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News analysis Health Business

Reviving Measles and rubella: Why banks won’t hurry


Anti-gay Bill One disease or two? to cut interest rates

Issue No. 595 Oct. 25 - 31 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Sabiiti on
the spot
Exposing the police
boss’s biggest problem

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Oct. 25 - 31 2019 1
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Issue No. 595 Oct. 25 - 31 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Sabiiti on the spot
Exposing the police boss’s biggest problem

5 The Week
30 Comments
EC starts verification of voters’
register at village level Fact-checking against
misinformation: Effective
fact-checking requires efforts to
9 The Last Word
improve public access to reliable
Inside Europe’s savior complex: information and corrections
How Western efforts to remake Africa
have changed from colonialism to
32 Health
international development assistance
Measles and
14 Analysis rubella: One
disease or two?
Reviving Anti-gay Bill: Why it’s a
costly waste of time for Ugandans

35 Arts & Culture


27 Business
Introspection into cool Afrika:
Why banks won’t hurry to cut interest Art that speaks to Africa’s
rates: Industry executives to respond to emancipation on show
Mutebile’s call upon carefully evaluating
their commitments with clients

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Patricia Akankwatsa, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
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2 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
inbox

“It is time to show the judges from


the five East African countries that
the dictator here, who has been
around for 33 years, uses violence,
non compliance and all crooked
means to remain in power, so it is
their time to rule on the same”, Male
Mabirizi petitioner
Deputy IGP Maj Gen Stevin Sabiiti Muzeeyi (C) address the press on security plans. suggested five plans
to curb crimes including; Suggestion boxes at all LC 1 offices and useful WhatsApp info to 0707144144
in the Deputy IGP’s office, proper and effective use of the CCTV cameras, fingerprinting of all guns,
personal and premise security including linking the police contacts to all members of the public, Police
response will be quicker enhanced by linking calls to alert squads and patrollers, repeat offenders to be
handled through the judicial system.  INDEPENDENT /ALFRED OCHWO

Dr Robinah
Nakuwunde Kulabako
(C), speaks at the
Kampala Geopolitics “We have had elections and its FDC
Conference held in
Makerere University.  sponsoring candidates and that is
INDEPENDENT /ALFRED
OCHWO
going to be the same. I don’t agree
with the views that opposition and
FDC in particular is weak. The FDC
has not become weak”,The FDC has
not become weak”, Ssemujju Nganda FDC
spokesperson

Mourners pray for the


Retired Supreme Court
Justice, Wilson Tsekooko,
during a requiem
mass held at St Luke
Church Ntinda, on Oct “They have arrested some young people
17.   INDEPENDENT /ALFRED before and we are waiting for them to
OCHWO
be charged with wearing a red beret but
they have not because they know they
will be committing an illegality. The
UPDF have got their berets which bear
a UPDF badge, let them wear that and
let us also wear ours”,Joel Ssenyonyi People
Power spokesperson

number of amount of money a parent number of aircraft


770 confirmed measles
cases as of 2019
Shs. 240, 000 is liable to pay if they defy
immunization campaigns
32,000 movements Entebbe
airport had last year

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 3
week

Uganda celebrates FDC weighs on IPOD Leadership


world food day
Uganda joined the rest of the World to
commemorate the World Food Day on
October 16th a day found by the Food
and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and
the UN in 1945. This year’s theme was:
“Our Actions Are Our Future, Healthy
Diets for#Zero Hunger World”.
The day aims to end hunger and
all forms of malnutrition in a lifetime,
nourish people with healthy diets that
include a variety of safe and nutritious
foods and maintain the health of the The Forum for Democrat- had rejected to take over the statement.
planet. ic Change (FDC) weighed IPOD leadership. The term of office for the
The theme’s aim was to open our eyes on taking over the new “The Forum for Demo- Democratic Party expired on
to malnutrition in a way most people leadership of Inter Party cratic Change (FDC) rejects September 25th.
did not know, as FAO states: Dialogue ( IPOD) a summit any insinuation made by According to the MOU,
“Malnutrition is often confused with that brings together all polit- some of our colleagues in IPOD leadership rotates
undernourishment and hunger. But it ical parties in the country the Inter Party Dialogue every after six months.
spans every aspect of nutrition including including the ruling NRM. (IPOD) that we are reluctant However, the Executive
under nutrition, inadequate vitamins Speaking to the media on to take up the leadership of Director of the IPOD, Frank
and minerals, obesity, overweight and Monday at the party head this voluntary organization Rusa says that FDC still has
non-communicable diseases (NCDs) offices, Hon Ssemujju Ngan- upon expiry of the term a lot of commitments to
that can be caused due to unhealthy da, the FDC publicist dis- of office of the Democratic fulfill before they take up the
food habits. Examples of such NCDs are missed reports that his party Party (DP),” he said in a leadership.
diabetes, heart diseases, and stroke.”

Uganda, Serbia to bolster relations EC starts verification of voters’


Uganda is to benefit in a number of sec- the need to open the European market register at village level
tors including agriculture and education more to Africa and Uganda in particular.
through bilateral relations with the gov- “There’s need to improve economic The Electoral Commission started a
ernment of Serbia in a new Memorandum relations between Serbia and Uganda and nationwide exercise to verify particulars of
of Understanding (MoU). identify export commodities to Serbia voters on the National Voters’ Register using
The speaker of parliament, Rebecca like coffee and tea. Uganda airlines is also village (LC 1).
Kadaga said that in 1987, there was an now functional, so we can now consider The exercise started on October 21st and
arrangement of barter trade between the making direct flights to Serbia”, Kadaga will end on October 28th conducted in all vil-
two countries. added. lages throughout the whole country.
“It is time to renew that kind of eco- Gojkovic noted that the history of rela- “The purpose of the verification exercise is
nomic cooperation. This is best realized tions between Serbia and Uganda dated to enable members of the particular village to
through a permanent joint commission of back to 1963 with the establishment of the scrutinize their respective register and iden-
Serbia and Uganda to work on outstand- Non-Aligned Movement that was set up tify persons who are not eligible to be on the
ing areas”, Kadaga said. in 1961 hosted by the parliament of Serbia Voter’s register for their village, for example,
The speaker made the remarks at a at the time. the dead and those who left the area”, said
meeting held between Maja Gojkovic the “We want to strengthen these ties and Jotham Tumwesigye the EC spokesperson.
Serbian speaker of parliament and Ugan- the government of Serbia looks forward He also said that the commission will also
dan MPs on the foreign affairs committee to hosting President Yoweri Museveni. use the exercise to identify persons with Dis-
at the National Assembly in Belgrade, Ser- We would also be grateful if he addresses abilities (PWDs) in each village for purposes
bia. In the meeting, Kadaga also reiterated the Serbian government. of compiling a clean village PWDs registers.

Prayosha enterprises limited open tempered glass plant


Prayosha enterprises limited last week to the region. versatility in the conceptualization of
launched a tempered glass plant the first “On behalf of the government, we shall frame glasses.
ever in the east Africa. render them all necessary support so that At the same function, the state minister
The minister of state for trade and their goals and Uganda’s development is for East African affairs, Julius Maganda
cooperation Werikhe Gafabusa launched achieved”, Werikhe added. also thanked Prayosha for choosing
the state of the art tempered glass plant at Tempered glass is glass that does not Uganda as an investment hub.
Mutundwe in Kampala. easily break. Even when it breaks, it “Such investments are very key in our
He lauded the directors for choosing to shatters into smaller circular pieces, hence contribution to attaining a wider market
invest in Uganda using it as a base to serve reducing the risk of injury. It is six times locally and regionally”, Maganda added.
and expand their production and products stronger than ordinary glass and allows

4 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
week
Hima Cement & Xente in Partnership
Hima Cement on October 21st to that. So our partnership with
announced a partnership with Xente is timely and responds
Xente Tech Ltd, a Payments, to our customer’s current con-
Ecommerce & Financial Services sumption behavior”, he added.
Company to ease online shop- “We are pleased to be
ping of Hima and bonastore announcing the launch of our
range of products. Xente is an shopping feature, which is
online app offering digital prod- designed to provide online
ucts like Airtime, bill payments, shoppers across Uganda with a
movie, event & bus tickets and smooth shopping experience”,
now an e-commerce shop. said Allan Rwakatungu, CEO of
Announcing this partner- Xente Tech.
ship, the Hima Cement CEO of our goods.” he said. up 32.6%”, Said Paul Kelly the “Xente clients that have pur-
Jean Michel Pons said that this This shopping solution comes Retail Manager of bonastore chased products off the new
shopping option allows our cus- in recognition of the ever chang- Uganda, the retail arm of Hima shopping section will receive
tomers to access for the first time ing shopping trends attitudes of Cement. their products within 24 hours
Hima products online. consumers where e-commerce “It is clear therefore that for upon purchase. This partnership
“What’s more, our customers is quickly taking root replacing our business to thrive and to with Hima Cement and bonas-
will be extended credit when conventional in store shopping. remain competitive, we must tore is testament to our diverse
they purchase our Hima and “Internet penetration in tap into data like this to under- product offerings”, he added.
bonastore products on Xente Uganda is at 35% of the total stand our customers’ needs and The Xente App is available on
and have an option to pay in population and Mobile Internet preferences, to anticipate where both Android and iOS app stores.
installments or pay on delivery subscribers at 13.7 million make the market pull is and to react

Controversial businessman laid to rest


Alseyed Ali Abdul Jabar, a controversial admiring the revolver, prompting Jabar to
businessman who was accidentally shot withdraw the magazine from the gun and
dead by his in-law on Saturday, was laid handed back over- in case she went for the
to rest on Sunday, October 20th at Kololo trigger unknowingly.
cemetery adjacent to Jinja Road Police Little did he know he had left a bullet in
quarters. the chamber.
Among the people who saw him off With mind that the gun was empty
was the Minister of Internal Affairs Jeje and the trigger would only go as far as
Odongo, family members and close releasing air, Zaina aimed at her him and
friends. pulled the trigger, releasing the only bullet
Jabar was accidentally shot dead by in the gun through his chest.
his sister-in-law using his own gun. The “The bullet stuck inside him,” a police
incident happened at 10:30 am when Jabar, report reveals.
36, a resident of Najjera, came to Kampala “He was rushed to theatre and
Independent Hospital in Ntinda to visit his pronounced dead on arrival,” the report
wife Fatuma Jabar, who had given birth by and have a closer look. Zaina is said to adds.
C-section. have repeatedly tried to mock shoot Jabar came to the limelight a few months
Jabar was holding a pistol when he without pressing the trigger and her back when a phone camera footage
came for the visit and on seeing it, his excitement moved Jabar to ask back the circulated on social media showed him
sister Zaina Karama asked to hold it gun. However, she was not yet done with whipping a girl in the Middle East.

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Dial *133*2# *terms and conditions apply |


Regulated by Uganda Communications Commission

for more bundles

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 5
week

Civil society ask government to follow law on Petroleum Fund withdrawals


Anti-corruption civil society the conservation of critical bio-
agencies have warned the gov- diversity and uphold citizens’
ernment against withdrawing livelihood rights.”
money from the Petroleum If the planned withdrawal is
Fund without following a struc- successful, it will show that the
ture to oversee the expenditure government does not commit to
as required by law. following its laws and institu-
 Transparency International tions on revenue management
Uganda and the Anti-Cor- and communities that require
ruption Coalition Uganda top oil revenues to be used only
executives said Oct.21 they were for development purpose as
alarmed at the recent announce- opposed to consumption.
ment that the government plans Cissy Kagaba and Peter Wandera “The violation will show a
to withdraw up to Shs 450bn bad precedent on Uganda’s
from the Petroleum Fund to be made under authority grant- ities without putting in place ongoing effort to join the
transfer it to the Consolidated ed by an Appropriation Act and structures necessary to oversee Extractive Industries Trans-
Fund to finance the 2019/20 a warrant of the Auditor Gen- the investments.  In 2018, Shs parency Initiative (EITI) whose
budget. “We have noted that eral.” While section 59 (1) states 200bn was withdrawn from the principles are committed to
the planned withdrawal is that: “The money withdrawn Petroleum Fund to fund the FY upholding transparency in the
contrary to the provisions on from the Petroleum Fund to the 2018/19 budget. collection and use of revenues.”
the 2015 Finance Management Consolidated Fund to support The civil society agencies say “We are also calling on Parlia-
Act which clearly states how the annual budget shall not no country can survive the oil ment to use her oversight pow-
the money from the Petroleum exceed the amount authorized curse and “Dutch Disease” if ers over the executive and direct
Fund should be withdrawn and by Parliament in the Appropria- corruption and bad governance the Minister of Finance to once
used,” they said.   tion Act.” are allowed to infiltrate the oil and for and respect national
According to Section 58 of This is not the first time the industry. “If corruption infil- laws and uphold transparency
the Public Finance Management government has raided the trates into the oil sector, it will in the management and utiliza-
Act, 2015, “withdrawals from Petroleum Fund to withdraw make it impossible for Uganda tion of oil revenues.”
the Petroleum Fund shall only money to fund budget activ- to exploit its oil and guarantee

6 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
Humour Did you know?
Computer light makes
you older

Prolonged exposure to blue light,


such as that which emanates from
your phone, computer and household
fixtures, could be affecting your
President Yoweri Museveni vowed in 2016 to ensure that he will have no opposition by 2021
longevity, even if it’s not shining in
your eyes. New research suggests
that the blue wavelengths produced
by light-emitting diodes damage
cells in the brain as well as retinas,
according to a new study in a model
organism at Oregon State University.
For the study, published today in
`Aging and Mechanisms of Disease’,
Jaga Giebultowicz, a researcher in the
OSU College of Science who studies
biological clocks, led a research
collaboration that examined how flies
responded to daily 12-hour exposures
to blue LED light -- similar to the
prevalent blue wavelength in devices
like phones and tablets -- and found
that the light accelerated aging.
“The fact that the light was
accelerating aging in the flies was
very surprising to us at first,”
Government has assured parents on the safety of the measles and rubella vaccine being used in vaccination exercise said Giebultowicz, a professor
of integrative biology. “We’d
measured expression of some
genes in old flies, and found that
stress-response, protective genes
were expressed if flies were kept
in light. We hypothesised that light
was regulating those genes. Then
we started asking, what is it in the
light that is harmful to them, and
we looked at the spectrum of light.
It was very clear cut that although
light without blue slightly shortened
their lifespan, just blue light alone
shortened their lifespan very
dramatically.”
Natural light, Giebultowicz notes,
is crucial for the body’s circadian
rhythm -- the 24-hour cycle of
physiological processes such as brain
wave activity, hormone production
and cell regeneration that are
important factors in feeding and
President Yoweri Museveni has given Deputy Inspector General of sleeping patterns.
Police two days to produce a plan to curb insecurities

Oct. 25 - 31 2019
News analysis Health Business
Unseen victims of Medical negligence: What Collective investment
death penalty can be done about it? scheme assets hit Shs173bn

Issue No. 594 Oct. 18 - 24 2019


Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Uganda economy
gets bigger by 20%
So why could that be bad news?

Inbox
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www.independent.co.ug

Letters are
welcome ! On US visa denials for Uganda
The Editor welcomes short and Refer to: “Cover Story: say in the press is not what to the Kurds should be a
concise letters from our esteemed Visa denied: Uganda’s they say in private.” Yes, big lesson to you. Wikileaks
readers on topical issues. Please Who-is-Who live in fear of what they say to the press should have been a lesson to
send them to:
The Editor, The Independent US travel ban” (The Inde- is different to what they say you, but rightly you choose
Publications Ltd, pendent Oct. 11). “Oryem in private, but what they to bury your heads in the
P.O Box 3304, also cautions on the lan- say to you in private is also sand.
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St, guage of diplomats. “We different to what they say to Ejakait Engoraton
Kamwokya. engage them on all issues others in private. Likewise
Kampala,Uganda.
but remember what they what is happening in Syria
Email: editor@independent.co.ug
Hand Sudan’s Bashir to ICC
Sending Sudan’s Refer to: “Sudan’s next disaster: has confessed publicly to killing “only” ten
Bashir to ICC Why the plan to hand Bashir over to
the ICC is misguided and will likely be
thousands. Moreover, this war was fueled
by Islamic radicalism and racism, which
Refer to: “Sudan’s next disaster: Why counterproductive” (The Independent are considered terrorism all over the world.
the plan to hand Bashir over to the ICC is Oct.18). The fact that someone has escaped Being on the run for years, he has literally
misguided and will likely be counterproduc- trial is not an excuse for any leader to destroyed Sudan due to the imposed
tive” (The Independent Oct.18). I personally commit atrocities and genocide. Former sanctions and listing the country as terror-
am surprised that this has happened given it Sudan President Omar al-Bashir & co have sponsor for decades. He should be handed
is an open secret that the jailed former Sudan committed war crimes and crimes against over to the ICC, upon finalising his ongoing
President Omar Ahmad al-Bashir’s security humanity in the Darfur region, killing more corruption trials locally.
forces had American training. The vaunted than 300,000 innocent people. Bashir himself John
National Security and Intelligence Service
(NSIS) was built from the ground up with
American aid. Uganda negotiation with Museveni, Nyerere
Given the American stance on the ICC
and our African problem with how the US behind curtains similarity is illusion
whole ICC thing is like rattling bones to our
beloved leadership, I am surprised there is Refer to: “Cover him which soldier is Refer to: “Why Museveni
an influential lobby in Sudan that can get Story: Visa denied: allowed or not to ben- adores Nyerere: Historians
this done. Kenya was extremely unique and Uganda’s Who-is-Who efit from U.S. spon- and academics speak out
has always been. Their conspiracies are with- live in fear of US trav- sored military/defense on relationship between
in tight, loyal easy to manage circles whose el ban” (The Indepen- programs. Ironically, Museveni and his hero
members rarely fall out. This is unlike the dent Oct. 11). A few his junior minister for Nyerere on the 20th anni-
rest of Africa where the so-called opposition days after USA-des- international relations, versary of the passing on
are either former abusers or (by their own ignated sanctions Henry Okello Oryem, of the former Tanzanian
testimony) future rights abusers. against former IGP is now telling us Pres- leader” (The Independent
Perhaps Africa is, “growing a conscience”, Kale Kayihura, Presi- ident Museveni’s gov- Oct.18). Those who see sim-
and people are willing to martyr them- dent Yoweri Museveni ernment is behind cur- ilarities base on illusions of
selves at the altar of justice. But even this is told all and sundry tains negotiating with President Yoweri Museveni
unlikely given the current machinations to in his missive that his same U.S. government of yesterday. He has presid-
protect whistle-blowers in Uganda which government was not on how the sanctions ed over corruption, nepo-
is obviously a roundabout way of getting worried at all about can be lifted, or specif- tism, militarism, material-
immunity because as we know from experi- the sanctions. He even ically, to know which ism, separatism - each clan
ence, most whistle-blowers are disgruntled wondered why Ugan- particular government has own district, deception,
co-conspirators. I will watch and see how dans should bother individuals are unwel- deterioration in morals
many glass houses get smashed if this Sudan themselves if the U.S. come in the United etc. Uganda after him is a
ICC thing really happens. Personally, I am doesn’t want them. States of America. It’s doomed enterprise. Nyerere
more intrigued by the Ugandan (regional?) Museveni said his gov- all so confusing my left a promising enterprise.
transition quagmire. ernment had earlier dear!
rejected the said same Steven
James act when the U.S. told Uwelugosi

8 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
The Last Word opinion

Inside Europe’s savior complex


By Andrew M. Mwenda
How Western efforts to remake Africa have changed
from colonialism to international development assistance

L
ast week, I was invited to speak on administrator was always called upon to capitals. This local coalition defends
international development assistance use force where siasa (indoctrination) by the foreign financial assistance, foreign direct
(foreign aid) at the geopolitical missionary had failed. investment and other forms of intrusion
conference at Makerere University In all cases, Europeans recruited local allies into Africa’s sovereignty such as promotion
organised by the French embassy and – the traditional ruler, the catechist, teacher of human rights, democracy, and the ICC
the Konrad Adenuar Foundation. My and the headman. They ensured that the as international justice the cures of our ills.
presentation caused uproar because I benefits of modernity – education, a salaried They make these arguments even though
argued that the first large-scale attempt job or a business opportunity – went to those none of them can quote a single country that
to use foreign aid to develop Africa was who collaborated with the colonial state and developed through foreign aid or foreign
colonialism. its agents. This way many Africans were direct investment.
The promoters of colonialism claimed won over ideologically through religion and The aid industry is backed by billions
to pursue the three Cs – Christianity (to education or through self-interest by giving of dollars in development spending. Its
emancipate our souls from devil worship), them a stake in the colonial economy, and by international and local agents form the most
Civilization (to end to tyranny of our bribery through land allocations. This is how powerful voice on public policy. This is what
customs and the despotism of our chiefs) colonialism entrenched itself. makes foreign aid a difficult movement to
and Commerce (to liberate us from poverty Today’s missionary is a diplomat in an fight, but it is hardly the only one. The use
and misery). The reader may notice that for embassy or an international development of the word “aid” appeals to our human
Europeans to perform their self-anointed agency. The local allies are NGO activists, sentiment for charity – who would say
role as saviors and civilizers of other peoples politicians, academics, journalists and helping feed a hungry village, vaccinating
required a degradation of the intended businesspersons whose career fortunes a vulnerable community or educating the
beneficiaries. Thus our indigenous religious are largely promoted using scholarships, poor is a bad thing?
were called satanic, our traditional doctors invitations to conferences and publicity. True some of the things foreign aid does
called witches, etc. Colonialism was, Anyone who positions him/herself as help individuals and communities. But such
therefore, presented as an altruistic mission African intellectual who condemns the charity is not the stimulant of development.
by Europeans to save us from ourselves, just “dreadful” nature of governments in Africa; This issue was raised by one of the panelists
as “aid” today. and defends democracy, free speech, free who claimed that Germany today is
What we call democracy today was, trade and investment gets a huge boost in developed because it was assisted by the
under colonial rule, called Christianity. Western media, think tanks, universities etc. United States through the Marshal Plan – a
It was an attempt to have a universal Those who give aid insist on a series of huge financial aid program by America to
faith and the only true faith for all. Today reforms that seek to turn the local state into a Western Europe after World War Two.
we see an attempt to create a universal replica of the donor country and local elites The Marshal Plan funds were not given
form of government (liberal democracy) into cadres of the new catechism of “good for the development of Germany. By 1945,
for every country regardless of history, governance”. Here they demand recipient Germany was the most industrialised
culture, circumstances and context. What governments adopt particular institutions country in Europe manufacturing cars,
we call development today was under as in Western countries: separation of planes, tanks etc. and leading in nuclear,
colonialism called “civilization.” It included powers by having an independent judiciary missile and rockets research. Indeed, it had
introduction of modern administration, and parliament; a multiparty system of higher manufacturing per capita than the
education and medicine. Again we are called government; certain procurement, trade and USA. Its people’s norms, values, habits and
upon to embrace everything European investment laws; a free press, etc. Today mentalities were of an advanced capitalist
in origin as universal and meant for our institutions have emerged that give scores society. World War Two destroyed physical
own good – procurement rules, forms of on being a good student – the World Bank infrastructure, not the skills – technical
government accountability, political and Doing Business Index, the World Economic and organisational – that were already
administrative structures etc. And what we Forum Competitiveness Index etc. But the embedded in its people. An injection of
call international trade was, under colonial aim and effect of these reforms is largely to money in such a society would stimulate
parlance, called commerce. It involved displace existing, or stifle the development rapid recovery from the effects of war.
the opening up of the local economy to of, local capital in favour multinational The African countries that receive
international capital and stifling local capital. Like under colonial rule, the aim of international aid are still peasant societies
innovations. foreign aid is not so much to develop the with high levels of inter and intra
Thus the missionary and the trader local economy as to open it for takeover by community mistrust, low levels of the
were comrades in arms. Both needed the multinational capital. The spokespersons diffusion of technology and capitalist norms,
protection of their home state to achieve their of these foreign interests: presidents, values, habits and mentalities have not yet
goals – hence the entry of the administrator legislators, NGO activists, local business penetrated the social consciousness of the
to complete the equation. The missionary interests (largely commission agents that vast majority of people. Even if foreign
did not only provide spiritual assistance but make money connecting multinational firms aid was well intentioned – and it often is
also provided earthly benefits like education to local business opportunities, Marxists not – its effects cannot be like those of the
and healthcare to the native. This helped used to call them compradors), bureaucrats, Marshal Plan on Germany because of these
him win hearts and minds thereby making pundits and journalists etc. dominate public differences.
it possible for the trader to do business. The policy debates and are feted in western amwenda@independent.co.ug

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 9
cover story

Sabiiti on the spot


Exposing the police
boss’s biggest problem

10 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
cover story

S
By Independent Team “The question we have not in the city, a few eyebrows went relationship without much of
addressed, however, is: Are we up. the office tension they inherited.
even months after dealing with organized crimi- Ochola is a laidback 61-year On the street, however, the
his appointment as nals or state agents. If it’s orga- old lawyer who has spent 31 story is different. Sabiiti’s assign-
Deputy Inspector nized criminals, can they really years in the police, rising from ment follows a spate of publi-
General (DIGP) of have the kind of capacity that an assistant cadet officer in 1988 cized murders, kidnaps, home
the Uganda Police, we see them use in some of the to the top job on March 04, 2018. break-ins, and street robberies
Maj. Gen. Steven crimes they commit?” he said. Ochola spent nine years as the assumed to be the handwork of
Sabiiti Muzeeyi, was on Oct.15 He said the two days the pres- deputy head of the criminal criminal gangs around the city
put on the spot. ident gave Sabiiti to come up investigations department (CID) and its suburbs and the Greater
President Yoweri Museve- with a plan were too few. and has the bearings of a crimes Kampala Metropolitan areas of
ni ordered him to stamp out “If the president thinks these analyst. Wakiso and Mukono.
increasing urban crime in the two days were enough for police So when President Yoweri
Kampala Metropolitan Area, an to come up with the solution to Museveni appointed Sabiiti; a Museveni frustration
assignment that Sabiiti’s prede- the crimes, it implies that he all 43-year old former head of the The news headlines are all
cessor; the indefatigable Gen. along knew the problem. So the Military Police, to be Ochola’s screaming of a crime wave.
Kale Kayihura failed over his 13 question again would be why deputy, the popular view was Oct.22: Three shot dead in Lyan-
year tenure. did he take that long? Why did that since Museveni had shown tonde. Boy beheaded, house-
Museveni in a public letter he let the country suffer that a tendency to place army gener- help on the run. Sept.06: Two
said it should be easy for Sabiiti much?” als in charge of the police, Sabiiti people, a man and a woman
to end the spate of crimes. Sabiiti is not the head of would be the de facto head of are found dead from gunshot
“It is easy to defeat these the police force. That position police and Ochola a figurehead. wounds along the Kampa-
gangs,” Museveni said, “I have is held by IGP John Martins So far, it has not turned out that la-Entebbe Express Highway
given 2 days to Commander Okoth-Ochola. But when way; at least publicly. Sabiiti at Nambigirwa Bridge, near
Sabiiti of the Police to come out Museveni specifically named who is said to be a brainy and Mpala in the Katabi Town
with a plan to combat these Sabiiti to come up with a plan – intense operator and Ochola Council area. An AK47 rifle
gangs. The IGP is away in Peru in two days, of routing criminals appear to have a cordial work belonging to Constable Davis
for a meeting. I will look at that Taremwa of the Uganda Police
plan, comment on it and it will, is found in the car. The dead
then, be communicated to all of Crimes going up were later identified as Joshua
you.” Nteireho Rushegera and Mellina
But since Sabiiti unveiled a 2018 2017 Diff Tumukunde.
five-point plan for tackling crime Homicides 4,497 4,473 24 Aug.28: A woman and man
on Oct.18, it has been shredded are found dead in Nakitutulu,
by critics. Sex related crime 17,521 16,826 659 Nama sub-county, Mukono dis-
“This is another reactionary trict. They are later identified as
measure from the government Break-Ins 14,018 13,883 135 Maria Nagirinya, a social worker
and the enemies will simply Robberies 7,354 6,850 504 and her driver Ronald Kitayimb-
laugh off these suggestions,” wa. They are believed to have
said Muhammad Muwanga Terrorism 16 12 04 been kidnapped and murdered.
Kivumbi, the MP for Butambala Political/media cases 442 193 249 July 30: Body of man suspect-
County who is the Shadow Min- ed to have been murdered is
ister for Internal Affairs. Corruption 2,850 2,854 36 discovered hanging in Katwe
Kivumbi who also sits on the
Parliamentary Committee on
Defence and Internal Affairs
told The Independent on Oct.
22 that Museveni had himself
outlined many actions for
the police and other security
agencies to base on to end crim-
inality.
Museveni recommended
conscripting Local Defence
Unit personnel, registration of
bodabodas and marking hel-
mets used by motorcycle riders,
and procuring CCTV cameras
among others.
“Most, if not all of these were
implemented but we see that
criminality in the country has
not abated,” Kivumbi said,
“This is something which has
proved over time to be an
incompetent mode of opera-
tion.”
Army patrols city streets in show of force

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 11
cover story

DIGP Sabiti unveils his plan on Oct18. Left is Gen. Elwelu

Lufula Zone. Crime Report 2018, it showed the lowest best be calmed through communication.
Reading the headlines, influential voices crime rate in the last four years to have been
are speaking out. recorded last year. It showed that 612 crimes Sabiiti’s policing strategy
“Criminal gangs are all over the country. were committed per 100,000 people com- Sabiiti’s policing philosophy is not clear
People have been traumatized,” said the out- pared to a crime rate of 667 in 2017, that of yet. His elevation to the second top-most
going Archbishop of the Church of Uganda, 666 in 2016, and 742 in 2015. rank in police appears driven more by his
Rt. Rev. Stanley Ntagali on Oct. 20 during Yet, according to public perception, last belonging to the inner core of Museveni’s
a farewell church service at Bishop West year witnessed unprecedented levels of military machine as a close relative than
Boarding School in Mukono. He mentioned crime. This view is based on the high profile to core policing ability. His father, the late
robberies, murders, and iron bar hit-men. kidnap in February 2018 of Susan Magara, Zekeriah Magyenyi was a bush war veteran
Museveni’s move smirked of frustration and the murders of then-Arua Municipality related to Museveni through marriage. Sabii-
over such views. But since when did sensi- MP Ibrahim Abiriga in June 2018, Muham- ti spent only one year as head of the UPDF
tive security assignments become a matter of mad Kirumira in September, and other less Military Police. Before that he had been
public discussion? The President was clearly known figures. deputy head of Museveni’s elite protection
piling on pressure and, as he often does, The statistics reveal that what the pub- force, the Special Forces Command (SFC).
politicking. He possibly wanted an angry, lic perceives is sometimes not the actual. But reports from people who know him say
restless, and fearful public to have a target to Little known Kaabong district had the Sabiiti is a brainy biochemist who thrives on
blame. In that sense, this assignment could highest murders by shooting in 2018 at 12, challenge. He reportedly was an A-student
spell either praise or perdition for Sabiiti; according to the police report, followed at university and likes to excel at tasks. He
and inevitably Ochola. It all depends on by Kalungu 10, and Arua 7. Among the has also had training in Russia.
how they handle the assignment. And the policing regions, Kampala North led with When he spoke to journalists on Oct.
fumble is on. 20 murders by shooting.This police region 18, he appeared to instinctively touch on
A security analyst who spoke to The Inde- extends beyond Kampala District and covers what smart policing requires; getting public
pendent, however, said Sabiiti should not Kakiri, Kasangati, Kawempe, Nansana, Old involvement in policing and fighting crime.
be driven by crowd emotions but look at Kampala, Wakiso, and Wandegeya. It was “The plan will work well once we work
the numbers and patterns of crime to make followed at 19 murders by shooting in the well with the public,” he said.
decisions. The analyst said the fear of crime Greater Masaka police region which covers But Sabiiti’s idea of involving the public is
expressed by the public is far bigger than the Bukomansimbi, Kalangala, Kalungu, Lwen- to establish suggestion boxes to gather infor-
actual crime rate. go, Lyantonde, Masaka, and Rakai. mation from the public in confidence and his
“Sabiiti should call a press conference According to the police report, the volume new idea was profiling of repeat offenders.
every week and release crime statistics,” the of crimes declined in 2018 by 5.2% to 238,746 The plan he unveiled showed little cre-
analyst said, insisting that the public would cases registered, compared to 252,065 cases ativity. It was more of the problem oriented
easily see that although crime is highlighted registered in 2017. And the highest number type, favouring heavy enforcement instead
more in the media these days, especially if of killings did not happen in Kampala but in of cooperation. It followed the traditional
a known person is involved, the crime rates Mbarara (138), Arua (106), Ntungamo (96), policing route; of preventive foot and motor-
are either stable or declining. and Mubende (84). Looking at these figures, ized patrols, rapid responses and is incident
When The Independent looked at the latest the security analyst said the increasing fear driven – responding to distress calls. But
statistics, from the Uganda Police Annual of crime and insecurity in the country can Rapid Response Units, 24/7 police hotlines

12 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
cover story
police officers are professional; they know everybody needs.”
what must be done but are unwilling to do. Bogere wants the military out of police
Sabiiti who is said to be a strict, result because, he says, the military cannot be
oriented disciplinarian thinks he can jolt the a solution to everything and removing
frustrated police officers into action with the military “would restore confidence
threats. in the career police personnel who at the
“Failure to respond to emergency calls moment feel demoralized.”
by a police officer will result in disciplinary Sylvie Namwase, a researcher on
action,” he says. It is not clear how that will militarization, sustainable growth
work. and peace in Uganda, has written that
But his predecessor, Gen. Kale Kayihura “... clarity and harmony of standards
faced the same problem. Kayihura instinc- is especially important as there’s an
tively understood that, in policing, public increasing blurring of police and military
cooperation is more important than any roles in the country.”
activity that a police officer can make. He Some commentators have pointed
pushed the community policing concept at links between the militarization and
hard. But Kayihura realised that police has the military-style training the Uganda
another major problem. The public does not police force has been getting from North
trust the police. Korea. They said these raise questions of
An analyst told The Independent that the legitimacy when the police try to impose
lack of trust goes beyond the police. It is a law and order. According these analysts,
general lack of trust in the government. But politicization breeds overzealousness;
in the police’s case, the lack of trust is driven a belief among some police officers that
by the high rate of police involvement in they are defending what is right against a
the commission of crimes and corruption. wrong opposition force.
Dealing with organizational culture change At the Oct.18 press conference where
is long term. Kayihura wanted quick results. he released his plan, Sabiiti was flanked
He did four things; first he pushed hard for by the Uganda Army Commander of
and emergency numbers are what have been more military officers to join the police force. Land Forces, Lt. Gen. Peter Elwelu, the
used all along. This enabled him to place his favoured men no-nonsense general who allegedly
According to policing experts, they are in influential positions. Secondly, he sourced brutally quelled the Kasese riots leaving
ineffective and costly, especially if the police and threw more money into policing. This many civilians dead. Elwelu’s presence
are in vehicles. They only catch criminals if gave police officers incentive to work. at police headquarters for this important
they happen to drive into them, or are called Thirdly, he decided to recruit criminals to meeting appeared to communicate that the
and respond while a crime is progress. catch criminals. This enabled him to get police would now possibly pursue a shoot
“Random patrol only leads to random critical intelligence on criminals quickly. to kill policy.
results,” is what one expert said. Finally, he policed politics aggressively, The police force already has such a unit;
Sabiiti’s plan reads like a hotchpotch of the especially the brutal suppression of the the so-called Rapid Response Unit which
usual policing methods that have either been opposition to President Museveni. This is manned mainly by military officers
talked about and not been implemented or bought him political cover. clad in police uniform. It is the latest
have been implemented and failed to yield remodeling of the “Operation Wembley”
good results. Some are quite long term; such Army overshadows police which was headed by UPDF’s Col.
as increased collaboration between the police Like Kayihura, Sabiiti now heads Kayanja and overseen by Gen. Katumba
and judicial officers, completion of instal- a police force that is resigned to Wamala who was the first army general to
lation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) army command. President Museveni head police. The operation had a shoot-to-
cameras in Kampala, Wakiso, and Mukono appointed Sabiiti in April 2017 and in July kill policy. It clearly did not work.
districts, and enforced re-registration of resi- followed up Sabiiti’s appointment with Sabiiti Makara, a professor of political
dents by area LC officials. appointment of three army generals to science at Makerere University told The
According to many commentators, includ- top positions in the police force. Museveni Independent on Oct. 22 that Sabiiti needs
ing retired former police top brass and indi- appointed Brigadier Godfrey Golooba to to tackle what Makara called “the missing
viduals knowledgeable about police work, be Director Human Resource and training, link in all the current debate” - the role of
Sabiiti’s plan failed to address the most Brigadier Jack Bakasumba as Joint Chief the LC system.
critical steps needed for police to effectively of Staff, and Col. Chris Ddamulira as the In the past, the local councils had a very
fight crime. Director Crime Intelligence. active role in the security system at village
Top on the list are stopping the role of But mixing police and army creates a level. But the security roles have been
police in commission crimes, and increasing cocktail of fire and dynamite. According to grabbed by military-style Local Defence
militarization and politicization of police. retired UPDF Colonel, Fred Bogere, who Units (LDUs) and the LCs have been
These are closely followed by low pay and once served as an Army MP in Parliament, relegated to signing letters and adjudicating
worsening living conditions and welfare of Museveni’s deployment of military domestic conflicts.
police officers. personnel in the Uganda Police Force is a Makara told The Independent that embed-
One analyst described these as the struc- sign that there is something wrong going ding the LDUs with the military and police
tural issues of the police force; including on. is a mistake.
that the police are among the least paid “The root cause of the current “In the past, when LDUs were recruited
government workers. Yet with the likes of criminality comes from politicizing from within the population and stayed with-
Sabiiti from the military at the top, the police the security sector,” Bogere said in an in the population,” Makara said, “they per-
constantly have to work with the richest and interview with NTV, “The government formed much better than the current LDUs
most entitled in the government. This breeds needs to get back to the drawing board who are quite attached to the military.”
frustration, resentment, and lethargy. Many to look at security as a basic need that

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 13
news analysis

Members of Uganda’s LGBTQ community at a previous gay pride party.   NET PHOTO

Reviving Anti-gay Bill


Why it’s a costly waste of time for Ugandans
By Ronald Musoke following the negative press Uganda them but we need to understand that

F
suffered five years ago when we are living in a world where the
ather Simon Lokodo, the Parliament attempted to pass the bill, idea of human rights and individual
ethics and integrity Minister’s the MPs want the country to attract the liberties are growing every day.”
planned re-introduction of same backlash. Mwenda also rejects the arguments
the anti-homosexuality bill Mwenda added: “Uganda already that the law should be passed to
in Parliament has been described by has a law criminalizing homosexuality; apprehend agents of homosexuality
human rights activists as “a waste of the Penal Code already has provisions who are believed to be massively
time and an unmitigated self-inflicted against unnatural sex. Why add this recruiting in schools. He wonders how
disaster for Uganda.” law especially when you know that this there can be a massive recruitment
Dr. Frank Mugisha, the executive law offends your partners?” of young people amidst Uganda’s
director of Sexual Minorities Uganda “Uganda has partners at the sophisticated security infrastructure.
and Andrew Mwenda, a veteran diplomatic level, including the Western “The Uganda government has a
Ugandan journalist were among countries. This is a no-go area for sophisticated security infrastructure
the petitioners who successfully them,” he said. “Uganda is not an including; ISO, the police, ESO, CMI
challenged the anti-homosexuality Act, island on Mars where it needs to say and the local council administration,
2014, in the Constitutional Court. that it only cares about its cultural why haven’t they produced one person
“I feel Ugandans are tired of this values.” who is promoting homosexuality.”
talk; we don’t see Ugandans go “These countries have investors and “It is possible there is a lesbian or
on streets to demand for an anti- businesses in this country and because gay man who goes to school and tries
homosexuality bill,” Mugisha said, these businesses fear being boycotted to lure a young girl or boy into sex but
“So the question we are asking is why in Europe, they will pull out,” he said, for every single gay man or lesbian
now?” “We may be in love with our cultural who has gone to school to lure the
Mugisha also wondered why, values and we can emotionally treasure young girl or boy into sex, I am willing

14 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
news analysis
to produce 1,000 straight men who project. He says he and a group of anti- On Aug.29, this year, Lokodo was
have gone to girls’ schools to lure girls homosexuality MPs are at the moment one of the government officials to
into sex.” lobbying colleagues in parliament welcome the results of findings from
Mwenda is also uncomfortable ahead of the re-tabling of the bill. a genetic-based study of sexuality that
with those trying to pass this law in He says he wants the bill showed that there is no “gay-gene.”
the name of Christianity or Uganda’s passed because the vices the anti- “Of course there is no person born
cultural values. He says not everyone homosexuality law intended to fight gay,” he told The Independent,“Since it
in Uganda is a Christian and Uganda is are still happening in Ugandan society. has been proven by scientists, we are
not a theocracy. He says it is wrong to He adds that the provisions in the going to persecute every one of them
subject everyone to Christian law. Penal Code are not sufficient. who is pretending to be normal.”
On those waving the cultural values “It is difficult to prove beyond Lokodo has also been buoyed by
card, Mwenda said: “It is in our culture reasonable doubt that one committed individuals like George Oundo, the
to keep slaves, it’s in our culture to a homosexual act. Now, we are saying, chairperson of the ex-gay community
do human sacrifice, it is in our culture anything done to recruit, promote or in Uganda who on May 27 petitioned
to prohibit women from inheriting exhibit tantamount to committing a the Speaker of Parliament, Rebecca
property and it is in our culture to crime against that law.” Kadaga, saying Uganda needed an
batter our wives, so should we also anti-homosexuality law to help create
promote all these because it is our awareness in Uganda.
tradition?” “If this Bill is re-tabled, it will
On Oct. 10, Father Simon Lokodo, help expose the extent of the moral
the ethics minister said the government breakdown, especially with the
was planning to re-introduce the children and the youth. We aim at
anti-homosexuality bill five years promoting moral and spiritual values
after a similar one that sought to ban since they are just recruited and not
gay sex in Uganda was nullified on a born as gay or lesbians,” Oundo said.
technicality. It is difficult to ascertain the true
The backlash from the international numbers of people who identify as
community to Lokodo’s plan has gay in Uganda but some of them The
been instant. Two days after Lokodo Independent has talked to say they
spoke, on Oct. 12, Ofwono Opondo, foresee an escalation of violence,
the executive director of the Uganda discrimination and arbitrary arrests
Media Centre—the government’s just like in 2014 when the anti-gay law
public communications clearing was passed.
house—posted a message on its social Father Simon Lokodo On Oct. 15, Human Rights Watch
media platforms saying: “Government asked the Ugandan government to
hereby clarifies that it does not investigate the fatal attack that saw
intend to introduce any new law with a 28 year old man, Brian Wasswa, a
regards to the regulation of LGBTQ known activist for the rights of lesbian,
activities in Uganda because the gay, bisexual, transgender and queer
current provisions in the Penal Code people in Uganda die following a
are sufficient.” LGBTQ is an acronym brutal attack in his house in Jinja.
which refers to people who identify The incident which Human Rights
as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender Watch says happened on Oct. 04 in
and “queer” according to the American Jinja town, eastern Uganda, came just
Psychological Association. days before Minister Lokodo said the
Don Wanyama, President Yoweri government intends to re-introduce the
Museveni’s senior press secretary anti-homosexuality bill.
also added that the government had Wasswa had worked since 2017 as
no plans to introduce the legislation a paralegal trained by Human Rights
because Uganda has a Penal Code that Andrew Mwenda Awareness and Promotion Forum
already handles issues of unnatural (HRAPF), a legal aid organisation that
sexual behaviour. supports vulnerable communities,
However, Lokodo said on Oct. 14 including LGBTQ people.
that “they intend to bring back the He was also working as a peer
Anti-homosexuality bill because the educator with The AIDS Support
first one was lost on lack of quorum.” Organisation (TASO), a Ugandan non-
Lokodo’s predecessor, James Nsaba governmental organisation dedicated
Buturo, 68, the MP Bufumbira County to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment,
East asked for leave from Parliament to and care, where he conducted HIV
prepare a private member’s bill. outreach to LGBTQ people.
Asked by The Independent on Oct. 18 Frank Mugisha, the executive
why, of all challenges Ugandans are director of Sexual Minorities Uganda
facing at the moment, he sought to told The Independent on Oct. 18 that
revive this bill, he said: “We are still Wasswa was a well-known person in
putting our facts together before we Jinja. Mugisha said Wasswa settled
can issue statements to the press or any in Jinja from Lugazi in neighbouring
other person. Bear with us.” James Nsaba Buturo Buikwe District after his parents
But Lokodo is not coy about his disowned him when he disclosed his

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 15
NEWS ANALYSIS
sexual orientation at the age of 17. this legislation,” the president added. the time Uganda’s Constitutional Court
“We highly suspect that he was But those against the law like overturned the law on a technicality
killed for his gay-activism because Mugisha and Mwenda said the law was six months later; the United States
he was killed inside his home and no harsh and against fundamental human had reduced its aid, imposed visa
other property was taken besides his rights considering that it prescribed restrictions and cancelled military
phone,” Mugisha said, “He did not tough penalties including life exercises with the Uganda People’s
owe anyone money and he was a quiet imprisonment for same sex marriage Defence Forces. The World Bank,
man who avoided wrangles in his and aggravated homosexuality. The Sweden, Norway, Denmark and The
neighbourhood.” law also imposed a seven year jail Netherlands also suspended aid.
Oryem Nyeko, a Human Rights term for other homosexuality-related No one knows what could happen
Watch Africa researcher, said the offences. this time. But the sensitive tourism
Uganda government should make it Human rights lawyers said sexual sector is always the first victim,
“crystal clear that violence is never acts between consenting adults should officials in local tourism firms say.
acceptable, regardless of one’s sexual not be criminalized. Lilly Ajarova, the executive director
orientation or gender identity.” Criminalization of these acts of the Uganda Tourism Board (UTB)
“It is incumbent on the Ugandan contravenes established international is usually outspoken on anything
authorities to deliver justice for the and regional human rights standards that threatens the local tourism sector
murder of Brian Wasswa,” Nyeko as well as the Constitution of the but when The Independent asked her
said. “Police should conduct thorough Republic of Uganda in that it unfairly whether the re-introduction of the
investigations, and political leaders limits the fundamental rights of people anti-gay bill could impact negatively
should refrain from any rhetoric that the fledgling tourism industry, she
might encourage violence against referred The Independent to the recent
LGBTQ people.” government statement issued by the
Amnesty International’s Director Uganda Media Centre which said
for East Africa, the Horn and the Uganda is not planning to introduce
Great Lakes, Joan Nyanyuki, has also
responded to Lokodo’s announcement Criminalization any anti-homosexuality legislation.
Still, Lokodo appears not bothered.
saying: “It’s outrageous that instead
of the Ugandan government taking of same-sex He told Thomson Reuters Foundation
early this month that Uganda is
urgent steps to decriminalize gay sex,
they want gay people executed.
conduct has prepared for any backlash.
“It’s a concern but we are ready.”
“This is going to fire up more
hatred in an already homophobic
the effect of “We don’t like blackmail. Much as we
know that this is going to irritate our
environment. This is an example of driving LGBTQ supportive partners in budget and

persons to the
how Uganda’s politicians are stoking governance, we can’t just bend our
dangerous intolerance and bias against heads and bow before people who
LGBTQ people.”
“Uganda’s MPs must resoundingly margins of want to impose a culture which is
foreign to us.”
reject any plan to legalize this kind of
bigotry and witch-hunting of anyone
society Meanwhile, Mwenda told The
Independent that the Western World
who is perceived as being different.” needs to give Ugandan society time to
deal with the homosexuality issue.
Uganda’s cultural values “This is our conversation as
When President Museveni signed Ugandans. Those (human rights)
the Anti-Homosexuality Bill before organizations’ interference makes the
the glare of local and international situation worse,” he says, “Don’t be
media on Feb. 24, 2014, its proponents the champions of our rights in Uganda.
like Lokodo said it was aimed at who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans- Ugandan intellectuals, gay activists
“upholding and protecting Uganda’s gender, intersex and others, they said. and civic leaders will unite to argue for
cultural values against Western The lawyers further argued that openness.”
culture.” criminalization of same-sex conduct Mwenda also says Western society
The President, flanked by ministers, has the effect of driving LGBTQ should look at their history before
MPs and senior health practitioners, persons to the margins of society, they judge Uganda on the issue of
said people who engage in same-sex denying them access to opportunities homosexuality.
relations are mercenaries recruiting and services and rendering them “Don’t expect change in our society
young people into gay activities to get susceptible to abuse and discrimination to happen today because cultural
money. from the majority groups in society. change takes time. In Europe, there was
“Homosexuals are nurtured but not On Aug.1, 2014, the anti- a death sentence for homosexuality
natured. No study has shown that one homosexuality law which Rebecca in the 1950s but then they want us
can be a homosexual purely by nature. Kadaga, the Speaker of Parliament, to jump and act like them. It cannot
Since nurture is the cause, that is why said at the time was a “Christmas gift” happen that way because culture takes
I have agreed to sign the Bill into law,” to Ugandans was annulled for having time to evolve.”
Museveni said. been passed by Parliament without the “The more we have debate on
“I encourage the U.S government to required quorum of two thirds of all homosexuality, the more it will
help us by working with our scientists MPs. promote debate and the more it will
to study whether; indeed there are Perhaps the government had also create tolerance and understanding,”
people who are born homosexual. underestimated the backlash the law Mwenda said.
When that is proved, we can review attracted from around the world. By

16 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
NEWS ANALYSIS
By Agencies
1,000 Ebola survivors
O
ne thousand people

in DR Congo
have survived the
Ebola outbreak in the
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (DRC): a testament
to the strong leadership of the
Congolese health authorities
combined with the tireless ef-
UN marks milestone amid complex
forts of thousands of local health
workers and partners, United
environment of conflict and mistrust
Nations agencies said on Oct.04.
The outbreak began in August support and compassion to
2018 and is the largest and lon- patients and their family mem-
gest running that the DRC has bers that is especially meaning-
experienced, with more than ful,” he said.
3,000 cases and 2,137 deaths.
The latest figures released by Supporting survivors and
the World Health Organisation potential carriers
(WHO) on Oct.04 for the week
ending 1 October, showed 20 Dr Ibrahima Socé Fall, WHO
new confirmed cases reported in Assistant Director-General for
North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Emergencies Response, stressed
versus 29 in the previous week. that while tools, vaccines and
The agency said this decrease treatments for Ebola are avail-
“should be interpreted with able, it is still critical to find
caution, as operational and secu- and support everyone who has
rity challenges in certain health been in contact with an infected
zones make it difficult to under- person.
take case detection and response A survivor of Ebola works in a childcare centre in Butembo in the east of “Surviving this disease is all
functions.” the Democratic Republic of the Congo/UN   PHOTO/MARTINE PERRET about trusting the responders –
WHO said there had been a contact tracers, decontamination
“clear shift in the hot spots of teams, burial teams, vaccinators,
the outbreak from high density, they also are a reminder of those side international partners like Ebola Treatment Centre staff –
urban settings, such as Butembo, who could not be saved. Save The Children. who are working tirelessly to
Katwa, and Beni, to more rural “We have to continue gain- The United Nations scaled- protect people from this virus,”
areas with a lower population ing access through improved up its efforts in May in sup- he said.
density.” security for health workers and port of the Government-led Ebola survivors and those
However, new tools are populations alike, along with response in the areas of public potentially carrying the virus
helping to stop the deadly virus continuous efforts to engage health, assistance to Ebola-af- also receive support from the
and save lives. Among them is a communities to be empowered fected communities, political World Food Programme (WFP),
highly effective vaccine, which with the response,” he stated. engagement, security and also the UN agency fighting hunger
has a 97.5 per cent effective rate. “We cannot win the battle in strengthened financial man- globally. WFP provides these
So far, more than 225,000 people against this outbreak without agement. people with food, meaning
have been protected. the full support of the Congo- Led by the UN Children’s they will not have to leave their
“I never thought I would lese people.” Fund, UNICEF, thousands of homes to shop, and can thus be
make it at first but now that I am The Ebola epidemic began Congolese responders and asso- easily monitored in the event
cured, I want to go back to my in North Kivu province in the ciations from affected areas are they develop symptoms.
community and tell them to seek east of the country. It has since engaging with community and Susana Rico, the agency’s
treatment early if they are affect- spread to parts of neighbouring religious leaders, the media and emergency coordinator in the
ed because you can actually Ituri and South Kivu prov- others to bring information to North Kivu capital, Goma, said
survive,” said Kavira, who beat inces, but active transmission those communities most at risk, survivors are grateful for the
the disease. currently is confined to several including children. food assistance, which lasts for
UN Secretary-General Antó- hotspots in Ituri. Survivors have become “a one year.
nio Guterres presented her with The epidemic is taking place crucial element” in gaining “It is surely a celebration
an Ebola survivor certificate against a backdrop of ongoing community trust and accep- when cured patients go home
when he visited the country ear- conflict involving numerous tance, according to Edouard after surviving Ebola; they
lier this month. armed groups, but other factors Beigbeder, UNICEF representa- feel reborn,” she said, add-
further complicate the situation tive in the DRC. ing “This celebration must
Survivors crucial to ending such as poor health services, “When survivors tell commu- also serve as our motivation
Ebola political instability, and com- nities the reason they are alive is to continue the fight against
munity mistrust and resistance. because they sought treatment Ebola and save many more by
David Gressly, Emergency Several UN agencies are early, people believe them and encouraging communities to
Ebola Response Coordinator, working to stop the outbreak, are getting the help they need alert about potential cases, so
said although every survivor such as the World Health Orga- sooner. At the same time, hav- that they can seek treatment in
serves as motivation to continue nization (WHO) and the World ing experienced the disease, time to be saved.”
the fight against the disease, Food Programme (WFP), along- they are able to offer a level of

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 17
obituary

Retired Supreme Court Justice


Wilson Tsekooko dies at 77
He will be remembered for ruling to annul Museveni’s
election in the 2001 and 2006 petitions

By Ian Katusiime other parts of his public service; he served as

A
Chairman of Makerere University Appoint-
pril 2001 was a tense time in Ugan- ments Board (1981-1986) Chairman of
da. The dust had barely settled on National Minimum Wages Advisory Board
one of the most violent elections in (1984-1985) and as Chancellor of Mbale Dio-
country’s history held on March 12 cese, Church of Uganda (1980-1991).
that year. The state apparatus and security With his experience as a lawyer, serving
agencies were evident in clampdowns on the in the Office of the DPP and with a Supreme
opposition and its supporters. Court judgeship, Uganda Christian Univer-
In this tense atmosphere, five judges of sity (UCU) sought to tap into the wisdom
the Supreme Court had an unprecedented of Tsekooko when in 2003, UCU appointed
ruling to make. One of the contestants in the him to the University Council, its highest
March 12, 2001 presidential election, Col. decision making organ.
(Rtd) Dr. Kizza Besigye had petitioned the In the course of his long and illustrious
Supreme Court challenging the validity of career, Tsekooko was elected chairman of
the result and seeking the annulment of the the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) of
victory of President Yoweri Museveni. It was Nabumali High School, his former school
the first of four elections the two men would serving from 1988-1991.
contest against each other. Justice John Tsekooko was born on June
The judges hearing the case included Jus- and philosophy of Uganda’s legal system. 15, 1942 in Butiru, Manafwa district to
tice John Wilson Nattubu Tsekooko. Others His wife, Dr. Pauline Tsekooko, described Natubu Tsekooko and Norah Janet Khayiyi.
on the bench were Justice Arthur Oder, Jus- her husband as a man “who lived a purpose- He went to Butiru and Nakhupa primary
tice Alfred Karokora, Justice Joseph Mulen- ful life and served with integrity and dedica- schools, completing P7 in 1956.
ga, and then Chief Justice Benjamin Odoki. tion.” She said they met during her last year Tsekooko went to Nabumali High School
All are deceased except Odoki. in medical school in 1971. At the time, she in its glory days (then called Nabumali
In the end, Besigye’s petition was dis- said, her future husband and current Vice Junior Secondary School) for two years, and
missed in a 3-2 verdict. Odoki, Karokora President Edward Sekandi, were insepara- completed his secondary education at Mbale
and Mulenga dismissed the petition while ble, as young lawyer friends. Pauline mar- SSS in 1962. After his law degree, Tsekooko
Tsekooko and Oder upheld it. ried Tsekooko in 1973 and they have eight qualified as a Barrister-at-Law at Inner Tem-
Justice Tsekooko boldly in his judgment children and nine grandchildren. ple London in 1965.
expressed misgivings on the way the pres- Chief Justice Bart Katureebe eulogised In 1968, Tsekooko went to the Council of
idential election was conducted. He wrote Tsekooko as mentor of minds. Katureebe Legal Education, London for his Post-final
the following in part in his conclusion: “...I said Tsekooko mentored him on constitu- Practice Course which got him admitted to
would uphold the prayers in the petition in tional matters when he joined the Attorney the English Bar on July 01, 1968.
that I would declare that the Respondent General’s chambers in the 1970s. Describing Due to the availability of opportunities at
(Yoweri Museveni) was not validly elected. I him as “my teacher”, the Chief Justice said the time, Tsekooko easily found a placement
would annul the election.” Tsekooko taught him how to write judg- as an attorney in the Directorate of Public
Tsekooko’s death on Oct.14 brought back ments and precedents. Prosecutions (DPP). By 1974, he had risen to
memories of the period. Many recalled how Katureebe while speaking at the requiem the rank of Principle State Attorney but the
that ruling sent shockwaves across the coun- mass at St Luke’s Church Ntinda, said Tse- military rule of Idi Amin Dada forced him
try. And it was not a one off. He ruled in the kooko was an example of “collegiality” and into exile that year.
exact same fashion in 2006 when Besigye professionalism. “Collegiality is very import-
again petitioned the Supreme Court after the ant so that even when you don’t always Political life
presidential election. Tsekooko was unflinch- agree, you have respect for your colleagues.” Tsekooko was once in active politics and
ing in matters of the law and many respect- Katureebe and Tsekooko ruled differently was said to be a supporter of the late former
ed him for that. When he retired in 2012, he during the 2006 presidential election peti- president Milton Obote of the Uganda Peo-
was recalled by the government in 2013 to tion. Katureebe said that he often handed ples Congress. When he returned from exile,
serve on a two year contract. He had spent Tsekooko his judgments to look through. Tsekooko contested in the 1980 general elec-
20 years on the supreme court bench. As Tsekooko neared retirement, Katureebe tions and won the seat of Bubulo, represent-
Since his death, lawyers, judges and poli- urged him to help in reforming civil pro- ing the area from 1981-1985 in the second
ticians have hailed the late judge as someone ceedings. Obote government.
who contributed immensely to the theory Tsekooko was equally instrumental in In the fallout from the 1980 polls, Museve-

18 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
news analysis
ni and Obote sued and countersued
each other. The two headed Uganda
Patriotic Movement (UPM) and New words added
to dictionary
Uganda Peoples Congress (UPC)
respectively.
It is said Tsekooko who had con-
tested on a UPC ticket represented
Obote as a lawyer in the court case.
The suit became a closed chapter
when Obote was declared winner of More than 530 new words
the disputed elections.
By Agencies is nonbinary.” It’s an expansion of a use that is

T
Goretti Kitutu, the Minister of
state for environment and Woman sometimes called the “singular they” (and one
he Merriam-Webster dictionary added that has a long history in English). When a reflex-
MP for Manafwa described Tse- new words and definitions for September
kooko as a pillar for the Bamasaaba ive pronoun corresponding to singular use of
2019. In this latest batch of updates, 533 they is needed, themself is seeing increasing use.
community. “When Tsekooko con- new words and new meanings are added Inclusive: A new sense has been added:
tested as an MP, my father instructed to the dictionary (not to mention more than 4000 “allowing and accommodating people who have
me to go and vote for him because other revisions to definitions, etymologies, pro- historically been excluded (as because of their
he was such a pillar and so popular, nunciations, and dates of first known use). They race, gender, sexuality, or ability).”
and I indeed voted for him,” Kitutu range from the serious to the playful, from the Colorism: prejudice or discrimination espe-
said drawing laughter from mourn- technical to the informal. cially within a racial or ethnic group favoring
ers during the funeral service. people with lighter skin over those with darker
When the Obote government New Words from Politics and Law skin.
was toppled, Tsekooko resorted to Deep state: an alleged secret governmental
fulltime private practice as a lawyer. network operating extralegally. It may feel as New Words from Pop Culture
It is said he was surprised when though the term has been around since the time Bechdel test: refers to a set of criteria used to
President Museveni appointed him when men wore fedoras in Washington, but evaluate a movie or other work of fiction on the
as a High Court judge in 1990 due current evidence dates it only to the dawn of the basis of its inclusion and representation of female
to their history. He was even more current century. characters.
surprised when Museveni elevated Red flag law: a law allowing courts to prevent Stinger: the name for short scene that appears
him as a judge of the Supreme Court people who show signs of being a danger to during or after the closing credits of a movie.
in 1994. themselves or others from having access to fire- Coulrophobia: meaning “abnormal fear of
By this time, he had mentored a arms. It has only been in use since 2015, and its clowns.” Although Hollywood releases and
crop of lawyers from his law firm synonym, extreme risk law, dates to 2017. dictionary updates are not coordinated, even for
who are currently holding influen- publicity purposes, this entry hits your screens
tial positions in the judiciary. These New Abbreviations and Portmanteaus within weeks of the premieres of both `It Chapter
include David Wangututsi, head of Playfulness is always a part of language, and
Two’ and `Joker’.
Commercial Court; Lawrence Gidu- some of the informal words in this batch include
du, head of the Anti-Corruption inventive truncations, recombinations, and port- New Words from Psychology
Court; and Musalu Musene, a high manteaus. Aphantasia: the inability to form mental
Vacay: a shortening of vacation. images.
court judge.
Sesh: a shortening of session. Autogenic training: a self-relaxation technique
When Wangututsi was executive
Inspo: a shortening of inspiration. that involves repeating calming statements to
director of the Judicial Training Insti-
Fabulosity: fabulous quality, state, or nature. yourself.
tute, Tsekooko was the chairman.
Fatberg: a large mass of fat and solid waste
At the same time, Tsekooko headed
that collects in a sewer system (a portmanteau of New Words from Business and Finance
the East African Judicial Education fat and iceberg).
Committee. At different times, he Pain point: a persistent or recurring problem
Solopreneur: a solo entrepreneur. (as with a product or service) that frequently
headed the disciplinary committee
of the Law Council and chaired the inconveniences or annoys customers.
New Words from Games and Sports Haircut: a new sense was added meaning “a
management committee of the Law Pickleball: a newly popular court sport
Development Centre (LDC). reduction in the value of an asset.”
played with short-handled paddles and a perfo-
Dennis Bwayo, one of Tsekooko’s rated plastic ball (and an entry with a champion-
children said their father had a love ship-level etymology).
New Words from Linguistics
for reading and spent most of his Language buffs will appreciate a new group of
Escape room: a game in which participants words from the field of linguistics.
time devouring books and reviewing confined to a room or other enclosed setting
judgments in his library even when Rhotic: in phonetics, a rhotic dialect is one in
are given a set amount of time to find a way to which an /r/ sound is retained in words like hard
he was diagnosed with cancer of escape.
the prostate in 2011 and his ailment and car.
Free solo: a climb in which a rock climber uses Non-rhotic: A dialect in which no /r/ sound is
worsened. no artificial aids for support and has no rope or heard in such words.
The family has been going other safety equipment for protection in case of Rhoticity: nothing to do with rotisserie and
through a difficult time given that a fall. everything to do with a noun that points to some
Tsekooko lost his sister a week before
important differences between dialects.
he died. He was buried at his ances- New Words About Race and Identity Should this list leave you hungry for more
tral home in Bunakhaima village, On a more serious note, several new entries words, keep this in mind: if you eat the
Butiru sub-county in Manafwa. Tse- are for words that address the complex ways we dictionary, you may get thesaurus throat
kooko will be remembered as a firm view ourselves and others and how we all fit in. you’ve ever had. (Oh, we now have an entry
and incorruptible jurist. They: expanded to include this sense: “used for dad joke, too.)
to refer to a single person whose gender identity

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 19
news analysis

Kaheru’s exit caps


tough year for NGOs
Outgoing CCEDU boss speaks out on
political atmosphere and his legacy
By Ian Katusiime He adds that it is worse because Kaheru boasts and asks, “Is there any

W
Uganda does not have a practice of single national organisation or state
hy did he quit abruptly?” is where those in leadership positions institution that can rival such an elab-
a question that was on the leave peacefully. orate human infrastructure?” He calls
minds of many people when Kaheru acknowledges that being at this number the constituency of CCE-
Crispin Kaheru announced the helm of the largest citizens’ coalition DU.
two weeks ago that he was leaving his in eastern and southern Africa attracts a He says pressure from government
position as Coordinator of Citizens Co- lot of pressure and interest both locally on NGOs may be there but asserts that
alition for Electoral Democracy (CCE- and internationally. if NGOs are clear on their cause and
DU). “I think globally, NGOs- and espe- “affixed” to their genuine constituen-
“My retirement was not as abrupt as cially those working on governance and cies, the pushback from government
the public has perceived it. I planned it human rights issues are under a lot of would never succeed.
nine years ago,” Kaheru tells The Inde- stress from various dimensions-includ- At the time of the interview, Kaheru
pendent in an interview. Nine years ago ing from governments and the people was in Mozambique as part of the Afri-
was when Kaheru took up the job at the they serve,” he tells The Independent. can Union Election Observation Mission
tender age of 26. “This is merely a wakeup call that for the general elections held on Oct.15.
He says the CCEDU board knew that NGOs should organise differently The mission was headed by former
he would retire when his nine years under the circumstances,” Kaheru says Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan.
clock. He attributes the reaction to his and points out that CCEDU got fully
retirement to an absence of a culture of anchored with the citizens of Uganda Hoima election debacle
leaving office. “It is either one is forced and puts the organisation’s reach at Just a week before Kaheru resigned,
out of office or their contract is termi- over 5 million citizens. CCEDU was caught up in the fallout
nated or not renewed; but either way, “CCEDU maintains full and regular from the Hoima Woman MP by-elec-
there has to be pressure on a person to contact with 4.9 million people spread tion. NRM won the hotly contested
leave a leadership role.” out in all villages across the country,” election against a joint opposition

20 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
news analysis
candidate. But the façade of a joint that it was the principled dialogue and Government crackdown
candidate had already crumbled by the pressure from the citizens across the On the other hand, there is a sim-
time the voters cast their ballots in late country that influenced a change in mering crack-down on NGOs from
September. mind on the EC side. government. In August, the government
Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) “We would never in any way com- through the Ministry of Internal Affairs
which sponsored Asinansi Nyakato, the promise our integrity as a citizens’ and National NGO Bureau carried out
joint candidate, was trading barbs with coalition.” He adds, “I want to believe a validation exercise for NGOs which
People Power, MP Bobi Wine’s political that CCEDU will always maintain its many NGO bosses described as “intru-
machine. Apparently, Nyakato was hob- independence and professionalism as it sive”.
nobbing with the red army of People executes its mandate.” The Bureau demanded from NGOs
Power at the expense of FDC, the larg- On his legacy, Kaheru speaks proud- details on number of staff, what they
est political party in the opposition. ly about what CCEDU achieved in his earn, their contracts, board members and
When NRM’s Harriet Businge was tenure. “In 2011, CCEDU pioneered the donors. Many NGO directors expressed
declared winner of the seat, there was approach of scrutinising electoral events reservations about the process due to
a statement attributed to CCEDU say- that happen outside major elections, weak data privacy laws in Uganda among
ing the poll was a fair and transparent including monitoring by-elections” other things.
one. Kaheru’s colleagues in civil soci- He is also proud of voter mobilisa- Coinciding with the validation exercise
ety and the opposition were miffed on tion campaigns like ‘Vote Issues not was a directive by Financial Intelligence
the nature of the statement given the Wolokoso’ for the 2011 polls, ‘Topowa’ Authority (FIA), the government agency
violence, bribery and armed forces role (Don’t give up) for the 2016 elections that deals with financial fraud, to Equity
that rocked the election. which he says he designed. “All these Bank to avail it with bank details of 13
The District Police Commander of campaigns yielded phenomenal div- specific NGOs. CCEDU was one of them.
Hoima was transferred on the eve of
the by-election, sowing more confusion
and mistrust. One activist in a Facebook
tirade called for the “crucifixion” of
Kaheru.
A statement issued on Sept. 30 by
CCEDU and signed by Kaheru read
“We wish to clarify that our preliminary
statement was released during polling
and the vote counting exercise. The sec-
ond statement was published after poll-
ing and upon the Electoral Commission
(EC) announcing the results from the
by-election…”
It continued, “We therefore appeal to
our members and the public to review
both statements in context.” Those bay-
ing for Kaheru’s blood attributed his Civil society organisation representatives speak at a recent event.  INDEPENDENT. ALFRED OCHWO
controversial statement to an alleged
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) idends-they mobilised Ugandans to The others included were Action Aid
signed between EC and CCEDU. actively engage in elections.” International Uganda, Alliance for Cam-
In July 2018, the EC banned CCEDU Kaheru says CCEDU now has nation- paign Finance Monitoring, Anti-Corrup-
from election related activities accusing al and international respect and credi- tion Coalition Uganda, Human Rights
the body of partisanship and discred- bility. “CCEDU is now the go-to insti- Network Uganda, and Foundation for
iting electoral processes. The EC lifted tution for credible election information. Human Rights Initiative. They are some of
the ban in February after a number It is the reference entity on elections for the most vocal on democracy and gover-
of meetings were held to resolve the citizens, government as well as interna- nance.
issues. tional actors interested in Uganda”. In June, the Democratic Governance
But after the Hoima by-election, some At 35, Kaheru is planning his next Facility (DGF), the largest pool of donor
members of the civil society were firm move satisfied with what he leaves funding in Uganda terminated partner-
in their accusation that CCEDU; an behind at CCEDU. “I doubt there is ship with four NGOs after a forensic audit
amalgam of 800 civil society organisa- any institution at this moment that can unearthed corruption and gross misman-
tions meant to advocate for electoral match our databank on electoral pro- agement.
democracy, had a pact with the election cesses in Uganda.” A statement the Swedish Ambassador
management body. Richard Ssewakiryanga, the execu- Per Lindgarde issued to Daily Monitor
EC chairman Justice Simon Byabaka- tive director of Uganda National NGO read “Unfortunately the conclusions of
ma could not be reached for comment. Forum (UNNFOF), an independent the forensic audit confirmed incidences
Kaheru refutes this claim. “CCEDU platform for all NGOs, spoke to The of fraudulent practices, governance issues
did not sign any MoU with the EC for Independent about the departure of his and forgery of accountability.” Sweden is
the ban to be lifted. We did not!” colleague. one of the partners behind DGF.
He says CCEDU would have publi- “I treat it as a normal departure. He As Kaheru leaves, with the above set-
cised it so that its members, the citizens voluntarily steps down.” Sewakiryanga backs and fifteen months left to the 2021
know about it. “Those alleging that however added that the NGO space can general elections, the space for civil society
CCEDU entered a deal with EC should be tough. “We work in conditions that will hopefully not get narrower.
prove it, by showing the public that are stressful.”
MoU.” Kaheru tells The Independent

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 21
NEWS ANALYSIS

Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest creatures because they are carriers for many lethal

Genetically modifying
mosquitoes
4 top scientists, professors Natalie Kofler, Françoise Baylis, Graham Dellaire and
Landon J Getz, explain why they oppose recent moves to use them to control the
spread of disease and the unknown risks involved

E
very year, around one million the release into the wild of genetically human and environmental health.
people die of mosquito-borne modified (GM) mosquitoes that express Oxitec, a company that spun out of
diseases according to the World a lethal gene — a strategy believed to research at Oxford University in the
Health Organisation (WHO). have little impact on the overall DNA of early 2000s, developed and trademarked
This is why mosquitoes are considered wild populations of mosquitoes. GM Friendly™ mosquitoes (also known
one of the deadliest living creatures on As an interdisciplinary group as strain OX513A of Aedes aegypti).
the planet — not because they are lethal of authors, we (generally support These male GM mosquitoes have what
themselves, but because many of the technologies that can reduce human the company describes as a “self-
viruses and parasites they transmit are. disease and suffering. However, given limiting” gene, which means that when
Consider, for example, dengue fever. our combined expertise in science, these so-called friendly mosquitoes
This mosquito-borne virus is a leading governance and ethics we have concerns mate, their offspring inherit the self-
cause of hospitalisation and death that recent decisions to deploy GM limiting gene which is supposed to
among children and adults in several mosquitoes have not been made prevent them surviving into adulthood.
countries in Asia and Latin America. responsibly. In theory, when these mosquitoes are
In 2016, member states in three of the released in high numbers, a dramatic
six WHO regions reported 3.34 million Genetically modified mosquitoes reduction in the mosquito population
cases. The transfer of new genes from GM should follow.
In the absence of an effective organisms to wild or domesticated non-
vaccine for dengue fever, Zika fever, GM populations is a key criticism of Changes to the gene pool
chikungunya and other mosquito-borne GM crops like soybean and corn. There According to research published
diseases, researchers have developed are concerns that the introduction of by Oxitec researchers in 2015, field
genetic strategies to reduce mosquito GM genes into non-target species could trials involving recurring releases of
populations. One such strategy involves have negative consequences for both Friendly™ mosquitoes demonstrated a

22 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
NEWS ANALYSIS
reduction of nearly 95 per cent of target opportunities to minimise these harms plans have been made to extend field
populations in Brazil. In these field before moving forward with more trials to other jurisdictions, including
trials, experiments were not performed large-scale releases. the Florida Keys in the United States.
to assess whether GM mosquitoes might This raises two important questions: To date, public pushback has
persist in the wild. Given that “around 5 per cent or less” temporarily prevented the release of
A recent study from the Powell lab of the GM mosquito population was GM mosquitoes in the Florida Keys.
at Yale University has since confirmed expected to survive, shouldn’t Oxitec But Oxitec hopes to eventually secure
that some of the offspring of the GM have made plans to assess the risk approval from the U.S. Environmental
mosquitoes didn’t succumb to the self- of gene transfer to wild populations Protection Agency to perform field
limiting lethal gene and survived to during their initial trials? And trials and assess release of a second-
adulthood. They were able to breed shouldn’t the Brazilian government generation GM mosquito that causes
with native mosquitoes and thereby have required such an assessment lethality only in female mosquitoes,
introduce some of their genes into the as part of the regulatory approval as another means to collapse wild
wild population. process, given their awareness of the populations.
The Yale researchers found that risk?
mosquitoes captured at six, 12 and up Instead, with approval from Regulating genetic modification
to 30 months post-release carried DNA Brazilian authorities, Oxitec released In the end, minus the hyperbole and
from the GM mosquito population, nearly half a million GM mosquitoes somewhat alarmist reporting of the
thereby disproving “the claim that every week into shared environments Yale study (the journal is looking into
genes from the release strain would not in Jacobina over a two-year period allegations brought forth by Oxitec
get into the general population because from 2013 to 2015. This was done of speculative and unsubstantiated
offspring would die.” without the benefit of adequate risk claims), the finding that offspring
It appears that between five and 60 assessment and without proper public of GM mosquitoes could survive in
per cent of the captured mosquitoes consultation. the wild remains undisputed. This
post-release contained genetic illustrates the importance of careful
sequences inherited from the Friendly™ decision-making and adequate
mosquitoes. Importantly, the number of oversight of field trials involving the
mosquitoes identified as still containing release of GM organisms. Careful
DNA derived from GM mosquitoes
declined between the 12-month and
One decision-making requires open
venues for informed and deliberative
27-month capture periods specifically, significant public dialogue, engagement and
perhaps indicating that the offspring
of GM mosquitoes might be less fit
worry is empowerment.
Genetic modification technologies
in nature after all. This remains to be that a new need to be more transparent, as do
shown conclusively.
breed of the scientific processes for evaluating
their risks, especially where the rights
Unknown potential impacts mosquito and needs of affected communities can
Meanwhile, the impact of mosquitoes
carrying these new genes remains
might inform technology development. With
more robust and nuanced regulatory
largely unknown. One significant worry emerge processes governing the development
is that a new breed of mosquito might
emerge that is more difficult to control. that is more and release of GM organisms, it
should be possible to benefit from
These new genes could also potentially difficult to these technologies without harming or
alter evolutionary pressures on viruses
carried by mosquitoes, like dengue control disenfranchising the communities that
are the intended beneficiaries.
fever, in unpredictable ways. This Mosquito-borne illnesses cause
includes potentially increasing their immense human suffering, and we
virulence or changing their host-insect should continue to develop technologies
interactions. These are hypothetical to reduce that suffering. At the same
risks that have been raised by time, we must be equally dedicated to
scientists, and reflect the need for designing scientific processes that are
further study. Oxitec reports having used leaflets, safe, ethical and just.
Thus, like GM soybean or corn, social media, carnival parades and
there is legitimate concern about the community meetings to inform
propagation of new genetic material in the public of their research. Public Natalie Kofler is Levenick Resident Scholar
wild populations with as yet unknown education is not the same as public in Sustainability, University of Illinois at
consequences. consultation and engagement and, Urbana-Champaign, Françoise Baylis is
Field trials involving the release of in our view, the people living in the University Research Professor, Dalhousie
GM organisms are typically designed vicinity of this release had more than University, Graham Dellaire is Director
to evaluate safety and efficacy, a right to be informed of the plans. of Research and Professor of Pathology,
to assess possible impact on food They also had a right to participate in Dalhousie University, and Landon J Getz
networks, and to ensure that there relevant decision-making. is Ph.D. Candidate in Microbiology and
is no (or minimal) undue harm to On the basis of presumed success Immunology, Dalhousie University.
the environment or human health. in Brazil where mosquito populations
Put simply, field trials are meant to were reduced — a consequential
assess potential harms associated with reduction in the prevalence of dengue
genetic technologies and to provide fever has yet to be demonstrated —

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 23
NEWS ANALYSIS

The Asian economic miracle


Deepak Nayyar, the Emeritus Professor of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University
and Honorary Fellow, Balliol College, University of Oxford, explains how Asia
transformed from the poorest continent in the world into a global economic powerhouse

I
n 1820, Asia accounted for two- Myrdal in his 1968 book Asian Drama, economic transformation in this short
thirds of the world’s population and was widespread at the time. time-span is almost unprecedented in
more than one-half of global income. In the half century since then, Asia has history. My new book, `Resurgent Asia’,
The subsequent decline of Asia was witnessed a profound transformation looks at this phenomenal change.
attributed to its integration with a world in terms of the economic progress of Given the size and the diversity of the
economy shaped by colonialism and its nations and the living conditions Asian continent, looking at the region
driven by imperialism. of its people. By 2016, as my analysis as a whole is not always appropriate. So
By the late 1960s, Asia was the of UN data shows, it accounted for in my research, I’ve disaggregated Asia
poorest continent in the world when 30% of world income, 40% of world into its four constituent sub-regions –
it came to income levels, marginal manufacturing, and over one-third of East, South-East, South and West Asia
except for its large population. Its social world trade, while its income per capita – and further into 14 selected countries
indicators of development, among converged towards the world average. described as the Asian-14. These are
the worst anywhere, epitomised its This transformation was unequal China, South Korea and Taiwan in East
underdevelopment. The deep pessimism across countries and between people. Asia; Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
about Asia’s economic prospects, voiced Even so, predicting it would have Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam in
by the Swedish economist Gunnar required an imagination run wild. Asia’s South-East Asia; Bangladesh, India,

24 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
NEWS ANALYSIS
insertion into it. For example, trade
policy was liberal for exports but
The rise of Asia restrictive for imports. Government
policies towards foreign investment
represents the have been shaped by industrial
beginnings of a policy in the pursuit of national
development objectives. While
shift in the balance openness was necessary for successful
of economic power industrialisation, it was not sufficient
and facilitated industrialisation only
in the world and when combined with industrial policy.
In the half-century economic
some erosion in the transformation of Asia, governments
political dominance performed a vital role, ranging from
leader to catalyst or supporter. Success
of the West at development in Asia was about
managing this evolving relationship
between states and markets, by finding
the right balance in their respective roles
development, because there were no that also changed over time.
universal solutions, magic wands, or The developmental states in
silver bullets. South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore
coordinated policies across sectors over
Absolute poverty persists time in pursuit of national development
Despite such diversity, there are objectives, using carrot-and-stick policy
common discernible patterns. Economic to implement their agenda, and were
growth drove development. Growth able to become industrialised nations
rates of GDP and GDP per capita in Asia in just 50 years. China emulated these
have been stunning and far higher than developmental states with much success,
elsewhere in the world. and Vietnam followed on the same path
Rising investment and savings rates two decades later, as both countries
combined with the spread of education have strong one-party communist
were the underlying factors. Growth governments that could coordinate and
was driven by rapid industrialisation, implement policies.
often led by exports and linked with It is not possible to replicate these
changes in the composition of output states elsewhere in Asia. But other
and employment. It was supported countries, such as India, Indonesia,
by coordinated economic policies, Malaysia, Thailand, Bangladesh and
unorthodox wherever and whenever Turkey, did manage to evolve some
necessary, across sectors and over time. institutional arrangements, even if
Rising per capita incomes transformed less effective, that were conducive to
Pakistan, and Sri Lanka in South Asia; social indicators of development, as industrialisation and development. In
and Turkey in West Asia. These countries literacy rates and life expectancy rose some of these countries, the checks and
account for more than four-fifths of the everywhere. There was also a massive balances of political democracies were
population and income of the continent. reduction in absolute poverty. But the crucial to making governments more
Japan is not included in the study scale of absolute poverty that persists, orientated towards development and
because it is a high income country in despite unprecedented growth, is just people-friendly.
Asia, and was already industrialised 50 as striking as the sharp reduction of The rise of Asia represents the
years ago. poverty that happened between 1984 and beginnings of a shift in the balance of
It’s essential to recognise the diversity 2012, according to data from the World economic power in the world and some
of Asia. There have been marked Bank. erosion in the political dominance of the
differences between countries in The poverty reduction could have West. The future will be shaped partly
geographical size, embedded histories, been much greater but for the rising by how Asia exploits the opportunities
colonial legacies, nationalist movements, inequality. Inequality between people and meets the challenges and partly by
initial conditions, natural resource within countries rose almost everywhere, how the difficult economic and political
endowments, population size, income except South Korea and Taiwan. Yet the conjuncture in the world unfolds.
levels and political systems. The reliance gap between the richest and poorest Yet it’s plausible to suggest that by
on markets and the degree of openness countries in Asia remains awesome and around 2050, a century after the end of
of economies has varied greatly across the ratio of GDP per capita in the richest colonial rule, Asia will account for more
countries and over time. and poorest country in Asia was more than one-half of world income and will be
Across Asia, the politics has also than 100:1 in both 1970 and 2016. home to more than half of the people on
ranged widely from authoritarian earth. It will have an economic and political
regimes or oligarchies to political The role of governments significance in the world that would have
democracies. So did ideologies, from Economic openness has performed been difficult to imagine 50 years ago, even
communism, to state capitalism and a critical supportive role in Asian if it was the reality in 1820.
capitalism. Development outcomes development, wherever it was in the
differed across space and over time form of strategic integration with the Source: theconversation
too. There were different paths to world economy, rather than passive

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 25
Why banks won’t hurry
to cut interest rates
Industry executives to respond to Mutebile’s call upon
carefully evaluating their commitments with clients

C
By Julius Businge to respond the following day.” relative to 14.8% for the quarter to May 2019.
But she added: “It may not be an imme-
ommercial Bank top executives diate response but we always work towards Slackening economy
plan to respond to the central making sure that we reduce our cost of lend- “Economic activity seems to have slack-
bank’s call to lower interest ing.” Nakawunde said they are continuing ened in the first half of 2019 compared to
rates upon carefully analyzing to monitor the capacity of their borrowers the second half of 2018,” Mutebile said as he
their current loans and sector when it comes to loan repayments before announced the CBR on Oct.07. UBOS fig-
developments. extending new lines of credit. ures show that in the second quarter of 2019,
The Bank of Uganda Governor, Emmanu- William Sekabembe, the chief of business GDP slowed to 5.4% year-on-year compared
el Tumusiime Mutebile, announced a reduc- and executive director at dfcu bank said they to 6.8% in the fourth quarter of 2018.
tion in the central bank rate (CBR) from 10% expected the entire industry to start review- In addition, Mutebile said that the BoU’s
in August to 9% in October, citing a reduc- ing the pricing across board. high frequency indicator of economic activi-
tion in inflation. The CBR is an indicative Sekabembe said the latest announcement ty, the Composite Index of Economic activity
rate that signals the direction of commercial is a good sign for reducing the cost of credit (CIEA), points to a moderation of economic
bank interest rates. Usually, the higher the and spurring growth of private sector credit activity in the first quarter of FY 2019/20.
CBR, the higher the interest rates in the mar- and the economy in general. “The outlook is uncertain, particularly as
ket and vice versa. The latest CBR reduction He said they are cautiously looking at a result of the unfavorable global economy,”
was the first in the past four months. variables including cost of operation, cost of he said. Moreover, a combination of widen-
The new development implies that com- capital, impairment costs, capacity to source ing fiscal and current account deficits, cou-
mercial banks have to follow suit and cut for cheap liabilities and more as they set new pled with public sector domestic financing
minimum lending rates which are currently interest rates for customers. He added that needs, could exert pressure on the lending
averaging at 20.2% in the quarter to August customers with good credit records have a interest rates leading to further moderation
2019 compared to 19.7% in quarter to May chance to even access credit that is below of economic growth. This development has
2019. their prime/lowest lending rate which was come at the time the Uganda Bureau of Sta-
20% by press time. Similarly, Anthony Kitu- tistics has reversed the country’s economic
Bankers talk uka, the executive director at Equity Bank growth figures from Shs 115trillion for the
However, executives in the banking said said that they will positively respond to Financial Year 2015/16 to Shs122trillion for
they will first study the market environment BoU’s announcement. the Financial Year 2018/19 using the constant
prior to making any necessary changes in But this will be upon carefully assess- prices for the Financial Year 2016/17.
interest rates. Annet Nakawunde Mulindwa, ing their different obligations and deposit Going forward, Mutebile said the central
the managing director at Finance Trust Bank arrangements they have with their custom- bank will continue to monitor emerging
said they already have commitments with ers. “Our intention is to price competitively price and output developments to ensure
lenders which is a key determinant of the and spur economic growth,” Kituuka told that monetary policy decisions remain
cost of lending. The Independent. consistent with price stability while being
“…we have to think through it and do Data from BoU shows that the average supportive of sustained noninflationary eco-
some calculations and see,” she said, “If the year-on-year growth in private sector credit nomic growth over the next 2-3 years.
CBR is reducing today, you do not expect us stood at 13.9% for the quarter to August 2019

26 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
business

Educate customers, pay claims


to stir insurance uptake
However, the industry has recorded growth in premiums
By Isaac Khisa “Let us all educate our customers about recorded a 28.6% growth in premiums to

I
insurance as well as our existing and Shs216.9bn.
t is no secret that the concept of new products so that the industry is not Health Membership Organisations that
insurance is pretty simple. In the seen as merely interested in selling its includes, among others, Case Medical
exchange for a premium, an insurance products but extending excellent services Clinics, International Air Ambulance and
firm agrees to compensate a policy to prospective clients.” AAR recorded a 31% growth to Shs69.1bn
holder for a specified loss, damage, In addition, Sande said, coming up during the same period under review.
illness, or death caused by an unexpected with various innovations such as micro The insurers net asset base increased by
event. insurance and tech-enabled insurance 11% from Shs458bn in 2017 to Shs508bn
So, as an industry that is centered on products without educating the masses in 2018 signaling a growing strength of
helping consumers better mitigate risks, on how to go about it will not boost the companies to handle more insurance
why does insurance get such a bad view country’s insurance penetration. risks locally as well as provide adequate
which hinders its faster growth? The Uganda’s insurance penetration protection to the insuring public.
answer is more education and claims currently stands at less than 1% -the The claims payment, which is the core
settlement. lowest in the East African region. value that the insurance industry offers
Protazio Sande, the director for Kenya’s stands at 2.85% compared with to the policy holders and beneficiaries,
research and market development at Tanzania’s and Rwanda’s 2.3% and 1%, increased by 11.9% to Shs326.7bn.
the Insurance Regulatory Authority respectively. Saul Sseremba, the chief executive
of Uganda said during the first ever officer at the Insurance Institute of Uganda
international insurance conference held in said that the low level of education and
Kampala on Oct. 17, that the industry has mistrust has continued to hamper growth
to educate prospective customers prior to of the country’s insurance industry.
selling them their products so that they “The industry has to put in more effort
purchase their preferred products based to change this trend,” he said.
on informed decisions. Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen, the research
He said that educating customers manager and adjunct professor at the
minimises incidences of insurance firms Pellervo Economic Research, Finland,
claiming that their customers did not said lack of financial literacy especially in
understand their obligations and thus insurance is a major barrier for the sector’s
deny them compensation when loss growth.
occurs. Protazio Sande Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen He said numerous research indicates
“If we continue doing the same that attitude and behavior influences
thing and expect different results, then, people’s decision to purchase insurance
definitely, there’s something wrong with Surging premiums services.
that. We must do things differently,” he This development comes as data from “Attitudes reflect trust,” he said, adding
said. the latest Fincope Survey released last that financial literacy does not mean that
“We need to be innovative along year shows that the people holding any consumers buy unsuitable products.
the entire insurance value chain – sort of insurance policy stands at merely He said that industry digitalization,
from product development to claims 220,000. This is far below the 350,000 product development, marketing,
payment.” customers who held an insurance policy distribution, new business underwriting
“The customers that the industry in 2013, according to the Fincope Survey. and claims settlement alone cannot fix the
is dealing with are not interested in However, Uganda’s insurance industry sector’s problems.
listening to anything else except fast premium growth has continued to surge. This is because internet is still expensive
claims payment,” he added. Statistics from the Insurance Regulatory and fail, artificial intelligence’s domain
He said insurance firms, on some Authority of Uganda shows that the surprisingly small and block chain is still
occasions, need to look for a bigger industry recorded a 17.5% growth in gross resource intensive and slow, Ruuskanen
picture in the process of compensating underwritten premiums to Shs856bn in added.
customers to protect the image of the 2018 owed to the country’s investment The conference attracted about 200
industry. in various infrastructure services such delegates. Themed ‘The role of inclusive
He added that the industry, indeed, as hydro-electric power dams, revival of insurance in delivering social protection
faces challenges of fraud but the Uganda Airlines, installation of CCTV agenda,’ the conference discussed various
players have taken advantage of it to in Kampala and upgrading of Entebbe ways of how to stir insurance uptake
deny a section of customer’s genuine International Airport. including the use of ICT, and offers on
compensation. “So, we need to strike Of this, non-life insurance companies micro-insurance and national health
a balance such that we do not ruin the recorded a 12% growth in premiums to insurance schemes.
industry’s image,” he said. Shs569.9bn while life insurance business

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 27
business

Growing tourism sector


UTB strengthens marketing and quality of service
By Julius Businge Under this MICE product, Ajarova said participated in a number of expos and events

U
that, they supported the Commonwealth both at regional and international arenas.
ganda Tourism Board is gearing Parliamentary Conference through develop- These include; Kili Fair in Tanzania,
up regulating tourism facilities, ment of travel packages and guidelines. Uganda – Tanzania Business Forum and the
travel agents and tourist guides “As expected of many MICE events, Akwaaba Travel Market in Nigeria.
countrywide to support growth of Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference The agency also took part in Magical
the sector. had a big trickle-down effect and our hotels Kenya Travel expo where they showcased
In an interview with The Independent on can testify to the bed occupancy registered Adventure, Golf Tourism and Nightlife as
Oct.15 at Protea Hotel during the agency’s during their stay,” she said. well as WTM Africa and Indaba Expos - both
quarterly media roundtable, the agency’s Overall, she said, they are working with hosted in South Africa.
Chief Executive Officer Lilly Ajarova said stakeholders on a number of bids to bring “We see a huge potential here and are
their aim is to see more Ugandans and some of the biggest events and conferences looking to further grow these numbers,”
foreigners visiting tourism sites and create into the country. She said Africa remains she said. At the same time, the number of
more opportunities for people and the econ- Uganda’s biggest source market. specialist tour operators who proactively
omy. She said they are also gearing efforts “We are currently consolidating our sell Uganda as a destination in the UK alone
towards product profiling and investment in efforts to further tap into the African mar- increased from 99 to over 160.
tourism facilities in addition to more aggres- ket,” she said. The agency has also added two other
sive efforts in both domestic and internation- UTB’s statistics indicates that Kenya marketing firms - one in the Gulf States and
al marketing. remains Uganda’s biggest source market for the other in Japan and China with the aim of
Over the last quarter (July-September), tourists in the region accounting for 29% of promoting destination Uganda in emerging
Ajarova said, the UTB has engaged in a total tourism arrivals registered in 2018. markets. Other firms are selling Uganda in
number of domestic, regional and interna- African markets (regional and neighbor- Germany and the USA.
tional marketing initiatives aimed at raising ing countries) that entered Uganda by road The agency also profiled the Equator,
the profile of Uganda as a preferred tourist makeup 69% of Uganda’s international Marine and various clusters starting with the
destination. arrivals, and grew by 6.1% in 2018. Ankole Cluster.
“We have undertaken a nationwide With these statistics, Ajarova said, Africa Uganda has a total of 150 tour and travel
outdoor campaign aimed to showcase the shows great opportunity for growing Ugan- companies, 2066 accommodation facilities
country to Ugandans so that we can have da’s tourism sector. and 358 tourist guides countrywide which
more local population visiting various parts Internationally, during the quarter, UTB UTB registered during the quarter.
of their own country,” she said, adding that
they want to be able to see Ugandans con- Key facts
tribute to tourism by either consuming as  •Tourist arrivals grew from 1.42millio in
well as investing in it. 2017 to 1.505million in 2018
“Our goal is for tourism to be every Ugan-  •Foreign exchange earnings grew from
dan’s business,” she said. $1.45billion in 2017 to $1.6Bn in 2018
During the quarter, UTB supported pri-  •GDP contribution in 2018 stands at
vate tourism initiatives such as the Rolex Shs8.4trillions (7.7%).
festival, Ekyoto and Uganda Fashion Week.  •Tourism contributed 667,600 jobs (6.7%
Ajarova said the industry has embraced of total employment).
MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences  •Hotel Room occupancy for 2018 stands
and Events) as new product to further Ugan- at 50.9% with lodged posting up to 75%.
da as a tourist destination for not only leisure  •Over 1,613 tourism service providers
but also business travelers. trained in service standards in 2018.
Chief Executive Officer Lilly Ajarova

28 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
business

Olusegun Obasanjo, former president of Nigeria

AfroChampions Initiative
presents $1trn AfCFTA
investment framework
By Tom Collins and D. We are able to say yes we want to vate sector to invest.

T
have $1trn in 10 years. We believe that the It lists signature mega projects like the
he AfroChampions Initiative held money is out there but how do we get that Djibouti to Dakar railway and DRC’s Inga
its second conference on sustainable money into Africa.” Dam project; along with basic shortfalls like
green growth and industrialisation in The outline of the framework was first Africa’s annual import bill of $35bn.
Kigali, Rwanda.   presented to Obasanjo and other leaders It also highlights up-and-coming sectors
The AfroChampions Initiative, a set of in July at the African Union’s Extraordi- like Africa’s urban food market which will
public-private partnerships designed to nary Summit in Niger which convened to be worth $150bn by 2030.
leverage resources and funds to create more mark the official launch of the AfCFTA. The framework identifies the core
multinational corporate champions in Africa, The framework seeks to establish that the enablers of the AfCFTA as transportation
has proposed a $1trn investment framework multi-sector challenges of implementing the and connectivity; removal of non-tariff bar-
to support the goals of the African Continen- AfCFTA are in fact opportunities for the pri- riers; low cost power to industry; and value
tal Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) by 2030. addition and industrialisation in a mod-
The presentation was made in Kigali at ernised digital economy.
the AfroChampions second ‘boma’, a Swa- By highlighting the opportunities avail-
hili word meaning traditional community able and implementing monitoring tools, the
gathering. The framework AfroChampions document hopes to act as a
The forum is designed to encourage lively
debate between the private sector, govern-
identifies the conduit to investment to these key sectors.
“The launch of the trillion dollar invest-
ment and civil society. core enablers ment framework is driven by the private sec-
Though 54 countries have signed the
AfCFTA and 28 have ratified it, the world’s
of the AfCFTA as tor,” said Albert Muchanga, Commissioner
for Trade and Industry at the African Union
largest free trade area since the creation of transportation Commission.
the World Trade Organization will only cre-
ate a more prosperous Africa if substantial and connectivity; “With this initiative the private sector is
sending a very clear signal that is willing
investments are made into sectors which removal of non-tariff and ready. I would like to challenge all of
support intra-African trade.
Olusegun Obasanjo, former president of barriers; low cost you to invest and I would like to challenge
the African private sector to be in the For-
Nigeria, praised the investment framework, power to industry; tune 500 by 2030.”
saying:
“We now have a framework that we can and value addition Adapted from African Business Magazine
put on the table and say this is what we have
to put in place to be able to achieve A, B, C

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 29
business
INSURANCE AWARDS

Continental Re officer Afreximbank President receives two awards in the U.S

P
agriculture insurance rof. Benedict mated GDP of over

N
Oramah, 500 billion US dollars
igerian-based firm Con- President of and GDP per capita
tinental Reinsurance will the African significantly higher
now offer agricultural Export-Import Bank than Africa’s average.
insurance cover in its (Afreximbank), on According to him,
latest product mix. Oct.17, received the with more than 30
The Nigerian-based re-insurer 2019 Man of the Year million Africans living
said the continent has a high Award from Diaspora outside their home
potential to grow its agricultural Today magazine and countries and remit-
sector which will require more the African Diaspora ting about $63 billion
insurance products. Distinguished Leader- and saving another
“We have read the signals ship Award of Prince Afreximbank President Benedict Oramah (L), $53 billion annually,
of our environment and have Georges County of joined by other officials to display his award. the Diaspora has
responded without a doubt,” said Maryland, United become an intra-Afri-
Group CEO Femi Oyetunji. States. excellent and very remained to be accom- can trade resource.
“In line with our organising Presenting the impressive leadership plished to develop He argued that that
principle of localisation, we have two awards, Angela style in managing the Africa. He commend- the African Diaspora
found it imperative to expand our Alsobrooks, Prince activities, events and ed the contribution of must be brought into
product relevance to further build Georges County Exec- developmental pro- the African Diaspora intra-African trade
on market development.” utive, said that they grammes of Afrexim- to the continent’s in order to deepen
Continental Re wants to were in celebration bank across Africa and development, saying the dynamism of that
strengthen internal capabilities to of Prof. Oramah’s all over the globe”. that, should the collec- trade. Afreximbank’s
underwrite Agriculture insurance achievements and con- In his acceptance tive African Diaspora intra-African Trade
in Kenya and across the continent, tributions toward the speech, Prof. Ora- be regarded as the Strategy, launched in
according to Kenya’s Business development of the mah said that he 56th African state, it May 2016, was part of
Daily. Global agricultural premi- African continent. She saw the awards as a would rank top in the effort to address
ums are about $25 billion but Afri- also referenced Prof. call to action given terms of “GDP” and that challenge.
ca’s share is less than one per cent. Oramah’s “unique, the many tasks that would have an esti-

CSR AWARDS

Imperial Leather Launches ‘Be Fresh & Win’ Promo UBL’s boss wins 2019 CFO award

G U
lobal personal ganda Breweries and finance practices both
care products Finance & Strat- within the companies they
manufacturer egy Director, operate, and the finance
PZ Cussons, Doregos Busola, sector in general. Busola
through its sole distrib- was named the 2019 Chief is the first lady to win the
utor in Uganda African Finance Officer of the Uganda CFO of the Year
Queen, is ramping year. It was a double win award.
up the positioning of for Busola who also won She is a seasoned
its flagship brand Im- the Finance Transforma- Finance professional and
perial Leather, as the tion award. an ACCA fellow
number one personal The Chief with over 15 years
care brand in a new Finance Officer of experience in
Innocent Tibayeita (4th R), African Queen Managing
campaign dubbed ‘Be Director, Sekar Ramamoorythy (3rd R), Managing Director (CFO) awards, FMCG organiza-
Fresh & Win’ aimed at PZ Cussons East Africa, and staff of African Queen. now in their 3rd tions. She holds a
rewarding consumers in year, were held at Bachelor’s Degree
cash & luxury holidays sumers have embraced memories are made,” the Kampala Ser- in Accounting from
over the next 3 months. its new full range of he said. ena Hotel under the University of
Consumers will personal care products Innocent Tibayeita, the theme ““Eth- Lagos, Nigeria, and
scratch to reveal the that include, bath soaps the acting Managing ics and Trust, as an MBA in Finance
unique code on soaps, & lotions due to their Director, African Queen, the Competitive from Kent Busi-
lotions & shower gels, signature fragrance and said young Ugandans Advantage for ness School. She is
send it to 8008 by SMS longevity. were fast becoming the Business Sustainability.” highly skilled in Strategic
to stand a chance to win “Our 2019 strategic leading force of the con- They were organized Business Planning, Busi-
millions of prizes on mission is to raise the sumer market. by ACCA Uganda and ness Setup, Organizational
daily, weekly, monthly profile of Imperial The current campaign Deloitte Uganda. Effectiveness, Change
& grand draws. Leather as a luxury life- will take up at least Shs The awards are aimed Management, Process
PZ Cussons Man- style brand which deliv- 1bn including luxurious at recognizing outstand- Simplification and Re-en-
aging Director, Sekar ers amazing experiences holiday rewards to local ing finance professionals gineering, Productivity,
Ramamoorthy, said and is always part of the and foreign exotic desti-
Imperial Leather con- and the role they play in Corporate Governance
process where exciting nations,” he announced.
developing good business and Risk Management.

30 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
business

Airtel Africa partners


with Mastercard

A
irtel Africa has management solutions.
partnered with Raghunath Mandava, the
Mastercard, giving CEO of Airtel Africa said
over 100 million Airtel Airtel and Mastercard have
Africa mobile phone users a shared passion for digital
across 14 African countries transformation and making
including Uganda access to mobile financial services
Mastercard’s global network. accessible to everyone across the
The Mastercard virtual continent.
(non-plastic) card allows Airtel “We are really excited to
Money customers, even those embark on this partnership with
without a bank account, to a globally trusted brand like
make payments to local and Mastercard. This partnership
global online merchants that is truly revolutionary in our
Principal of Kampala Junior Academy, Herbert Kijagurwe (3rd R back accept Mastercard cards, while market, giving millions of
row) with a team from Uganda Red Cross and Centenary Bank during a ensuring that the customer’s people better access to the digital
partnership event for teaching first aid in schools. The event took place at
Kampala Junior Academy.   INDEPENDENT /ALFRED OCHWO financial data is always secure and online world,” he said.
and private. Amnah Ajmal, Executive
Also, Airtel Money customers Vice President for Market
will be able to make in-person Development, Mastercard
payments at outlets via Quick Middle East and Africa, said
Response (QR) codes. To they are very excited to partner
date, there are over 1 million with Airtel to lead the transition
merchant locations across Africa to digital by enabling access to
that accept Mastercard QR their millions of consumers for
payments. online and in-person payments
Airtel Money customers will across the globe.
also benefit from competitive This development comes as
pricing and preferential mobile internet connections
exchange rates for international are expected to grow rapidly
payments, and gain access to in Africa due to low cost
other domestically relevant use smartphones and high-speed
cases including bill payments, GSM networks being rolled out
merchants payments and value by Mobile Network Operators
added services such as cash like Airtel.
Transparency International Uganda Executive Director, Peter Wandera calls
on the government to halt plans for withdrawing Shs450million for the
Petroleum Fund until the Investment Advisory Committee is fully functional
as per the Public Finance Management Act 2015. This was during a press
conference held on Oct. 21 in Ntinda.   INDEPENDENT /ALFRED OCHWO

Share price movement (Oct. 01)


Security Oct. 01 Aug.08 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 128 128 00
CENT 1,060 1,157 8.4
QCL 128 130 1.5
DFCU 650 650 00
EABL 7,054 7,243 2.6
EBL 1,341 1,446 7.2
JHL 11,668 13,261 12
KA 86 105 18
KCB 1,416 1,411 0.3
NIC 12 12 00
NMG 1,449 1,609 9.9
NVL 325 329 1.2
SBU 27 29 6.8
UCHM 10 12 16.6
UCL 13 14 7.1
Uganda Breweries Finance & Strategy Director Busola Doregos receives UMEME 297 297 00
the 2019 CFO of the year award from Joe Eshun, CEO Deloitte East Africa.
ALSI -- -- --

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 31
U
By Independent Reporter

ganda has conducted a


mass measles-rubella and
polio vaccination campaign
between Oct.16-22.
Initially planned to be a
five-day mass immunisation
campaign but extended to seven days in
selected areas, it used up to 20 million
doses on the Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccine

Measles and rubella


imported into the country in July and cost
US$14.4 million (Approx.Shs53 billion). It
was funded by the Government of Uganda,
the GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance; the United
Nations Children’s Fund, and WHO.
Immunisation was initially planned to
be conducted in schools for the first three One disease or two?
days and in communities for the last two
days but it was extended in selected areas. particularly dangerous for adolescents Other countries with high incidences
It did not matter if the child was previously and pregnant women. When a woman are the Central African Republic and
immunised or not. The measles-rubella is infected with the rubella virus early the Republic of Congo. According to
vaccination is to become part of the national in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of the WHO, all three have not had rubella
routine immunisation schedule, according passing the virus to her unborn child. This vaccination programs. Others that are
Health minister Dr. Ruth Aceng. can cause the death of the fetus or serious heavily hit include Nigeria, Guinnea,
But there has been marked criticism of birth defects, such as deafness, blindness, Liberia, Tunisia, and South Africa.
the vaccination campaign despite repeated and heart defects, known as Congenital Elsewhere the most hit are Russia,
assurances by the Ministry of Health and Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Pakistan, and Poland.
the World health Organisation (WHO) that According to the Uganda Ministry Neighbours in the East African region,
vaccines being used are approved, safe, of Health, review of the data from Kenya and Tanzania, have rubella
free, and effective. the Uganda Heart Institute shows an vaccination programmes but Rwanda
The target was to immunise more than increasing burden of children born and Burundi do not have them, although
18 million children younger than 15 years, with heart disease as a result of rubella. the WHO data shows they have very low
about 43% of the country’s population. Children who contract rubella experience incidents of the disease.
Among them, 8.2 million children younger rashes and low fever, with the disease Globally, over 400 children die every
than five years were targeted to receive the sometimes associated with joint pains and day due to measles and about 280 babies
oral polio vaccine. a swelling of the lymph nodes. are born every day with congenital rubella
According to the Ministry of Health, Uganda is among the heavier sufferers syndrome (CRS).
Uganda has experienced measles outbreaks of rubella and the WHO lists it among the Rubella is not the same as measles
across numerous districts in the past three top 10 most affected countries. Up to 59 (rubeola), though the two illnesses do
years. Although the last reported case of districts or over 50% of the country have share some characteristics, including the
polio in Uganda was in November 2010, the between 2016 and now reported cases of rash. However, rubella is caused by a
country remains under threat of the disease Rubella. different virus than measles, and is neither
because of vaccine-derived strains of polio as infectious nor usually as severe as
circulating in neighbouring countries. measles.
Country Cases Rate
The objective is to attain more than Measles is highly contagious. The
95% immunisation coverage, which is China 30724 21.890 virus can be contracted by someone up
needed to interrupt the transmission of to two hours after an infected person has
measles, rubella and polio. Many district India 2374 1.790 left a room. It spreads through air and
of Uganda; about 80%, according to the Japan 2274 17.800 infects the respiratory tract, potentially
Ministry of Health, have not attained the killing malnourished children or babies
immunization target. In a statement to the Nigeria 1423 7.650 too young to be vaccinated. Infection
media, the Ministry said the low coverage Pakistan 1087 5.630 with measles is followed by high fever,
is due to poor mobilsation, inadequate rash that spreads over the body, cough,
awareness, inadequate funding, vaccine Indonesia 891 3.410 running nose and red watery eyes, with
stock-outs and lack of knowledge about the disease weakening the body’s immune
measelea-rubella disease. South Africa 456 8.140 system. It also often leads to serious
Uganda 415 10.000 complications that include blindness,
Rubella and measles encephalitis, severe diarrhea and severe
The WHO says Rubella - also called Dr.Congo 366 4.650 respiratory tract infections, such as
German measles or three-day measles, Poland 322 8.420 pneumonia.
is an infection caused by a virus and is

32 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
HEALTH

Doctors’ beliefs
and treatment
A doctor’s display of confidence in a
treatment may make it more effective
By Agencies which. In these experiments, the

N
results were the same.
ew research finds
that the placebo How doctors’ beliefs affect
effect may be socially clinical results
contagious. In other
words, a doctor’s beliefs Overall, across all three
about whether or not a pain experiments, the results
treatment will work can exert a revealed that when the
subtle influence on how much “doctors” believed that a
pain the patient will actually treatment was effective, the
experience. “patients” reported feeling less
The power of placebo pain. Their facial expressions
may extend beyond what and skin conductance tests also
researchers previously believed. revealed fewer signs of pain.
At first, they only used placebos The reasons for this remain
as controls in drug experiments. unclear. However, the
With time, however, placebos researchers believe that social
proved to have value as contagion via facial cues is the
potential treatments in their experiments. All three involved the effects of the cream. All most likely explanation.
own right. two different creams that were participants received the same “When the doctor thought
Pain, depression, anxiety, meant to relieve heat-induced amount of heat. that the treatment was going
irritable bowel syndrome, pain by targeting pain receptors During the experiment, all to work, the patient reported
Parkinson’s disease, and on the participants’ skin. participants wore cameras feeling that the doctor was more
epilepsy are only some of the One of the creams was called that recorded their facial empathetic,” says Chang.
conditions that placebos have thermedol, and the other was expressions in the doctor-patient “The doctor may have come
shown promise in treating. a control cream. Although interactions. across as warmer or more
A new study has looked into different in appearance, both Using a machine-learning attentive. Yet, we don’t know
another fascinating aspect of creams were actually placebos algorithm trained on facial exactly what the doctor was
the placebo: Does it transmit — namely, petroleum jelly with signals of pain, the researchers doing differently to convey these
socially, from one person to no pain relieving properties at were able to examine the effect beliefs that a treatment works.
another? If so, how? More all. of cues such as raised eyebrows, That’s the next thing that we’re
specifically, how does a doctor’s The researchers asked raised upper lips, or nose going to explore,” he adds.
belief about the effects of a undergraduate students to wrinkling on the perceived “What we do know though
medication affect their patient’s play the roles of “doctors” and effectiveness of the treatments. is that these expectations are
experience of pain? “patients.” They informed the In this experiment, not being conveyed verbally
Luke Chang — the director “doctors” of the creams’ benefits the participants reported but through subtle social cues,”
of the Computational Social and conditioned them to believe experiencing less pain explains Chang.
Affective Neuroscience that thermedol was better at with thermedol, and skin “These findings demonstrate
Laboratory at Dartmouth relieving pain than the control conductance tests suggested how subtle social interactions
College in Hanover, NH — is cream. that they actually did experience can impact clinical outcomes. [...]
the corresponding author of the The first experiment consisted less discomfort. Their facial [Y]ou can imagine that in a real
new study. of 24 “doctor-patient” pairs. expressions also reflected less clinical context, if the healthcare
Chang and colleagues have In each pair, the “patient” did pain with thermedol. providers seemed competent,
published their findings in not know which cream was In the other two experiments, empathetic, and confident that a
the journal Nature Human thermedol and which was the the researchers applied the treatment may work, the impact
BehaviourTrusted Source. control. Only the “doctor” knew creams in different orders, and on patient outcomes could be
which was the “effective” cream. they led the doctors to believe even stronger,” said Luke
Testing placebo power in 3 that they were using thermedol Chang.
experiments when they were using the “Additional research,
The researchers then applied control creams, and vice versa. however, is needed to see how
To study the phenomenon the creams to the participants’ The experimenters themselves this plays out in the real world,”
of socially transmitted placebo, arms, followed by pain-inducing were also blind to the study, he concludes.
the researchers devised three heat, in order to evaluate not knowing which cream was

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 33
comment
By Peter Cunliffe-Jones, Laura Zommer, Noko Makgato, and Will Moy
Fact-checking against misinformation
Effective fact-checking requires efforts to improve
public access to reliable information and corrections

A
ccording to fact-checkers at the correcting important misinformation, attention to the accuracy of their figures.
Washington Post, U.S. President fact-checkers must engage with politi- Similarly, in South Africa, Febe Potgi-
Donald Trump has made more cians, the traditional media, social-media eter-Gqubule, the general manager of
than 13,000 false or misleading platforms, and other relevant institu- the ruling African National Congress,
claims since his inauguration. It is no tions to reduce the supply. This means declared in a public meeting that Africa
wonder some people doubt that the fact- reaching out to public figures to request Check “plays an important role” in
checking of politicians’ claims is an answer on-the-record corrections, lodging com- keeping political parties and their leaders
to the problems of this misinformation age. plaints with standards bodies, and pro- accountable. A few months earlier, the
When politicians and journalists viding training to media organisations. It South African Police Service officially
from Europe, the Americas, Africa, and also means working with tech companies revised the national crime statistics,
Asia met at the Global Conference for to find ways to prevent the wider circula- following an Africa Check intervention,
Media Freedom in London in July, they tion of misinformation, including across admitting that the data were worse than
acknowledged that the rise of misin- international borders. they had initially reported. Reducing the
formation has contributed to declining At the same time, fact-checking organi- supply of misinformation by engaging
public trust in politicians and the media. sations should not simply focus on tack- with those in power works.
But effective solutions have not been ling false information, but also on identi- At the same time, in Argentina, the
forthcoming. When Europe’s political and fying sources of reliable information and fact-checking organisation Chequeado
business elite met the same month for the pointing their readers and followers to has created the country’s first program to
conference Les Rencontres Économiques them. And we should work with schools teach critical thinking and news literacy
d’Aix-en-Provence 2019, they, too, saw and other educational platforms to help skills to young people. The results of this
few options for renewing trust. teach people to identify false or mis- effort to inoculate the young against the
But that does not mean that there are leading claims. This is the approach taken harm caused by misinformation mirrored
none. As the leaders or founders of fact- by our organisations, and as small and those of a 2016 study, which showed a
checking organisations in Africa, Latin under-resourced as they are, the impact is huge leap in the ability of school-age chil-
America, and Europe, we know that our already apparent. dren in Uganda to distinguish good and
work can play a powerful role in coun- For example, in January, Ibrahima bad health information after being taught
tering the effects of misinformation and Diouf, the economist in charge of writing similar skills.
restoring faith in reliable sources. the manifesto for one of Senegal’s major Finally, effective fact-checking requires
Fulfilling this duty requires, first and political parties, Parti de l’Unité et du efforts to improve public access to reliable
foremost, a comprehensive under- Rassemblement, told a University of information. In the United Kingdom, for
standing of the challenges we face. Most Dakar researcher that, because of the example, Full Fact has worked with the
of the world’s almost 200 fact-checking Africa Check team’s work, writers of Office of National Statistics not only to
organisations operate on the assumption political-party manifestos paid more open up its data to a wider audience, but
that presenting the public with corrected also to ensure that it is delivered in a form
information will generally convince them the public will understand.
to update a false view. While we shouldn’t underestimate the
Not surprisingly, most academic work Most of the scale of the threat posed by misinforma-
on fact-checking has aimed to test this
assumption. The results are promising.
world’s almost tion and declining trust, or the complexity
of their causes, the problem is not nearly
While nobody could claim that presenting 200 fact-checking as intractable as some seem to believe.
people with correct information guar- organisations By addressing not only the symptoms of
antees that they will adjust their views, misinformation and mistrust, but also the
repeated studies have shown that fact operate on the systemic problems that underlie them,
checking helps the public revise their assumption that fact-checking organisations, media, gov-
understanding of claims, even when the
finding contradicts a firmly held belief.
presenting the ernment, and business can resist these
worrisome trends.
But simply publishing fact-checks is public with corrected
not enough. For starters, even with the information will
greatest resources it would not be pos-
sible to trace all those who have seen the generally convince Peter Cunliffe-Jones is the founder of Africa
misinformation being corrected and put them to update a Check. Laura Zommer is Executive Director
our fact-check in front of them. And there
is simply too much misinformation circu-
false view of Chequeado. Noko Makgato is Executive
Director of Africa Check. Will Moy is Chief
lating online and in public debate to fact- Executive of Full Fact.
check every false claim made.
That is why, beyond identifying and Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

34 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
COMMENT
By Damali Ssali
Tariffs and intra-Africa trade
Significant reduction or elimination of tariffs would
boost intra-Africa trade to more than 50%

T
here are several factors that influ- Commission for Africa report indicated nent’s overall ranking on the global com-
ence the value and volume of trade. that if tariffs are significantly reduced, petitiveness index.
However, tariffs on tradeable goods or eliminated, intra-Africa trade would However, the immense potential of the
and services are one of the most sig- increase to more than 50% of total trade AfCFTA will only be realised if tariffs are
nificant. on the continent. eliminated or significantly reduced and
International trade grew dramatically in That said, there is a legitimate concern this must be prioritised at the very start
the second half of the 20th century. As an that if tariffs are significantly reduced of the implementation phase in 2020.
example, total global trade in 2000 was 22 or eliminated there will be a reduction The schedules of tariff concessions of
times greater than it had been 1950. in government revenues. This in turn members states must be submitted to the
This increase in multilateral interna- would curtail the governments’ ability to African Union and the negotiations on the
tional trade occurred when trade bar- provide public goods and services to the rules of origin, for goods, completed.
riers, especially tariffs, were significantly general population. The other main area of tariff elimination
reduced or in some cases eliminated However, the reduction in government is in services, particularly, on investment,
across large trade blocks in Asia, America revenues, from tariffs, would be made up competition and intellectual property
and Europe. with an increase in income tax and value rights.
Tariffs are taxes levied on imports and added tax. This is because a reduction in This is because services make a signif-
exports between states with the aim of tariffs would lead to an increase in the icant contribution to the manufacturing
generating government revenues and value and volume of trade, profits, invest- value chains and play a key role in logis-
protecting domestic industries. ment, productivity, employment and dis- tics. Also, services make a larger contribu-
Sometimes, depending on the tax policy posable income. tion to poverty reduction than agriculture
of the country, a tariff could be set as The positive knock-on effects of revenue or manufacturing.
high as 60%. This is usually to protect a from other non-tariff revenue sources by On the African continent, over 55% of
young industry that is considered as very far outweigh the loss in revenue from the Gross Domestic Product is generated
important to that state. tariffs. by services. However, African service
Other times tariffs are imposed by With the coming into effect of the providers face barriers to export services.
states, against products and services of African Continental Free Trade Area As a result, African services exports con-
another state, to settle scores. The current (AfCFTA), which creates a single tribute just 2% of global trade in services.
trade war currently going on between the domestic market for goods and services Therefore, there is a great opportunity
United States and China is one such tariff of 1.2 billion people, this is the opportune for the AfCFTA to expand competitive-
war waged between states. time to discuss the elimination of tariffs ness in African trade in services by lib-
In 2017, the United Nations Conference on continental trade. eralising the service sector through the
on Trade and Development reported that The AfCFTA seeks to reduce tariffs elimination of tariffs on services
tariffs on tradeable goods and services between African countries by more than Also, in view of the imminent imple-
between the developed states averaged 90%. This will help to reverse the trend mentation phase, member states must
at 1.2%. where more than 75% of all exports from build the capacity of their trade missions
This is low compared to the average the continent are extractives; namely oil and ministries to negotiate trade tariffs.
tariffs on tradeable goods and services and minerals, in raw form. The goal is to This capacity building can start with
between African countries which stand at secure sustainable economic growth by the individual countries, to the regional
8%. Moreover, tariffs remain relatively shifting away from the volatility related economic blocks, such as the East African
high in important sectors; including to exporting raw materials, to the stability Community, and then consolidated at the
agriculture, apparel, textiles, and leather of exporting industrialised goods. AfCFTA secretariat.
products. The significance of the AfCFTA cannot The focus on tariff elimination will, not
Unfortunately, these high tariffs make be overstated. It will be the world’s only, promote African development and
it easier for African countries to trade largest free trade area since the establish- catalyse the growth in the manufacturing
with Europe and the United States than to ment of the World Trade Organisation and services sectors, but also, provide
trade with each other. and it is estimated that if successfully employment opportunities for the conti-
As such, intra-Africa trade is just 15%. implemented, Africa will have a com- nent’s burgeoning youthful population.
This means that of all total trade on the bined consumer and business spending of
African continent, only 15% is between US$6.7 trillion by 2030. Damali Ssali is a Trade Development Expert
African countries. The AfCFTA will have a big impact on
On the other hand, over 60% of total manufacturing, tourism, intra-African damali.ssali@gmail.com
African trade is with countries that are cooperation, and economic transforma-
oceans away from the continent. By way tion. The International Monetary Fund
of comparison, intra-trade levels in Asia reports that, under the AfCFTA, Africa’s
stand at 58% and in Europe at 67%. expanded and more efficient goods and
A recent United Nations Economic labour markets will increase the conti-

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 35
COMMENT
By Klaus Schwab
Ending economic short-termism
Adopting new global growth metrics, a climate
tracker, and a measure of ESG would go a long way

A
s finance ministers gather in Wash- efforts initiated by the World Bank, has either unaware of their broader social
ington, DC, for the World Bank offered a number of proposals for how we impact, or too small to alter socioeco-
and International Monetary Fund’s can move forward. nomic balances. Yet in a world of global
annual meetings, they will face For example, one “quick fix” is to adopt supply chains and multinational corpo-
no shortage of urgent matters to discuss. a measure like median income per capita, rations with technological primacy, that
Fears of a global recession, the US-China which better reflects the economic condi- narrow vision cannot be sustained.
trade war, the fallout of the Brexit talks, tions real people face. A more ambitious As a recent Business Roundtable decla-
and a dangerous debt overhang make this measure is “Natural Capital,” based on ration makes clear, we have entered the
the most stressful economic juncture in a a country’s ecosystems, fish stocks, min- age of “stakeholder capitalism” (a model
decade. These issues must be discussed, and erals, and other natural assets. Because that the World Economic Forum has
we should all hope that they can be resolved this “balance sheet” would also need to embraced since the early 1970s). Business
with minimal damage. include human capital, we could incor- metrics will have to change, and all busi-
But they should not deflect attention porate all of the relevant elements in one ness leaders should have already devel-
from even more pressing long-term chal- composite scorecard. oped an ESG mindset. These standards
lenges: achieving the United Nations Second, as young climate protesters now need to be included in financial
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as Greta Thunberg remind us, zero- statements and annual reports.
by 2030; delivering on the Paris climate carbon targets and the demand for a more The good news is that many busi-
agreement over the next 30 years; and equitable economic system must be put nesses are moving in this direction.
reforming our global economic system at the center of national and international Better yet, they will soon be able to rely
to make it fit for the next 50 years and governance. Otherwise, the popular on a common scorecard that is being
beyond. uproar against “elites” will intensify, and developed by the International Busi-
All of this assumes an end to the eco- social and political polarization will con- ness Council, a group chaired by Bank
nomic short-termism that underpins tinue. of America CEO Brian Moynihan. That
policymaking today. For that, we should Here, one option is to embrace inde- effort has the support of the “Big Four”
develop scorecards to track our perfor- pendent tools such as the Climate Action accounting firms, whose experience
mance on these long-term priorities. To Tracker, which shows each country’s working on similar initiatives in the past
that end, I have three suggestions. First, progress toward meeting its national could prove useful. If enough stake-
we need to rethink GDP as our “key commitments under the Paris agreement. holders embrace the new scorecard, it
performance indicator” in economic pol- Governments and international organ- could become a leading indicator for busi-
icymaking. Second, we should embrace isations could use the same scorecard ness performance globally.
independent tracking tools for assessing when reporting on their performance and Adopting these three scorecards – new
progress under the Paris agreement and sharing best practices at international global growth metrics, a climate tracker,
the SDGs. Third, we must implement meetings. and a measure of ESG – would go a
“stakeholder capitalism” by introducing Policymakers and other leaders also long way toward addressing the world’s
an environmental, social, and governance need to engage more constructively with greatest long-term challenges. It would
(ESG) scorecard for businesses. the voices of protest. To that end, we also help us alleviate today’s economic
On the first point, we desperately need should be developing a widely accessible crises and avoid future ones, by demon-
to change our overall economic frame platform behind each of the SDGs, so that strating to a disgruntled public that
of reference. For 75 years, the world everyone has a channel through which to political and business leaders really are
marched to the beat of the drum called offer their own ideas and skills. Working working for everyone’s interests, and not
“Gross Domestic Product.” Now, we need toward the SDGs does not preclude coun- just their own. I invite every stakeholder
a new instrument. GDP gained traction tries from putting their own communities in the global economy to join in these
when economies were primarily seen as first. The SDGs for health and wellbeing, efforts to end the era of short-termism.
vehicles for mobilising wartime produc- education, gender equality, decent work,
tion. Yet today’s economies are expected reduced inequalities, and strong institu-
to serve an entirely different purpose: tions all fit into national-level agendas. Klaus Schwab is Founder and Executive
maximising wellbeing and sustainability. Moreover, a renewed emphasis on Chairman of the World Economic Forum.
It is time to consider a new approach. sovereign action can help us strike the
A group of economists from the pri- right balance between global goals and
vate sector, academia, and international demands for national autonomy. Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
institutions, including Diane Coyle and Finally, we should recognise how the
Mariana Mazzucato, has already been role of business has changed over the last
working on alternate measures and ways 50 years. In 1970, when the Nobel laureate
to correct for the failings of GDP. Their economist Milton Friedman advocated
Wealth Project, which evolved from “shareholder primacy,” businesses were

36 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

A
By Dominic Muwanguzi

s conversation on African na-


tionalism is renewed in aca-
demic circles on the continent
and its diaspora, academics
and creatives; including art-
ists, musicians, poets, fashion
designers and writers are increasingly in-
voking the topic in their work. Matt Kayem,
a youthful painter on the Kampala art scene,
creates art on it. He works reverberate with
politics, Afro-centrism, and championing
and celebrating black identity.
From his first series titled `Cool Afrika
Vol 1’ to his recent Vol. 2, the artist deploys
powerful pan-African political imagery that
invokes ideologies and history texts on his
canvases. He views the narrative as a search
of authenticity contemporary African identi-
ty. Sometimes the message in the artwork is
tense, toned down by humour, self- portrai-
ture, and tongue in cheek imagery to satirise.
Matt Kayem, born Matthew Kayemba, is a
self- proclaimed and sworn pan- Africanist.

Introspection
His mission is African unity and black eman-
cipation from western colonialism and post
-colonialism. On his social media pages, he
often shares black conscious ideologies and

into cool Afrika


sentiments, often adopted from pan African
Literature.
His art echoes his technique of spreading
“the gospel truth about African identity and
emancipation”. On the Cool Afrika Vol. 1
poster, Matt poses dressed in barkcloth- a
traditional garment for the Baganda, his
Art that speaks to Africa’s
cultural ancestry- alongside ornamental
jewelry that represent his black identity: the emancipation on show
African pendant necklace draped around is skillfully replicated in the poster that
his neck; rings and bracelets around his announces the second edition of the exhibi-
figures and wrist respectively, conjure an tion: COOL AFRIKA: Vol 2.
African Prince. He seats, his gleaming ebo- The campaign for Africa and black eman-
ny-skinned body, leaning against two big cipation should not be resigned to the older
books- probably of Pan - African Literature generation, he says. Many students at uni-
to illustrate his avowed intelligence. The versity have crammed his political speeches.
background is framed in African geometrical His current exhibition, Cool Afrika, is hap-
patterns of significantly luminous yellows pening as the continent is being bombarded
and blues with the words COOL AFRIKA with Western influences as never before. Yet
screaming in bold fonts. An immediate a more critical focus on this itinerary exhibi-
encounter with this poster will quickly spark tion should be how the exhibit impacts the
the public’s imagination to the subject mat- public. In this query questions like; how
ter of the exhibition. The artist deliberately can the continent’s elusive unity be achieved
assumes the status of an African Prince or how relevant is the phrase `Cool Afrika’
looking straight in the eye of the viewer as in the wake of global culture and western
if summoning them to join the movement nationalism that are on the rise?
of Africa nationalism. Remarkably, the sub-
ject maintains his pop- culture personality Cool Afrika Vol. 2 is showing at Kioki, Mwitiki
evident with the heavy wrist watch on his Gallery,located on Lavington, James Gichuru
left hand and the cap that is turned at the Road, Nairobi. The solo show is from Oct.19 –
back. The inverted cap reveals a hip air –cut. Dec.08.
While preserving this personality, the artist
is deliberate to appeal to the young gener-
ation to join this campaign. This imagery
Oct. 25 - 31 2019 37
Dead man You can now license your face to humanoid Restaurant serves
reappointed to If you don’t mind selling the humanoid robot once it goes into water recycled
civil service job rights to your face, you can stand
to make £100,000 (Approx. Shs480
production. This will potentially
entail using this person’s face on from its toilets
Kenya’s Cabinet Secre- million) by licensing your mug thousands of robots around the To highlight a new type of
tary, Joe Mucheru, was on to a robotics company to be used world, so the company is willing water purification system, a
Oct.17 put on the spot for on one of their humanoid robots. to pay that in licensing fees. The restaurant in Kuurne, Belgium,
re-appointing a dead man According to a recent blog post by robot in question is designed to has started serving its customers
to the Kenya Film Clas- London-based outsourcing com- be a “virtual friend” for elderly free drinking water recycled
sification Board (KFCB). pany Geomiq, a robotics company people, and is scheduled to go into from its sinks and toilets.
Through a Gazette Notice, is currently looking for a “kind production next year. The water served at the
Mucheru had reappointed and friendly” face to put on a Gust’eaux restaurant in Kuurne
the late Robert Kochalle, these days is the same as any
who died on May 28, 2018,
to continue serving in the
Vatican launches smart ‘eRosary’ other potable water – it has no
smell, no taste, no color – so it’s
KFCB board for another The “Click to Pray eRosary is designed impossible to tell that it’s source
three years. However, eRosary” is a smart “to help young people is actually the restaurant’s
KFCB boss Ezekiel Mutua gadget shaped like pray the Rosary for toilets. By using a complex,
defended the CS noting the a regular rosary and peace and to contem- five-step purification system,
notice was an honest mis- designed to educate plate the Gospel”. Gust’eaux is able to turn its sew-
take that had been blown young, technology-fo- Similar to a standard age into a water so pure that it
out of proportion. Accord- cused youths how to rosary, the new high- has to be enriched with minerals
ing to the people’s appoint- pray the rosary. The tech version consists before being served to clients.
ed moral police, the board smart eRosary can be of ten consecutive The restaurant offers its
had presented the notifica- worn as a bracelet and black agate and hema- recycled toilet water to patrons
tion of Kochalle’s demise is activated by making tite rosary beads, and in a variety of forms – as free
for replacement but was the sign of the cross. a “smart cross” where drinking water, ice cubes or in
accidentally re-appointed. It comes with a companion smart- all the data is stored. After activat- coffee. It’s reportedly also used
phone app which synchronises ing the device by making the sign for brewing beer. According to
Lady Gaga falls with the gadget and allows access
to an audio guide, exclusive imag-
of the cross the user has the option
to pray the standard rosary, a
Sudinfo, the same water purifi-
cation system is used to provide
hard off the stage es, personalised content, and also
tracks the user’s progress. Accord-
contemplative Rosary, or one of
several thematic rosaries that will
drinking water to isolated com-
munities, but the experience is
Lady Gaga suffered a ing to the Vatican website, the be updated every year. unprecedented in Europe.
hard fall off the stage after
a fan dropped her during
a show on Oct.17 night. Town bans use of Google maps after too many tourists stranded
The “Shallows” singer was
Baunei, an idyllic mountain the local fire service or moun- es” around Baunei and end up
performing her Enigma
village on the Italian island tain rescue team have been driving down lanes that are
show, part of her Las Vegas
of Sardinia, has launched an called 144 times to help strand- unsuitable for cars or onto off-
concert residency, when a
appeal to visitors asking them ed tourists who had followed road tracks. To stop this from
fan, who had picked her
to stop relying on the directions the directions of Google Maps. happening, local police have put
up while dancing, lost his
of Google Maps when driving Apparently, people are often up signs that read “Do not fol-
balance, sending both him
around the area. The mayor using the GPS-powered app to low the directions suggested by
and Gaga crashing to the
claims that in the last year alone reach so-called “hidden beach- Google Maps”.
ground below. The fall was
captured on video by fans
in the audience and posted
to social media, with many
This drink is genetically engineered to prevent hangovers
concerned the Oscar-win- We humans have been looking for an effective a by-product of metabolising ethanol. It’s this
ner and fan had been seri- way to prevent or at least treat hangovers for a toxic compound that is associated with known
ously injured. Fortunately, long time, but one Silicone Valley startup claims to hangover symptoms like headache, nausea,
Gaga recovered in no time, have finally found a way to ease the uncomfortable and heart palpitations. Although acetaldehyde
getting back on stage and side effects of drinking. Zbiotics is the world’s first naturally dissipates over time, the more you drink
continuing her performance genetically modified probiotic. It’s not marketed as the more of it builds up in your body, and the
with a rendition of “Bad an explicit cure for hangovers, because they include worse you feel. Zbiotics contains a form of “good”
Romance,” singing and a wide variety of negative side effects; Downing a bacteria that has been genetically engineered to
dancing like nothing had small bottle of Zbiotics before your first alcoholic break down acetaldehyde and make you feel
happened. No word yet on drink of the night has a very specific purpose better after an alcohol-fuelled night out.
how the fan is fairing. – to help your body break down acetaldehyde,

38 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
Car colours
of 2020
Loud and bold is becoming a reality
By Motoring Guru tones. The trend towards loud and

O
bold colors car colours is becoming a
ne of my favourite motoring reality. Colour names like Absolute
moments each year is when Zero White, Nocturnal Black, Renais-
car sellers in the UK reveal sance Red 2.0, Phantom Matte Gray,
the favourite car colour for Tungsten Silver, Turbulent Gray,
the year. Some car sellers reveal the Nitro Yellow, and Downshift Blue are
most favoured car colours by month popping in the Toyota colour pallete
but I prefer the yearly reports because for 2020. Toyota is certainly in the lead
there are also yearly predictions of for offering drivers new color palette
colours that will rock in the year. options.
These are made by the car makers. So Hyundai is offering a glowing
I check to see how the car makers pre- yellow for its best-selling model, the
dictions performed against the actual 2020 Hyundai Sonata. Hyundai is
choices buyers make in the car marts. also offering Lagoon Silver, which is
Most years, most people prefer to described as a lighter shade of grey
buy a car in neutral colours such as with a moon-like sheen to it. Accord-
black, white, or blue. These choices ing to one review online, tones of
follow a pattern. Anyone looking for grey come in metallic silver or boring
an expensive and prestigious looking darker shades in general but the
car will go for black. On the opposite Lagoon Silver might be a hit. The new
end, anyone looking for a cheap town 2020 Ford Mustang, which is being
ride will go for white. But occasion- vaunted as the classic “cool-guy car”
ally a surprise pops up. In 2018 grey has many popping colour options but,
emerged the most popular colour according to the review, the Twister
picked buy car buyers. That was a first Orange Metallic looks the best on it.
in the life of the Society of Motor Man- But again, according to the car
ufacturers and Traders (SMMT) that buying website carwow, more than
began recording the colour of all new two-thirds (67.26%) of its customers
passenger cars sold in the UK in 1996. during the first four months of 2019
The surprise pop-ups happen picked a monochromatic colour. Black
because when some people buy a car, proved to be the most popular, fol-
they want to make a statement with lowed by white, and grey. Blue came
it. They are people who want to stand in fourth. So clearly the conservatives
out of the crowd and they want a car still rule the road. It makes sense. For
that matches that personality. They new car buyers, black or white are
want red – and not just any red. Some the cheapest option as they are con-
car makers too believe a splash of sidered standard. Then also, for those
color may change a driver’s driving buyers looking to switch car down
experience altogether, making for an the road, white cars are the easiest to
enjoyable and exciting ride. sell on. But things change even among
Neutral colors are still a top choice conservatives. The top four conserva-
for many car buyers but in recent tive car colours of the 1990s included
years, there’s been a demand for new black, blue, red, and green.

Oct. 25 - 31 2019 39
global comment
By Jesse Salah Ovadia
Opportunity for African fossil fuels
Focus on the push for African petroleum producers
to capture more value by promoting `local content’

I
n August, a plaque was installed where in the nineteenth century to China in the companies that, in many cases, do much
Iceland’s once-iconic Okjökull glacier 2000s. But in the Global South, oil and gas more than service the oil industry. In recent
stood, before climate change turned it resources have not translated into sustained years, Nigeria has been leading a push for
into a lake. “This monument,” the plaque economic development and higher stan- African petroleum producers to capture
reads, “is to acknowledge that we know dards of living. Instead, they have generally more value by promoting “local content.”
what is happening and know what needs to involved extraction from some for the ben- Across Africa, countries are trying to build
be done. Only you know if we did it.” efit of others: a “resource curse.” local companies and encourage interna-
What is happening, the Intergovernmental In this moment of greater interest in sus- tional companies to do more of their work
Panel on Climate Change and virtually the tainable and just transitions, an increasing in-country. In effect, they are trying to find
entire scientific community warn, is the number of African countries are pursuing a way to make good use of their resources
rapid approach of a climate catastrophe. new petroleum exploration and production. before the window for doing so closes.
And while much must be done to prevent it, Understandably, they hope finally to reap The industrialised economies, for their
for developing regions like Africa, this will the development benefits of their natural part, must do more to support African oil
require a new approach to industrialisation. endowments. While more sustainable industries and make sure the negative effects
In many ways, the world is finally begin- energy systems are crucial from an environ- of oil production are mitigated.
ning to take climate change seriously. A mental perspective, during the transition For such strategies to work, however, the
total of 195 countries have signed onto the – and while petroleum resources continue oil industry must get on board. This means
2015 Paris climate agreement. In the United to be required – African states will need to engaging sincerely with African govern-
States, while President Donald Trump has make the most of their fossil-fuel resources ments, in order to figure out how best to
withdrawn from the Paris accord (and and exploit them in ways that contribute to support national agendas for development
rolled back environmental protections), state positive welfare outcomes. This is the logic and diversification. The upcoming Abu
governments have taken up the mantle of underpinning petro-development. Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition
achieving its goals, and Democratic presi- But even with substantial new investment, and Conference, hosted by the Abu Dhabi
dential candidates are proposing ambitious especially from China and India, the possi- National Oil Company – which will be
climate strategies. bilities for petro-development are waning. attended by Barkindo, as well as numerous
But it is young people, not political What once looked like a source of infinite African energy ministers and oil-industry
leaders, that are leading the call for action. opportunity now has clear limits, given leaders – is an ideal opportunity to initiate
The 16-year-old Swedish climate activist lower global oil prices and a shift in demand such a process.
Greta Thunberg has grabbed headlines toward renewable-energy sources. Working with other stakeholders, cam-
with her eloquent speeches, school strike As a former head of Nigeria’s national oil paigners for a sustainable and just transition
movement, and voyage across the Atlantic company, Barkindo is acutely aware of the can also achieve something more: allowing
on a zero-emissions yacht. OPEC’s secretary difficulties in exploiting oil and gas resources carbon energy to have a positive impact on
general, Mohammed Barkindo, recently in ways that produce net benefits to both the economies which have so far experienced
described such activists as “perhaps the state and its citizens. As renewable energy only the negative effects of the oil-backed
greatest threat” to the oil industry’s future. becomes more cost-effective and societies development of the twentieth century.
Barkindo also argued that the petroleum make the transition to a post-carbon world, Rather than dismiss young climate activ-
industry is not the sole cause of climate the conversation should not be about how ists as a business nuisance, the oil industry
change. In some ways, he’s right. However, the existing oil industry can be part of the should be discussing openly how it can
the oil sector also needs to acknowledge that solution, but rather about how the industry enhance its legacy of development. Only
our reliance on “fossil capitalism” is coming can make more contributions to socioeco- future generations will know if it did.
to an end. In his early July remarks, he noted nomic development during the transition.
that the international oil industry will need Even if oil prices recover, it seems unlikely Jesse Salah Ovadia (@js_ovadia), an associate
to have some difficult conversations about that most African countries will be able professor of political science at the University
the future. to achieve the desired petro-develop- of Windsor, Canada, is the author of The Petro-
But while efforts to shift to increasingly ment without radically overhauling their Developmental State in Africa.
cost-competitive renewable-energy sources approach to natural-resource management
should be welcomed, the challenge this and governance. And that will require a Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
poses for developing countries with oil and long-term, carefully designed, and feasible
gas resources – which have contributed far strategy for social and economic develop-
less to climate change than their industri- ment.
alised counterparts – remains unaddressed. Such a strategy should, for example, recog-
Fossil fuels have underpinned prosperi- nise that new investment in the oil industry
ty-enhancing industrialisation wherever it leads to billions of dollars of spending on
has taken place, from Europe and the U.S. a wide variety of goods and services from

40 Oct. 25 - 31 2019
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