oil system that lead to abrasion damage include: Sand, grit blasting substances, metal chips, weld spatter, fly ash, and cast iron chips. Any one of these particles can cause significant abrasion damage when present in large quantities.

Bond Failure

Journal bearings are manufactured by bonding a soft babbitt material, which serves as the bearing surface, to a steel supporting structure [8]. In some instances where poor adhesion is experienced during the manufacturing process, bonding failure could occur and cause the babbitt material to separate from the supporting structure at the interface between the two metals. This separation may occur by a local loosening of the bond by pieces breaking away from the bearing shell or in severe cases by a complete dislodgment of the babbitt material. A defective bond formed during the manufacturing of the bearing might be caused by oxide films on the base material. This includes contaminates such as dirt, soot, grease, dross from the surface of the molten alloy, gas evolution from the metal, or improper fabrication techniques.

Cavitation Erosion

Cavitation erosion occurs due to cavitation in the oil film of journal bearings, and in some cases thrust bearings [8]. Cavitation in bearings is somewhat different from the common cavitation encountered in pump propellers or compressor blades where cyclic loading is usually the culprit. In bearings, cavitation occurs by the presence of diverging film shapes. In such diverging regions the oil film pressure drops from levels close to 500 psi or 1000 psi to slightly below atmospheric pressure. This causes the full oil film that was previously present to break up into streamlets interspersed with air, dissolved gases, foam, and possibly vapor. It is the formation and collapse of these zones that may occasionally lead to bearing damage. The damage action of cavitation is due to the generation of high energy hydraulic impulses within the oil film and if numerous enough


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will fatigue the surface of the bearing. Cavitation damage results in a spotty removal of the surface metal.


Corrosion damage is due to the attack on metal surfaces by reactive agents, which can be to both the bearing and the shaft [8]. This damage results from chemical attack on the bearing material by substances originating in the lubricant or the environment. Corrosion may either remove the bearing material or buildup a deposit on the bearing surface. The two main corrosive agents that affect bearings are electrolytes and organic acids. In order to cause problems the products of corrosion must be soluble or porous, or must be continually removed to expose fresh metal. Corrosion is often selective in that it attacks some constituents more than others, as in the case of the removal of lead from copperlead based bearings. Corrosion of lead based bearings may be caused by acidic oil oxidation products formed in service, by ingress of water or coolant into the oil, or by decomposition of certain oil additives. The onset of corrosion can be either sudden or gradual.

Electrical Pitting

Electrical Pitting is caused by the sporadic transmission of electrical current produced from a release of voltage potential build-up through an oil film, which separates the bearing from the shaft [8]. This effect becomes more profound as a rough surface is formed through mechanical wear (metal removal by arcing) and the oil or lubrication becomes contaminated by the resulting debris. In addition, when the oil film thickness between the bearing and the shaft is relatively small electrical pitting becomes less likely to occur due to the voltage potential’s ability to produce continuous current. However, if the oil film thickness is relatively large, a high resistance is formed across the film, thus producing the inability to discharge sparks. Between these two extremes lies the possibility of electrical pitting on the bearings. Electrical arcing produces four effects which include pitting, wear, babbitt surface layer overheating, and abrasion due to metallic particles being set free in the oil.


Erosion is produced through the high-velocity impact of suspended foreign particles onto the bearing surface [8]. Erosion differs from abrasion because erosion becomes a more localized aggravated damage mechanism produced through the high velocity of the carrier fluid. Foreign particles are primarily found in the lubricant or surrounding environment. Erosion problems are most commonly encountered at grooves, chamfers,


In addition. bearing shells. thus is sometimes known as fretting corrosion. and similar parts that utilize repeated movement are most likely to experience this damage mechanism. Typical fatigue failure in bearings is due to flexure forces that tend to reverse the stress direction or produce thermal cycling. Fretting Fretting is a form of corrosion that develops on contacting surfaces which experience small oscillatory motions [8]. • Superimposed Tensile Stresses – Superimposing tensile stresses on a pulsating compressive stress accelerates fatigue failure. Consistent erosive action may lead to more severe forms of failure. There is evidence that the rate of load application increases the rate of failure. This will result in bearing seizure or overheating because of oil drainage from the high-pressure areas of the film. the intensity of these mechanical or thermal stresses contributes to a more severe and rapid rate of fatigue failure. which becomes more pronounced as the frequency increases. • Self-Excited Vibration – Occurs when the pivot’s radial play is larger than the concentric clearance. The high kinetic energy of the fluid and debris accumulation is converted to stagnation pressure or heat energy. Fatigue Fatigue failure (cracking or fracture) is the result of repetitive cyclic stresses attained above the threshold limit for a certain material at a given temperature. which are the most common causes of fatigue failure [8]. • Temperature – Physical properties of babbitt material deteriorates with increasing surface temperature. • Load and Speed – Increasing the difference between maximum and minimum stresses on the bearing and the frequency of the stress cycle rises. • Hardness and Thickness – Fatigue failure increases directly proportional with thickness and inversely proportional with hardness. which further emphasize erosion damage. Below is a list of factors. Oxidation of worn steel has a corroded appearance. An example of fretting is iron oxide (rust). which often increases the damage severity. Cracks that reach the vicinity of the bond travel parallel to it eventually lifting out small pieces of babbitt material. Shrink-fits. • Thermal Cycling – Repeated heating and cooling creates thermal stresses that lead to cracking of the babbitt. such as wiping or fatigue cracking. bearing pivots. and any other discontinuities that exist in either geometry or fluid flow path.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material steps. which itself is abrasive. Fretting damage may occur on bearing surfaces when the shaft is at rest 3-50 . Metal removal creates an environment for chemical attack.

Properties of some tin-base babbitts vary along different axes of the grains and may result in grain distortion when thermal stresses are imposed. and hydrogen diffusion. When one constituent of the alloy melts it will ooze out of the structure. but generally does not affect performance. which create a weak structure. Foreign inclusions are cavities due to inclusions such as slag or dross from the melting pot. Repeated thermal exposure causes mottling of the bearing surface. also known as sweating. Non-homogeneity Non-homogeneity is a defect of bearings. sensitive to fatigue and thermal cracking.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material because of vibrations transmitted to the machine from external sources. destroying and dislodging the babbitt. A thrust collar running out of true may also experience fretting corrosion. Three of the most common inclusions are foreign inclusions. the whole surface may eventually undergo recrystallization and the normal and shear forces on the bearing surface will cause cracking of babbitt pairs. Ratcheting occurs when grain distortion is severe. At elevated temperatures babbitt materials experience creep with rippling of the surface and possible wiping. portions of the bearings melt. When the temperatures are sufficiently high. Absorbed gases are cavities or blisters formed by gases that are created through the solidification of the cast metal. and cracks will occur in the babbitt surface along the grain boundaries. Overheating Overheating is defined as either damage to bearings through the exposure to temperatures above the softening point of one of the babbitt material constituents or excessive thermal gradients which cause the babbitt to crack [8]. The sudden lack of clearance can be explained by the difference in thermal expansion of the journal bearings being much greater than that of 3-51 . Hydrogen diffusion occurs where the atomic hydrogen seeps into the voids at the bond and grows into molecular form. absorbed gas. Seizure Seizure is a failure of journal bearings due to the lack of clearance between the shaft and bearing [8]. It can be described by severe wiping over the entire bearing periphery and may hinder the shaft’s rotation. Through repeated thermal stressing. which refers to the potential damage associated with a non-gaseous or gaseous presence [8]. due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion along each crystal axis. Soft metal detected near the low-pressure areas and beads of sweat along the oil grooves are primary evidence of sweating.

Then it is converted into stannous oxide (SnO) and stannic oxide (SnO2). very low viscous fluids. starting and stopping. Bearings can undergo wear for a prolonged period. Tin Oxide Damage Salt water in hydrocarbon oils. and running time. both relative to the minimum oil film thickness. which produces excessive clearance or distortion of the film profile. forms tin oxide on babbitt surfaces [8]. and the oxide. The rate of 3-52 . The initial formation or machining of a babbitt material has a thin protective film that makes the surface appear bright and metallic. It is commonly encountered in land units that use estuarine or seawater for cooling. Wear can be explained through processes such as abrasion by foreign particles. In addition. and corrosive or erosive action of the lubricant on oxide particles. being less dense than the tin metal. high operating temperatures. parameters that affect bearing wear include mechanical properties. The total wear is dependent upon the length of time of the particulate and surface contact. thermal properties. vibration. and many other contributing factors. builds up on top at the original surface. When subjected to a weak acidic aqueous solution that contains chloride ions. Factors for this include particle properties. and chemical properties of the bearing materials. localized formation and rupturing of welds. a hydrated oxide is formed first. operating conditions. There is also a relationship between the contamination of oils and wear life of journal bearings. with the negative ions of chloride acting as a catalyst. Bearing wear may also be contributed to turning gear operation and frequent start-ups and shutdowns. The latter can be explained through thermal expansion developed through heat transfer created by the rapid rotation relative to the stationary surface. Oxides are then formed. The loss of clearance may also be attributed to a deprivation of oil. the tin near the surface is consumed. Mechanical wear also may occur due to an insufficient lubricant film. Difficulties can arise from excessive clearance or changes in geometry.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material the shaft material. mechanical interlocking of the asperities. high loads. Wear occurs when smaller particles score the bearing surfaces or larger particles embed into the bearing surface and rub against the journal. but eventually difficulty or failure will set in. a radical change in operating conditions in a bearing of tight clearance. or a rapid start-up of a journal bearing. thus creating a diameter growth and a reduction in clearance. Wear often does not produce failure nor does it produce any externally visible damage. thus degrading the performance of the bearing [8]. Water with negative ions such as chlorine must be present for this chemical reaction to occur. Damage is most likely to occur with oils that are contaminated with salt ions. Surface Wear Surface wear is a damage mechanism associated with the gradual removal of babbitt material.

or thermal and elastic distortions of the bearing. therefore. Below is a list of harmful consequences of tin oxide formation [8]. it protrudes into the clearance • It is brittle and at a certain thickness it breaks up – special attention must be paid to thrust pads that undergo flexing • Particles are abrasive to journals • Chlorides form undesirable electrolytes Wiping Wiping occurs when a substantial amount of babbitt material is displaced or removed from the journal or runner due to direct contact [8]. The third is excessive pressures developed near hmin causing localized plastic deformation of the babbitt once the yield strength is surpassed. Three mechanisms can describe the most reasonable causes of wiping. • Formation of hard black layers of tin oxide to a depth of 4 mils or more of the tin matrix • Oxides occupy a greater volume than tin. The deformed material then protrudes into the clearance and makes contact with the shaft resulting in wiping of the bearing. Wiping can occur due to causes such as deprivation of lubricant. The second is that the bearing metal is fractured in shear during plastic deformation due to mechanical cold work of the journal. The first is melting of the babbitt material due to direct contact between the surfaces. Below is a list of primary causes for the physical displacement of babbitt material. • • • • • • • • • • Misalignment Tight clearances Starting problems Elastic and thermal distortions Overload Instability Shocks Improper assembly Wrong load angle Oil starvation 3-53 . Wiping also occurs due to other damage mechanisms.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material formation of tin oxide becomes more evident at higher temperatures due to it being an electrochemical reaction. impact or excessive loading contact.

Puddling is typically used to patch localized areas of damaged babbitt material. Determine the contact pattern of the bearing to the shaft by applying Prussian blue to the shaft. Minor Repairs Journal bearings that experience shallow surface damage can in some cases be repaired by reducing the thickness of the babbitt in load bearing areas enough to remove the damaged material [8].EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Journal Bearing Repairs There are several methods used to repair the surfaces of fluid film bearings [8]. These repairs can be subdivided into two categories. 0. Scrape the areas that show contact with the shaft until an even contact pattern is achieved using Mylar film. These types of repair are usually performed by the manufacturer or other after market vendors experienced in journal bearing repair. which is too extensive to be performed by hand and typically requires machining or grinding [8]. minor and major. Then rest the bearing on the shaft and visually inspect the contact areas. bearing cloth. or TIG welding. or less than 0.020 inch in remaining thickness. Normally these repairs are best done by the manufacturer. However. This is especially critical for elliptical journal bearings. Scotchbrite or a hand scraper if necessary. This repair requires the complete removal of the old babbitt material and the rebonding of new babbitt material. The removal process would be as follows [8]: 1. rebabbitting. or Scotchbrite. Full circular journal bearings can be repaired in the field using a wide hand scraper.0012 inch Mylar film. In most cases minor repairs are those that can be performed in the field using hand tools and major repairs usually require the facilities of a machine shop. the amount of babbitt removal should be limited to half of the original thickness. TIG welding can also be used to repair 3-54 . Some of the more common journal bearing repairs includes puddling. Repeat the process until the bearing damage has been removed. Rebabbitting is done when extensive babbitt damage is present. Major Repairs Major repairs are typically considered a form of damage. Care should be exercised to maintain the contour of the bearing and not to create flat spots that would alter the bearing dynamics. bearing cloth.

or ASTM B23 Grade 2.25-inch in height is achieved. Equipment [8]: The required items needed to perform puddling include the following. 1. Procedures for these repair techniques are provided below.188 inch diameter of QQT390 Grade 2. 0. 9 torch head. Mix the babbitt with the liquefied area on the journal shell.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material bearings when heat from puddling becomes a problem and causes significant distortion of the journal shell.Duzall Self-Cleaning or Dutch Boy #321. This process should not be used if the area to be repaired has a loose bond. Chorlthene SM (Trichloroethane) Torch and gas tanks consisting of No. Only qualified operators should perform this type of repair. which depends on the size of the repair area. fill in oil washes.0. A mixture of pure tin (Acro-Solder) Babbitt sticks. Clean the area to be filled or repaired thoroughly with chorlthene SM. Adjust the flame with a mixture of one part oxygen to two parts MAPP gas until a bright blue flame of approximately 0. Ignite torch with appropriate tip. and oxygen and MAPP gas. Procedure [8]: 1. Puddling The following procedure provides instructions for puddling babbitt to make oil dams. 6. No.125 inch square. These procedures were taken from the EPRI document titled “Manual of Bearing Failures and Repair in Power Plant Rotating Equipment” GS-7352 and should only be used as a general reference. and repair small damaged areas [8]. or No. Flux. 3-55 .

Flux agent ( 80% zinc chloride –20% ammonium chloride mixed 50-50 with water). lightly peen the surface of the new babbitt to relieve surface stresses and prevent cracking. A more detailed procedure can be found in EPRI document GS-7352. Equipment [8]: Centrifugal babbitt machine Babbitt conforming to ASTM B-23 grade 2. Rebabbitting The rebabbitting of journal bearings is accomplished by a process known as centrifugal babbitting [8]. Vapor degreaser Gasket material and shims Water supply Pyrometer Thermocouples Procedure [8]: 3-56 . Hand grinder with aluminum oxide wheels.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Repeat step 3 until the entire area is filled or repaired. Immersion tank of 100% tin. When the repaired area has cooled to room temperature. The following procedure provides an overview of the process. This process is exclusively performed by bearing manufacturers or other after market vendors who have the necessary equipment and expertise to perform the work. Machine off excess babbitt and lap or scrape the surface on the mandrel to make it homogeneous with the original surface.

Clean or vapor degrease bearing to remove dirt and oil. heat the part until the babbitt can be removed. Chuck part lightly in a lathe or boring mill. grease and oil. An effort should be made during the machining operation to keep oil and cutting compounds off the face to be babbitted. Vapor-degrease bearing shell halves to remove all traces of dirt. Remove all oxides on an air-powered grinding wheel equipped with aluminum oxide abrasives. Apply Stop-off to all surfaces of parts. If babbitt anchors are present.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 1. which are not to be babbitted. Bore out the babbitt until the steel or base metal is reached. Immerse in tin bath heated to 610-630°F and soak until the temperature of the part reaches 580-630°F. Grind with an overlap pattern to assure 100% coverage. Position shim so they are flush with or above the part. remove the babbitt using a hand drill. Prepare centrifugal babbitt machine. Apply the following flux composition : 80% zinc chloride –20% ammonium chloride mixed 50-50 with water to the surface to be tinned. If the anchors are the only drilled holes. 3-57 . Assemble journal bearing halves using gasket material and shims of proper length. Inspect assembly for alignment.

Remove damaged babbitt material. raise it from the tin bath. In applications where the journal shell is relatively thin it is essential to minimize the amount of heat put into the material to prevent the shell from warping. Perform final machining. Inspect the bearing for defects. drain excess tin into bath. Inspect tinned surface and rub surface with babbitt stick. Procedure [8]: 1. An overview of the repair process is provided below. Remove the bearing from the babbitt machine and allow to cool. 3-58 . Then install the bearing into the babbitt machine. and excess babbitt. and remove all surface contaminates. Prepare joint faces for subsequent machining operation. gaskets. The TIG welding process reduces the amount of heat put into the part compared to puddling and decreases the amount of distortion that occurs. Perform the centrifugal babbitting process. TIG Welding TIG welding is generally used as an alternative to puddling for repairing localized babbitt damage [8]. Separate bearing halves and remove shim. Lightly chuck the bearing in a lathe or boring mill.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material When bearing temperature is within the range of 580-630 °F.

drill or mill any bearing configurations that were altered during the welding process. 3-59 . indicating the outside diameter.062 inch radially. Inspect bearing for defects.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Using a TIG welder. smaller than the finish bore size. If the bearing becomes hot during this process discontinue welding until the bearing cools. lay in new babbitt in approximately 0. Restart the process until the babbitt metal has been built up to a size approximately 0. Lightly chuck the bearing in a lathe or boring mill. Using the proper machine tools.125 inch deep x 2 inches wide bands. Finish boring the bearing to its proper configuration.

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• • • • • • • Keep area around disassembled equipment clean Take inventory of tools used for jobs Use appropriate tools for the job Never take short cuts when safety is involved Follow proper tag out procedures Keep the shop supervisor informed on the progress and problems encountered Verify that the required parts are available before starting the job 4-1 . Fan operation in boiler power plants consumes a significant portion of the energy associated with power plant operation. and clean equipment should be practiced.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 4 FAN MAINTENANCE Introduction to Fan Maintenance The following section. any inadequate operation of the fan units can result in lower efficiency of the power plant’s energy production. The following is a general list that can be used to avoid unnecessary injury to equipment or personnel [2]. ensuring adequate lubrication. with the purpose of this section to give a general background for proper fan maintenance. This will provide an itemized listing of what is required to accomplish a specific maintenance action. which describes fan maintenance was found from EPRI’s “Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Draft Fans. boiler fan units should develop an effective maintenance program to limit those means and incorporate a more effective operating process.” report number TR-101698. Fan maintenance routines also prevent structural damage. A routine check must be conducted on the major parts of the fan unit. clean lubrication. operational experience. Additional and more detailed information can be found in that report. A list of checks can be created based upon manufacturer’s recommendations. The lower efficiency indicates a lower output to input ratio. and can assist the maintenance crew in reducing the man-hours used in planning a job. and the power station’s trained manpower assets. and ultimately save more money. incorporate safety. daily visual inspections of the equipment. This will enable O&M to determine what repair mechanisms can be employed by them and those that need to be contracted out. Therefore. However. In addition. but not to where it involves unnecessary downtime. An additional part to any maintenance program is to develop written formatted PM tasks. a database could be developed to provide a ready reference for personnel to utilize during equipment maintenance periods. actual procedures to conduct a specific maintenance action. it should only supplement them in order to produce an effective fan maintenance routine. However. it should not replace any manufacturer recommendations or instructions. Therefore.

less dust particulate. Extreme caution should be taken not to blast away the protective coating. aluminum oxide. Two benefits of this method include reduced respiratory hazards and easy disposal of the residual. Cleaning crews should avoid directing the abrasive stream on suspected crack areas of hollow airfoil blades when cleaning fans. Sand abrasives are susceptible to breakdown and should only be used once.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Pre-Examination Techniques . To avoid the problem. slag. which are propelled with sufficient force to remove any buildup that exists on the fan surfaces.Surface Cleaning & Surface Preparation Surface Cleaning Surface cleaning is a prerequisite to any inspection method. The operational life of this type of blast nozzle far exceeds that of others due to its ability to retain its internal contour. Increasing the separation distance will reduce the effect of the abrasive process. ASM recommends purchasing a boron carbide liner encased in a steel jacket to provide the superlative cost to life ratio. Grit abrasive material is created by crushing and hardening metallic particles such as in cast steel and displacing them in an angular fashion. Grit and sand are two frequently used abrasive materials. which further leads to operating rotational imbalance of the fan unit. In comparison with sand abrasion the grit abrasive requires less time to clean a fan wheel. Fans are primarily cleaned using glass beads entrained in a 30. silica. The quality of the surface cleaning is also dependent on the type of blast nozzle. Sand abrasives are nonmetallic and are usually flint quartz. the suspected areas should be cleaned by hand with a wire 4-2 . Dry blast cleaning is typically used to clean fan internals prior to magnetic particle or visual inspection techniques.5 times that of its initial outlet size [2]. It is important that a nozzle be replaced when its outlet size is 1. Decreasing the separation distance also poses problems such as impact damage/layer removal of the work surface using metallic abrasives and increasing the dust burden using the non-metallic abrasives. provides less frequent breakdown of the abrasive. and has a capability to be recycled. water blasting and dry blasting are two common techniques used for surface cleaning. Strip blasting is accomplished by holding the nozzle tip approximately nine to ten inches away from the work surface. garnet. Brush blasting is a relatively quick cleaning operation that should be avoided on any surfaces with protective layers and those having deposit buildup.000-psi water stream [2]. or silicon carbide. In industry. Sand abrasives can become lodged in the component crevices leading to further masking of any problem areas. The blades may fill with the abrasive material and induced particulate. Two abrasive blasting techniques primarily utilized by cleaning crews include brush blasting and strip blasting [2]. It is accomplished by holding the nozzle tip approximately three to four feet away from the surface.

Inspection Methods An inspection program is an essential component of any maintenance strategy associated with boiler fan units. Surface Preparation Surface preparation is used to maintain a clean surface once it has been sandblasted and to eliminate any surface discontinuities such as undercutting. It is important that the time transition between surface cleaning and testing be kept to a minimum. The best capability of the utilities for examining cracks of fan units is to use a yoke probe with ac/pulsating dc capability in conjunction with a wet fluorescent magnetic particle test. which acts as a catalyst for corrosion in the fan internals. • (Wet/Dry) Magnetic Particle Testing • Visual Inspection • Ultrasonic Inspection • Liquid Penetrant (Wet/Dry)-Magnetic Particle Testing Magnetic particle testing is a NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) technique that may be used to identify any cracks that exist on the surface of ferromagnetic materials [2]. or lack of fusion that may mask or give false indications [2]. This can be further broken down into the categories of wet fluorescent magnetic particle testing (WFMT) and dry magnetic particle testing (MT). However. High levels of moisture can exist in the surrounding atmosphere. Several solutions for reducing the moisture in air content include NDE inspector and cleaning team coordination. Shaft seals and heat flingers can be protected by securely wrapping them in rubber or urethane covers. Caution should be taken with the fan internals when carrying out an abrasive cleaning process in order to prevent damage that may occur from high-velocity particles impacting on them. usage of electric space heaters. It can be used to establish a database for fan wheel repair and as a means to identify the cracking or erosion problems before the problem escalates to catastrophic failure. and the closure of all doors and dampers. The WFMT technique has been used more frequently in industry due to its ability to find finer surface defects relative to the MT technique. The wet fluorescent magnetic particle medium can be found in a prepared or mixed bath. Prepared baths are contained in aerosol cans and mixed baths must be prepared by 4-3 . Four of the most common inspection methods that are typically used in boiler fan units are listed below [2]. the MT technique is more sensitive for the detection of surface discontinuities.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material brush. overlap.

• The black light intensity should be checked at least once every eight hours. at the maximum pole spacing is required for each ac electromagnetic yoke. and a black light meter. he/she should remain in the dark for approximately five minutes so that their eyes can adjust. Other requirements for the testing include a pie gage. or when shifting to another fan unit. at the maximum pole spacing is required for each dc electromagnetic yoke. A lifting power of 10 lb. • A yoke probe has both an ac and pulsing dc option with the dc power being able to detect cracks below the surface. Pre-examination The following is a list of requirements that must be thoroughly read and completed prior to conducting the magnetic particle testing [2].EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material the utility personnel prior to usage. • The WFMT method is more sensitive and produces quicker results. a black light. • The intensity of the black light surface must be greater than 800 µW/cm2 for the best experimental results. Below is a list explaining why the wet fluorescent magnetic particle system and yoke probes should be used during inspection [2]. • Clean the surface to be examined sufficiently. 4-4 . If not. make sure that any weights that are used for the first time are checked with an accurate scale. The grid size should be smaller than that of the maximum articulated arm spacing and drawn using chalk or paint markers. • Grid spacing should be laid out appropriately to ensure that the entire area is inspected. • Yoke probes will not produce arc burns on the working surface. Mixed baths are also less expensive than prepared baths. • The testing must be performed in a dark environment when using wet fluorescent particles. A lifting power of at least 40 lb. Check to make sure that the results correspond. which checks for magnetic field strength. Also. • Personnel must have their eyes adjusted to the dark environment prior to testing. • The yoke must be calibrated annually to ensure the following results. • The black light must be warmed up for a minimum of five minutes prior to usage.

• Be sure that the centerline of the yoke coincides with the weld when “straddling” the weld line. [2]. The line direction indicates the direction of the magnetic field orientation. • The base of the legs and material surface should be flush. The articulate legs are adjustable and the maximum spacing is eight inches. which means that all materials should be looked up prior to conducting any magnetic particle examinations. It is important to note that a yoke operating within its calibration period does not guarantee that sufficient field strength is being generated. It is most important for individuals to conduct a follow-up examine with the proper waiting period between the repair and inspection. It is necessary to perform the test again perpendicular to the previous yoke setting and the magnetic field line should follow the same 90° rotation. The weld line can be used as a reference to accomplish this check. The following is a list of additional concerns in using this technique [2]. This allows for flexibility of surface curvature and orientation. The magnetic particle indicator will provide the inspector with proper indication of the magnetic field strength. This should be done once for every fan tested. thus ensuring that 100% of the area was covered. Surface cracks that develop parallel or perpendicular (longitudinal or cross-cracks) to the weld can then be detected by experienced personnel. anything beyond this value weakens the magnetic field. False results can occur if the examination is done before or after the correct waiting period. • During each check the yoke should be approximately three inches to either side of the original position so that sufficient overlap is formed. and a final check for any residual dust should be conducted before the addition of the wet fluorescent particle medium to the surface. The area to be inspected should be cleaned and prepared. Field direction plays an important role in the detection of cracks. 4-5 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Examination Process The following process is dedicated to magnetic particle testing using a yoke with articulated legs [2]. The strength and direction of the magnetic field should then be identified. The second follow-up exam should be done after the completion of weld repairs. The magnetic field strength is indicated by a clearly defined line forming across the face of the copper indictor when acted upon by a magnetic force. Final Examinations Two additional wet-magnetic particle follow-up examinations are necessary to act as a quality check on the accomplished maintenance action. The waiting periods may differ for each material. The first follow-up exam verifies that the entire damaged area has in fact been removed prior to beginning weld repairs.

4-6 . No other action takes place with this downgrade unless group tests recommend that the discontinuity be removed.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Visual Inspection Qualified level II equivalent or supervised personnel should conduct the visual examination on all rotating parts. Blend grinding removes surface irregularities using a rotary file. This is also a chance to allow for the inspection of any missed or problem areas. Both grinding procedures require that the rotary file have a grinding attachment. the NDE personnel can then downgrade the crack to a surface discontinuity. Usage of an emery paper flapper wheel can be used to limit heat cracking. For the application of this method the following three facts should be taken into consideration [2]. the surface to be inspected should be wiped off using a lint-free cloth. Heat cracking can be avoided by limiting both the amount of pressure applied and the metal removal rate. Specific surface discontinuities such as undercut. and erosion cutting should be removed prior to conducting any magnetic particle tests to prevent false results. and blade surfaces [2]. As an example. if the blade is a carbide material the surface will turn gleaming red under the action of excessive pressure. undersizing the welds and the creation of sharp notches that further lead to heat cracking can result from the improper usage of the tool. Another operation that should be taken into consideration if the funding and manpower are available includes blend or contour grinding of weld joints. hubs. After the grinding procedure has been utilized. Contour grinding provides a surface free from discontinuities in a time intensive and costly manner. • Future weld specifications should include contour grinding on all welds. Contour grinding can be implemented into a fan maintenance routine in either of the following four ways [2]. weld seams. If there are no signs of growth during the monitoring period. All surfaces must be examined for visual cracks or discontinuities. • Contour grind welds during an outage. supports. Another approach involves the use of NDE personnel. overlap. This removes the dust particles that were produced via the grinding operation and should be used prior to magnetic particle testing. • Implement contour grinding by requiring a certain number of fans to be reworked annually. • Establish a policy for using contour grinding on all fan unit welds. If the results indicate a potential crack the area is mapped and temporarily monitored. Their purpose is to inspect the area of investigation and determine whether any indications are cracks or surface discontinuities. Cutting into the base metal. but its drawback is that it is very time consuming.

which backscatter the reflected signal to the transducer. The surface is cleaned sufficiently and the liquid dye is applied to the component surface. It then should be allowed to penetrate the discontinuity for approximately ten minutes. A cleaner is used to remove excess liquid penetrant and the surface should be allowed to dry. A piezoelectric transducer is placed in contact with the surface to be tested. The reflected wave is transmitted to the transducer and is displayed on an oscilloscope screen. The damage mechanisms only reflect a portion of the waves at various angles. which are manufactured from cast iron and cast steel. The result is a wave amplitude reduction displayed on the oscilloscope. It also can be used to inspect for voids in fan hubs. To determine the degree of material damage a longitudinal wave is passed through the surface and part of the signal is not reflected back to the receiver if damage is encountered. The PT method is typically used in tight spaces and is only effective where the discontinuity is open to the component surface. This technique can be used to determine the thickness of a fan surface or housing which is subjected to an erosive environment. which creates the highly visible areas of damage. which induces an elastic sound wave that moves through the material. which indicates the degree of damage encountered. It is not dependent on magnetic properties or component geometry [2]. The ultrasonic wave is then reflected back during the encounter of any discontinuity of the material. Liquid Penetrant The liquid penetrant (PT) testing method is used to detect surface cracking of materials. It is utilized to detect surface flaws by the capillary action of the liquid dye penetrant. Ultrasonic testing is the fastest developing NDE technique for pressure components. Magnetic particle and visual examination have no real capability of detection in this area.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • The usage of consistent mapping techniques for effective results • An acceptance standard is developed for element subjectivity • Cracks can initiate from surface discontinuities Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a technique that can be used to detect any cracks or voids below the surface of a material [2]. A developer is then sprayed onto the surface to create reverse capillary action of the cracks. 4-7 . Disturbances are caused in the interatomic spacings.

Frequency should not be a measure of severity unless roller ball bearings are involved. Vibrations with frequencies typically less than four times the machine rpm are the most likely manifestation of problems. Stable amplitude within the manufacturer’s recommended limits results from a stable operating system. Nonsynchronous vibrations are those which are not direct multiples of the machine rpm. velocity. 4-8 . or displacement. Frequency The frequency of a system can be expressed in terms of multiples of rpm. Harmonic vibrations occur in direct multiples or integral fractions of the machine rpm. or cycles-per-minute [2]. Each will be briefly identified to examine their correspondence to vibration monitoring. • Amplitude • Frequency • Phase Angle • Vibration Form • Vibration Mode Shape Amplitude The amplitude of vibration corresponding to fan unit operation can be expressed in terms of acceleration. the machine would need to be investigated. Vibrations in a fan unit can lead to unbalance and misalignment.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Vibration and Balancing Vibration Parameters Fans can be reasonably analyzed via the following five operating parameters [2]. but there is no direct relation between these problems and the frequency of vibration. cycles-persecond (Hz). and serves as an indicator for severity of vibration by measuring how rough or smooth the system is operating [2]. If this amplitude changes to a new value or continuously fluctuates.

but it is important to note that the results are relative to either a fixed or rotating point. • Amplitude vs. Vibration Analysis The following is a list of different techniques used to obtain and display vibration data [2]. structural resonance.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Phase Angle The phase angle provides a reference measure of movement of a specific point on the shaft or rotor [2]. Vibration Mode Shape The vibration mode shape is found by recording the phase and vibration values at equivalent distance points along a plane passing through the draft fan drive train [2]. or loose/cracked foundations can be identified. which is expressed in degrees. locating nodal points. This wave pattern represents shaft motion. If conducting measurements along a drive train of the casing. can be used in the balancing of fan rotors and analyzing the mode shape of vibration Vibration Form The vibration form is the actual representation of the vibration via wave patterns [2]. Vibration form can be analyzed through an oscilloscope as well as certain wave form characteristics such as shape. This method allows for operating engineers to observe centerline shaft motion. The orbital presentation utilizes two probes spaced 90° apart from each other in the X-Y mode of an oscilloscope. The phase angle measurement can be conducted relative to a fixed point such as a transducer or to a rotating point. The time-base presentation utilizes input from a displacement transducer. and identifying points of weakness. which is displayed on the oscilloscope monitor in the time-base mode. This allows the operating engineers to examine what the fan unit is doing at a particular instant of time. amplitude. This will provide information about resonance conditions. problems such as pipe resonance. Vibration can be displayed in either time-base or orbital modes. Frequency 4-9 . The measurement of the phase angle. A high spot located on a shaft or a concentration of uneven weight that may have collected on the fan rotor can be used for identification of the point. and pattern.

and axial directions of each bearing. Two features available with real time analyzers are the HOLD and PEAK HOLD. This action stores the transient signal into the analyzer’s memory for future analysis. This method will work if the operator is fully aware of when the transient signal will occur and if the transient signal occurs slow enough for the operator to depress the HOLD button. Frequency Analysis This vibration analysis method is considered the most useful analysis technique and it can be used to identify over 85% of the mechanical problems occurring on rotating equipment [2]. nor when the vibrations are transient in nature [2]. The use of a real-time spectrum analyzer allows operating and maintenance personnel to “capture” and analyze vibration signatures. vibration amplitude. • Vibration readings are to be taken at the horizontal. with additional usage of an X-Y recorder providing the feature of automatic plotting of frequency vs. Another option is to use an automatic frequency tuner. The feature provides a means to “manually capture” the transient signal. This reduces human error by eliminating the chance of missing significant vibration frequencies and it reduces the actual analysis time by eliminating time spent on fine-tuning to each significant frequency. • Select a single amplitude range setting sufficient for the entire analysis. A vibration pickup probe and vibration analyzer are the primary equipment needed. Real-Time Spectrum Analysis (the most commonly used method today) This method is most effective when vibrations are not steady state. • Obtain an overall “filter out” amplitude and frequency reading (in each of the three positions) at each bearing. A list of additional recommendations to follow when using this method is found below [2]. vertical. which eliminates the need for operators to manually tune through the frequency spectrum. • Select the appropriate amplitude range setting on the vibration analyzer sufficient for the maximum vibration signature in order to obtain data that is plotted on the same range. The HOLD control is operator-initiated when the transient frequency reaches it maximum amplitude.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Real-Time Spectrum Analysis • Time Wave Form Amplitude vs. PEAK HOLD is a feature that provides a method to capture and store a transient signal in 4-10 . It has uses in continuous monitoring/machine protection and equipment diagnostic checks.

Possible causes of vibration are listed below so that extreme caution and proper preparation are taken into consideration to help cease vibrational damage mechanisms [2]. Either method is sufficient for the quick and easy vibrational analysis. Corrosion. • Improper balancing • Insufficient blade shape similarity • Resonance • Loose components • Too little / too much rotational part clearance • Structural damage / Unsuitable Foundation • Erosion. High/Low Cycle Fatigue. which specifies the percentage of the signal’s amplitude prior to the beginning of the process. For usage of this feature. Time Wave Form Analysis This analysis utilizes an oscilloscope to provide a time display of vibration amplitude [2]. which creates an out-of-phase harmonic excitation of the fan unit’s rotation 4-11 . The detection circuits will find this criteria and automatically capture an incoming transient signal. Vibration Causes Vibration is a common damage mechanism associated with fossil power plant fan units and therefore must be addressed in any maintenance routine. which provides a true measure of the maximum amplitude present. the operator must set the trigger level.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material situations that do not meet those conditions required for the HOLD feature. The data is not filtered. Using an oscilloscope can also provide an excellent means for observing and evaluating transient behavior of vibrational signals resulting from fan pulsation or control problems. The oscilloscope can be set up to receive signals from either the transducer or a real-time spectrum analyzer. deposit buildup • Improper Lubrication • Damper Freezing • Unsuitable ductwork design • Improper operation of surrounding components.

Dust Collection Devices There are three primary types of dust collection devices that are used for the ash removal from the flue gas prior to entering the stack [5]. fans present an additional hazard due to their ability to suck in not only air and gas. thus leading to environmental concern. These include mechanical collectors. The structural damage may further lead to catastrophic failure. They are important for the proper operation of fan units and must be included in any maintenance routine. Centrifugal and gravitational force separates the dust particles. which fall through the 4-12 . and inertial forces to remove fly ash from the circulating flue gas [5]. electrostatic precipitators. During operation. water. Although rotating equipment provides normal dangers. Dust collection devices limit the particulate buildup on fan units due to their ability to remove large percentages of fly ash from the flue gases. Cleanup Two of the most important elements of any fan repair service are fan balancing and proper cleanup. rotor imbalance often causes vibration. blade erosion. Static and dynamic balancing should be achieved during maintenance shutdown by running the fan at full speed first with no flow and then at full flow. which is then readmitted into the boiler. Fan units also have the ability to discharge debris through projectile motion. The loose material is drawn in through the fan unit. The gases spin through vanes between the inner and outer tubes and then reverse their direction up through the inner tube and are released from the collector. To avoid these serious and costly regimens it is important to conduct a full visual inspection in all ductwork so that foreign material is removed prior to fan unit startup. or uneven thermal growth of the wheel. Mechanical Collectors Mechanical collectors use centrifugal. Diagnostic field testing and on-line monitoring techniques should be utilized to make sure that proper balance is maintained. Mechanical collectors utilize multi-tube units through the removal of fly ash via centrifugal action. which poses the threat of structural damage. gravitational.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Balancing Proper Balance is an important goal in fan units to prevent vibration damage mechanisms that could possibly harm other power plant components [2]. and bag filterhouses. they are typically used to remove material containing carbon. but also any loose material that exists within the fan housing. In industry. The possibility of changes in alignment or shifting foundations can not be discounted either. This improves boiler emissions as well as boiler efficiency. The imbalance can result from fly-ash accumulation in eroded blades.

Bag Filterhouses Bag filterhouses are used to remove fly ash from flue gases and typically have efficiencies slightly greater than 99. The majority of the sulfur is converted to SO2 and the remainder becoming SO3. This requires the use of electrostatic precipitators who can reliably remove 99. FGD systems become an integral part of power plant operation. Flue gas is distributed uniformly between the rows of grounded collecting plates and discharge electrodes. • Wet scrubbers using lime or limestone • Dry scrubbers • Coal gasification • Fluidized-bed combustion • Reduction of the sulfur content in the fuel 4-13 . Sulfur dioxide is a gas formed through the combustion process of air and fuel. a mechanical shaker or pulse-jet baghouses are used to remove the dust and dislodge fly ash into the hopper. of which approximately 50% are less than 10 microns in size [5].9% of the fly ash from the flue gases. which are then attracted to the grounded collecting plate. Baghouses are characterized by their means of removing fly ash from the flue gas. Periodically a vibrational mechanism is induced to cause the collected dust particles to fall into the hoppers. Often.9% [5]. As the emissions requirements become less tolerant. Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Equipment Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment was introduced in the utility industry in the 1970’s for the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions [5]. Electrostatic Precipitators Approximately 80% of the ash that precipitates through a boiler is fly ash. Then a high-voltage dc current is introduced to ionize the dust particles.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material bottom of the collector and into the hopper. The primary ways to reduce pollutant discharge into the atmosphere are listed below [5]. These collectors typically remove 92% of the fly ash from the flue gases. in reverse-air collectors air is forced through the bags in the direction opposite to that of filtration following the removal of the compartment containing the bags from service. For example.

Pre-startup Checks Summary of all parts [2]: • Verify oil levels / sample oil • Verify supporting system alignments 4-14 . It is important to note the sound paths and the corresponding power from each in an attempt to produce noise reduction. etc. and repair of fan units on a regular basis. Sometimes it is convenient for utilities to utilize both methods. Since the wall has a larger area. and turbulence created by the fan while adding energy to the air stream [3]. outlet. and shutdown periods will be identified to retain standard power plant efficiencies as well as safety precautions. The intensity of the blade passage tone is dependent upon the size (width of impeller) and the cutoff or stator vanes. It is also important to realize that vibration mechanism and maintenance checks are performed during all fan operational modes to limit the noise amplitude. Most common noises are at fairly high frequencies and are best contained with double structures (porous glass fiber between inner steel and outer lead linings). Each utility plant should make a schedule of repair for inspection. barriers. Basic Maintenance Maintenance checks associated with boiler fan units during the pre-start. operating. if no modification can be performed. the noise may be worse than the initial source. it should be of extreme importance to incorporate this in power plant operating procedures. The sound-source must be isolated from the wall to prevent vibration. A maintenance routine should be developed for each of the major components that comprise the total fan unit in order to track reoccurring damage mechanisms as well as to prevent them. The tone primarily radiates from the inlet. which is generated by the impeller blades. One way to abate noise is to isolate it by enclosures. Another way to abate noise is to find the source and replace it with a less noisy one. but that of the housing is quite lower. data acquisition. or casing of a fan unit. The inlet and outlet sounds are approximately on the same order of power. The cost of replacing fan unit parts and downtime far exceeds that of a regular repair routine. The structure must be leak tight further emphasizing that small leaks between panels and around openings for supply pipes must be avoided. Therefore.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Noise Control Two principal sources of sound produced within a fan include blade passage tone.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Conduct equipment visual inspection walkdown / wipedown Operational Checks Major Components [2]: Bearings • Monitor / sample oil • Monitor bearing temperature / vibration • Verify operation of oil rings • Conduct visual inspection of fasteners / peripheral equipment • Wipe down bearing housing • Relubricate moving parts Couplings • Unusual noise / vibration monitoring • Check for seepage-grease / rubber-like dust Dampers • Inspect linkage assembly • Verify correct operation • Unusual noise / vibration monitoring Water Cooling System • Verify flow / adjust to maintain correct bearing operating temperature • Check for water leakage / heat tracing • Inspect hoses for wear indications 4-15 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Conduct visual inspection of fasteners / peripheral equipment Fluid Drives • Inspect for leaks / unusual noise / vibration / foundation fasteners • Monitor hydraulic oil pressure / temperature • Sample hydraulic oil • Wipe down equipment Actuators • Monitor for unusual noise / vibration • Verify that actuator position is tracking correctly with damper position indicator • Check air connections / air piping for leaks • Wipe down dirt / dust / grease buildup • Monitor linkages for correct operation • Inspect electrical conduit connections Circulating Oil System • Verify proper oil pressure / temperature / oil level in sump • Check for alarm conditions • Wipe down equipment • Check for oil leakage • Conduct inspection of fasteners / peripheral equipment • Monitor for unusual noise / vibration • Inspect lube oil quality • Monitor differential pressure across filter elements Instrumentation • Inspect sensors for looseness / improper installation 4-16 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Verify that all electrical connections are in good working order • Investigate all alarm conditions Expansion Joints • Inspect for cracks • Check for fly-ash buildup / uneven expansion or contraction Turning Gears • Observe for unusual noise / vibration • Inspect electric conduit connections • Inspect worm gear reducer / clutch / flexible coupling for indications of leaking lubricant • Wipe down equipment Structural Support System • Inspect for cracks / foundation bolts for proper torque setting • Wipe up excess dirt / oil • Record corrosion development Housing / Ducting • Inspect housing / ducting / slide plates / foundations Electric Motor • Inspect lubrication / connections / bearing temperature • Monitor for unusual noise / vibration / arcing / blue smoke • Check prefilter for cleanliness Hydraulic Blade Adjustment Regulating System 4-17 .

etc.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Inspect for leakage / hoses for wear indications / hydraulic oil quality • Verify proper hydraulic oil pressure / temperature • Check for proper oil level • Verify operation of indicator lights / respective equipment / pump / clean filter status Out-of-Service Checks Major Components [2]: Bearings • Sample / inspect lube oil • If a satisfactory sample is obtained: Replenish oil to bearing sump • If a satisfactory sample is not obtained: Open and inspect bearing Inspect babbitt surface for scoring Check for babbitt tightness Check sleeve bore inner diameter Check shaft journal for ridges and grooves Inspect thrust collars Check clearance Alignment checks Clean and inspect journal to bearing surfaces Inspect water and oil cavities for dirt. corrosion. Inspect oil rings Inspect bearing housing / fasteners Inspect sensor cavities Replenish oil bearing sump Develop material history file 4-18 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

• If indications of wear or damage are present: Disassemble bearing Inspect for damage / worn races, rollers, balls, etc. Repair and repack with grease • If indications of wear or damage are not present: Re-install bearing

Couplings • Disassemble coupling • Clean / inspect all internal components • Check for cleanliness and any nicks / burs on the shafts • Sample / test grease • Ensure fasteners have the proper torque value • Reassemble • Lubricate • Conduct alignment checks

Dampers • Remove old grease • Clean blades • Visual inspection • Disassemble damper bearings • Inspect blade shafts • Reassemble • Test operate dampers

Water Cooling System • Secure / isolate cooling water from bearing • Inspect flexible hose / valve / piping


EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

• Check heat tracing

Fluid Drives • Overhaul fluid drive • Check condition of foundation / alignment • Inspect / clean flexible couplings • Calibrate vibration / temperature sensors • Inspect / overhaul oil supply pump • Flush oil lines with clean hydraulic oil

Actuators • Clean / paint actuator housing • Open and inspect internal components of gear drive box • Check continuity of drive motor / ground conductor for proper installation / material condition • Inspect limit switches / foundation / mounting base for cracking and looseness / electric conduit connections for wear and damage • Clean slide wire / positioner integral shutoff / equalizing valve assembly • Calibrate • Service rotary vane / positioner output valves • Lubricate grease fittings

Circulating Oil System • Calibrate / inspect instrumentation sensors • Inspect water-cooled heat exchanger / pumps / electric components / fan and aircooled heat exchanger / filters / strainers • Open / inspect sumps • Inspect / clean exterior surfaces • Prime / vent system components and lines


EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Instrumentation • Calibrate / replace • Sensor cavities • Inspect all lines / cables

Expansion Joints • Inspect expansion joints / fly-ash buildup • Conduct cold checks

Turning Gears • Inspect oil quality from worm gear reducer • If turning gear is not idle for extended time: Overhaul worm gear / flexible coupling / clutch assembly. • If turning gear is idle for extended time: Conduct lay-up maintenance

Structural Support System • Inspect for cracks / corrosion / anchor bolts • Clean surface

Housing / Ducting • Inspect and repair housing / ducting / foundations / slide plates • Refurbish ductwork exterior

Electric Motor • Drain / flush / relubricate bearings • Inspect motor internals for oil leakage / electrical connections / all internal fasteners / brushes / motor accessories / main power connections • Open access doors and coverings


Improper installation can cause frictional losses.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material • Measure stator winding insulation resistance Hydraulic Blade Adjustment Regulating System • Inspect servo / regulating lever assembly • Service hydraulic supply system Centrifugal Fan Wheel • Blade / centerplate / sideplate / shaft / hub inspections • Clearance of rotating parts • Conduct NDE techniques – examples: VT / PT / WFMT / MT / UT • Fan wheel balancing • Location and size of balancing weight • Correct welding procedure • Fly-ash buildup • Damage mechanisms Maintenance Actions to Conserve Energy Table 4-1: General Maintenance Actions for Energy Conservation [2] Maintenance Actions To Conserve Energy Item Problem Out of alignment. System leaks increase the horsepower required. improper installation Comment Keep couplings properly aligned and lubricated to avoid friction losses Seals that have excessive wear permit air/gas stream leakage. lack of lubrication Seals Excessive wear. 4-22 . Couplings Air/gas distribution ducts fan housing expansion joints Dampers/vanes Leakage Improper setting or synchronization Improper setting or synchronization causes pressure drop losses.

All problems listed increase horsepower required. Sensors/instrumentation Incorrect readings Electric motor Alignment. thereby increasing the HP requirements to deliver the required flow. Excessive clearance will cause recirculation to develop. Lube oil Fan Wheel Clean lube oil means less friction losses. inadequate lubrication of bearings Contaminated Excessive clearance between the rim of the fan impeller and the housing inlet code. 4-23 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Variable speed drives Improper operation Verify that the variable speed drive has been "tuned" to deliver the ordered output. dirty filters. An out-of-calibrated sensor may give erroneous readings.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 4-24 .

B.04 1995 7. 1992. CA: February 2000. Singer. EPRI. McGraw-Hill. ASTM V1. McGraw-Hill. Ohio. Avelon. 9. Combustion Engineering. Woodruff. TR-101698. 1986. Windsor. al. 2.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material 5 REFERENCES 1. Buffalo Forge Company. Warren H. Connecticut. EPRI. 8. McGraw Hill. Industrial Radial Tip Fans. Krutzsch. Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineer’s. Igor J. Combustion Fossil Power. 1996. Manual of Bearing Failures and Repair in Power Plant Rotating Equipment. Bearing Technology Topics. Stultz. Palo Alto. Chicago Fans. 1992. Messina. Pump Handbook. TR113059-V2. and J. CA: January 1993. Mechanical Draft and other Heavy Duty Fans. Barberton. et. Karassick. Bulletin FD 906. Theodore Baumeister III. Steam-Plant Operation. Boston Massachusetts. 10th Edition. 10. 5-1 . Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Draft Fans. NY. Inc. Palo Alto. Bulletin IRT 102. 1991. William C. Palo Alto. Babcock & Wilcox. Inc. Everett B. Steam and its Generation and Use. Joseph G. 5. Electric Power Research Institute. and Joseph P. GS-7352. 11. NY. 6.C. 4. 3. Buffalo. Eugene. Kitto. New York. Second Edition. Chicago. Fraser. S. CA: July 1991. Volume 2. IL..

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material A APPENDIX A-1 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material A-2 .

pad welds and fillet welds Position: Flat Progression: Uphill Preheat: 200 °F Interpass Temperature: 400 °F (Max) Post Heat: Not required Weld Data: * For Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Electrical Data Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 90-110 25 6 to 8 Rev. * For Interpass Temperature: 350 °F Electrical Data Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 90-100 25 4 to 8 Rev. SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 110-120 25 4 to 8 Rev.1 A-3 . SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 110-115 25 6 to 8 Rev.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: American Electric Power Material Type: High yield strength quenched and tempered alloy steel fan blades ASTM A 514 Types A and G. M-11B Process: SMAW Filler Metal: 9018-M Joint Design: Groove welds. multipass. and single electrode Base Metal: 1/16 to 2” Weld Max: 2” Supporting Qualification (PQR): 247 & 248 Weld Procedure Number: Fan. Technique: Stringer Bead.

Technique: Stringer Bead. pad welds and fillet welds Position: Flat Progression: Uphill Preheat: 250 °F Interpass Temperature: 400 °F (Max) Post Heat: Not required Weld Data: * For Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Electrical Data Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 90-100 25 4 to 8 Rev. multipass.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: American Electric Power Material Type: High strength alloy steel fan blades ASTM A 542 Classes 1 and 2. SMAW 1/8" E9018M DC 110-120 25 4 to 8 Rev. M11A. and single electrode Base Metal: 3/16 to 2” Weld Max: 2” Supporting Qualification (PQR): 248 & 251 Weld Procedure Number: Fan. M-11B Process: SMAW Filler Metal: 9018-M Joint Design: Groove welds.2 A-4 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: American Electric Power Material Type: High strength-low alloy steel fan blade liners and centerplates ASTM A 441. multipass. pad welds and fillet welds Position: Flat Progression: Uphill Preheat: 70 °F 150 °F for thickness over 3/4” Interpass Temperature: 400 °F (Max) Post Heat: Not required Weld Data: * For Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Electrical Data Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Process Size SMAW 1/8" SMAW 1/8" Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM E7018 DC 90-100 25 4 to 8 Rev. M-1 Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E7018 Joint Design: Groove welds. Technique: Stringer Bead. and single electrode Base Metal: 3/16 to 2” Weld Max: 2” Supporting Qualification (PQR): 252 Weld Procedure Number: Fan. E7018 DC 110-120 25 4 to 8 Rev.3 A-5 .

045" E90T5-K2 DCEP 200-220 30-31 5 to 13 3/8" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass All fillet thicknesses Stringer Bead Supporting Qualification (PQR): FC-40 Weld Procedure Number: 00-11-FC-40 (1) A-6 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: ASTM A514 to 8620 Base Materials Process: FCAW Filler Metal: E90T5-K2 Gas: Shield: 75% Ar / 25% CO2 Purge: None Trade Name: Praxair C25 Flow Rate: 25 CFH Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Bead Width FCAW . paint. scale.400 °F Post Heat: 1075 °F for 2 hours Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1-16 Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max. Joint Design: 60° Double Bevel – open butt Position: Flat 1G Progression: Backhand Preheat: 150 °F Interpass Temperature: 150 °F . and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions.

300 °F Post Heat: 950 °F for 1 hour Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1-8 Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: ASTM A514 (P-11B) Process: FCAW Filler Metal: E90T5-K2 Gas: Shield: 75% Ar / 25% CO2 Purge: None Trade Name: C-25 Flow Rate: 28 CFH Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. paint.2 3/8" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Stringer Bead Supporting Qualification (PQR): 2K-18 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-FC-29 (1) A-7 . scale. rust. Bead Width FCAW 1/16 " E90T5-K2 DCEP 290-320 30-31 11 to 22. Joint Design: 45° Double Bevel Position: Flat 1G Progression: Backhand Preheat: 150 °F Interpass Temperature: 250 °F .

Joint Design: 60° Single Bevel – open butt Position: Flat 1G Progression: Backhand Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max. Bead Width FCAW .045" E90T5-K2 DCEP 180-280 25-31 5 to 16 1/2" FCAW 1/16" E90T5-K2 DCEP 240-320 26-32 8 to 17 1/2" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Stringer Bead Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) 3/16" to 5/8” 5/8" to 1-1/4" 1-1/4" to 2” Minimum Preheat Temperature 150 F 200 F 250 F Supporting Qualification (PQR): FC-40 Weld Procedure Number: 00-11-FC-40 (2) A-8 . scale. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions.40 CFH Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Post Heat: 1075 +/. paint.25°F (1 hour per inch) Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: 8620 Base Material to ASTM A514 Process: FCAW Filler Metal: E90T5-K2 Gas: Shield: 75% Ar / 25% CO2 Purge: None Trade Name: Praxair C25 Flow Rate: 25 .

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: ASTM A514 (P-11B) Process: FCAW Filler Metal: E90T5-K2 Gas: Shield: 75% Ar / 25% CO2 Purge: None Trade Name: C-25 Flow Rate: 25 . scale. paint. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. Bead Width FCAW . Post Heat: 950 °F (1 hour minimum / inch of thickness) Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.40 CFH Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Joint Design: 45° Single Bevel Position: Flat 1G Progression: Backhand Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 300 °F Max. rust.045" E90T5-K2 DCRP 180-280 21-31 10 to 25 3/8" FCAW 1/16" E90T5-K2 DCRP 240-320 26-32 12 to 27 3/8" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Stringer Bead Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) 3/16" to 5/8” 5/8" to 1-1/2" Minimum Preheat Temperature 150 F 200 F Supporting Qualification (PQR): 2K-18 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-FC-29 (2) A-9 .

Bead Width FCAW .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Buffalo Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 Grade A to Grade A Process: FCAW (Root) / SAW (Fill) Filler Metal: E110T5-K2 (Root) / F11A4-EF5-F5 (Fill) Gas: Shield: 75% Ar / 25% CO2 (Root) / N/A (Fill) Trade Name: C-25 (Root) / Linde 709-5 (Fill) Purge: None (Root) / N/A (Fill) Flow Rate: 35 CFH (Root) / N/A (Fill) Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. moisture. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. Interpass Temperature: 350 °F Max. Joint Design: Double Vee Groove Position: Flat 1G Progression: Flat Preheat:150 °F Min. paint. scale. Post Heat: 1075 for 4 hours Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.045" E110T5-K2 DCEP 200 30 14 3/8” SAW 5/32" F11A4-EF5-F5 DCEP 470 33 13 to 18 1" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Stringer Bead Supporting Qualification (PQR): 020 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-SA-5 (1) A-10 .

350 °F Max for base metal thickness of ½” and below. Stringer Bead Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) 3/16" to 5/8” 5/8" to 1-1/4" 1-1/4" and above Minimum Preheat Temperature 150 F 200 F 250 F Supporting Qualification (PQR): 020 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-SA-5 (2) A-11 . scale. paint. SAW 5/32" F11A4-EF5-F5 DCEP 425-575 29-37 17 to 24 1-1/2" 1/2” to Max. moisture. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. SAW 1/8" F11A4-EF5-F5 DCEP 275-500 26-38 16 to 22 1-1/8" Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass. Bead Width 3/16” to 1/2” SAW 5/32" F11A4-EF5-F5 DCEP 425-525 29-33 16 to 20 1-1/4" 1/2” to Max.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Buffalo Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 Grade A & E Process: SAW Filler Metal: F11A4-EF5-F5 Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: Linde 709-5 Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Post Heat: 1075 +/.25°F (1 hour per inch thickness) Weld Data: Filler Metal Electrical Data Pass Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max. Joint Design: Single Vee Groove Position: Flat 1G Progression: Head-Stationary Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max for base metal thickness of ½” and above.

uniform. Bead Width SMAW 1/8" E-9018-M DCRP 130 24 6 2X wire diameter Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Stringer Bead Supporting Qualification (PQR): 213 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-SM-18 (1) Special Instructions: Gouge root to sound metal before welding second side. free from moisture. Joint Preparation: Surface and edges smooth. rotary burrs. Post Heat: 1075 +/. Joint Design: Single Vee Groove – Open butt Position: Flat 1G Progression: Backhand Preheat: 150 °F Min.25°F per 9.3 Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1 thru Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max. slag. loose or thick scale. rust or grease within ½”. A-12 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 Grade E Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E9018-M Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: N/A Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Each pass of deposited metal thoroughly cleaned using slag hammer grinding wheels. Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 Grade E Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E9018-M Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: N/A Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Each pass of deposited metal thoroughly cleaned using slag hammer grinding wheels. uniform. A-13 .3 (1 hour per inch thickness) Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1 thru Fill 1 thru Fill 1 thru Fill Process SMAW SMAW SMAW Electrical Data Max. Joint Preparation: Surface and edges smooth. Bead Width 2X wire diameter 2X wire diameter 2X wire diameter Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM 5/32" E-9018-M DCRP 120-190 20-28 6-12 1/8" E-9018-M DCRP 115-155 21-29 6-12 3/32" E-9018-M DCRP 70-110 21-30 9-12 Technique: Multiple Arc – Single Pass Stringer Bead Supporting Qualification (PQR): 213 Weld Procedure Number: 11-11-SM-18 (2) Special Instructions: Gouge root to sound metal before welding second side.All fillets Progression: Backhand Preheat: 150 °F Min.25°F per 9. All tacks are to be preheated to specified temperature. Joint Design: Single Vee Groove – Open butt Position: Flat 1G . free from moisture. rust or grease within ½”. Post Heat: 1075 +/. slag. loose or thick scale. rotary burrs. Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max.

Electrodes must be placed in an oven maintained at 250-300 °F. should not be performed. Electrode type E110-18-M furnished in a hermetically sealed container without evidence of damage shall not require baking. Weld Area: Defects where the excavation does not extend more than 1/32” into base material and the full fillet is still intact. Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil.-1 A-14 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Sirocco Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 to itself or to ASTM A441 Process: SMAW (1st Layer .S. Electrodes can not be placed back into the oven once taken out and they must be either discarded or used. Others should be done by air-arc gouging and/or grinding and require welding. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions.Half Bead and Buttered) Filler Metal: E90-18M or E110-18M For A514 or 517 steels. scale..Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM SMAW 3/32" E90-18M or 80-100 Maintain a short arc >6 E110-18M SMAW 1/8" E90-18M or 110-140 Length to limit voltage >6 E110-18M Technique: Stringer Bead Weld Procedure Number: H.should extend for at least 6” in all directions pass the repair area Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max. paint. electrodes of any classification lower than E110XX shall be baked at least one hour at a temperature 700-800 °F before being used. Post Heat: 200-250 °F for 4 hours Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1 2 . They must be used within 30 minutes of their removal.R. Remove from oven only when needed for welding applications. Position: Flat 1G Preheat: 200 °F Min. Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: N/A Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition.

E-7028. Post Heat: 150-200 °F for 4 hours Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1 2 . E-7016.Fill Electrical Data Process Size Class Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM SMAW 3/32" E90-18M or 70-100 Maintain a short arc >6 E110-18M SMAW 1/8" E90-18M or 105-140 Length to limit voltage >6 E110-18M Technique: Stringer Bead Weld Procedure Number: H.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Sirocco Material Type: Welding of ASTM A441 to itself or to any lower strength base material.should extend for at least 6” in all directions pass the repair area Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max. Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: N/A Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. paint. Electrodes can not be placed back into the oven once they have been taken out and they must be either discarded or used.S. Position: Flat 1G Preheat: 150 °F Min. or E-7015 Electrodes must be placed in an oven maintained at 250-300 °F. Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E-7018. Weld Area: Defects where the excavation does not extend more than 1/32” into base material and the full fillet is still intact. should not be performed. Remove from oven only when needed for welding applications. Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Others should be done by air-arc gouging and/or grinding and require welding. They must be used within 30 minutes of their removal.R. scale..-2 A-15 .

Fill Process Size SMAW SMAW 3/32" 1/8" Class E7018M E7018M Electrical Data Type Amperage 80-100 110-140 Travel IPM Maintain a short arc > 7 Length to limit >7 voltage Volts Technique: Stringer Bead Weld Procedure Number: HCS-2a A-16 .EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Howden Fan Material Type: Welding of ASTM A514 to itself or to ASTM A588 Process: SMAW (1st Layer . They must be used within 30 minutes of their removal. and other foreign material for a minimum of 1” in all directions. Position: Flat 1G Preheat: 200-250 °F and should extend for at least 6” in all directions pass the repair.Half Bead and Buttered) Filler Metal: E7018M Electrodes must be placed in an oven maintained at 250-300 °F. Weld Area: Defects where the excavation does not extend more than 1/32” into base material and the full fillet is still intact. Joint Preparation: All surfaces are to be free of oil. Electrodes can not be placed back into the oven once taken out and they must be either discarded or used. Post Heat: Control the cooling of the weld repair when the ambient temperature is below 50 °F to avoid a quenching condition. should not be performed. Remove from oven only when needed for welding applications. Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass 1 2 . Interpass Temperature: 400 °F Max. scale. Gas: Shield: N/A Purge: N/A Trade Name: N/A Flow Rate: N/A Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind before next bead deposition. Others should be done by air-arc gouging and/or grinding and require welding. paint.

Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Thickness range: 3/16” to 3/4” Diameter range: All fillet thicknesses Supporting Qualification (PQR): F.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Louisiana Power & Light Material Type: Materials with carbon equivalent less than 0.D-1 Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) Up to 1/4" 1/4" to 3/4" 3/4" to 1-1/4" 1-1/4" to 1-3/4" Minimum Preheat Temperature 100 F 150 F 200 F 250 F Special Instructions: Use temperbead and butterbead techniques A-17 . U: grooves and fillets Position: Flat and Horizontal Progression: N/A Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 300 °F (Max) Post Heat: None Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Gas/Flux Electrical Data Process Size Class Classification Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max. Bead Width SMAW 3/32" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 24-26 4 to 8 1/8" Rev. Balance SMAW 1/8" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 24-26 4 to 8 1/8" Rev.4 Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E 7018 only Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind as required Joint Design: Single V.D-3-Q and F.D-4-Q Weld Procedure Number: F. U. Double V.

Double V.D-1-Q.D-2 Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) Up to 1/4" 1/4" to 3/4" 3/4" to 1-1/4" 1-1/4" to 1-3/4" Minimum Preheat Temperature 150 F 200 F 250 F 300 F Special Instructions: Use temperbead and butterbead techniques A-18 . F. Bead Width SMAW 3/32" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 22-27 4 to 8 1/8" Rev.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Louisiana Power & Light Material Type: Materials with carbon equivalent 0. F. Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Thickness range: 3/16” to 3/4” Diameter range: All fillet thicknesses Supporting Qualification (PQR): F.4 to 0. Balance SMAW 1/8" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 22-27 4 to 8 1/8" Rev.D-6-Q Weld Procedure Number: F. and F.5 Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E 7018 only Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind as required Joint Design: Single V. U.D-5-Q. U: grooves and fillets Position: Flat and Horizontal Progression: N/A Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 350 °F (Max) Post Heat: None Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Gas/Flux Electrical Data Process Size Class Classification Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.D-2-Q.

D-3 Additional Information: Base Metal Thickness (Thickest part only) Up to 1/4" 1/4" to 3/4" 3/4" to 1-1/4" 1-1/4" to 1-3/4" Minimum Preheat Temperature 200 F 250 F 300 F 350 F Special Instructions: Use temperbead and butterbead techniques A-19 .D-2Q.6 Process: SMAW Filler Metal: E 7018 only Cleaning (initial and interpass): Wire brush and grind as required Joint Design: Single V. Double V. and F. F.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Louisiana Power & Light Material Type: Materials with carbon equivalent 0. U. F.D-5Q.D-6Q Weld Procedure Number: F. Technique: Single Arc – Multiple Pass Thickness range: 3/16” to 3/4” Diameter range: All fillet thicknesses Supporting Qualification (PQR): F. Balance SMAW 1/8" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 22-25 4 to 8 1/8" Rev.D-1Q. U: grooves and fillets Position: Flat and Horizontal Progression: N/A Preheat: See Additional Information Interpass Temperature: 350 °F (Max) Post Heat: None Weld Data: Filler Metal Pass Root Gas/Flux Electrical Data Process Size Class Classification Type Amperage Volts Travel IPM Max.5 to 0. Bead Width SMAW 3/32" E7018 Low Hydrogen DC 90-110 22-25 4 to 8 1/8" Rev.

Temperbead Electrodes: E11018-M.000 Joules per inch of weld Minimum draft-free ambient temperature for welding shall be 50 °F Technique: Stringer beads only Weld Procedure Number: CA-WR-2000-001 Rev. Quenched & Tempered High Strength. wire brush Joint Preparation: Carbide burr grinder Position: Flat or Horizontal Preheat: Min. 400 °F Weld Data: Heat input shall be limited to 60.EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Company Name: Nipsco Base Material: P11B Thickness: 1-1/2” Max.0 A-20 . Low Alloy Steel Process: SMAW . air-chipping hammers. 200 °F Interpass Temperature: Max. diameter 3/32” Cleaning: Needle guns. Max.


S. the company provides a wide range of innovative products and services to more than 1000 energy-related organizations in 40 countries.313. their customers. EPRI. Inc. California 94303 • USA 800.3774 • 650.2121 • askepri@epri. Palo Alto. Inc. Palo Alto. POWERING PROGRESS is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute. California 94304 • PO Box 10412.epri. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 1007082 Printed on recycled paper in the United States EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue. EPRI. Powering Progress © 2002 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). U. Now known simply as EPRI.855. and society.About EPRI EPRI creates science and technology solutions for the global energy and energy services industry. Inc. electric utilities established the Electric Power Research Institute in 1973 as a nonprofit research consortium for the benefit of utility members. EPRI’s multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers draws on a worldwide network of technical and business expertise to help solve today’s toughest energy and environmental .com • www.