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Anti-lock Braking System from Continental Teves

Three Letters for Safe Driving

Hanover/Frankfurt, September 2001

The anti-lock braking system (ABS) has experienced rapid development. In the 17 years in
which over 50 million electronic brake systems have been produced by Continental Teves
in Frankfurt, it was not only possible to continually decrease the size and weight, but also
to consistently improve the performance of the ABS, providing it with numerous additional
features. In the first years, ABS could be found only in vehicles of the upper category. The
triumphal march of ABS was a long one, but in the end successful. Today, it's a standard
feature in practically every vehicle category, or at least available as an option.

The first ABS from Continental Teves was the MK II in 1984. With a weight of 11.5
kilograms, it was a true heavyweight, but it did do its job: it reliably prevented the locking of
one or more wheels. Wheel sensors on all four wheels continually monitor the actual wheel
speeds. If, based upon the measured values, the ABS control unit recognizes that one or
more wheels indicate a locking tendency, the solenoid valves of the corresponding brake
circuit are activated by the electronic controller to reduce brake pressure. This takes the
ABS just milliseconds until the wheel regains speed. Then, brake pressure is increased
once again until a locking tendency is again recognized and the pressure is subsequently
reduced. In this way locking is prevented consistently, the wheels have optimal
deceleration and the steerability and stability of the vehicle is maintained. A slighting
vibrating brake pedal is a typical result of ABS intervention. It literally gives the driver the
feedback of the system.

Application possibilities for ABS expanded

Since mass production, started in 1984, our ABS has been continually optimized,
becoming ever lighter in weight, smaller and more efficient. With additional features such
as the Traction Control System (TCS) and the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) the

application possibilities for ABS have expanded. With the MK 20 version, which was
launched in mass production in 1995, Continental Teves reached a milestone in the
development of ABS. Weighing in at just 2.7 kilograms, it was exceptionally lightweight
and, with a compact size of 101x100x160 millimeters, it required little space in the engine
compartment. Based upon the MK 20, Continental Teves engineers developed the ESP.

The latest generation of the successful anti-lock braking systems from Frankfurt is MK 60.
As a pure ABS unit weighing just 2 kilograms, the ESP MK 60 is only 0.3 of a kilogram
heavier, being the lightest ESP system on the world market. With 97x85x150 millimeters it
has the same compact size as the ABS unit. For 2002 the series application of the MK 70
is planned. It weighs just 1.6 kilograms, and its size has been reduced even further. As a
pure ABS system, the MK 70 is installed in subcompact to compact car categories.

ABS plus assists the driver

With the ABS plus, Continental has proven that development of the anti-lock braking
system is a long way from coming to an end. The purpose of the system is to assist the
driver in extremely dynamic situations by selectively reducing the brake pressure on one or
more wheels. The ABS plus can be viewed as a control system under the control of the
driver. It uses the familiar benefits of the ABS, but has an extended signal analysis. With
the help of this analysis, it is possible to record and assess driving conditions and then to
undertake suitable measures to influence the pressure modulation. Adjustment of the
brake pressure level is similar to that of the Electronic Stability Program. ESP however is
active in all situations, whereas ABS plus requires that the brake pedal be applied. ABS
will remain a vital component of the electronic brake system and active safety. Together
with the Continental tire experts in Hannover, the Sidewall Torsion sensor system (SWT) is
being prepared for series production at Continental Teves. As the first system of its kind,
the SWT can calculate the forces at play between the vehicle and road, directly from the
deformation of the tire. This information is important for instance not only for ABS, but also
for TCS and ESP. Electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical brakes (EHB, EMB) also
promise greater comfort and additional functionality. Shorter braking and stopping
distances and quieter operation with less effort are just some of the many advantages.

Lars Döhmann
Tel.: 0511/ 938-1370
Fax: 0511/ 938-12455