C. N. Jha* & J. K. Prasad** 1.0 INTRODUCTION

India’s present housing shortage is estimated to be as high as 31.1 million units as per 2001 Census and out of this shortage 24 million units are in rural area and 7.1 million unit in urban areas. The Govt. of India has targeted the year 2010 for providing Housing for All. In 1998, Government of India announced a National Housing and Habitat Policy which aims at providing “Housing for All” and facilitating the construction of 20 lakh additional housing units (13 lakh in Rural Areas and 7 lakh in Urban Areas) annually, with emphasis on extending benefits to the poor and the deprived. Apart from the above housing needs, nearly 1% of the housing stock in the country is destroyed every year due to natural hazards. Such large scale housing construction activities require huge amount of money running into thousands of crores of rupees. Out of the total cost of house construction, building materials contribute to about 70 percent cost in developing countries like India. Therefore, the need of the hour is replacement of costly and scarce conventional building materials by innovative, cost effective and environment friendly alternate building materials. The new material should be environment friendly and preferably utilize industrial/agro wastes because as a result of rapid industrialization, the generation of wastes has increased several fold during the last few years, which needs to be utilized/disposed safely on priority. Large number of innovative alternate building materials and low cost construction techniques developed through intensive research efforts during last three to four decades satisfies functional as well as specification requirements of conventional materials/techniques and provide an avenue for bringing down the construction cost. Fly Ash, a industrial by-product from Thermal Power Plants (TPPs), with current annual generation of approximately 108 million tonnes and its proven suitability for variety of applications as admixture in cement/concrete/mortar, lime pozzolana mixture (bricks/blocks) etc. is such an ideal material which attracts the attention of everybody. Cement and Concrete Industry accounts for 50% Fly Ash utilization, the total utilization of which at present stands at 30MT (28%). The other areas of application are Low lying area fill(17%), Roads & Embankments(15%), Dyke Raising(4%), Brick manufacturing(2%) etc. The life cycle cost of Fly Ash based building materials/constructions is much lower taking into account the environmental benefits and durability aspects.

However. Blocks etc. concrete (/Cellular light weight concrete) Lime pozzolana Mixture Applications (Bricks. Structural Fills. The properties of pozzolananic materials which are to be used for the manufacture of pozzolana Cements. The balance 20% of the Ash gets collected at the bottom of the boiler and is referred as Bottom Ash. mortar. will in finally divided form and in the presence of moisture chemically react with calcium hydrauxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. Geotechnical Applications.1 Fly Ash as Pozzolana Pozzolans are defined as silicious and aluminous materials which in themselves possess little or no cementitious value but. some particles have size less than 1 micron in equivalent diameter.Fly Ash bricks (burnt type). all kind of Ashes are sometimes referred as Fly Ash by common people. When Fly Ash and Bottom Ash is carried to storage pond in the form of water slurry and deposited. however. This Ash is called (dry) Fly Ash or chimney Ash or Hopper Ash. etc. Lime/Cement based bricks/blocks are governed by stipulated standards which differ from country to country. Fly Ash - Bottom Ash / Pond Ash 2. The different kind of Ashes are suitable for different applications as given below: Fly Ash For use as pozzolana and admixture in cement. Fly Ash consists of inorganic materials mainly silica and alumina with some amount of organic material in the form of unburnt carbon.Agricultural Applications. It possess pozzolanic characteristics. The requirement of Fly Ash for these applications in terms of pozzolanic properties is as follows: .Ash is a residue resulting from combustion of pulverised coal or lignite in Thermal Power Plants. it is termed as Pond Ash. Its fineness is comparable to cement. Concrete. About 80% of total ash is in finely divided form which is carried away with flue gases and is collected by Electrostatic precipitator or other suitable technology. Clay.) (The quality parameters are not as stringent as in above application) Sintered Applications.

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