Crisis and Russia ................................. 2
SINCE 1997

Under New Year Tree ......................... 20

Nikolay Laskov

Alexander Chernov

Vladimir Ilyin

The Russian President Dmitry Medvedev Visits Salut .............. 8

Airshow China 2008 ........................... 22

Alexander Kiryanov

Nina Gusyakova

Dmitry Bykovskiy

Sergey Kovalski

Vladimir Putin Visits Tactical Missiles Corporation ............. 11


J-10 «Tzianbin»: «the dragon» is ready to fight ............ 25

Vladimir Karnozov

Vladimir Zhilinko

Alvina Kirillova Sergey Velichkin


Anton Pavlov

Ups & downs for United Aircraft ........ 12 ADA LCA light multipurpose fighter .... 34

Nikolay Laskov, Vladimir Karnozov, ITAR-TASS, HAL, Chinese Ministry of Defence

Circulation: 10,000 The magazine is registered in the Committee for Press of the Russian Federation. Certificate #016692 as of 20.10.1997. Certificate #77-15450 as of 19.05.2003. Any material in this publication may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. The editorial staff’s opinion does not necessarily coincide with that of the authors. Advertisers bear responsibility for the content of provided materials. Authors bear responsibility for the accuracy of the facts and information they provide. © AIR FLEET, 2009


Zhuk-AE AESA is ready for demonstrations to the customers ................................ 16


Arab capital for Aeroflot ..................... 44

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65 35 41 27
Vladimir Karnozov

After collapses in 1991 and 1998, the Russian economy was on the way of recovery for almost ten years, riding on the back of rising oil and natural gas prices. Late last year the petrodollar income started contracting. This poses a threat to Vladimir Putin’s grand plans on reinstalling Russia as a manufacturing nation. What is going to happen to Russian aviation?
The world-wide financial crisis started in autumn 2008, with liquidity problems hitting certain North American banks. During the fourth quarter of the past year it evolved into a global economy downturn. Now, the crisis is taking its toll on Russia’s power and capability. The country’s GDP rose by 6% in 2008, against 7% in 2006-2007, reflecting poor results of the last quarter. This year GDP is expected to have no growth or even fall by few percent. The Russian power will continue to contract for awhile. In crisis environment, the world’s consumption of fossil fuels runs low. Manufacturers reduce production rates due to weak solvent demand. They buy less energy and raw materials to feed their plants and factories. Economists believe that Russian economy will go strong again after the price of crude oil rises above 70 dollars per barrel. It will be doing more or less OK with the figure within the corridor of 50-60. When this story was written, the price was fluctuating between 37 and 45 dollars. That’s below the critical mark. And this reduces the amount of money at hand to support Russia’s ailing defense industrial complex, military and civil aviation. Kremlin strategists working on the country’s 2009 annual economy plan balanced it on the assumption that during the year a barrel of crude oil would sell at 50 dollar on average. There is some hope their assumption may turn out right. It was 2 made in November, when the oil was selling for merely 34-38 dollars. The strategists calculated, however, that, even at 50 dollar per barrel, the Russian economy will make losses. The strategists have predicted a budget deficit this year, after a decade of profitable growth. The years of 2009 and 2010 will be to be critical for the Russian industrial enterprises and airlines. Some of them will fly into bankruptcy or be devoured by larger and more stable players. The Russian government has indicated that it is ready to buy stakes in private and mixed-capital companies provided they operate in the strategic areas or carry substantial social function. This will increase state share in the economy, on the account of private capital. In December 2008 Kremlin-controlled structures increased their stake in NPO Saturn to over 50%. It made the first case in the recent Russian history when privately-control aero engine manufacturer went back from the private hands to the state control. Saturn makes D-30KP/KU turbofans for Il-76TD/MD airlifters and Tu-154M airliners, AL-55 non-reheated turbojets for Hindustan Aeronautics HJT-36 trainers, cruise missile propulsion systems, marine and industrial turbines. The company hired much money for the PowerJet SAM.146 turbofan project undertaken jointly with Snecma of France. But it ran out of funds in late 2008. The government moved for rescue, providing money in exchange for a control stake in the enterprise. The SAM.146 powers Sukhoi Superjet 100 small commercial airliner. If not for the crisis and inflated banking interest rates, Saturn would never have gone back under government control. This view is widely shared in the Russian aviation community. Addiction to petrodollars Russia is as much dependant on export of fossil fuels and raw materials as the oil-rich Arabs, Iran, Venezuela etc. Saudi Arabia holds the title of world’s largest oil exporter. Russia comes second. But Moscow takes the lead when it comes to a grand total of raw material export, taking account of natural gas and minerals. Officially, the share of the fuel sector in the nation’s economy is given at some 30%. But some experts estimate that the share of “fossil fuel + raw materials” – based sector of the Russian economy is as large as 70%.

A I R A good example of how issues with energy resources can influence relations between great powers and their collaborators is the natural gas conflict between Russia and Ukraine. It took Moscow and Kiev a whole month to come to terms, with dead losses exceeding US dollar 5 billion for Russia alone. Political damage to the relations between Moscow and Western powers is difficult to underestimate. There has been bravado in the Kremlincontrolled offices and the mass media about “substantial and growing” achievements of the current administration in the deed of improving the national economic system. Reality is darker. The Russian economy remains strongly dependant on raw material exports, which account for over 70% of hard currency earnings. Volume of domestic manufacturing stays low. Little is produced in the home territory these days. In contrast, the Soviet Union manufactured almost everything locally. Home-made products provided the lion’s share of the Soviet Union’s own consumption. In fact, the Soviet people saw very few foreign-made products in the shops, with the rear exemptions being Indian tea, Cuban sugar and Egyptian fruits. All changed in the 1990s. Collapse of the communist-style command economy opened doors wide to foreign manufacturers. The Japanese came with their cars, the South Koreans with home appliances, Chinese with clothes and the Europeans with all sorts of machinery (save war machines) etc. Airbus and Boeing duly obliged Russian carriers seeking modern, fuel-efficient and comfortable airliners. Their number in the Russian fleet has exceeded 300 units (including 84 B737s, 16 B757s, 76 A320s, 27 B767s and 12 B747s). Not surprisingly, local output of commercial airplanes, ships, machine tools, power units and all other sorts of high-tech machinery dwarfed. In some areas, such as super heavy trucks and highpower gas turbines, Russian production ceased entirely. This was because the foreign competitors offered a better combination of price, reliability, consumer qualities and after-sales support. Today, it is difficult to name even few high-tech areas where Russia has been keeping pace with the US, European and Japanese manufacturers. Perhaps the only exceptions are certain points in defense, nuclear power and space. The leading positions there have been kept with great difficulty. Quite often, Russia’s leadership in a particular area is due to the huge Soviet-time investments into base science, technologies, development centers and production sites. Aviation is the area where Russia lost a lot in the past fifteen years. To such an extent, that in some key areas the Russian manufacturers needs huge investments to regain competitive level. For instance, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) needs Rouble 500 billion to attain competitive level with the leading western manufacturers by 2015. Of that total, Rouble 300 billion is required for development programs, and 150 billion for technical renovation. As of this time, government-approved programs allocate less than 30 million in the period of 2009-2010.

F L E E T · 1 . 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 )

Russia’s first president Boris Yeltsin and his ministers did not care much for downturn in domestic production of processed goods. And they had had reasons for such an attitude. During Yeltsin’s term Russia’s sovereignty was threatened. The Kremlin inhabitants were preoccupied with fighting separatists on all sides and doing other things to keep Russia united. They succeeded, saving the federal republic from a sort of collapse that happened to the Soviet Union (and which had sparked separatist movements in the largest of former Soviet Republics). Economy-wise, Russia kept afloat by means of increasing oil and metal exports. Heavy taxes on exporters provided a stable flow of petrodollars into the state treasury. This helped Moscow raise a stable income in the hard currency. It was big enough to buy from the West what the nation was no longer producing at home. Vladimir Putin continued Yeltsin’s policy and perfected it. He strengthened state control over the industry, including large producers of fossil fuels and raw materials. At the same time, these companies enjoyed favorable terms as far as business expansion and technical renovation were concerned.

Putin’s administration has tirelessly been sewing the network of oil and gas pipelines. This effort has not been purely economical; it has carried a political significance. New pipelines have been laid down to provide more links between the oil fields in Siberia and the consumers in Europe and Asia. The Kremlin has made a few steps aimed at strengthening Russian presence and influence on the global market for fossil fuels and the sources of energy in general. Putin’s administration made great efforts in Venezuela, Algeria, Libya, Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich countries of the developing world. The policy of befriending other oil exporters has produced mixed results. However, it is certainly an achievement that, as of today, Moscow’s relations with the above mentioned countries are best ever in history. After fifteen years of “don’t bother me any longer, my little brothers” policy towards Cuba and Syria, the Kremlin has recently chosen to resume financial and military aid to Habana and Damascus. Conveniently positioned in terms geographical, Cuba and Syria are meant to serve as bases for Russian penetration into their neighborhood: the Spanish-speaking America and the Muslim world

Tu-204 in CUBANA colors


AutoVAZ in Togliatti (makes Lada and Kalina series cars). Also, there is a tiny production of UAZ 4x4 vehicles in Ulianovsk. Moscow-based AZLK ceased production completely; Izhevsk (Izh) and Nizhny Novgorod (GAZ) dropped their legacy models in favor of out-of-production Korean and US designs. By car numbers, local production accounts for less than 40% of total sales. By value, it is less than 20%. In 2005 Russian arms vendor Rosoboronexport assumed control over AutoVAZ “so as to save it for the nation”. While the maker continues afloat, the change of proprietor does not seem to have brought feasible changes in Lada competitiveness. The Russian government has been following the situation in the automotive industry. But findings have been rather upsetting. The national legacy cars sector will invariably continue losing its positions to foreign manufacturers. Furthermore, the open doors policy attracted Chinese makers. They seem to have been using Russia as a convenient testing range for their cheap products. The Kremlin tried to amend the situation by offering global car manufacturers erect their plants in the Russian territory, promising relaxed taxation terms. A few Japanese and European makers seized this opportunity. They opened “screwdriver assembly workshops”, producing copies of “global model” cars. Although these new workshops have created some new jobs in Russia, they produced little effect on the overall situation in the Russian automotive industry and the inner market. And this could not have been otherwise, since most of the car components are imported (rather than made locally). When the crisis hit, the Kremlin had a rude awakening. Newly erected “screwdriver” factories did not decrease the inner market dependence on the outside world in the given area. With a substantial drop in car sales in the late 2008, the newly erected facilities had to stop working. Relatively low-rate, “screwdriver”-based sort of in-house manufacturing does not justify local production economically in competition with ready-to-use cars assembled by bigger plants abroad. A manufacturing nation There is a growing understanding in the Russian society and the corridors of power that the national economic policy should be based on the notion that Russia is a manufacturing nation. The country developed that way since the dawns of time. In the early Medieval, Slav swords and mails were most desirable trophies for both European and Asian invaders, including German knights and Mongolian cavalrymen. Better quality of Slav-made arms became apparent in 1240, when the army of Novgorod (Rus strongest northern city) subsequently crashed the elite of the Swedish (1240, the Battle of the Neva River) and the German knights

respectively. Besides, Syria and Cuba have some natural resources that need substantial investment to exploit. Moscow shows willingness to provide the requisite funds and technologies in return for control over those resources. Despite a heavy pressure from the West insisting on Iran’s isolation, Moscow has been developing relations with Tehran. This involves direct deliveries of advanced rocketry (like the Thor-M1 surfaceto-air missiles – 29 launchers were shipped in 2007-2008), and prolongation of license production rights for Russian designs such as armored vehicles and assault rifles. The two large oil exporters have not become close friends, thought. But they have been improving coordination of their efforts on the global scene. There is a growing understanding in

both Moscow and Tehran that, through expansion of mutual trade and joint industrial undertaking, the two nations may lessen their dependence on the West. Russian and Iranian manufacturers would expand outlet for their products, thus enlarging their anchor markets. Automotive industry As it was mentioned above, the Russian manufacturing industry has been suffering from the transition from command to open-doors economy. Heavy and medium machinery and electronics have been most affected. Let us take automotive industry for illustration. Production of Russian legacy cars has halved. The nation now has only one large maker in the form of

NUMBER OF COMBAT, TRAINING AND TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT IN THE SOVIET INVENTORY YEAR NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT 4 1917 October 1109 1924 326 1928 1078 1930 1581 1933 3165 1941 June 17500 combat 12100 training

the Russians demonstrated better quality of their armor. Suffering three times larger losses and complete defeat in the battlefield. 2. Novosibirsk. This helped Russia master many of the then-advanced European technologies. In summer 1939 the Red Army aviation and armor units crashed numerically larger Japanese expedition force in Mongolia. the world went onto a massive war. These great victories reflected the fact that Slav-made armor was stronger and lighter than that of the opponents. Russia kept among world’s top five countries in advanced weaponry making and armed forces organization. including artillery and armored ship building. the I-16 developed top speed of 450km/h. This enabled Russia to capitalize on this unique blend of European and Asian achievements in arms manufacturing techniques. Their craftsmen went swiftly from light guns to very heavy cannons (such as the Tsar Cannon. the Russian Imperial Navy purchased new warships in other countries. “Disproportioned” losses in 1939 made Tokyo refrain from attacking the Soviet Union even when its strategic ally Germany had its forces fighting at Moscow outskirts in winter 1941/1942. The new Kremlin inhabitants understood early in their careers the importance of hightech. the Soviet Union emerged as a prominent exporter of advanced war machines. German and Italian designs. Perhaps the most illustrative is naval hardware: battleships. In 1939 it became the world’s third largest economy after the USA F L E E T · 1 . Although in somewhat smaller scale. the Battle of the Chudskoe Lake). In 1709 the Battle of Poltava saw Peter the Great soldiers defeating Europe’s strongest army of the time. 5. that of Carl XXII of Sweden. the Imperial Russia kept pace with the Western Europe on military technologies. Equipped by powerful M-25 radial piston engines (later replaced by more powerful M-62/63 – these motors were manufactured in Moscow. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) (1242.A I R Europeans for permanent residence. set up local production. now a Kremlin memorial). This great victory was preceded by Peter’s sustained efforts on improving the structure of the Russian army and industry by means of West-European “technology insertions”. The purpose was to assess them and. China. if necessary. the Russian victories of the time were due to the advanced blade and fire weapons produced in the country. I-16 fighters won numerous air duels with contemporary Japanese. Thus. In four years that followed the Soviet industry assembled 4. and against that of the Germans and Italians in Spain. When.288 fighters (of which about two thousand copies of brand-new MiG. From time to time. Strongly-built and agile. medium and large plants all over the country. armored cruisers and submarines. VVS RKKA (acronym for the Air force of the Workers and Peasants Red Army) had 17. this strategy was carried out by Peter’s successors. Artillery was something the nomad invaders did not have. Besides. tanks and cannons to Republican Spain. one fact remains undisputed: the communist leaders succeeded in bringing the Russian industry into a new quality level. The fall of Kazan (a khanate on the Volga River) to the army of Ivan IV the Terrible in 1556 led to merging of the Russian and Tatar technologies. which later evolved into the Russian defense-industrial complex. As a result.500 combat aircraft.065 frontal bombers (including 458 Pe-2 diving bombers). Born in 1917. aviation plants were erected in Irkutsk. the popular Polikarpov I-16 was the world’s first fighter to have retractable landing gears. bombers. 611 close air support air- 5 . Again. St. the world’s first Republic of the Workers and Peasants had to fight enemies on all sides of its immense territory stretching from The Baltic and Black Seas all the way to Pacific waters. Lenin laid foundations of Russia’s next-generation economy. In 1929 Josef Stalin launched the great industrialization campaign by adopting the Soviet Union’s first Five Year Economic Plan. Revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin launched GOELRO project calling for “total electrofication” of the country. Komsomolsk-upon-Amur. Czechoslovakia etc. Whatever is being said and written today about Lenin and Stalin. France and the United States. In many ways. The new industrial policy focused on erecting thousands of small. in the late 1930s. for defense of cities and castles. Petersburg attracted great many talented West and Germany. Japanese equipment was outclassed by the Russian one. In 1380 the Moscow-led army of the united Russian duchies crashed numerically larger force of the Golden Horde. at the enterprise now known as MMPP Salut).289 new aircraft. The Soviet-made equipment fared well against that of the Japanese in China and Mongolia. Germany. But larger portion of newly made weapons was developed domestically. sufficient enough to defend the USSR from its aggressive neighbors such as Japan and Germany. the Japan made decision to maintain peace with the Soviet Union for the next five years. the Soviet Union developed faster than any other country. Under Peter the Great. Since then Peter’s lasting legacy was mobilizing Russian resources to complete on equal terms with the West. LaGG and Yak types).147 heavy bombers. the Russians used cannons. a record for its time. Warships of these classes were constructed by domestic manufacturers to the standards corresponding to those in the United Kingdom. This number included 9. When fascist Germany invaded Soviet Union in June 1941. Russia became an empire. In particular. and 2952 more in 1933. To this day these plants remain Russia’s largest producers of fighter aircraft. There is a lot of evidence to that. And helped the tsar’s army withstood heavy pressure on Eastern and Western directions. massive local production of military equipment. Moscow supplied fighters. Stalin laid foundations of the Soviet military-industrial complex. Thus. Among others. In the 1930s.

“In recent years it has become increasingly difficult to collect and analyse meaningful data on Russian Federal budget. by placing Sputnik into orbit in 1957 and making Yuri Gagarin first man in space in 1961. the banks remain busy and afloat. The Indian Navy acquired eight Tupolev Tu-142 ASW aircraft sharing airframe and systems with the Tu-95 Bear strategic bomber. At the end of the year the figure dropped to 430 billion (no official explanation was given). France. The US dollar was selling at 30.ECONOMY PROBLEMS In 1990s the Russian government made Rouble exchangeable. the oil prices fell from the peak of 50-60 to 15-17 dollars per barrel in the late 1980s. Only USSR and USA appeared capable of development and series production of strategic bombers (the Tupolev Tu-95 and Tu-160 versus B-52. In 1945 the Soviet Aviation industry increased its labor force to 640. the Red Army’s might grew fast.213 and number of airframe plants to 34.4 million ton). . Although the German industry was larger. Sometimes the high Soviet technologies became available to its friends and neighbors. As the oil price grew again. surpassing that of the invaders in 1943. It dropped from 1.3 million. This soon rendered the whole country a bankrupt. They allowed too much exposure of the national economics to the international market outside their control.600-1. This quickly stabilized the national economy. the exchange rate to Euro came to 34. In the period of 1971 to 1975 the daily production of oil in the Soviet Union rose from 7. making it just 8. The bloody and vigorous war with the fascist Germany 1941-1945 gave another boost to development of the Russian weapons school and production capability. taking for granted smooth petrodollar flow into the state treasury. This urged Russia rise its daily production to 7. VTB. After WW2 the Soviet Union’s might was only matched by that of the USA.8 dollars per barrel. believed that the sharp fall of crude oil prices delivered a final blow to the Soviet Union.5 in January 2009. Banks are fine. The most plausible explanation of the 1998 events is that that the Urals brand oil was selling for merely 7.800 points in early 2008 planes (including 249 Il-2 armored attack aircraft) and 560 reconnaissance. VEB and Gazprombank. the Soviet Union manufactured 102. Next step is associated with the Project 971 nuclear submarine. noting that it had been “not only to high oil prices”. and then steadily fell (2006 – mid 2008) to the lowest point of 23. As time went on. The International Monetary Fund commended on the strong economic performance of the Russian economy.6 million barrels (one million ton) to 9. the output to 12. In late 2008 the Russian government made decision to provide Rouble 5 trillion to major Russian banks so as to help Russian financial system survive the crisis. This caught Moscow off guard. But this measure alone did not save the national banking system from a complete collapse in 1998.2 million barrel daily. While executing a more careful approach to lending money than before the crisis. but also “a good marco economic management”. the flow of petrodollars came lower than expected. They put together national economy development plans.83).7 million barrels daily or 15% of OPEC capacity.6 million barrels daily or nearly 20% of the world’s total. The market accepted the offer. including then– Russian prime-minister Egor Gaidar. The dollar also rose sharply. Still. tanks and cannons than Germany. In autumn 2008 the reserves rose to US dollar 600 billion. This enabled the Kremlin not just stabilize the national economy – the Soviet Union launched massive investment programs in the national defense and questionable “free-bee” programs on support of communiststyle political regimes in the developing world. Was it just some flattery for the Kremlin? Months after this comment came. It dropped 27.9 million barrels (1. It was definitely a quantum leap in the economy management. Export rose to 3. the Russian financial system recovered. After a rise to 35-40 dollar per barrel in the late 1979-early 1980.7 in 2005. Why and how did it happen? Gaidar has the answer. none of prominent Russian banks went bankrupt. who is suffering? Let’s look at the Index of Moscow MMVB exchange. Ups and downs with the Rouble do not seem to bother them much. In the conditions of weak demand. a nuclear submarine of the Project 670 type that previously served the Russian Navy as the K-43. the Soviet Union attained high production rate of military equipment by increasing its share to 65-68% of the total output. During the first three quarters of 2008 the exchange rate fluctuated between 36 and 37. In 2000 the price went up to 30 dollars. During 1988-1992 the Indian Navy operated the Chakra.9 dollar at the turn of the century to 12 in 1974.7 million in 2002. This urged the Soviets to sell their “black gold” to the West for hard currency. and corrective action was not made.4 thousand people employed on 24 airframe and 7 aero engine plants. So far. the period of Rouble’s stability ended. It then ran at 6. Oil trap The pace of Russian technology development slowed down with the collapse of the Soviet Union 6 in 1991. The Soviet Union managed to produce more aircraft. The Soviet Union tried to keep its earnings high by increasing. including 174. the lowest point in the recent history. UK and China only). The main source of anti-crisis measures in the Kremlin’s possession is so-called State Gold and Hard Currency Reserves. The price then stabilized at this level for a decade. Some experts. During 2003-2007. The Soviet leaders mistook the behavior of the oil market. owing to a number of presentational changes” – a good remark on Page 209 of the Military Balance 2008 issued by the International Institute for strategic studies (IISS. Rouble to Euro exchange rate was more or less stable. and particularly the finances of Russian national defense.4 thousand workers on about 80 plants. In 1941 the industry had 466.4 (reflecting the relative rise of the dollar to Euro) and then skyrocketed to 41.63 at the year-end. Moscow even managed to outdo Washington in space. Four banks were named as primary receivers: Saving Bank. The oil-addicted industry did not timely curtail large-scale production of numerous and expensive weaponry. Russian oil production drops by 40%. averaging at 35 (it floated between 33. In the last years of its existence the Soviet Union created through-deck aircraft carriers (other producers the USA and France only) and nuclear-powered submarines (US.8 thousand tanks and self-propelled cannons against 65 thousands for Germany. B-1B and B-2) and intercontinental ballistic missiles with multiply warheads. Daily production output exceeded 50 airplanes. to 30 a the year-end and 33. London). The Soviet aviation industry grew fast. since many deals are made in the “dollar+Euro” coordinates. from 1. During the war.33 and 37. Kremlin planners got used to these “extra funds”. In October 2008.6 Roubles in September 2003.3% of world’s production – the export was 2.7 million barrels against Saudi Arabia’s 8. The 1973 war in the Middle East caused a sharp rise in oil prices.2 in July 2008. Despite heavy losses in 1941-1942. Tu-22MR supersonic maritime reconnaissance aircraft and the INS Vikramaditya through-deck aircraft carrier. or 7.5% of OPEC capacity. in 1987-1989. because of the low prices.

It also provided support to a tiny group of airlines and industrial enterprises. The oil selling at 45 dollars per barrel.4 (November 2008). investors. falls between 12 and 18 months. Newer products may offer higher gains. further by 30-50%. This fact was acknowledged by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev on 10 January. Putin said.A I R down to some 600 in October – December 2008.2 in July 2008. The Russian exchange index went down by three times. and for 31-33. Draft budget for 2010 is twice that amount. We expect Russian aviation industry to execute a narrower focusing on well-selling legacy products such as the Sukhoi Flanker series fighters. He added that the current banking rates are not affordable for companies of the heavy industries. These will receive financial aid from the Russian government and favorable credits from the four leading banks. Today’s oil-based economy does not provide stability in the view of unpredictable behavior of the fossil fuel prices in the global marketplace. while providing restricted support to a narrow circle of “real economy” companies.5 billion to airlines operating “socially important routes”. more than fourfold within four months! This fact gives evidence of how unstable the global market can be. RSK MiG and KAPO. market stagnation and instability. customer value etc. The merger is controlled by Sergei Chemezov’s Russian Technologies state corpora- F L E E T · 1 . This is a newly established company that is accepting control over AirUnion.8 dollar per barrel (July 2008) down to 34. GTK Rossiya and Vladivostok Avia. and the time cycle is short enough. These measures shall support the Russian military industrial complex suffering from a system crisis. Forecast Will Putin’s Russia follow the path of the Soviet Union in similar circumstances? It remains to be seen. including United Aircraft Corporation. There are signs that the attitude of the Russian decision makers and society to the issue of “real” and “virtual” economics is starting to change. It is believed that a good portion will go to OOO Aviakompania. such as aircraft production. At the same time. I then dropped tobelow 600 in January 2009. the Russian government has prepared draft of the law for State Weapons Order 2009-2011. at the level of 1980. while the western counties registered drops by one-third at maximum. will they be kept? At the end of the past year the Russian government and banks gave the ailing manufacturers and airlines only a fraction of the promised funds. Our prediction for 2009-2010 is the following one. This reflects the fact that foreign and local investors have been pulling their money out of the Russian economy.) and price degradation over years of operational service are known or predictable. Spending on national defense is going to be increased. The Russian banks offered the industry credits at 6-10% before the crisis and 16-20% after it hit. Besides. which is yet to be formed.500 socially important enterprises. export customer. Medvedev is certainly right. The decision in favor of “real economy” development would entail a set of measures aimed at development of in-house manufacturing capability. It increases competitiveness of the Russian products in the international market. It is not expected before 2010-2011. The federal budget for 2009 provides governmental air of Rouble 2. labor costs. Russia’s Central Bank is expected to purposely reduce value of the national currency in relation to US Euro/dollar basket. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) tion (Rostechnologii). Pricing (manufacturing expenses. Mil Mi-17 helicopters and Tupolev Tu-204 airliners. On 26 December the Russian government issued the list with 290 enterprises on it. may provide serious competition to Aeroflot on both domestic and international routes. The latter is less acceptable in the conditions of liquidity shortage. Explanation is that production cycle for a certified aircraft. The investors are likely to come back when the crisis is over and the oil prices go up again. The oil price dropped from 144. the Russian economy is of no interest. Which airlines may get the money? Not clear yet. manufacturers’ own money). The weak Rouble would render export orders lucrative for the industry. The latter is too expensive for the manufacturing industry with long cycles. The new carrier. 7 .5 in January 2009). It has pumped Rouble 5 trillion into the four leading banks. be it a Su-30MK. Banks will fund production of the tried products since the risks involved are relatively low. the government is ready to increase the share of state funding in research-and-development projects that were previously meant to have shared funding (Russian government. Critics say the Russian government unspoken policy is to wait passively for the oil to get expensive again. When visiting MMPP Salut plant (Moscow-based manufacturer producing AL-31F/FN and AI-222 engines for Su-30MK/34 and Yak-130 warplanes). On the eve of the New Year Vladimir Putin said the government is putting together a list of 300-400 strategically important and up to 1. One of the reasons is to lessen dependence on the global market. the schedules of next-generation products will shift further into a more distant future. Atlant-Soyuz. Besides. The Kremlin has made some corrective actions. a Mi-17 or a Tu-204. he said the government works too slowly implementing anti-crisis measures in the real economy. Expected annual output is 40-50. though. but they imply higher risks and longer return times. The latter is no longer “a point of growth”. While the Kremlin’s promises may sound well. (One dollar changed for 23. 60-70 and 10-15 units respectively.

and what creates problems. and parts of the instructions have extended the time by which they need to be completed. and of course. But here we simply need to look at the . The Government is working. Secondly. To sum it up – it’s a complex situation. “Today. and additional demands are made on companies to secure their credit against assets. I should say that we did foresee this. and what is more important. those instructions are being fulfilled. and other guarantees supporting the credit application. 2008 as crucial for national economy and bound to receive government’s support to overcome the global financial crisis. And all this. got acquainted with manufacturing process of aircraft engines and industrial gas turbines and chaired a meeting to discuss issues of stabilisation of the situation in real economy. I must admit that at the moment we are not in a position to say that we have done all that is necessary. Thirdly. and take the necessary measures to energise our work. the Mayor of Moscow. Of course. which in the long run are sure to give industry the ability to run a more flexible pricing policy. but nonetheless for companies such as “Salut” it does have also a positive effect) the price of metals is falling. President Medvedev said: “As early as October. and heads of several leading Russian banks. and in many cases has led simply to businesses operating at a loss. Practically everywhere we forecast a decreased budgetary income. all these factors have made the situation regarding the budget more difficult. Russian engine manufacturers included in the list of enterprises crucial for national economy and bound to receive government’s support to overcome the global financial crisis: Chernyshev MMP (Moscow). compared with the same period in 2007. UMPO (Ufa). which were directed towards the systematic support for the sector during the global financial crisis. I gave a series of instructions to the Government. The implementation of these measures is happening more slowly than we expected. It was founded in 1912 and now produces AL-31F engines for the Su-27/30 family of fighter aircraft as well as other products vital for national defence and energy industry. of course. Salut was one of 295 enterprises defined by the government in December. Let me say that this is by no means a simple situation. We must get to grips with all of this. more slowly than the current circumstances require. Salut MMPP (Moscow) Saturn (Rybinsk). We have set to work on passing the regulations and subordinate legislation. many things are simply taking an unforgivable length of time”. The main thing. This is wholly difficult time. The President was accompanied by his Assistants. I have just looked at the data: only 30% of what had been envisaged has been carried out. this was the result of the decrease not only in domestic demand.Alexander Velovich Photos: Nikolay Laskov THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENT DMITRY MEDVEDEV VISITS SALUT O n January 11. All this. although. Perm Motors Plant (Perm). Klimov (St. the volume of industrial production in the period October-December last year.Petersburg). does nothing to make the situation more straightforward. that I wanted to speak about. on average. and in the answers we find to these problems. is the fact that we must be swifter both in our actions. in the machine building sector the global market price fell from 20 to 60%. fell by more than 6% per month. Salut is one of the leading Russian manufacturers of aircraft engines and industrial gas turbines. (and of course this is bad for our metallurgists. of course. but even here. Deputy Prime Ministers and other Members of the Government. 2009 the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited Salut MMPP (Moscow Machine-Building Production Plant). has led to the decreased profitability of industry. is the fact that most businesses have quite serious deficits in their cash reserves. what makes the situation even more difficult. the Chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. particularly in the regions. The interest rates on credit taken have increased. In metallurgy there was a fall in prices from 30 to 70%. 8 Addressing the meeting. but also in the significant fall in export prices which fell significantly in several different production areas. President Medvedev pointed out some positive factors of the current economical situation: “a lowered price on raw materials and on components.

. even on the background of a falling growth rate. we could see an increase in labour efficiency in industry this year. the president remarked: “All these credit procedures are very bureaucratic. comprising key industries and organisations. he added. where the time it takes to make the agreement is simply endless”. not reform”. Of course it should be accompanied by a fall in production costs. “Today it is simply unforgivable for the documents to take so long to complete”. And. and which is fully focused on the serious financial crisis”. The President warned against reorganizations and reforms for purely the sake of reforms themselves in the difficult times of the financial crisis: “I am just drawing attention to the fact that our main task is the protection of our production base. in the end. and it had taken several most important decisions. and mechanisms are needed in order to raise the overall efficiency of the all steps we have taken both in the budgetary-financial sphere and in the support of the real economy”. The Russian President reminded that a commission on increasing sustainable growth in the economy has been created as part of Government. of them one third is dedicated to the defence industry complex. This year the Russian government plans to provide RUR 300 billion (Russian roubles) for credit guarantees for businesses. Prepayment for work on national defence orders and on federal programmes was another question discussed at the meeting. The president stated: “The work on this is going extremely slowly. Salut still retains the status of a Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Another theme that we ought to consider – is what additional measures. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) price offered to our consumers for the products. who is reported to oppose the inclusion of his plant in an integrated engine-manufacturing concern controlled by Russian Technologies corporation. These particular words may be regarded as a victory of Yury Eliseyev. irrespective of the very difficult context”.A I R F L E E T · 1 . including in the banks themselves. the Salut Director General. which would be no bad thing. 9 . However. The president urged Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin to take the issue under his control and to implement changes to administrative technology “adequate to the current tasks before us. everyone is complaining.

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5 million people. we have to thoroughly monitor the situation in the real economy sector. and only 20 per cent – from contracts from the Russian Armed Forces. In December. plus RUR 50 billion more for subsidizing interest rate payments. their creditor’s debt has increased. The situation at TMC corporation is typical of Russia’s defence industry which incorporates about 1. however so far this money is scarcely reaching enterprises because of very bureaucratic procedures of approving bank loans. RAC MiG and other major defence industry enterprises are included in that list. if needed. The government and the Central bank have provided commercial banks with substantial money to credit the real economy sector. The Russian government plans to spend over RUR 1 trillion (Russian roubles. 2009 the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin visited the headquarters of Tactical Missiles Corporation in Korolev. and literally in a day-by-day mode evaluate the efficiency of anticrisis measures which awe are working out in order to make. the Prime Minister instructed to speed up work on boosting efficiency of integrated defence industry holdings.400 entreprisese employing over 1. The Prime Minister stressed: “As I said more than once. United Aircraft Corporation. This year the proportion of export and domestic revenues is expected to change significantly in favour of domestic orders. “We have to optimize federal defence task programmes and direct the saved money for completion and realization of projects critical for upgrading the technology level of our defence industry”. TMC. about $30 billion USD) for defence orders in 2009. however.” said the Prime Minister. Igor Sechin and Alexei Kudrin. and thus not only meet the requirements of our Armed Forces. the Russian Central Bank Vhairman Sergey Ignatyev and over 30 other government officials. Avoiding traffic jams. TMC incorporates 19 enterprises developing and manufacturing missiles and other guided smart weapons for the Russian Air Force and the Navy. and about RUR 4 billion in the years 2009-11. they have met difficulties in getting bank loans”. representatives of financial institutions and director generals of Russian defence enterprises attended the meeting. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Alexei Kudrin confirmed that “optimization and restructuring are needed. the prime minister arrived at the TMC premises in a helicopter. Under these circumstances. the Minister of Economics Elvira Nabiullina. Detailed strategy how to reach that objective has not been made public. he warned that there would be no increase in the overall sum of R&D and production technology investment programs. Top manager of the latter ones are likely to be easily replaced because the state still keeps them in the Federal property. state guarantees for bank loans including writing off bank interest payments and direct loans from the Central bank of Russia are among the measures considered to provide support for the defence industry. “What for have we formed them? We need to make them really competitive. The Prime Minister mentioned also the necessity to continue investments in technology modernization of production plants as well as crucial research and development programmes. said Putin. but also expand the export potential of Russia’s defence industry”. though. 2008 the Russian government approved the list of 295 enterprises crucial for the national economy and bound to receive financial support from the state.Alexander Velovich VLADIMIR PUTIN VISITS TACTICAL MISSILES CORPORATION O n 15 January. Putin believes that this spending will allow the defence industry to survive in the crisis when orders from commercial sector have fallen significantly. additional decisions in time and correct what has been already adopted and planned”. Algeria and Vietnam as well. Almaz-Antey PVO Concern. “an adequate reaction of the state is needed. The state budget figures for 2009-11 provide for RUR 100 billion for state loan guarantees.Amendments to Russia’s Taxation Code have been adopted to make easier procedures of tax debts restructuring and providing investment tax loans. anti-bankruptcy measures and direct capital investments. The Prime Minister warned that the government will differentiate between enterprises in financial trouble due to objective causes and those which have constant difficulties because of systematic poor management. Deputy Prime Ministers Sergey Ivanov. “Many enterprises of this segment have encountered delays of payments for shipped orders. He made a tour of the missile manufacturing plant and then Putin chaired a meeting on the measures of state support to enterprises of the defence industry complex. Boris Obnosov says that in 2008 80 per cent of TMC’s revenues came from export orders. Indirectly acknowledging that so far restructuring of the defence industry has not brought anticipated results. Putin acknowledged that the economic crisis has influenced the denece industry complex. and recently Venesuela. So some of them could benefit only at the expense of the others. near Moscow. Among the leading customers Obnosov names India and China. Taxation preferences. 11 .

Initial plan called for forming this structure sometime later. By now. In 12 . Today. That time the Soviet Union erected a number of new plants. Preliminary calculations indicate that the production output came to about Rouble 100 billion. purchasing new equipment and installing it. As per UAC itself… it is up and running now. and got it. UAC strategy was approved in February 2008. Much rather. By the end of 2008 the business units “Civil Aviation” and “Transport Aviation” had been established. I still do not have yet exact figures for UAC operational results and performance in 2008. Now we are doing some structural work to supplement these new establishments by moving plants and design houses under control of these units and specializing them. UAC president and Chairman of Executive Board – Please tell us about results of the past year. in accordance with the decree of the president of the Russian Federation. anyone of our plants has newly installed facilities. This is something that shall help us boost our competitiveness. It was then submitted to the government for approval. Corporate Strategy provided base for putting together plans of our subsidiaries. How restructuring of the Russian aviation industry has been going? – In the past year we carried on with consistent efforts on reforming core business and enterprises of our corporation. It postulates that the Corporation’s structure shall have three new business units. indeed. UAC has accepted the function of control over the whole of Russian fixed wing aircraft manufacturing industry. Initial plans allowed us three years to set them up and running. – How hard is it to restructure the Russian aviation industry? – It is a hard work. We had to initiate the founding process in the end of 2008. Higher competitiveness shall enable UAC to hope for larger orders in conditions of the modern market dominated by western manufacturers. Process of reforming this industry. So. roughly the same figure we reported for 2007. – How long will it take UAC to restructure the industry? And how much will it cost? – We need to invest over one billion dollars into technical renovation of our enterprises. Those are the aviation plants in Komsomolsk-upon-Amur. Irkutsk etc. But life makes us go faster. the core team has been formed. it is not bad. It will take after Sukhoi and MiG companies. following completion of the founding process and forming of the core team in the head office. the primary result of the past year is that we laid firm foundations for our industry to start functioning as a system. at least in my view. improve manufacturing quality and reduce costs. The Strategy lists aircraft models that UAC shall manufacture at its plants. Besides. tooling. A special effort – perhaps not so visible one yet – has been done in the sphere of renovation. It enables us carry out all the functions that were prescribed for UAC by the presidential decree [dated February 2006] and charter documents. Let me remind you. But life makes us go faster. with completion of the founding process in two years’ time. The new system is being created not from a clean sheet. machines etc. As we speak. It also gives exact figures for production output. it is being created on the base of what Russia inherited from the Soviet Union. the United Aircraft Corporation was established in 2006. In the conditions of world-wide financial crisis. We have done a lot introducing new technologies. By far and large. patience and managerial skills. by accepting control over their assets. Foundations of the Soviet aviation industry were laid down back in the 1930s. Novosibirsk. and these still remain largest in the country.B I G B O S S TA L K I N G UPS & DOWNS Vladimir Karnozov FOR UNITED AIRCRAFT Typescript of an interview with Alexey Fedorov. The Strategy was approved by UAC board of directors in the beginning of 2008. “Combat Aviation” business unit will take into shape during 2009. changing its structure and tuning it to the realities of the modern world is a very hard work that requires determination. councils of directors have been formed on all daughter companies.

despite the difficult situation in the world’s economy. both combat and civil aviation. since they are compliant to all international regulations. I do not exclude the very chance of introducing corrections into our ongoing programs. of course. Our goal is to get properly prepared and. in terms of funding available for a certain project. In the meanwhile. what aircraft models should be pro- F L E E T · 1 . Private capital is expected to take the lead that time. Do you consider state budget allocations as primary source? Are you also targeting private capital? – At this stage. But understanding of this reality does not eliminate the very need for us to create new products. we simply cannot put on hold programs that are on the list approved by the government – the list UAC submitted to government together with its Strategy. There are important programs going on in the military aviation. in 2010-2011. Thus. It is the only way for the Russian aviation industry to stay in business. development of new technologies. – How does our plan correspond to the general situation in the global aviation market? – The situation in the global aviation market is such that without development of new generation aircraft. Our Strategy calls for three phases of company development. it runs till 2010. Now. At this stage the focus is on recovery of our plants and design houses. We are working to enlarger production output of our primary civilian product. Today. there is no chance to ensure future of the Russian industry. in the conditions of world-wide financial crisis. state financing is. we are all set to achieve every target set before us by the President of Russia and the Chairman of the Russian government. – How confident are you when you speak about chances of this great plan to come true? It is difficult to image that it will come true today. We took into consideration the overall market situation. We submitted it and won governmental approval. – You said that UAC has a requirement for billions of dollars to be invested. we expect higher income of private investments into UAC programs. Its assembly line is set in Ulianovsk. we thought it over very carefully. we shall enter equity markets through the mechanism of Initial Public Offering (IPO). the An-148 in Voronezh and Superjet 100 in Komsomolsk-upon-Amur. Council members gave their assessment 13 . Screening took time and was very serious. Since that time. these plans and programs will materialize. Next year we shall bring these new aircraft into the marketplace and hand their first deliverable examples to airlines. Private capital prevails over state investments. Seemingly. It can operate with the Armed Forces and commercial airlines. When I hear you it seems that UAC lives in another world. When UAC Strategy was being worked out. we shall enter the period of profitable growth. Development of the Su-35 and MiG-35 multirole fighters continues in full gear. move forward and capture a sizeable portion of the market. The first one is anti-crisis management. with addition of those two models. That’s why we have no choice but to continue with all of our key projects. That time we will live on our own money and hired private capital. onboard systems and power plants. I believe that. It was chaired by the deputy chairman of the Russian government Sergei Ivanov. Especially. So. they hear about job cuts and economic downturn. though. Then. The council took place in the White House of the Russian Government. Corrections to our plans may take place. To achieve this. UAC plans to employ various mechanisms and tools normally used for this purpose in the developed world. The Strategy also calls for the period of stabilization. in the next two-three years there will be no solvent demand for new aircraft. Why is that so? – If we do not launch new projects then there will be no future for the Russian aviation industry. the Tupolev Tu-204 narrow body airliner. when people listen to the radio or watch TV. without fulfillment of investment projects. It was rendered complete. Markets are contracting right now. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) duced in the next ten to twenty years? Selection of suitable models was quire serious. Later on. Ulianovsk-built Il-76s of this renewed version can fly around the world without restrictions. with plans for higher production output and introduction of new products. More funds – in order of several billion dollars – are needed for development of new airplanes employing new technologies. we will introduce new products in the military sphere and in the civil aviation. There is no alternative to this: we either master new products or forget about the future of the Russian aviation. – These days. when it is high time for it. UAC is setting up production of new-generation regional aircraft.A I R large part. the primary source of funding for UAC. This period of time is expected to coincide with a rapid growth of the international aviation market. Ulianovsk is selected for production of the Ilyushin Il-76 heavy air lifter in a much upgraded version with modern avionics. with minimization of the government’s role as investor. This aircraft is compliant to all national and international requirements. There is no doubt about that. from 2011 till 2015. investments go into development of commercial aircraft production. Changes that would reflect current economic situation as far as production volumes are concerned. These new aircraft shall appear in the marketplace in near future. our ability to penetrate certain markets in the global marketplace. our current product range will expand considerably. in 2015. Related plans and programs are supplemented by direct funding from the state budget and by governmental measures meant to help us raise funds on the financial market. – Issues pertaining to financial support for our capability extension programs were discussed at UAC council of directors on 30 December.

At the same time. They have also launched restructuring process and invested a lot into new technologies and equipment. There were positive decisions made by the council of VneshTorgBank (VTB). Because of this. Are you going to cut your staff? – Unlike other industries. There are too many of managers and auxiliary workers. I hope that the allocations in these Programs will remain unchanged and that the money will actually be provided. the volume of state support would stay unchanged. But I believe these cuts will not apply to aviation-related allocations. Figuratively speaking. Today. I believe that the mechanisms of state support shall change in this New Year of 2009. It happened that access to affordable credit lines became more difficult. we shall be able to continue with technical renovation of our core enterprises. What was the level of that support in 2008? – In the period of 2009-2010 a total of some 26-28 billion Rouble is allocated for us in a number of Federal Target Programs. there is a hope that the above named Federal Programs will actually be revised for higher volumes of state investment into the aviation industry. We expect the renewed version of the Program to be approved by the Russian government soon and put into force in 2011. in the time of the crisis. We need new technologies. It is necessary to introduce special measures of state insurance for the industry. Our industrial partners feel shortage of skilled personnel. By far and large. Quite simply. there are indications for that. in 2009 we will create some new jobs. to ensure that this equipment works to capacity and in an effective way. the access was severely limited. We believe that. we began to feel shortage of skilled personnel. – Perhaps re-training programs will address not only UAC staff. Aircraft manufacturing is one of the industries that determine technical level of any large country and its defense capability. The volume of support may even stay the same. we have not managed to make use of a large portion of government-promised subsidies. The lion’s share of the government funding goes to us along the lines of the Federal Purpose Programs entitled “Development of civil aviation” and “Development of Military Industrial Complex”. we will make steps to optimize structure of our staff. Thus. Because of the economic downturn the Russian government is considering cuts in the state budget allocations for long-term investment programs. – Mass media reports on job cuts both in Russia and abroad. They also discussed issues pertaining to corrections to the mechanisms of state support to the aviation industry. the state insurance becomes absolutely necessary. In plain words. We also hope that this new version would contain larger figures of state support for the aviation industry. About 100 thousand people are employed on UAC enterprises. including those on training and re-training of aviation industry personnel. UAC is a locomotive of a very large industry. Besides. nor freezing or shelving of our key programs. as well as leadership of other large banks. However. the state support. including the Savings Bank and VTB. What we had in the beginning was a collection of all the models that our plants were manufacturing at that time. and invite professional people to take vacancies. at the end of 2008. In other words. was not actually rendered to us because we did not manage to arrange enough credits. On the contrary. With all of our supply chain taken into account. We will re-train people currently employed in auxiliary areas. Smaller half of these models passed screening. Current version of the Federal Program “Development of Civil Aviation” expires in 2010. Are there any signs that people from other industries seek for jobs in the aviation industry? – Yes. we will increase numbers of those who actually work in the shops. while introducing changes timely into the mechanisms of state support and insurance. voiced their ideas and plans for the future. and. – How does UAC product range look like? Does it differ much from the one that the Russian aviation industry had had before UAC was founded? – Our product range was firmed up last year. All this requires a huge amount of work. we need people who can see to newly installed equipment. skilled personnel. plus those that our design houses were developing. respectively. we will be able to increase production of our new airplanes. in the New Year. we plan neither cuts to our staff. though. for us it is very important that the Government keeps volumes of promised state support. all changed. Therefore.B I G B O S S TA L K I N G of the current situation in the industry. through successful employment of these mecha- nisms. A newer version is being put together right now. Because of the risks that are high enough and the fact that capital turnover time is rather long. When these mechanisms were introduced. and so they execute programs on training and re-training of their personnel. but also other industries. these mechanisms have been to do with subsidizing banking interest rates (the government “slashes” interest rates on credits taken in commercial banks). the number of jobs in the whole of Russian aviation amounts to half a million. We have agreed to join forces. We have applied to the government with respective initiatives. – You said that. In fact. the models that made the larger half did not have prospects for future. which had been promised. Surely. We focused on those models that had 14 . After UAC was established and started working on ramping up production. We have prepared a list of measures that we would undertake jointly with our suppliers. Our industrial partners feel the same. it was taken for granted that UAC would enjoy rather easy access to hired capital (there was every indication to this). It is an irreplaceable tool in the conditions of manual control over the economy – something we have today. My prediction is that the private capital will be reluctant to take part in the long-term aircraft manufacturing programs.

– Does Russian industry lag behind the West in high technologies? If so. to reflect recent changes in the global market for new aircraft and in the view of the possibility that UAC joins international alliances. with hundreds of enterprises located all over the vast territory of the Russian Federation. They also work on new projects that UAC plans to launch. The most problematic situation is with civil aviation. Great many enterprises of the Russian aviation industry take part in those programs as suppliers. Not just the baseline model. just to name Voronezh. If we do join an international alliance. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) I do not want to abuse other plants by not naming them here. on their technical renovation. It is an open question whether UAC will do this project alone or in a global partnership. Only working hand-in-hand. Development of this aircraft goes on in accordance with a governmental order. The plant in Komsomolsk-uponAmur provides a good example. then “yes”. the Superjet 100 that is undergoing flight trials. Rostechnologii has launched a huge effort on consolidation of enterprises in the supply chain. – Does UAC have points of growth? Where are they? – If we mean the places where production of our new models is unfolding. UAC is a head company on aircraft manufacturing programs.A I R some sales potential. This airplane is meant to make history. UAC does have “points of growth”. it is taking shape. avionics and all sorts of onboard systems. those that could sell in the open market. the United Aircraft Corporation and Rostechnologii can both succeed. Certification of this new product is scheduled for 2016. We are going to do this by means of streamlining production of the Superjet and selling it in large quantities world-wide. We are planning to catch up with the West by 2015. some corrections to UAC production range may become necessary. It shall be a real breakthrough for the Russian aviation industry. we control 10-12% of the global market of frontline aviation. and those that were in demand with our customers. Irkut Corporation’s main production site in Irkutsk installs new equipment and tooling for the MS-21. There are other factories that are situated in smaller cities. The plant in Kazan will remain the only center in our country to make airplanes for the Strategic Aviation. That industry is wide spread in terms geographical. how big is the gap? How long will it take Russia to catch up with the West? – In the sphere of combat aircraft. Roughly. we are same level with the world leaders. They can make Russian aviation a success story of this century. up to 15-16%. New products are coming soon. we have signed a framework cooperation agreement with Rostechnologii. Sukhoi and MiG have some fairly advanced models that meet expectations of our customers and compete successfully on the international market. Recently. Ulianovsk will make more aircraft. Cities that house those factories cannot live without them economically. We are talking to the Indian aviation industry. Some of these are situated in cities with population as large as one million or more. One more product with which we will be positioning ourselves in the global marketplace is a widebody short-to-medium haul airplane (ShFBSMS). A large part of those have been integrated into the Rostechnologii State Corporation (“Russian Technologies” headed by Sergei Chemezov). the VASO plant in that city will become the center of competence for regional aviation. Kazan and Novosibirsk. Those enterprises play important role in the economic life of their home cities. – Cooperation with other industries. There is certain technological gap here. they are largest industrial enterprises there. as we plan expansion of the Tupolev Tu-204 family and commencing production of the improved Il-76. This new design is still under development. on specialization of certain enterprises and creation of new products. Developing only UAC plans is way to nowhere. You see… It does not make sense to develop aircraft manufacturing plants without developing their supply chain – plants that produce aero engines. F L E E T · 1 . We continue talking to our European partners in EADS and also those in Boeing of US. a new design in the class of narrow body commercial airliners. What sort of influence do UAC activities produce on dwelling points and towns where your plants are located? – All nine aircraft manufacturing plants that in UAC structure are core enterprises for the cities they are situated. avionics and onboard systems. We put faith into the MS-21. Sukhoi has plants in Komsomolsk-upon-Amur and Novosibirsk where Superjet production lines are being set up. They will further increase our competitiveness and make it possible to enlarge our market share. 15 . New aircraft types require modern engines. It is still possible that UAC product range changes somewhat. They generate the lion’s share of our industry’s production output. We believe UAC will be a worthwhile player in the global market for commercial airliners. but those that I mentioned above are the primary ones. UAC plans to launch production of all of these new types by 2015. After the 70-seat Antonov An-148 is mastered in Voronezh.

as T well as fitness and efficiency of the radar’s subsystems”. commented on the radar’s performance: “Already in first flights the radar had showed very good results.INDUSTRY Alexander Velovich ZHUK-AE AESA IS READY FOR DEMONSTRATIONS TO THE CUSTOMERS his year the Indian Air Force (IAF) will conduct comparative flight tests of combat aircraft participating in the MMRCA (Medium MultiRole Combat Aircraft) tender for deliveries of 126 new fighters to the service. technology of Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) antenna for the airborne radar. The Phazotron director general Vyacheslav Tishchenko states that “the corporation will ensure the demonstration of the MiG-35 in India”. In early December. he adds. MiG-23. Mikhail Belyaev. test pilot of RAC MiG who was at controls of the MiG-35 demonstrator together with Nickolay Diorditsa during the test flights. Typhoon and Gripen. For the contract with estimated value of $7-10 billion the MiG-35 competes with the F-16. MiG-25 and MiG-29. 16 . providing detection and tracking of aerial and ground targets. Aero India 2009 air show will take place in February at the Yelahanka Indian Air Force Base near the city of Bangalor. and. “We also confirm that we are ready to transfer all key AESA technologies to our Indian partners”. Ground and flight tests have proved correctness of the radar’s concept and major design decisions. Rafale. 2008 results of the recent phase of ground and flight tests of the new Zhuk-AE radar were disclosed. We are confident of its great potential”. F/A-18. The first Russian AESA radar has been developed specifically for the MiG-35 by Phazotron-NIIR corporation. which developed airborne radars for many MiG fighters. According to Phazotron-NIIR’s statement. Regarding the MMRCA tender the IAF is known to be most interested in technology transfers. in particular. “the radar is functioning steadily in various modes. It is expected that there all major participants of the MMRCA tender will do their best to present most favourably the aircraft offered to the IAF. including MiG-21.

Some high ranking program managers had doubts. Telling about the AESA flight tests which went not without overcoming certain difficulties the chief designer recalls: “The RAC MiG designers had made a stake on us. and while there had been no results. so in ground tests when power was F L E E T · 1 . there was some tension. they said that maybe it would had been better to seek co-operation with French or Israelis. General Designer Phazotron-NIIR Corporation applied the radar screen was absolutely blank. In spite of the fact that it is a new radar. all parameters remain unchanged. That will be a derivative of the MiG-29K naval fighter with which the new model has a high level of standardization. The MiG-35 can be delivered in single-seat as well as twin-seat configurations. but two are better”. watch how they perform in flight. Most of them stay as soldiers in the line of columns. both pilots can fully control the aircraft and all its systems from either cockpit. everything came to normal. Yuriy Guskiv comments: “We are prepared for that. He told us about the results achieved in the AESA flight tests. There is no strict distinction between pilot and navigator/weapons control officer in the twin-seater. it is planned to achieve 250-280 km detection range. This is especially important while flying demanding missions when much attention must be paid to watching cockpit displays”. This exceeds capabilities of existing radars of heavy fighters. While in the demo flights at the show the crews will be joint Russian-Indian. There is just one more big fuel tank in the single-seater instead of the back cockpit. One more MiG-35 prototype will be provided to the IAF for tender flights tests. increasing the number of transceivers in the antenna array.A I R Prior to Aero India 2009 show we met with Phazotron-NIIR corporation deputy director general. we did not have any failures as such. we have recent experience of the flight tests of Kopyo radar for modernized MiG-21s of the Indian Air Force. The flight test program will be highly intense and versatile. even when switching on the radar on the ground. We keep an eye on the trancievers’ parameters. In the very first flight all five encounters with the target provided stable detection at the predicted range”. But when the flight tests began. Important conclusions can be made from the results of the first test flights. in the tender flight tests the IAF pilots will fly the MiG-35 by themselves. But some deviations occur. Guskov explains: “The single and twin-seat airframes are absolutely identical. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) Yuri Guskov. Pilots give hints to each other. With beefing up the radar’s performance. Guskov says: “The AESA radar has high reliability. chief designer of Zhuk-AE radar for the MiG-35 Yuriy Nikolayevich Guskov. higher than any previous radar. The Zhuk-AE chief designer promises that the Yelahanka air base and aircraft at the static park of the air show will be seen on the radar display. even the cockpit canopies are the same. communicate with Micran of Tomsk. the supplier of transceivers. There is a Russian saying “one head is good. Even more so because at first we did not see any aerial targets. In demo flights at the air show Indian pilots flying board 154 will be able to familiarize themselves with principal modes of the AESA radar: detection and tracking of aerial targets head-on and tail-on looking up and looking down as well as ground mapping. everything depends on the customer’s requirements. in particular. there were no aerial targets of chance to be seen. 17 . The Zhuk-AE demonstration unit installed in the MiG-35 prototype provides about 130-140 km detection range of a fighter-size target. still in development. and help mutually in flight. The twin-seat MiG-35 program demonstrator with 154 board number will fly to Bangalor. we analyze them”. The preparation position of the aircraft on the airfield was in front of a hill that shadowed the airspace. We know how thoroughly the IAF conducts flight tests”.

And now you understand that you have an absolutely new instrument at hand. People had seen the results of many years of their work”. So we were able to do that. Yuriy Guskov recollects his feelings: “So the first Russian AESA is flying and performing. Second. but I consider that to be a justified trade-off for modularity and convenience of maintenance”. Probably it can be compared only with the introduction of jet engines instead of piston ones. And it is known that Americans usually are reluctant to transfer to anybody key defence technologies. and you have to measure the integral transmitting power. And here. nothing of that kind had been ever tested in Russia. All that is being done to win the IAF tender. and their sum provides the needed performance. In ordinary radar you could apply load to transmitter and just measure the output. So new methodology is needed that would be able to determine how the emission pattern is formed. I thanked everybody. install in their places and continue the flight tests without interruption. it is readiness to equal partnership on the basis of most modern technology transfer. and the next day to take them back to the airfield. When I was reporting the results of the first flight to our regular management meeting. And it is very important that the indigenous Russian AESA Zhuk-AE radar has only indigenous components. And in AESA demonstrator there are 680 transmitting channels. with AESA. The Phazotron specialists feel deserved pride for the results achieved. Then I understood how important this event was. Russia has additional trump cards in the IAF tender. and quite of a sudden those gathered burst with applauses. While there were no results. and Russia is ready to transfer these technologies. to substitute with another one. We analyze the results of the development together. refining technology. There were several critical positions there. Still for me it was very unexpected when so many people began to congratulate us. Major tasks are to increase reliability and to decrease cost of transceivers. and we had some of those. It is fortunate that we work with Micran of Tomsk as one team. to check it with test equipment and. And we have done that. Then you could apply a calibrated signal to the receiver’s input and just measure the sensitivity by noise coefficient. Just an easy example: how to measure sensitivity? It’s an easy task if you have separate transmitter and receiver. verify their parameters in the evening. will be used to the benefit of Russia’s defence as well. and the significance of military-technical cooperation grows especially in the time of financial crisis. it gave a powerful emotional impulse for all those involved in the program. Micran JSC and Semiconductors Research Institute. look for solutions. and in course of research and development program we had to solve these problems. The AESA can have different transmitting and receiving beam patterns. At the same time British. Now Phazotron-NIIR together with the transceiver developers. some of the industry leaders reprimanded us. comparing results with the MiG-29K radar with ordinary slot antenna. and our radar now weighs about 220 kg. For radar developers a step to AESA is a qualitatively new phase. such a radar could have been developed in half a year. There was no need to hurry up anybody. The Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. and you have to learn how to use it”. speaking at the meeting of the Commission on Military-Technical Co-operation. The MMRCA tender is of utmost importance to Russia. First. Once we had a need to dismount some of the transceivers. It was the same with 18 transmitting power. It was hard to explain that it was an absolutely new radar. find them and advance further”. the President of Russia. . Dmitry Medvedev. And everybody felt joy. it would not loose any of them. Guskov stresses: “We can say that we have mastered the AESA technology. including those of monolithic integral chips (MIC). creating joint venture production enterprises and other forms of partnerships beneficial to both sides”. If it were traditional transmitter-receiverantenna. said: “Defence export strengthens our reputation as one of the leading industrial powers of the world”. expand its capabilities.INDUSTRY The chief designer adds: “We implemented modular design that allows to extract a transceiver from the array just with a screwdriver. Hence we had to develop relevant equipment that would be able to verify every radar. French and Swedish AESA manufacturers to some extent rely on American suppliers. Recently Yuriy Guskov visited India and got thoroughly acquainted with capabilities of the Indian electronic industry. said during his visit to New Delhi in December 2008: “we count that together with our Indian colleagues we will be able to offer new forms of co-operation: these could be technology transfers. every step was made with difficulty. Yuriy Guskov says: “When everything began to function. So we had to measure sensitivity by substitution method with a horn antenna. But in AESA all amplifiers are inside the antenna! And there are several hundreds of them. It is important to mention that if Russia shared technologies with India. if needed. to take some transceivers to the laboratory. And there was no blaming each other even in the most difficult situations. each person did best and worked with utmost intensity. Such design adds some weight. He has opinion that it is ready to acquire and master industrial technologies of the AESA radar. both of Tomsk. You can emit in one direction and receive from another. it is vast experience of militarytechnical co-operation between our two countries. it proved itself very well. no attempts to transfer responsibility to a partner. At last it has happened. The head of the Russian state stressed that “weapons export is an important channel of income to the state budget”. Phazotron has made all than depends on the corporation to ensure Russia’s high chances in the competition with the leading combat aircraft manufacturers of the world. This design approach was absolutely right. is refining technologies of serial production of the AESA radar. Now we are just clearing up some points.

AERO 19 . With 850 exhibitors at 2007.DUBAIAIRSHOW. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES WWW.A I R F L E E T · 1 . DUBAI. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) 850 show offs. where will you be on show in 2009? Dubai Airshow 2009 Leading the Aerospace Industry HOST SPONSOR 15-19 NOVEMBER JEBEL ALI.

we have assembled for a meeting of aircraft developers and manufacturers with those people who create the image of our industry. The passing year was quite eventful. I wish that the family life will make us happy more often than dissatisfied. And to wish you every success in the New Year of 2009! I am amazed of what I have seen in this museum today. Great changes occurred in the sphere of aircraft manufacturing and the air transportation system. the sphere of aviation. who create public image of our aviation. and who write about aviation.EXHIBITION Vladimir Karnozov UNDER NEW YEAR TREE Speeches of Russian aviation industry leaders before Russian media representatives. Just one thing: this year some newly built Russian aircraft took to the air for the first time. to speak about our achievements in the passing year. Honestly. but also do this wonderful. it pleases those who work in the sphere of aviation. let me wish that all of you here will have many good happenings in your life. all the best in the New Year! Mikhail Pogosyan. Well. Hopefully. the United Aircraft Corporation is gradually becoming a workable team with good coordination and mutual support. I think it is possible to say with confidence that the next year is going to be even more difficult. United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). chairman of the Executive Board. It happened in the premises of the Museum of Vehicles located west of Moscow city. you will agree to me saying that the year of 2008 – and we have assembled to say “goodbye” to that year – was not easy for the aviation industry and the airline industry. Good things to all of you. not so visible event as maiden flight of a new aircraft. many good happenings have occurred. which were put together on a list… that’s it. We have improved mutual understanding of the common goals that we. step by step. I had not expected that there could be some good people among us who do not only grow their business. This is a great deed! There is much goodness in it. Most important things that happened were the following: the Sukhoi Superjet 100 prototype made its maiden flight. but not the only events that happened. We have been watching how. a lot has been done. Here is typescript of the speeches the Russian aviation leaders made at this assembly. I want you to remember the passing year as a good one for the sphere in which we work. which makes our war veterans satisfied. in this Museum of Vehicles. those of us who create new aircraft. 20 Dec. and the job we have been having. Also. President. but still very much an important event. the Su-35 fighter entered trials. Those are most important. Not so long ago we were just a collection of independent companies. have set before us. so that we would be proud of the profession we have chosen. the UAC was formed 20 . important work for next generations. As for the New Year of 2009. perhaps. who develop onboard systems. 2008 UAC and its subsidiaries invited prominent Russian journalists and representatives of the international media working in Moscow to “New Year tree” sort of event. Today. UAC first vice-president for program coordination. Alexey Fedorov. who actually makes new aircraft. I want to draw your attention to. at UAC. take photos and produce reports about the Russian aviation and our Corporation. At the same time. Absolutely fantastic and remarkable this place is! I am honored to be here with you today. general director of Sukhoi Company. who write. if not critical. let me wish you all the best in the New Year! Please never forget that we do have one thing in common. I will not spend much time naming all of the achievements we have had. from all of my heart.

which is going to be not an easy one.A I R F L E E T · 1 . I wish the New Year to be beautiful to all of you. it is important indeed. Because our private investors trust us. understanding of the issues that our industry has. UAC Executive Board member. The world that would see more Russian aircraft flying and more airplanes coming out of assembly shops. Aviation is something we have in common. who make reports covering aviation events. UAC structure is taking shape. Now. In the coming year. I would like to raise this glass to unity between us and for understanding between us. Secondly. So that. though. But what we do need is feedback. And all these good people come to us prepared. For us as a leasing company. Your experience and knowledge. of course. so that you have some rest and then come back with your batteries recharged. in the New Year. We need feedback so that we would apply the common sense when analyzing chain of events. All the best to you in the New Year! Alexander Roubtsov. so that we would understand the situation better. Ilyushin Finance Company general director. These are investors that come from Russia as well as other countries. who make aircraft and whose. Let it make you all happy! I wish you great holidays. those who work in aviation. In the passing year we delivered a record number of airplanes to airline customers. I think that for those of us who work in UAC. This is a good indication that we have been moving forward. but it is far better that we used to have in not so distant past. who see to sales of the domestic industry products. we would have more power to fight for a better world. they invest their money into our aircraft acquisition and leasing programs. not something that makes us happy. I do not think that it is necessary that we all think similarly. it is so important to keep trust and understanding among us. UAC has made this 21 . They come prepared because of you. are important. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) new step. these changes and trends are very important. with business units being formed inside of it. That’s why they are well prepared. Less than we had planned. I thank them for the work they have done and for the attention they have paid to us and our aviation. The private capital stays with us. Let me say a word of thanks to all journalists here present. the journalists who produce reports. one more step has been made towards restoration of series production of Russian commercial airplanes. who put into light some bright things in aviation. we are a team. It is. Let our production rates double and triple! I wish you all every success in the New Year! that way. I hope the passing year helped us become more understandable to mass media. your vision of the situation. Production rate at Ulianovsk factory is reaching one airframe each month. it is very important. I want to raise this glass to partnership of the team that is assembled here today. And it is certainly so because the financial analytics and the airlines read every day that come out in the press. and also not so bright. I think there is a growing understanding between those who work in aviation and those who report on the events that happen in the sphere of aviation. For us who work in the financial sphere. Still.

gradually catching up (not without Russia’s hand) with technical and engineering lagging behind western countries. 4 in Zhuhai airport Guangdong Province. Suffice it to say at the opening ceremony there were four members from the Political bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CC CPC). We’ll give you the most important of the full-scale exhibits: C The Rostov Helicopter Production Complex (Rostvertol) signed a contract for the delivery of a Mi-26TS helicopter. Unlike the previous shows this one differed in the huge number of high-ranking officials for Zhuhai. Strong evidence of China’s high level aircraft industry was shown at the seventh aerospace show Airshow China. “The first was signed in August 2006 for the leasing of a Mi-26 helicopter to a Chinese company for three years. to China at Airshow China 2008. places into orbit manned spaceships and earth satellite vehicles. the Chinese company bought it outright. the best-selling helicopter in the world. The biggest country in the world with the population of 1.EXHIBITION Vladimir Karnozov AIRSHOW CHINA 2008 hina’s aircraft industry is a rapidly growing branch. At the tribune Army. The exhibition demonstrated that modern China has achievements in the aerospace area it can be proud of. “And should be”.” Rostvertol general director Boris Slyusar told Interfax. “This is the second contract for the delivery of Russian Mi-36 helicopters to China. Later. The pilots displayed the aircraft that had never been shown before in public.3 bln releases today competitive fourth generation fighters. A number of documents connected with helicopter deliveries were also signed. It started November. – thinks partyeconomic head of the country. We signed the transfer for it today too. In the presence of such respectable audience PLAC Air Force which presence at previous exhibitions was formal showed its beauty. Air Force and Navy Commanders of People’s Liberation Army of China (PLAC) took their places near deputy Prime-minister Zhang Dejiang and Minister of defense Liang Guanglie.” 22 . creates regional passenger liners and unmanned flying vehicles of different designation.

The project has thoroughly defended all not small financial. – Z-8K heavy lift helicopter (“cloned” French Super Frelon). The J-7 tactical aircraft (the MiG-21) is the most extended Chinese fighter produced in PRC in some modifications: day-time J-7-I and J-II (development of the MiG-21F-13) and also all-weather J-III (MiG-21ML). Dragon can not only fly perfectly. At their stands Chinese firms continuously showed videos about work of J-10 crews at training areas. H-6s are actively converted into cruise missile carrier. On the whole PLAC Air Force has 392 J-7 aircraft of all modifications. – Cargo tanker aircraft on the basis of the H6K bomber (developed Soviet Tu-16). But it’s worth remember there is also Tai Hang Chinese “clone” of AL-31F. Dragon pilot steadily showed difficult exercises on his vehicle unavailable to Chinese planes before. it gives quite good idea of the current aviation condition in different states. J-10 was shown exactly with this engine before the scrupulously selected journalists at the first official presentation of this plane last winter. Judging by the demo flights turn rates and momentary time-to-climb shown by J-10 on the whole equaled F-16 and MiG-29 level. The demonstration flights began right after the greetings of the exhibition organizers and Guangzhou governor. According to the available information our country hasn’t imported such number of AL-31FN engines to China yet. Today the main combat aircraft of the People’s Republic of China tactical aviation is the Q-5 supersonic day-time light attack aircraft (deep modernization of the MiG-19 tactical fighter made by Chinese specialists in early 1960s). Though in this review (as well as in other publications of such kind) there is quite much inaccuracy and frank “information noise”. Western sources say one hundred J-10s have been built. it is supposed to be the first of this type manufactured in China (at the aircraft factory in Sichuan Province) using kit of parts produced at the plant in Ulan-Ude. – FBC-1 Attack aircraft (another designation – FH-7A) known as Flying Leopard. Especially should be mentioned that the latter two were shown equipped with guided missile weapon. It limited the show only to the classic exercises – combat turns. Today the same specialists say as one: “J-10 is born”. low speed nose-up pitch run. It didn’t show any breathtaking exercises such as Pugachev’s cobra. Its possible to suppose these vehicles will be in service next decade. And through some supplementary material it’s also possible to get information about the changes of the size of aviation in some states. It was started by the newest J-10 fighter main exhibit of Sirshow China 2008 and the “face” of Chinese aircraft industry. Manned by a combat pilot Dragon showed perfect maneuverability and all that at 30 degrees heat and high humidity. – Z-11W light helicopters (Equreuil / Fennec). – Z-9WE medium combat helicopters (Chinese edit of Dolphin). According to the information available the work on the upgrade J-10 sometimes nominated Super-10 is on. – Two J-8-II interceptors. television “eye” and infrared eye. According to the review. Separately there was shown Mi-171 medium transport helicopter. To this impressive “composite squadron” of flying vehicles the industry added air prototype of the L-15 supersonic operational trainer (based on the Jak–130 with AI-222 augmented engines) and Modern Arc 600 turboprop air carrier (developed An-24/MA60 with Canadian engines and American avionics).A I R F L E E T · 1 . It can also successfully use guided weapon in the training area – guided bombs with optical or TV guidance. Chinese military are very satisfied with the vehicle. 23 . and also guided missiles with radar head. Italian and Israeli models delivered to China in 1990s. Though there were no explanations of this vehicle. Its difference is in using more powerful engine – either AL-31FM2/3 or augmented Tai Hang. Some Russian sources bring this number to 300. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) Zhang Dejiang. And if H-5 is an outdated one capable to carry only “iron” freefall bombs. There is also possible replacement of standard radar with slot array (worked out by Chinese specialists on the basis of British. Rostvertol General Director on Airshow China 2008 – Two J-10 light multifunctional fighters known as Dragon. the Chinese Air Force currently includes 120 H-6 strategic bombers (Tu-16 manufactured in China under Soviet license at the aviation plant in Harbin) and 250 H-5 tactical bombers (Chinese Il-28 modification). There are about 500 aircraft of this type in service mainly equipped with free-fall bombs and unguided airto-surface missiles. hook or tail-dive. Maybe this vehicle is being developed for Chinese Navy for flights from aircraft carriers. Two-three years ago foreign specialists told me: “J-10 is still thing in itself. For today this is the newest analysis of this subject. it’s difficult to say if real fighter will come out of it or not”. manufacturing and intellectual resources invested in it. AIR POWER OF CHINA IN NUMBERS A famous British magazine Flight International published the Directory: World Air Force review giving the numbers of the military aviation of all the countries in the world for mid-2008. Small deviation angles of the pressurized instrument section and careful operating afterburning brought to the thought that Dragon pilot didn’t force out the vehicle. Chinese Vice-premier and Boris Slyusar. that made its first flight in October 2008. tanker aircraft and EW aircraft.

98 J-6 fighters. There are 151 Su-27SK tactical aircraft and Su-30MK multifunctional two-seater fighters imported by Russia and also 98 J-11 (Su-27 copy produced in PRC). PRC naval aviation has 30 H-6 missile bombers. MiG-23 and MiG-27) and 30% – thoroughly modernized 2nd generation fighters (MiG-21 bison). It’s worthy to note that this is the biggest group of Su-27s beyond Russia. As a result today PLAC military transport aviation has quite modern flying stock consisting of 5 Boeing-737. The number of J-8 interceptors (close to the Su-15 in their weight dimension characteristics and performance) has reduced a bit and now is only 96 aircraft. Csingo. J-11 and J-10) makes 22%. Its tests will begin in one or two years. 5 An-12. And while the homeland industry is creating its own fourth generation heavy fighter. the part of “4” and “4+” generation aircraft complexes (Su-30MK. industry continues producing time-tested J-8-IIМ. having been manufactured in big amounts by Chinese aviation industry in the 1950-60s and also imported by the Soviet Union to PRC. Monthly average salary of workers and engineers varies from 200 to 300 US dollars which is much less than in Russia and gradually less than in Western countries. J-6 and partly J-7 aircraft of early year of manufacture are likely to be discarded. Military transport aviation of China has gradually reduced because of discarding numerous Li-2 and Il-12 reciprocating military transport aircraft manufactured in 1940-50s. part of which is equipped with assault antitank weapon. But gradually Chinese are coming to its own “free art”. He asked about Su-35 combat capabilities. 4 Tu-154 (and another 9 in reserve) aircraft. SPARK and UOMz. some J-10 fighters and maybe FC-1 light fighters (mainly manufactured for exporting). It’s worthy to mention that still in 2001 there were more than 1700 J-5 tactical fighters of different modifications in the PLAC Air Force combat and reserve units. It is possible that in the nearest future J-10 will become China’s main fighter instead of J-6 and Q-5 1st generation vehicles. At all this. there remained only 25 J-6 fighters. At first the main work was concentrated in “cloning” good foreign models. At the same time all the H-5.EXHIBITION Second in the number of China Air Force’s vehicles is Su-27 type fighter. Vertolety Rossii. 198 Mi-8/17/171s. There are 53 Su-39MKI in the Indian AF. Mirage2000-5). If in 2001 there were 2800 vehicles of this type (which made Chinese tactical aviation almost the most numerous in the world). To compare. The secret of Chinese success is simple. Despite that the Navy disposes 20 newest JH-7 bomber-fighters. 5 An-30. Thus by the middle of the next decade the Chinese Air Force will number 1000-1100 combat aircraft. China can continue buying such kind of aircraft in Russia. 23% of which are “4” and “4+” generation vehicles (Su-30 MKI. and the rest are 4th generation vehicles (F-16. Su-27. J-6 and Q-5) – 51% . 2nd generation (J-7) – 22% and 1st generation (H-5. Its construction is likely to use the technology given to Chinese partners from Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design in the late 1990s. 45% of which are “2+” generation fighters (F-5E/E). on the whole China has 248 Su-27 aircraft and its modifications. By the end of the second day of Airshow China 2008 PLAC Air Forces commander generalcolonel Siui Tsilan appeared at Russian exhibition. Though. And Indian Air Force (the second Asian nuclear power) numbers 740 combat aircraft. Obviously the weak point of Chinese Air Force is practically full absence of specialized attack helicopters. In the nearest years. FGUP Rosoboronexport deputy CEO Aleksandr Mikheev met him. H-6 aircraft will stay as nuclear weapon carriers. when experimental copy of Pero aerial was sent to People’s Republic of China. An-2 not long ago in service with the Air Force also disappeared. To solve EW tasks there are two Il-78 reequipped aircraft at China’s disposal. Despite that Chinese Navy disposes a Jak-42 cargo aircraft and helicopter inventory including 3 AS-565s. 83 An-26. Today the country is strong on its way to industrialization and economic cooperation with global companies which gives money to the treasury and makes possible mass investment into aircraft industry. 3 SA365s and 19 Z-9Cs. 47% – 3rd generation (Jaguar. 124 J-8s and 100 Q-5 attack aircraft. today the Russian Air Force numbers more than 1900 combat aircraft. MiG-29 and Mirage2000). The main potential rival of China is Taiwan which Air Force numbers 484 combat aircraft. 23 Su-30MKK and MK-2 (another 50 have been ordered) multifunctional fighters. Telling him about the main offers from Russian firms Mikheev especially noted Mi-26 and Ka-52 helicopters. Thus. Another 177 aircraft of this type will be imported in the nearest future. US Air Force– more than 2300 (and 390 in reserve). 4 MA-60. about 50% of which will be modern “4” and “4+” generation vehicles. and also experimental board radar unit Jemchug from Phazotron – NIIR corporation) for a new one with electronic scanning. also 149 JJ-6 (two-seated operational trainer modification of J-6) and 39 JJ-7 (on the basis of J-7) vehicles. The training aircraft are represented by 170 new JL-8 (K-8). As trainers there used 22 HC-120 helicopters (with another 6 ordered) and 48 Z-11s. The number of J-10 fighters (Chinese 4th generation aircraft equipped with one AL-31F engine) is according to Flight International 140 vehicles. Be-200 amphibious plane and also SPARK equipment. Having created a good J-10 lightweight fighter China is still not so good in developing a heavy one. In the short term the Air Force will get also eight IL-78 cargo tanker aircraft. While the perspective vehicles are worked on hard. according to the Flight International. 8 Mi-8s. which is some times less than there used to be at the beginning of the decade. 8 Ka-28s. The review doesn’t give any data about the number of Chinese airborne early warning aircraft. 27 Il-76 (with another 30 having been ordered). The substantial negative side of naval aviation is absolute absence of antisubmarine aircraft. NPK Irkut. now. 30 J-7s. It was reserved in the 80s and was forced at the end of the century. 150 H-5 torpedo bombers. and also 6 SA342s and 99 Z-11s. The PLAC Air Force commander asked Aleksander Mikheev and Sukhoi deputy director general Sergey Sergeev one question after another. At the posters of the consolidated corporation AVIC (created through the fusion of AVIC1 and AVIC2 before the very opening of Airshow China 2008) there was shown a new upgraded modification of this veteran. 3rd generation aircraft (J-8) – 5%. which Flight International on some reason put into the training aircraft category. The commander attentively examined the exhibits of Rosoboronexport. ANK Sukhoi. Q-5. according to Flight International. At all this it’s quite possible to live on it in People’s Republic of China using the advantages of socialistic state structure. Patience and labor peculiar for Chinese turn the question of reaching world aircraft manufacturing heights into the question of time and maybe not so long. The reduction is likely to have been done through discarding early modifications J-8 and J-8-I. In the 1960s-70s China founded the basis of its own aircraft industry school. the reduction of J-6s (MiG-19) looks most radical. At the same time small-batch manufacturing of J-8-II probably continues even today. On the strength of relatively small army aviation there are 3 Mi-6s. the Chinese Air Force will receive another 135 Su-27/J-11 aircraft. NPO Saturn. targeting complex and munition stockpile. H-6. And finally J-5 (MiG-17) 1st generation fighters absolutely disappeared from the AF. though it’s known that PRC works hard in this direction. 24 . 22 S-70Cs. Siui Tsilan highly estimated combat capabilities and aircraft specifications but at all this he pointed out to Russian guests that J-10 flies not worse than Su aircraft and also China has “something” from perspective researches. Thus there are currently 1770 combat aircraft in the PLAC AF. The most time Siui Tsilan spent near Sukhoi stand at the large-scale model of the newest Su-35 4++ generation fighter. operational range with full combat load. In the Air Force’s helicopter fleet there are 31 Mi-8/171 assault support helicopters and 7 SA321s.

i. The front-line aviation НОАК consisted of several thousands of fighters of the 1st generation MiG-17 (J-5) and MiG-19 (J-6). Now a number of commentators have radically changed their point of view evaluating Chinese fighters as almost the best in the world. that by the early 1980-ies Israel aircraft industry level increased considerably compared to 1950-s. purely Chinese fighter as far back as late 1950-s. All the abovemen25 . Instead. F-16. created on Israeli Lavi basis with Russian engines АL-31FN. and Western Europe in the sphere of military aviation construction. hopelessly outdated as well) J-7 planes (variations of «MiG-21F-13») and J-8 (increased double-engine «clone» of the same MiG-21). as well as due to the experience. «Mirage»2000 and other aircrafts of the 4th generation that had already been in series production by that time. The shot down Raptor fell down the continental part of China and after that was taken to pieces “for spare parts” by the locals.37 «Viggen» with a number of solutions borrowed from the Soviet MiG-23. It was more and more obvious for the Chinese authorities that a considerable push is required which would at least substantially reduce if not eliminate the gap between CPR and the USA. almost right after aircraft industry establishment and production start of the first Chinese series fighters «Tzian-5» (MiG-17). slightly «diluted» with two – three hundreds of a bit more modern (but.5. was accepted outdated and prospectless. being capable of shooting down the newest American “invisibles” of the 5th generation. It should be mentioned. Speaking about J-10 manufacturing it should be mentioned that by the middle of 1980-ies Chinese Peoples Republic had Air Force though almost the most numerous in the world but outdated. incapable of manufacturing battle planes that can compete with those produced by USA or European aircraft industry. And the successfully catapulted F-22 pilot was “quietly” – by mutual consent of the parties – sent by the Chinese to the American Command…». nevertheless. having caused great anxiety in aviation related circles.e. managed to shoot down an American multipurpose fighter of the 5th generation F-22 Raptor above the Taiwan Strait. However. Chinese aircraft industry was traditionally discussed as something inferior and ineffective. Since 1960-s China worked at designing of a most ambitious J-9 fighter project. J-10 had Israeli roots as well (the Chinese were not so confused with “the 5th item” of the questionnaire as their Soviet colleagues then). based on Russian and (less) European technologies. accumulated at constructing quite a successful for its time «Kfir» plane on the basis of French «Mirage»5 fighter. So. that started being developed as far back as 1964. we’ll try to figure out what «Tzian-10» (the very plane that is said to have shot down F-22A) actually is and to what extent it is dangerous to American “Raptors” (and not only to them)? An image of any armament system has a reflection of the time when it was created. still being under development. and also fighter-bombers Q-5. In the middle of 1980-s Ministry of Defense and Central Military Committee CDC of CPR decided to stop working at «Tzian-9» fighter. All the equipment correlated at best with the technology and concept of the early 1960-ies and couldn’t stand up with modern foreign aircraft systems. when the industry started literary from nothing. main efforts were concentrated on a new project – «Tzian-10». And this push was only possible with foreign technical assistance. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) Vladimir Ilyin «THE DRAGON» IS READY TO FIGHT «In the summer of 2007 a Chinese J-10 fighter “Tzianbin-10”. This single-engine 13 ton plane.A I R F L E E T · 1 . This project. also comprising a number of 3rd generation MiGs elements). that was thought to be created on J-9 interceptor technological basis. That was due to high professionalism of people employed in aircraft construction (a lot of Israeli engineers used to work in European. American and Soviet aircraft construction industry). represented a Chinese version of Sweden Saab JА. This message as well as other ones of the kind appeared in the mass media and in the Internet in the autumn of 2008. But the only true success in the sphere could be considered J-8 interceptor development in 1970-ies that was an enlarged double-engine version of the very same MiG-21. However. and also accomplished considerable modernization of J-8 fighter (later on resulting in J-8-II occurrence. considering their general properties these planes were way behind MiG-29. During the incident subflight Su-30 blocked other American Air Force aircraft off the “Feathered Raptor”. made upon the scheme «duck» and designed for М 2. CPR started attempts to create own.

considering ailevators on the wing of «Lavi») with a triangle low-positioned wing and belly fixed air scoop a la F-16. felt in the «novice» potential threat to their interests in international weaponry market. Having considered all «pros» and «contras». that as for the amount of composite materials used. field mapping and avoidance of ground obstructions. PW1120 series production was to be organized in Israel at American authorization. together with high performance on-board weaponry system. after a year the second plane was ready. But they were very well aware of high market price for technical solutions acquired during «Lavi» development. nominal wing pressure 336 kilogauss/m2) and perfect aerodynamics.е. Fighter weaponry was placed on 11 joints of external store and switched on both non-guided and guided defeat 26 weapon of ”air-to-surface”» and “air-to-air” type. I’d like to note. on August. designed F-16С fighter. The first Shmul’s flight was followed by others. The Israeli plane cockpit was equipped with three multifunctional indicators on electron-beam tube: one coloured and two monochromes. The Chinese party. The on-board RADAR system of «Lavi» consisted of 70% Israeli developed elements and was not inferior to the best foreign analogs. as well as for fighting air supremacy together with more powerful planes of F-15 type.. made the «Lionet» a dangerous rival for 2nd and 3rd generation fighters. Israel government made such an offer to China./s. 22% of which (by mass) accrued to structural components. The aircraft was piloted by a famous test pilot Menahim Shmul.7 in Israeli Air Defence. The fighter detailed engineering was started in October 1982. As a result Tel-Aviv signed a secret (first of all – for the Americans) agreement about cooperation with CPR in the sphere of development of a new fighter for НОАК. «Lavi» was almost not inferior to the American F-22А plane of the 5th generation that appeared much later.85. but everybody understood that «Lavi» was merely sacrificed to the economical interests of the USA: American corporations. though it’s not perfectly right. At the same time rather low fuel effective output (0. I.2 deg. 30. In September 1988 the concept of tioned enabled the Israeli to start solving a more complicated problem that is the construction of a battle plane of completely unborrowed design. thus recovering part of the finances spent on the plane development. For its time the system was a great technical achievement.5 km – 13. 1987 Israel Cabinet voted 12 votes «for» and 11 «against» and closed the program. It was to substitute for attack aircrafts Douglas А-4 Skyhawk and fighter-bombers IAI «Kfir» С.83. Program shutdown actually put an end to Israeli pilot-controlled military aircraft engineering./s). being smaller and lighter. greatly interested in newest western military aircraft construction technologies acquisition. However. on-board multimode pulse-Doppler RADAR Elta EL/M-2035 with slot array was comparable by its characteristics to the newest American station АN/APG-68. 31. was designed for striking tasks (immediate aircraft support and battle field isolation). which was named «Lavi» («Lionet»). on the basis of «Lavi» project.37) limited . maximum take-off weight – 19230 kg. The Israeli fighter was fitted with digital wire-guidance 4-channel system without duplicate mechanical wire. provided by high specific parameters (thrust-to-weight ratio at normal takeoff mass 0. constructed according to aerodynamic configuration «beskhvostka – tailless» with horizontal tail surfaces» (this configuration is often called «duck». and having no specifically warm relations with most orthodox Arabic regimes. Empty plane mass was 7070 kg (somewhat less than F-16С). In particular. and on December. and maximum combatant load mass on external suspension – 7260 kg (record number for aircrafts of the type). first of all oriented at striking tasks solution above the battle line and in tactical background. The new fighter. All that. non-equipped takeoff weight – 9990 kg. The plane was equipped with single engine Pratt-and-Whithey PW1120 (with thrust 8440 kilogauss on experimental samples and 9200 kilogauss – on series aircrafts). and also a series of 300 fighters was being prepared with supply start in 1990. 1986 on Israeli aircraft construction company IAI flight-test base the first flight of «Lavi’s» prototype took place. unstable bank – 24. five more experimental aircrafts were being built.. Target detection range of «light fighter» type was 55 km.2/ С. developed by the Israeli company МVT jointly with American Lear Astronics. «Lavi» was designed as a light fighter-bomber. and «Lavi» was to a great extent developed on American money sent to Israel as financial aid. It could trace air targets on «by-pass». providing maximum speed for «Lavi» that is М=1. was eager to extend defense technological cooperation with Israel. Especially for «Lavi» the first in the world helmet-mounted rear-sight indicator was also developed (further used on Israeli F-15 and F-16). as well as with wide-angle windshield indicator. At that the plane had excellent maneuver characteristics (stable bank angular speed at altitude 4.3 deg.WA R P L A N E S battle action radius of the plane that actually was suitable for the Israeli having the neighbouring Syria as a basic potential rival. had modern airframe design. that would eliminate Israeli Air Force dependence on foreign aircraft supply. And if real planes sale appeared impossible because of political and financial pressure on the part of the USA. technical documents for the new fighter. it was possible to try selling at least «paper». The engine was created on the basis of the turbojet engine F100. The reasoning mentioned trivial budget difficulties. One-place single-engine «Lavi». producing F-16 и F/А-18 fighters.

than «Lavi». And in October of the same year the first batch of technical documentation received from the Israel party. CDC and scientific technical committee of the ministry of defence of PRC research institute № 601 in the city of Chandy is defined as the general developer of J-7-III fighter project (Chinese version of the Soviet all-weather MiG-21МF). Nevertheless. initially J-10 plane (as well as «Lavi») was to be equipped with the Pratt-and-Whitney PW1120 American engine. 606-th research institute (aircraft engines). possessing high characteristics on low altitudes and high handling qualities. for big money). Soviet-Chinese defense-technical cooperation was renewed. which includes one of the leading battle planes development centers — 601-st research institute. Chinese high-ranking military men (most of them started their career at the time of «great friendship» and were brought up in Soviet school spirit) were detailed enough acquainted with recent native designing in aero techniques. 607-th research institute (onboard RADAR development) and other branchwise centers were enlisted as well. Many events and solutions of 20 years old can be discussed in supposition mode even today. in 1993 there appeared a threat to Chinese – Israeli defense – technical cooperation. 7000 kilogauss. when the cooperation negotiations on S-37 program started with the USSR. As Dimitry Regentov wrote in his article published in the magazine «World’s aeroshows» (publishing house «Intervestnik») No. At the end of 1993 aircraft construction plant in Chandy finished assembling flight-demonstrational sample of the new fighter.. The hope to bring project S-37 to a flight sample was vanishing. often providing unchecked information. from Taiwan and Hong-Kong sources. According to the CDC decision. aviation ministry. but with aircraft equipment and on-board RADAR designed in Israel. in 1991 Shenyan aircraft construction company «Shanfei» (Lyaonin province) and the «Chanfei» aircraft construction company from the city of Chandu (Sychuan province) got the right to participate. Under the circumstances.» At the end of 1990 – beginning of 1991 they started building real metal model of the plane «8810» in Chandy. to a great extent. Having considered the results of cooperation. obviously. a number of sources indicate 601-st institute only). at its manufacturing «unauthorized» construction F L E E T · 1 . met the requirements of the Chinese Air Force. Even within the frames of J-9 program in CPR an engine with thrust of 12400 kilogauss was created. developing in the Soviet tradition spirit. literary penetrated by the ideology of the indeed extraordinary project. according to which China was to receive the 1st batch of 180 Soviet planes. and scientific technical committee of the ministry of defence of the People’s Republic of China. Israeli PrimeMinister that Tel-Aviv should stop participating in Chinese fighter development. «Chinese» S-37 authorized construction was meant. Mass media revealed information about “Lavi’s” documents having been given to the Chinese that caused indignation of the USA. as they had good working experience with relatively modern aero techniques. In particular. capable of rising interest of the Chinese party. Perhaps. but as a tactical striking plane. The history of Chinese aircraft construction is a most secret theme.. after 25 years break. coming. The suggestion remained unanswered. (WP-13C. At this stage the program got official name «Project 8810» (or «Project 10»). they were shown a project of perspective S-37 attack-fighter. far less perfect engines. This one-placed singleengine plane. After fortunate debut J-10 got a name «Tczyanbin» («The Winged Dragon»). But further cooperation still had to be ceased: already by the middle of 1995 a small note glimpsed in western mass media about Israel official assignment of “Lavi” aircraft documents to China. as well as on «half-legal» foreign assistance (bought. But soon the project leaders. later the program was shut down. As a consequence. Agreement in principle was reached. At the beginning of 1995 American Secretary of Defense William Perry «suggested» to Itshak Rabin. By that time 606th and 607th research institutes finished bench-top labourrent of power plant and on-board RADAR for the 8810th model. even on the basis of this kind of information one can draw a conclusion that J-10 was from the very beginning considered not as a destroyer of air supremacy fighting (as it is introduced even today in a number of Chinese and foreign publications). Under the circumstances considerably «promoted» «Project 10» acquires priority again. In the first part of 1994 aircraft-demonstrator completed the first successful test flight. aimed at substitution for numerous Q-5 fighter-bombers produced at the beginning of 1960-s on the basis of Soviet 1st generation MiG-19 fighter. Multifunctional. Its appearance was not much different from the original «Lavi». developed both to suit the requirements of domestic Air Force and for export. So. any defensetechnical aid from the USA and their NATO allies was out of the question and China had to apply for own. providing possibility of usage from airfield. However. known as WS-6 (probably. But after the events of 1989 on Tyananmyn square in Beijing. In 1990. why the decision was taken for the benefit of the «Chanfei» company? The thing is that as far back as in 1980 by the decision of State Council. Chinese accelerated version of the Soviet turbojet engine Р-11) and series catapult seat of Chinese manufacture. It was a one-placed plane with engine «V-13C» elements of American F100 were used). the project also involved a number of other Chinese leading aircraft construction companies. considering the fact that «Shanfei» was busy with J-8 plane park modernization. Altogether Soviet aircraft industry started collapsing as well. the Chinese again had to rely basically on own strength. and the Eltsin Russia seemed to China a much less reliable defense and trade partner than the USSR. fully transfer J-10 project to «Chanfei» company. Later on. fighter-bomber. was directed for deep examination to 601-st and 611-th research institutes (however. S-37 made the greatest impression on Chinese Air Force authorities. fighterbomber on the «Lavi» basis was likely not to have seemed that promising to the Chinese. «initially the new fighter project development was assigned to aircraft construction company in Sian (Shensi province). As a result. and China was likely to have felt powerful enough to victoriously accomplish 27 . and perhaps most completely (at least in Russian mass media) illustrating the process of program J-10 formation and establishment. it should be mentioned. the parties seemed to have taken a satisfactory – both to Beijing and Tel-Aviv – decision to separate on having achieved an important intermediate goal – aircraft-demonstrator construction. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) But in December of 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed. The staff was successful at performing the task that is why the Chandy Company was also chosen this time. to greater extent. perfectly equipped and protected. 6/2002. But as long as it got an order for heavy fighter-bomber FBC-1 «Feibao» development («Flying leopard»).A I R new aviation system was confirmed at the joint session of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. Further Israel participation in the J-10 program was fraught with relationship aggravation with the USA. However. based on far and away incomplete and rather contradictory information.

Chinese developed weaponry control system and catapult seat. This configuration made the fighter heavier that is why it became even more urgent point for the designers to invent a new. At the beginning of 2000 the second stage of «Tczyanbin» flight tests was over. but this engineering seems to have been further stopped. It was assigned number «8810—01». The ceremony devoted to the event was visited by the first State person – General Secretary of China Communist Party Central Committee Tszyan Tszemin. Since then «Project 10» started its independent. There is evidence. air scoop design was changed. Actually. that for «Tczyanbin» equipment alternative engine was also created. where tactical tests went on up to the beginning of 2004. at that in western and Taiwan mass media appeared statements that the Chinese party turned for assistance to Russian specialists. On March. 26. and in May. But as well as the demonstrator-aircraft. reconfiguration of cock-pit that became more spacious. it got adjustable. 23. the first test fighters seemed to have had the same «non-nominal» WP-13C engine. WP-15. Turbojet engine was identified as WS-10 and was presumably accounted for the thrust about 10000-11000 kilogauss. more powerful engine. Flights were discontinued and the best Chinese specialists started investigating the causes of the accident. and the aircraft with board number «8810-04» performed a show flight demonstrating stunts. On December. 2003 the aircraft was officially army-accepted. At the end of 1997 the first loss happened: during the test flight aircraft with board number «8810-02» suffered a crash. which design was considerably changed. Airframe construction hardness had to be improved. In the spring of 1998 this fighter was after all equipped with «nominal» WS-10 engine. Six oneplaced fighter-bombers were directed to Air Force flight-test center. On March. In particular. with whom they jointly managed to puzzle-out the case. besides new cock-pit with extended 28 . test fighter. Sparkling newly painted fighters from «8810-03» to «8810-06» were lined up on the ground. Integrated study of wreckage on flight test range of research institute 611 was performed. this engineupgraded fighter «8810-03» was considered the first “true” J-10. the first stage of program J-10 was finalized. cock-pit was again reconfigured. 1998 the third prototype of the plane performed its first test flight. Half a year later they finalized plane «8810-02» construction. constructed according to the corrected project.WA R P L A N E S the program without Israeli participation. wing surface – increased. Striving to make J-10 «even more striking» resulted in considerable enlargement of the Chinese aircraft (that enabled to increase fuel tanks capacitance and probably undertake additional measures for battle survivability system perfection). 10. Probably to a great extent under the influence of deep investigation and critical consideration of S-37 project. life. 2002 information appeared about the first batch of four pre-series fighter-bombers – with index J-10А – disposal to НОАК Air Force. By the autumn of 1998. 2003 two-placed exercisebattle J-10S aircraft got off first that was different from J-10A. purely Chinese. after two years of intensive tests. change in tail unit construction. In the meantime. which made it possible for the first time to develop supersonic speed during horizontal flight in the middle of 1998 (applicable to J-10). that enabled to develop subsonic speed only. «8810-03». they started in 601-st research institute redesigning the initial «Tczyanbin» project. that had modified tail unit as well as new. in the middle of 1996. performed its first test flight. and to reduce RADAR detection waveguide channel was altered to S-shape. The engine development for J-10 was performed by 606-th institute together with a number of adjacent structures since 1990.

АL-31F-М1. The first five pre-series J-10 aircrafts were equipped with WS-10А engines(11200 kilogauss) of Chinese design. etc). The station can detect target of «fighter» class in front hemi-sphere at range up to 80 km and provide for «air-to-air» missile homing at the distance up to 60 km. with thrust 13500 kilogauss. they can be developed further (in particular – modern radio absorbing coverings and materials implementation. But in current configuration it is equipped with the 23-mm conventional two barrels built in gun “Type 23-3” (the Chinese version of our GSH-23 gun). if earlier Chinese battle planes were technically about a generation behind their foreign analogs. are likely to be applied for export fighter versions. All in all.A I R hood. metal coating of cock-pit glass cover. This number of engines gives a good image of the amount of the first J-10A aircrafts batch ordered by Chinese Air Force. I. J-10 program embraced a number of most modern technologies. that were modification of АЛ-31FN with low-position drive gearbox. certified in China in 2006. according to the most optimistic estimation. with on-board RADAR station «Type 1471» (KLJ-1). approximately 100 – 140 J-10А fighter-bombers. as well as bigger.5 – 2. complemented by two belly small surface fins. wingattached all-movable horizontal tail surface and single-fin vertical empennage. There was information about the Chinese version of the RADAR – JL-9. J-10A is designed as fighter-bomber. dry mass and size. It is located on the left side of the fuselage. There is a four-channel digital wire guidance system that is likely to be the developed version of the same system in IAI plane «Lavi». increased by two tons (up to 13200 kilogauss). However the first series J-10A were most likely equipped with Russian stations «Zhemchug» (manufacturer – «Phasotrone-RRI») mass 180 kg. and 80 – in the Ufa City. And by the middle of 2008 Chinese Air Forces and Navy counted. Regardless of lower thrust. who managed to create almost new battle plane on the basis of a foreign prototype that is not inferior to the best world analogs.0 m2 in SHF-range radio waves). constructed according to aerodynamic configuration delta with horizontal tail surfaces» with a triangle middle-positioned wing. Thus. So. that are obviously Chinese version of «Zhemchug» having improved characteristics while «working» with ground targets. It should be mentioned. up to 1. having lateral static unsteadiness. Experimental planes «Type 10» seem to have been equipped with Israeli on-board RADAR EL/M-2035. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) level of planes like «Rafael» or «Tayfun» (i. meant to act jointly with J-11 (Su-27) battlefield fighter (Air supremacy fighter). increased life-cycle. light and efficient Russian turbofan АЛ-31FN (12500 kilogauss). There is information about JL-10A RADAR station on experimental and pre-series aircrafts (China manufactured as well). airframe construction with wide application of composite materials. Though initially the measures of «Tczyanbin» RADAR detection reduction were of quite limited nature. Some more dozens (or maybe hundreds) of the aircrafts can be exported. Now China has purchased from Russia 180 engines of the kind.е. up to a hundred fighter-bombers will be army-accepted by Chinese Naval coast aviation. that were developed version of on-board RADAR station «Zhuk». Rectangular adjustable air scoop with movable upper air inlet wedges is placed under fuselage. from non-official sources. designed for «Lavi» aircraft. that the engine upgrade designed for «Su-27» aircrafts. The following fighters batches are equipped. Airframe construction is basically made of aluminum alloys with wide application of carbon plastics. 100 of them were manufactured (or are manufactured) in Moscow. «Tczyanbin». Design and production of J-10A were held applying computer assisted CAD/CAM systems.е. There is also a reserve (mobile) version of power plant for «Tczyanbin» – upgraded WS-10А engine with FADEC control system and thrust. The first series batch of J-10A aircraft was disposed to the Air Force of the People’s Liberation Army of China in 2004-2006. that will enable to decrease J-10 absolute cross-section from present 5 – 6 m2 to the F L E E T · 1 . than of АL-31FN. having leading edge flap and ailevators. in the «Salyut» plant. Main landing gear with relatively narrow track gage is retracted into fuselage. longer fuselage that made it possible to preserve one-placed aircraft fuel tank capacity. Moreover. including quite perfect aerodynamics. these engines. being non-limited by RussianChinese contract. In 2006 «Salyut» offered to China an upgraded version of turbojet engine. According to some statements. at the beginning it was intended tо equipped J-10 aircraft with the 23-mm high firing speed six barrels gun. digital control system of FADEC type. according to Chinese mass media. now after «Tczyanbin» series production started this gap was almost overcome. As it was mentioned above. in front of the main landing gear wells. Chinese Air Force is supposed to be increased up to 300 aircraft of the type by the middle of next decade. 29 . is already army-accepted by Russian Air Force. what is the new fighter that was so laboriously and persistently created by Chinese aircraft industry? It certainly should be mentioned that the plane can be absolutely free called a great achievement of CPR aircraft constructors. and also with multiangle УВТ system. arrow-type. and also two-placed exercise-battle J-10S aircrafts. digital remote control system. and all the following fighters were equipped with more powerful. and modern data-controlling cockpit field. into «pockets» on the sides of air scoop channel. partially made on western element base and having higher characteristics (several stations of the kind were supplied to China at the beginning of current decade). here we can guess approximately the same «duet» that Americans formed in 1980-ies by aircrafts F-15 and F-16 and today they apply for F-22 and F-35.

particularly in Jane’s All the Worlds Aircraft reference guide for the period from 2008 to 2009. as the “Lavi” fighters. normal take off weight is 12600 kg). maximum combat load is 5500 kg. It is installed on the eleven external pods. So. These characteristics exceed the characteristics of the analogue European aircrafts of the fourth generation “4+”. In some sources. the first J-10 test samples had the same airframe.8 degrees per second. American fighter-bomber F-16C Block40 and J-10A are designed to accomplish nearly the same type of combat tasks. are equipped with more powerful engines F100-PW229 or F110-GE-129 (13000-13200 kilogauss). Steady state theta displacement rate of the comparing aircraft is nearly the same: for “Lavi” it is 13. while the takeoff weight is normal. As a result of this the ratio of the fuel weight to the dry weight of the aircraft became 0. for “Rafael” and “Tayfun” it is 24. is considerably higher (nearly 23-24 degrees per second in comparison with the American aircraft – 17. that was being created since 1987 to substitute for fighter-bombers Mitsubishi F-1.8.2 degrees per second. Takeoff thrust-to-weight ratio of both aircraft. seemed to be an advantage of the J-10A as the aircraft primarily task is to attack ground targets.1-2. designed as “bes’hvostka with PGO”. The external fuel tanks can be installed on the internal wings pods and on the central fuselage pods. F-2 is based on a foreign prototype – «never realized» American project As it was already mentioned above.86 and J-10A – 0. And now it reaches the same ratio (It should be mentioned that it is quite high) as F-35A (0. Fuel weight in the internal fuel tanks of the F-16C is 3100 kg.51. Further on the aircraft was considerably increased in dimensions and therefore it become heavier. Two front under fuselage piers are used for mounting various containers with optoelectronic and aiming-navigation equipment. It has maximum speed equal to Max M2. Quite heavy and various assortment of combat load. That is why the flight range without external fuel tanks at high altitude.61) fighters. F-16C is equipped with the airborne radar AN/APG-68 (weight is 160 kg. and for F-15C it is 16-17 degrees per second. The cost of a series F-2. is nearly the same (F-16C – 0. respectively). The American aircraft is not as heavy as the Chinese one (F-16C dry weight is 8300 kg. Chinese aircraft maximum speed (corresponds to M=2.WA R P L A N E S Probably this weight must be taken as the most realistic one.1-2. Six of the pods are under the wings and five of them are under the fuselage. One more foreign analog (and potential rival) of J-10A is Japanese (American-Japanese. to be exact) multipurpose fighter Mitsubishi F-2. This most mass modification of the F-16 fighter-bomber. The prototype of the plane performed its first flight in October 1995. Moreover. So it makes sense to compare the characteristics of both aircrafts. for SU-30MKI it is 22-23.2 and service ceiling (17000-17500 m). which is for J-10A equal to 1850 km (in accordance with Jane’s All the Worlds Aircraft reference guide 2008-2009) looks to be quite realistic or even marked down a little bit.3). It provides mapping mode. Later modifications of «Freedomfighter» – F-16C Вlock 50/52 and F-16C Block 50/52+. By the middle of 2008 Japan had at disposal 76 F-2 out of 94 ordered. antenna’s diameter is 0. That is why aircraft dry weight (equipped with WS-6 type engine) probably was from 7100 to 7300 kg (let’s remind. the airframe weight was also increased. almost simultaneously with J-10A. As well as J-10A.2) is rather higher than F-16C (which possesses M=2.87). The efficient flight range of J-10A without suspended fuel tanks is more than (1850-1900 km in comparison with 1600 km of the F-16C). such as “light fighter” at the range up to 45-50 km. which came to service within the US Air force in 1990 and was equipped with the augmented double-blow turbojet engine F100-PW-220(10800 kgs). the dry weight of the J-10A aircraft is mentioned as 8750 kg. Block 40/42 is equipped with suspended containers with the aiming-navigation equipment LANTIRN and also it is equipped with the helmet-mounted acquisition system (analogue of Russian “Schel” system). is $108 mln. For F-22A fighter it is 27-28. The fuel tanks capacity of the J-10A aircraft in comparison with the “Lavi” aircraft was increased nearly two times and reached the level of 4500 kg. also does not relinquish to any up to date European aircraft in fighter possibilities. However.38 m). according to Japanese mass media. “Tczyanbin” really being a multipurpose combat aircraft.55) and F-35C (0. probably providing for American fighters inconsiderable dynamic advantage to the Chinese aircraft. Action radius at the minimum flight level with the normal combat load (for J-10 A is 460 km that is a little higher. 30 .87 and 360 kgs/m2 in Chinese aircraft. for J-10A it differs little.90 and 358 kgs/m2 in French fighter and 0. and also can detect air targets. it is equal to 4000-4500 kg (in some sources – up to 5500 kg). primarily was designed to attack ground targets. and the first series fighter was disposed to Japanese Self-defense Forces in 2000. According to the mass media the ferry distance of 3000 km for the J-10A with three external fuel tanks (two of them with the capacity of 1600 kg each and one with the capacity of 800 kg) also looks quite realistic (or marked down).00). that “Lavi” fighter dry weight is 7030 kg). J-10А possesses practically equal with the French fighter Dasso “Rafael” of the “4+” generation thrust-to-weight ratio and also nominal pressure on the wing (0. that were supplied to armament already in XXI. than F-16C has (400 km). According to the different sources it is now not less than 8000-9730 kg. At the same time the rate of momentary roll-out for “Tczyanbin”. and for F-16C it is 12.

and maximum take-off mass – 22100 kg. in its competition with the American fighter – as to air supremacy fighting – F-22A «Raptor». possessing improved maneuver characteristics (in particular. unstable roll-out speed should be 21-22 degrees per second). Japanese RADAR station having ultramodern structure and element base (as well as no less «modern» cost). That is why in the conditions of large-scale armed conflict simpler. two suspended tanks and two «air-to-air» missiles PL-8/9/13 of small range. However lately China develops up-tempo guided aviation ammunition. Dry aircraft mass is 9530 kg. opposite to «Agile Falcon». detection range of air targets for this onboard RADAR station is less than it was even of the archaic station AN/APQ-120 of F-4EJ aircraft «Phantom» II. As far as we can see. in one of the standard striking configurations the aircraft can carry up to eight free-falling bombs gauge kg 250 кг. It should be mentioned that F-2 – is the first in the world series battle aircraft. quite scanty press information. will be considerably superior to the Chinese fighter in missile combat in nonvisual range.90). 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) AESA. that conditioned rather moderate present «PR» of the aircraft.5 m2 at range of only 15-20 km. is likely to be related to the category of newspaper or Internet «fakes». However. Considering all that. as well as НАР. As a power plant American double-blow turbojet engine General Electric F110-GE-129 (13200 kilogauss) is applied. But as far as we can judge by the present.51 without ПТБ) the Chinese plane is considerably superior to its Japanese rival (0. whereas F110-JE-129 – 1740 kg). doesn’t match design parameters: according to Japanese mass media. In real life it’s not single aircrafts that fight but aircraft groups. having ERS in heading flatten surface. But for the fighter-destroyer of the 5th generation F-35A the new Chinese aircraft can be quite a dangerous rival. In 1998 tests of the first Chinese series GB LT-2 finished. The Japanese aircraft has a similar to “Tczyanbin” thrust-to-weight ratio (0. at the range of 160-170 km. as well as most of other fighters of «4» and «4+» generations). equipped with on-board RADAR station with АФАР. all in all. as well as by the decrease in the number of F-2 fighters ordered by Japanese Self-Defense Forces from 130 to 94 units (non-reasoned by any noticeable changes in Japan foreign-policy position since the beginning of the current decade). more famous under American «nickname» «Zero»). At the same time inner tanks capacity in F-2 is much less than in “Tczyanbin”. almost “one-sided” (enough to mention that “Lightning” II can detect its rival.A I R «Agile Falcon». pro-actively developed by the company General Dynamics in 1980-1990-ies as a considerable upgrade of F-16С aircraft. also equipped with on-board RADAR station with АFАR. «the second «Zero» far and away not completely supported hopes of its designers. first of all. supposedly having taken place in 2007 above the Taiwan Strait between J-10A and F-22A. J-10A today seems to possess better combatant facilities than its Japanese analog. However in the close maneuver air combat lighter and more flexible J-10A will have all the advantages. though even 10 years ago F-2 construction program was rather broadly highlighted in Japanese mass media. regardless of a bit more conservative «board».38). That is why the described at the beginning of the article air combat. than air combat between “Tczyanbin” and “Lightning” II can appear a usual thing in hypothetic Chinese-American conflict of 2010-2020. as well as undertaking additional measures to reduce J-10А RADAR detection must come by the second half of 2010-ies (i. which was created in LOEC 31 . providing М=2. cheaper and wholesale “Tczyanbin” is likely to have additional «bonuses» in front of more expensive and more complicated «Lightning»II. and “Tczyanbin” can «see» F-35A with ERS =0. the Japanese equipped their aircraft with more powerful and heavier engine (dry mass АЛ-31Ф is 1530 kg. F-2 is somewhat enlarged (with «Agile Falcon» wing surface 34.84 m2) F-16 with hardened airframe. herewith some editions even called the plane «the second «Zero» (meaning the famous Japanese fighter of the Second World War Mitsubishi А6М «Reisen». must be approximately 9:1. when the mass army-acceptance of F-35 is to start) should equal the chances of both fighters in remote air combat as well. It’s out of the question that unfeatured F-35A equipped with on-board RADAR station AN/APG-81 with АESA and «built-in» in the integrated digital data-control system. Thus. As to relative fuel mass (0. Japanese fighter is oriented at. that seems to explain similar breakdown characteristics and ascensional rate of both planes. two guided missiles AIM-9 and ПТБ) is 840 km. «playing» with it. which is first of all to equip the newest multipurpose fighters J-10A. The striking armament of J-10A today mostly includes aerial bombs and non-recurrent bomb holders gauge 250 or 500 kg. It should be also pointed out that the most probable equipment of the Chinese aircraft with perspective on-board RADAR station with ESA or F L E E T · 1 . not for air supremacy fighting and air defense. But this is just the very case when «you must spoil before you spin». But all the speculations are only true for unlikely «duel» combat between the two fighters. And if to consider that number ratio F-35А and F-22А. according to the existing plans of the USA Air Force. the Chinese fighter-bomber has few chances to win both in close and distant missile combat (however. but on striking tasks solution (in particular – “airto-ship”). It should be specified that the Japanese aircraft is less known than the Chinese analog. equal to several meters. even today after almost 8 years of aircraft system operation. which provides for J-10A better range characteristics. equipped with dish aerial. which is designed with wide application of modern composite materials. Of course.88 – 0. fuel mass in inner tanks – 3600 kg. Action radius at «antiairborne» tasks solution (with two “air-to-ship” missiles ASM-1/2.е.

00 8750 11440 19300 4500 (Luoyang Electro-Optical Technology Development Center) based on the Russian CАB-500L. GB-1 is army-accepted as well. superlight (mass – 35 kg) GB FТ-5. has a tail quickly-mounted unit with aerodynamic controls and control system module as well as plated aerodynamic surfaces.50 4. has optical semi-active homing system. that have bigger tonnage. Aviation bomb. LT-3. as well as upgraded Su-27СК (J-11).83 mass 500 kg. as to its dimensions similar to the American helicopter missile AGM-114 «Hellfire». On the tail module (inside which there is a unit of inertial-satellite guidance system) four aerodynamic small empennage tops are installed.78 39.20 1. They inform that during the tests the bomb showed standart deviation 7. similar to the Russian Х-59М and Х-59М2. PL-11) and «Pili-12» 32 .70 15. m Wing area. But the standard aircraft ammunition is Chinese missiles of intermediate range «Пили-11» («Удар молнии-11». LOEC is as well developing high-precision aviation ammunition of the second generation. Guided missile is equipped with tele-homing head and is capable of effectively hitting boats and small ships in daytime. km 2625 4165 1.85 1.46 m. CASC also created unique.20 – 1850 3000 “Lavi” 8. besides J-10A. in particular – guided aviation bombs FT-1 and FT-3 with inertial-satellite guidance. м/s Economic range without external fuel tanks. wing span – 2. Manufacturers state. Optical axis of the laser corrector has angle with longitude missile axis. They equip.m Dryweight. multipurpose fighters J-8-IIМ. km Ferry range. Guided bomb has the standart deviation 3 – 5 m. Guided missile.WA R P L A N E S J-10A FIGHTER AND ITS PROTOTYPE THE IAI”LAVI” AIRCRAFT CHARACTERISTICS Type of the aircraft Wing span. The upgraded version of the missile – С-704KD – is equipped with infra-red all-day homing system. also having combined (inertial-satellite + optical) guidance systems. that КВО of the ammunition is 20 m. m Height. LOEC Center in 2006 finished guided gliding aviation bomb tests that were indicated as LS-6. Guided missile of the type must be basic weaponry of «air-to-air» type for Chinese multipurpose fighters Su-30МКК and Su-30МК2 (J-13). substituting for wind direction indicator type coordinator. kg Маximum combat load. However. China will possibly purchase the weaponry for J-10A in Russia. CASC (China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation) creates a set of highprecision aviation weapon «Fay Teng». At the same time a disadvantage of the Chinese fighter consists in the absence of strategic-tactical cruise missiles in its ammunition. LS-6 wing is made of carbon plastics. It should be mentioned that bombs LТ-2 and LS-6 were publicly demonstrated in 2008 within the weaponry of J-10A. kg Takeoff. aerodynamically similar to the American 500-kg aviation bomb Мк.54 4. The new ammunition is conceptually close to GB GBU-54 and «Upgraded Payvuvai» IV. Heavier than FТ-3. by its composition reminding of the American CАB GBU-31 JDAM. in the new ammunition. providing КВО of about 3 m. m Length. They inform. If КАБ of the 1st generation LT-2 had only optical semi-active homing head. the shell is fitted with folding wing module. It is produced according to regular aerodynamic scheme with trapezoidal crosswise wing and tail unit. meant for gliding characteristics improvement. Solid fuel “air-to-ship” missile with start mass of 300 kg has range of 35 km. manufactured by the state corporation Sichong Group and seemingly being a developed version of GB LT-2.5 m. but also at small combat UAV. equal to 4 km. It can glide (depending on the alti- tude of bomb-dropping) on range of 7-18 km and hits the target with the precision up to 30 m. besides J-10A it is also carried by light fighters JH-7А. For missile air combat of intermediate range the Chinese fighter can be equipped with «Шаньдян-10» (SD-10) missiles. in plain weather conditions. J-10A weaponry will be also supplied with antiradar missiles– Russian Х-31П or Chinese guided missile of the similar type. as well as contributes to application range increase (according to some sources it reaches 60 km). It is equipped with optical semi-active homing head. developed by CASIC (China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation). American JASSM or European «Storm Shadow» and KEPD-350. that this type of aerodynamic configuration provides for better gliding stability. interference protection and application flexibility. shell diameter is 377 mm.kg Takeoff normal weight. having electric drive. Ammunition of the kind can be applied not only at pilot aircrafts (in particular J-10А).20 254 4500 4000 2. that are the authorized version of the Russian missile of Р-77 type with combined (inertial + active RADAR) guiding system. warhead mass is 440 kg. GB FТ-2 mass 440 kg (conceptually similar to the American GB Boeing Long Shot) is equipped with new folding wing module with large elongation. semi-active optical homing duration 20 sec and capture range homing head system. mаximum weight. new light bombers JH-7A (armyaccepted by CHINA Air Force). kg: In the internal fuel tanks In the external fuel tanks Маximum М Maximum ground-level М Climbing capacity.78 14. On GB LT-3 new optical coordinator is applied as well. FT-3 is small gauge ammunition (250 kg). and also light fighters JF-17 («Super-7»). upgraded fighterbombers Q-5G. Its mass 540 kg.78 33. sq. kg Fuel capacity. supplied to Pakistan. behind which Х-shaped tail unit is fitted. that are sure to be investigated in China as well. Presently this ammunition is produced in series. having no analogs in the world. it will be complemented with composite inertial-satellite guidance system. used on GB LT-2.00 7070 9990 18370 7300 J-10A 9. which facilitates surface targets capture. Bomb FT-1 (500 kg) has crosswise wing small elongation and crosswise developed tail unit with controls. The ammunition is equipped with optical semi-active homing system. To fight small-sized moving targets in combat CASC creates «air-to-surface» missile AR-1. To fight over-water targets J-10А can be equipped with new light “air-to-ship” missile С-704. Ammunition mass – 570 kg.

Its development started in 1992.A I R («Thunderbolt-12 (Удар молнии)». as well as pert of avionics and armament there are Russian). and in that second half of current decade « Pili-12» was army-accepted by PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY OF CHINA. Its development started in 1999. Missile weapon can be used in different combinations. Missiles. Missile with double-mode hard-fuel engine has starting mass of 220 kg (according to other data – 180 kg) and aerodynamic configuration similar to «Pili-11». and also due to decreasing of radar and thermal detection ability. series manufactured and (whether anybody likes it or not) will inevitably join world aircraft market. 33 . and can use the so-called «plunging» trajectory. that on the international aircraft market “Tczyanbin” represents a new product of good quality. having maximum range increased up to 150 km. Possibly. In prospect it is possible to equip “Tczyanbin” aircraft with Chinese or foreign made (first of all with Russian) radar with EASA. correlating with М=4. The other way of possible J-10A upgrading is installation of Russian airborne radar on the aircraft. They informed about successful manufacturing of its upgraded version – PL-11A – with active radar homing head. As we can see. If you take into consideration that ERS of Su-27 several times larger than the same of J-10A. and the range of detecting a target like Su-27. PL-9 and PL-9С (starting mass 115-123 kg). for example – four missiles PL-11/PL-12 and two PL-8/PL-9 or two missiles PL-11/PL-12. Most probably the evolution of this advanced aircraft will be continued in the direction of further increasing of its air characteristics due to installing more powerful engine with UVTAL-31 FN-M1. as far as guided weaponry of “air-to-air” type is concerned the Chinese fighter is almost not inferior to the best foreign analogues. they also informed that the missile was developed with air-burning engine. the main China partner on military-technical cooperation. and PL-11. Thereat according to Mass Media the prime cost of one fighter was appreciated as 41 million US dollars. It is quite natural that the first would-be customer. I’d like to remind of the fact that F-10 is to a great extent the result of native aircraft industry (in any case. In October 2007 there was information about Iran’s intention to purchase 24 planes of “Tczyanbin” type. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) government approved the plans of acquisition of 36 fighters J-10 type in export version (it is called FC-20. will exceed 100km. a number of other foreign countries have already taken interest in this fighter. it would be very stupid of Russia to behave like that towards the Great eastern neighbour. performed jointly with Russian specialists. PL-12). will become Pakistan. that are authorized versions of the Russian missiles of Р-73М type capable of hitting air targets at the range up to 20-30 km. Nominal J-10A armament also includes small range thermal missiles PL-8. it can still be presumed that something was done in this direction. Angola and Sudan were also mentioned… On the whole it can be stated. Besides. equipped with thrust vector control system. looks like perfectly right. providing shooting range up to 80 km. what is small Israel in comparison with the large USA?). can fly with 40-times overload and developed the speed relative to М=2. these fighter-bombers (in case contract for aircraft delivery will be made) will be equipped with Chinese double-flow turbojet afterburner WS-10A engines and west made airborne radars (the most possible version is GRIFO2000 radar with slot antenna). that is developed in China independently (but with Russian specialists as consultants) since 1990. then you can supposed that the new Chinese radar is able to detect an air target “light fighter” type (ЭПР=3м2) at the range of 80-90 km. Probably they are talking about the radar with ФАР of passive type. As to our country. Starting mass of PL-13 is 105 kg. and shooting range in front hemi-sphere up to 40 km. Although F-10aircraft is delivered now to Chinese Air force and Navy only. you should head it…». In April 2006 it was told that the Pakistan F L E E T · 1 . The first one is a bit altered Italian missile Alenia «Aspid»1А. PL-12 missile is the newest Chinese development among the weaponry of “air-to-air” type. most probably. has the starting mass 220 kg. two PL-8/PL-9 and three suspended fuel tanks. adaptation of the up to date avionics and armaments. engine. which is installed on “Sukhoi” aircraft.5. “Tczyanbin” aircraft is already created. It was mentioned in mass media with citation of “the circles being closed to Chinese aircraft industry” that in 2006 airborne radar “Type 1473” was created in China for J-10A aircraft. Though later the Iran party officially declined the fact of negotiations with the Chinese about J-10 purchase. the fighter can carry intermediate range missiles with ТGS PL-13 or PL-13M. equipped with semi-active mono-pulse radar homing head. and PL-13М – 115 kg. that are developed version of the Israeli guided missile «Piton»3 (Chinese-Israeli defense-technological cooperation heritage of 1980-1990-ies). The updating of “Tczyanbin” is running on. Among other potential purchasers Thailand. This radar is able to detect J-11 (Su-27) at a range exceeding the range of detecting J-10 aircraft by airborne radar N001E. and it is going to by 100 more aircraft. And if the USA once ignored the prototype of “Tczyanbin” – the Israeli aircraft «Lavi» – for the benefit of own aircraft industry (indeed. As smart managers say: «If you can’t prevent the booze-up. maximum speed. Nigeria. It is equipped with composite guidance system similar to Р-77. Under these circumstances the position of our aircraft industry supporting J-10A program and participating in the aircraft production. capable of competing with aircraft industry production of the USA and Europe.

travel at a supersonic speed. One can assess the quality level of the Indian Air Force aircraft fleet knowing that in the middle of 2008 it totaled 53 Su-30MKI aircraft with a combat potential exceeding that of any foreign batch-produced fighter with the sole pos- sible exception of F-22A.K. India. The high level of training performed by Indian pilots is recognized by those of the U. which were among the best in the world. the Indian Air Force Staff worked out AST 201technical requirements for development of a light fighter to replace MiG-21 and Ajeet.WA R P L A N E S Vladimir Ilyin ADA LCA LIGHT MULTIPURPOSE FIGHTER I ndia. The British license-built Rolls-Royce Orpheus Mk 703 turbojet the Indian aircraft makers had available was underpowered and a super sound speed could be reached only in dives. MiG-23. have high maneuverability and advanced arms systems. The primary task of the future aircraft was air defense. 34 . who made FW 190 and Ta-152 piston fighters. 47% are 3rd generation (Jaguar. The history tells us that this type of persistence is inevitably rewarded… The first “nearly homemade” Indian aircraft was the HF-24 Marut fighter-bomber (Spirit of the Tempest) designed under the supervision of Kurt Tank. Some attempts were made to build an advanced and more speedy HF-73 fighter-bomber based on HF-24. India also made Kiran jet trainers. have been developed and often built abroad. and Mirage 2000). and a number of piston trainers. and the secondary – direct air support of land forces and (partial) insulation of combat zone. and 30% are 2nd generation MiG-21 fighters with half of them made of MiG-21bison deeply upgraded aircraft advanced to nearly 4th generation. who is an outstanding German designer. has been making efforts in this direction for about 50 years now. and MiG-27). until recently the Indian were unable to learn a complete cycle of making a combat aircraft from look to batch production. though. The Indian aircraft industry manufactured 147 Marut jets. however. MiG-29. The aircraft was to be small. and the U. but have been repeatedly “beaten” by Indians at international war games. The fighter-bombers were used during the India-Pakistan war in 1971. who are not at all bad in the profession. the second world’s most populous country and a nuclear power. has today one of the largest and rather modern air force of 740 aircraft with 23% of them belonging to 4th and 4th+ generations (Su-30MKI. but the sole prototype was lost during tests. in Russia. All the fighters of the Indian Air Force. Among the Indian designs of the 1960-1980 was the Ajeet air superiority aircraft made in 1975 based on the Folland Gnat subsonic fighter. France. Marut made its maiden flight in the March of 1961 and was initially designed for the top speed of Mach 2.S. Air Force. ignoring financial predicaments and occasional failures. In the late 1970s. Despite the considerable success made by the Indian aircraft industry within the past decades. One seriesbuilt Marut aircraft can be now observed in the polytechnic museum of the city of Bangalore.

as it seems specially to implement the fighter program. Rao told the parliament commenting on the event that the “completely Indian aircraft developed by Indian experts with minimal help provided by foreign firms…will not lag behind aircraft of other countries in the level of applied technical solutions. easy and cheap to use. including Alenia providing assistance in manufacturing coalplastic panels for wing coating. however. it would also result in a 0. and a digital flight-by-wire control system. The Indian new generation fighter was finally given the green light! In the May of 1985. It was to be very stable and steerable. automated breaking control system. The construction of the first prototype was to be launched in 1990 with the first aircraft to be ready a year later. which in a way mainly positioned the future fighter as a successor to Gnat-Ajeet. It is noteworthy that the Indian government. a renowned Indian aircraft builder. the new aircraft was to have tailless configuration.” According to the minister. fighter. Expulsion of various designs of the new fighter started in the aerodynamic tunnel of the National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL). The choice of a power plant for the LCA is of primary importance. As N.Rao put it. Media reports would repeatedly say that LCA was to have better performance than the F-16 U.Ghandi and the minister of defense. So the weight of the fighter was to be close to that of the main Indian combat aircraft of the time MiG-21. On January 7. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) became the leading contractor to take charge of the main part of the program with its research and development department located in the Indian “city of science” Bangalore. and the series-produced aircraft were to be powered by a future GTX Indian engine. Dornier. The specification demands were also gradually clarified. Under the long-term Indian Air Force development plan adopted in 1981. digital multichannel flight-by-wire control system. As it has been mentioned before. as well as to greater weight and radar signature. possibly British Aerospace. 35 . The Air Force determined its total demand of the aircraft at 250 jets. The latest aircraft technology was to be integrated in the fighter’s design: reduced static stability structure. systems. up-to-date onboard radar.S. was chosen. a delta wing with a front edge curve (both completely tailless configuration and tailless configuration with small-surface foreplane located close to the wing were considered). At the same time the authors of the report thought that some parts of the new aircraft (some onboard equipment. and construction materials. and Dassault-Breguet. A bit later (likely in the middle of 1983) similar reports (with alike conclusions) made on the Indian government’s order were provided by four west-European aircraft builders: BAE. and the max takeoff weight was to total 10. the cost of the project development was estimated at $500 million. composite materials of key design elements. the LCA was to be prepared for the maiden test-flight as soon as 1989. etc.000 kg. the LCA was intended to be an aircraft meeting rather strict speed and maneuverability requirements. Besides Dassault other foreign firms were engaged in the program. The project works on LCA were lead by the ADA headed then by Dr. the Aeronautical Development Authority (ADA) founded in 1984. In the very year of 1983. 1986. The preparatory work for creation of the aircraft that could be called a fourth generation combat jet was launched in 1980. Martin Marietta (control system). the new Indian aircraft were to replace 11. including onboard radar. The LCA production was supposed to be arranged in Bangalore. The tailless scheme. The initial development of the LCA multipurpose onboard radar project was jointly carried out by the Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) of the Indian Defense Ministry and HAL.500 kg. The French impact on the LCA look resulted in the aerodynamic structure of the aircraft. There was a reservation. that if the wing of the aircraft was to be made of coal-plastic. MBB. Under preliminary estimates.4% of fighter squadrons by 1991 with the goal of 40% to be reached by 1994-1995. In accordance with initial calculations. which was profoundly advanced by Dassault’s Mirage aircraft. The LCA program was explicitly “focused” on the West. Kota Harinarayana. flight-by-wire control system. A group of Indian Air Force and Industry experts drafted a report then saying that a such-like program was technically and economically feasible. presented the government with a detailed report on the perspectives of the new aircraft based on previous research. the LCA empty weight was to be around 6. integral “board” with microprocessors. Indian Defense Minister N. traditionally avoiding putting all eggs in one basket where military and technical cooperation is concerned. reliable. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) for selecting specification requirements for the main aircraft systems. simultaneously collaborated with the Soviet Union and western countries. At the early stages of the program prototype fighters were supposed to be fitted with foreign engines (the RB199 bypass turbofan engine with afterburner was mentioned among others). the government made a fundamental decision to launch the program. as did research F L E E T · 1 . and composite materials) would have to be purchased abroad. the console production could be relocated to one of western firms.76 m longer fuselage. and BAE (consultancy for developing the aircraft automatic control system). Though the use of foreplane would improve maneuverability.A I R The initial development program of the new jet under implementation in the “depth” of the Air Force was called Super Gnat. in 1991. The affordability and cost effectiveness were the widely used criteria for the program. “glass” cockpit. the Defense Research and Development Organization presented a detailed fighter construction plan to Prime-Minister R. the Air Force made customer technical specifications for the fighter and a group of HAL experts was teamed up in the ADA to perform the pre-draft preparation of the project called LCA (Light Combat Aircraft. Composite materials were supposed to be widely used in the airframe design. The plan laid the basis for the LCA program. A month later. an aerodynamically unstable structure. and also demand a relatively short take-off and landing strip.

China/Pakistan). but later postponed until 1992. but in the XXI century. though. The aircraft under construction was to closely meet the requirements of the local theatre of operations and fully integrate the national combat expertise. On March 31. Dassault offered its analogue flight-by-wire control 36 . In 1990.S. which comprised 20 experts working in military R&D facilities specialized in aircraft and engine building and radio-electronic systems. Another possibility is that the combat field insulation task could be performed by additionally ordered MiG-27M fighter-bombers. The subsonic aircraft would result in considerably reduced costs while maintaining a high strike potential.WA R P L A N E S system. It is common knowledge. ChingKuo(Taiwan). General Dynamics (currently Lockheed Martin). the supersonic F-16 and JAS 39 jets are considered by the Indians as the LCA “gap fillers” in the frames of the MMRCA program in 2009. As a possible replacement both General Dynamics F-16 and Saab JAS 39 Vigen supersonic aircraft and subsonic AMX (AERITALIA. It is noteworthy that. which had obtained a lot of experience in the field while creating and upgrading F-16.500 metric tons). It is really true that unlike Europeans. Note that the maiden flight of the new Indian fighter was initially and optimistically planned for 1991. Cooperation between India and the U. Looking ahead we will say that the fuselage finally remained to be Indian. but the Americans further received contracts for deliveries of engines. At the end of the year a LCA prototype construction was to be launched. The LCA concept was close to the following aircraft: JAS 39 Gripen (Sweden). 20 years after the described events. Defense Department delegation came to India. needed not only an aircraft. a U.700 metric tons and had Sea Harrier fighters. 1990. The look of the new fighter was influenced not only by technical. who are always in a hurry. including such issues as building the fuselage. the sons of the most ancient Indian civilization don’t take two In the March of the very 1986. was chosen to create a four-channel digital flight-by-wire control system. whereas direct air support could be carried out by 80-90 AJT upgraded combat trainers purchased by the Air Force. which was gaining international importance. farther range. India had plans of further upgrade of aviation and aircraft fleet of deck-landing aircraft. The works were carried out with Dassault’s technical support (the support price was $10 million). that there is nothing as permanent as temporary measures… The LCA outline design started in 1987 and finished in 1988.K. through modeling at a special NT-33 aircraft with additional checks performed at the F-16 fighter. at the early stages of the program a deck-landing aircraft based on it was also considered: the Indian Navy bought a British-built Vikrant in 1961 (19.S. AERMACCHI. The development of the system is worth focusing on. The analysis carried out by Indian experts showed that the new multipurpose fighter was to be close to MiП-21 (which proved perfectly effective in air fights with Pakistani F-86. including that obtained during the India-Pakistan war in 1971. the Indian Defense Ministry announced that the construction of the “demonstration” aircraft was delayed until 1993 citing technical reasons so that the wheeling-out was to take place in 1994 with the maiden flight to follow no sooner than 1995. which proved highly effective in the war of 1973. in 1996. F-104. In 1986. the new fighter project was officially approved. as well as for development of the LCA digital flight-by-wire control system. Pentagon officially announced its intent to support India’s HAL in the LCA aircraft development. development and construction of aviation electronics. the Indian fighter was designed for the Air Force. The Indian chief of staff said commenting these decisions that “the delay of the LCA fighter program can prompt the armed forces to consider fielding a new type of an “intermediate” fighter to replace MiG-21 and MiG-23”. and F-6) in its main features. A more powerful Viraat (former Eagle) ship was bought in the U. but the Hawk 200 or AMX fighting potential was evidently not enough for winning air superiority formerly performed by MiG-21. The Indian gave up the idea of making this crucial element of the aircraft themselves at early stages of the program. and FC-1 (Super-7. as well as new avionics equally effective against air and ground targets. It had a deadweight of 28. but also political issues: India. the Indian Air Force gave up the idea of subsonic attack planes rather soon due to low combat potential and survivability. and composite materials. It also was to have better maneuverability. India concluded a contract with the U. All that meant that the beginning of series production of the Indian fourth generation fighter would start most optimistically in 1997 with the first batch-produced jets to enter service not in 1996 as it was planned. In 1988.S. The works were completed in 1996. in the LCA program was discussed.S. General Electric for the delivery of F404-GEF2J3 engines to be used for LCA prototypes. EMBRAER) and BAE Hawk 200 were considered. advanced alloys.S. It was supposed to be a temporary measure with further prototypes and series-produces aircraft to be fitted with Indian engines. Looking ahead. For a number of reasons the system din not satisfy the Indians and in 1993 the U. increased variety and number of weapons. but also a kind of a symbol of national independence in the field of high technology. though. The digital flight-by-wire control system final adjustments were carried out in the U.

2003 the jet exceeded F L E E T · 1 . The Indian printed media said later that the LCA TD “has a rate of climb exceeding that of MiG-29.S. as well as at the Franco-German Tiger helicopter. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) the sound speed for the first time.2 completely satisfying the customer demands have started. Foreign composite materials were used to build the LCA TD and PV aircraft to make 30-34% of the airframe.” which has the initial rate of climb of 300-330 mps depending on the variant. started the ground tests of the jet. On August 14. Two test-bed aircraft based on HS478М were fitted to flight-test the onboard radar. 2003 (the author of the text was also present at this even historic for the Indian aviation). Another LCA’s alternative to appear in 1991 is also worth mentioning. In 1993. which “do not entirely meet the requirements of the Air Force” are being batch-produced and the work on “full-fledged” LCA Mk. Looking ahead. a number of squadrons initially planned to be fitted with LCA aircraft were then to receive advanced MiG-21. which resulted in reduced weight and bearable g-loads of between +8 and -3. pulse-doppler multipurpose onboard radar developed for JAS 39 Vigen based on the Blue Vision radar of the BAE Sea-Harrier. In the late 1980s – early 1990s. And no sooner than at the second stage of the program. who visited the Mir Soviet Orbital Station. the LCA flight resembled that of a MiG-21. a simplified version of the fighter deprived of some earlier planned technical solutions was offered to be built as soon as possible with minimum costs. 1996 lagging nine months behind the schedule. when a simplified version was launched into series production. On August 1. The TD1 and TD2 were first publically demonstrated at the international air show Air India 2003. They were MFD-55 crystal based and made by the French firm Sextant Avionics. Two matrix color displays were used to show flight and tactical information at the test aircraft.S. 1998. it also had the F404-GE-F2J3 U. the R&D works on the LCA program and construction of TD1 and TD2 pilot aircraft cost India 21. The ceremonial wheeling-out of the LCA TD1 (technological demonstrator. In the May of 1995. The resolution of the displays was good enough to show a great number of special signs and symbols necessary during the flight. From the “aerobatic” point of view. the LCA Мk. which did not exclude possible technical support provided by foreign partners. The LCA flight let the Indians feel justified pride. Besides. Air Force commander-in-chief E. the fuselage was launched into production. Many of the Bangalore citizens to visit the show were engaged in the aircraft industry so the flight of the new fighters made them also proud of their work. Under initial plans. The Indian aircraft showed a rather good rate of climb.S. After the collapse of the Soviet Union followed by the fall of the Soviet aircraft building. the offer quickly became irrelevant. According to the Indian media reports. the fighter was to be fitted with an Indian version of the Swedish Ericsson/GEC-Marсoni PS-05/A. the Indian government finally sanctioned the construction of a flight-demonstration (experimental) LCA item. But these claims are likely to be invented by the authors. extended work on a “full-fledged” LCA was supposed to start. SHaposhnikov visit to India. though. A ten-year program was initiated to have these materials produced by national chemical companies and until it ended the materials were imported. which took place at the Yelahanka Airbase near Bangalore on September 5-9. engine. Just like TD1. It is woth mentioning that similar displays of the firm were installed at the Mirage-2000-5 and Rafal French aircraft. Along with the creation of the aircraft itself.1. But the customizing of the jet proved to be longer than expected and no sooner than April 1997. the second TD2 prototype was wheeled out from an assembling workshop. and in December that year the coal-plastic wing followed. But then some problems of adjusting the Swedish radar to the Indian “board” emerged and in 1997 a decision was made that the LCA radar with features close to those of PS-05/A be made by HAL’s radio electronics department on its own. On January 4. an unhurried but purposeful work on the development of the LCA onboard radar was under way. the further LCA strategy implementation was considered for changes.R.880 37 . A project of a new S-37 fighter combining high striking potential and good “fighting” capabilities was offered during the U. For instance. the first Indian spaceman. 2001 the LCA fighter made its maiden flight and was later named Tejas (Radiance). it is noteworthy that we can see today this scenario implemented: 125 MiG-21UPG entered service of the Indian Air Force partly filling the LCA “gap”.A I R or three decades for a long period of time even in the dynamic field of military aircraft building. In 1991. test-pilot Rakesh Sharma. Its flight tests started no sooner than 2002. first) took place on November 17. the design of the onboard radar for the aircraft was launched.

France.500 kg 2. the Indian Air Force was to receive an aircraft comparable with the best similar foreign jets and exceeding some of their features.700-1. the specified life could be extended. armament. 2007. It was likely to increase the weight again. The opinion of the U.000 kgf (a bigger figure was also announced – up to 9. Exactly a year later.000 km 3. and T-50 fighter programs.300 kg.34). but were good enough for effective fight with up-to-date foreign tactical aircraft.000 kg 1. that “the fighter has a relatively small specified life. 17. which would in theory give the Indian aircraft acceleration and maneuverability features exceeding foreign aircraft of the same class. The fourth pre-series aircraft PV4 initially built as s prototype of the LCA-Navy carrier fighter was further delivered as the second series jet LSP2. The LCA thrust-to-weight ratio with the F404 with a normal takeoff weight was to be 0.9 m 13.91 compared to 0.34 of the Jas 39. the first series Tejas Mk. or the U. The LCA fuel efficiency was 0.100 kgf and had only 1. which would provide a good demand for it on the world market. The Americans said.620 kg. The overall costs of the development of the new fighter.4 billion). the internal fuel tanks of the Indian aircraft. At the same time.0. as well as navy prototypes NP-1 and NP-2. according to advertizing brochures.S..” They mentioned that the design features of the fighter were high enough with the small size and relatively low cost.40 m 38. but when the article was being written the information on LSР-3 – LSР-8 flights was not available.” The ADA chiefs said to clarify the point that the LCA operating life was calculated based on heavy climate conditions and if the aircraft is used in countries with a milder climate. The percent of the composite materials used in the LCA roughly twice exceeded that of the U. The LCA predecessor in the Indian Air Force.500 kg 4.800 kg. was fitted with the R-25-300 augmented turbojet engine with the thrust of 7. which will make it operational within 14 years. as well as some onboard systems. then due to optimism in wide coalplastic use the Indians decreased the weight to the record low for a fighter of the class – to 5. a decision was made to develop a specific engine for the Indian fighter. MiG-21bis (empty weight – 5. The composite materials were supposed to be used in the wing.400 kg of fuel compared to 2.000 km +9. But this fighter was also fitted with some organic electronic equipment.44 compared to 0.87 of MiG21bis. The exceeding weight became one of the crucial problems for the Tejas makers… On April 12. on December 1. 16. Another six series aircraft (LSР-3 – LSР-8) were supposed to be tested until the end of 2008. the Saab JAS 39 Gripen with a structure close to that of the LCA and a similar engine (Svenska Flygmotor RM12 based on the same F404) and a radar was 6.000 million rupees ($1.000-19.40 m2 5.350 kg). but also of Gripen (1. which would compete with fourth generation bypass turbofan engines with afterburner. they said it was “the next generation of F-5 type aircraft. F-35.K. 2006.000 m).200 kgf). experts about the LCA aircraft is also of some interest.8 15.400 kg 38 . Due to the fast tempo of mastering the latest technology in aircraft building showed by the Indians. On June 16. for the development of the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit low observable strategic bomber.800) km.200-16.500-9.S.790 kg of fuel in internal tanks (fuel efficiency also 0. The LCA design speed and height features were slightly worse than those of MiG-21 (Mach 2. The development of the engine called Kavery with the design static thrust in the full afterburning mode was 8. which seamed rather possible.5 8.120 kg more. while at the initial stage of the program the design empty weigh was estimated at 6. Unlike the fighters of other developing nations. which were not installed on previous versions. the U. though. which are powered by engines made in Russia. It is little surprise that the LCA practical range of 2.000 2.250 km). Then an prototype of the PV5 two-seat combat trainer was launched. 2008 it was followed by LSP2 (former PV4). PV1 took off on November 25. In general. F-22A Raptor fifth generation fighter and its Soviet analogue MiG-MFI jet.8. The pre-series LCA PV1 had more carbon-plastic and the weight reduced to 6.270 kg of the Saab aircraft. Having studied the features of the aircraft. and the PV2 followed on December 1.S. the LCA design specifications looked impressive.0/-3. The LCA PV2 had the design composite material figure of 43%. For a comparison.500 kg.S. was to accommodate 2.20 m 4.7 – 1. It should be mentioned that the takeoff weight of empty demonstrator aircraft LCA TD was far from the announced record low figure for the series aircraft and totaled according to the Indian media 6. 2005. which was a 3D data base of detailed information on the configuration and design of the aircraft (a similar approach was first used in the U.. 2005. The construction of the first two prototype vehicles PV1 and PV2 was launched in 1998.000 kg 12. was entrusted to the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) ESTIMATED PERFORMANCE OF SERIES-BUILT TEJAS Wingspan Length with pressure head bar Height Wing surface Empty weight Internal tanks capacity Takeoff weight Air superiority derivative Strike derivative Max combat load Max Mach number Service ceiling Operational range Ferry range Max exploitation g-number 9. So.6-1. empennage and control surface design. that is 1.000 kg. including the engine development expenditures and excluding series production were estimated at 50. and was later used for F-22. which have not started flight tests as of today.1 fighter LSP1 made its maiden test flight. whereas the advanced western fighters had the same feature was much better.WA R P L A N E S million rupees ($730 million at 1992 financial yea’s exchange rate). flight tests of the PV3 started.000 km was to be close to that of heavier fourth generation foreign fighters (F-15 and F-16) and be much better than that of not only MiG-21bis (1.000 m compared to Mach 1.81 of JAS 39 and 0. The traditional natural model of the fighter was replaced by a virtual model.

– multifunctionality. The sum later escalated to $22.A I R in Bangalore. in February 2006 ADA concluded an agreement with the French firm Snecma for support with works on the engine so as to make it flight-capable in 2009-2010. which is also very little compared to other 4+ generation aircraft.000 holes in the airframe inevitable for a usual all-metal design. The use of composite materials saved the necessity of drilling 2. As a result of implementation of some new constructional materials (first of all composite materials) and the latest technologies the duration of manufacturing period of one LCA aircraft had to be reduced from 11 to 7 months. The coal-plastic skin is 2. rudder. All the aircraft are now receiving new and more powerful F404-GE-IN20 General Electric bypass turbofan engines with afterburner (8. singlefin tail unit and one bypass turbofan engine with afterburner installed at the fuselage rear. and air-brakes and undercarriage flaps.1 first Indian series supersonic aircraft. the Indian Air Force concluded a 20 billion rupees (over $445 million) contract with the HAL for the delivery of the first 20 series Tejas aircraft Mark 1 with F404-GE-IN20 General Electric bypass turbofan engines with afterburner. The engine was supposed to power five PV1 – PV5pre-series aircraft. The static stability of the aircraft is reduced. In 2005. as well as good takeoff and landing features. are to be replace in the near future.4-2. The wing is made of composite materials (longerons. The airframe design largely incorporates aluminum– lithium and titanium alloys. F L E E T · 1 . the designers claim. The goal was not achieved either and despite the official continuation of the Kavery program. which seem much more true to life.000 of a similar size fighter with an all-metal riveted design. Let us focus on technical features and design specifications of the Tejas Mk. and MiG-21ML. which is one third of that of similar size fighters (that is about 2 m2). seems to have been finally refused. at least in the mid-term planning. A total of 125 MiG-21bis were upgraded to MiG21UPG(bison) and the rest. HAL ordered a total of 24 F404-GE-IN20 engines costing over $100 million at General Electric in early February 2007. The problems to occur during the final engine adjustments seem to have not been solved.200 kgf) developed on the Indian order with design elements of the Swedish RB12 F404-400 bypass turbofan engine with afterburner and with a digital control system of the F414. 39 . to power demonstration and pre-series jets.300 kgf) were bought in the U. According to announcements made by Indian government in 2005. yaw and pitch. But the works on the engine development started to delay.000 of rivets necessary compared to 10. About 43% of the series-produced LCA airframe is made of composite materials. It is noteworthy. As a result. – all-weather day and night capability. As a result. The light single-engine multipurpose fighter has the tailless aerodynamic structure with a high delta wing variable-swept on the fore edge. the idea of installing the engine at Tejas aircraft. which are both morally and physically outdated. One LCA of the 220 item series was expected to cost the humble $21 million. fuselage skin and air inlets. high rate of turn for bank. are to be as follows: – high maneuverability. keel. as well as the elevons. The agreement also had an option for the purchase of another 20 aircraft. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) According to unofficial data. as well as a reduced use of fasteners with 5.7 mm deep. The bench test of the Kavery bypass turbofan engine with afterburner started in 1996. that the Indian Air Force currently has 19 air squadrons of MiG-21 aircraft produced on a Soviet license. – compatibility of cockpit instrumental equipment with night vision goggles.S. The Tejas planes were planned to start entering the Indian Air Force inventory in 2008 replacing MiG-21FL. though. including 16 single-seat fighters and four twoseat combat trainers. In early 2005. In the 1990s. Flight tests of the bypass turbofan engine with afterburner installed at an LCA were planned to begin in December 2006 and January 2007. an engine of the type developed 96% of the maximum design thrust during tests. another 17 F404-JEF2J3 General Electric engines (7. the LCA series aircraft were to start receiving Kavery engines in 2009. little specific wing load. The use of large coal-plastic panels provided a much lighter design. The aerodynamic structure of the aircraft is claimed to provide minimal wind resistance. – low radar echo. an aircraft of the 220 item series would cost $35 million.6 million. the Indian Air Force were going to buy at least 200 LCA fighters and 20 two-seat combat trainers (while optimist would announce 300 or 500 jets) with the initial combat readiness to be reached in 2003 with the full combat readiness to follow in 2005. The Tejas features. The French firm SNECMA decided to provide technical assistance to the Indian experts. wing ribs and skin). The fighter skin is 90% composite materials. the Indian Air Force seemed to be optimistic about the perspectives of the “national” engine in the first half of the current decade. Despite delayed works.

Radio-electronic warfare and communication means are integrated with other elements of avionics into the joint «Mayavi» (“Fokusnik”) onboard complex. Five external fuel tanks with the volume of 800 or 1200 liters can be placed under a wing and the fuselage. The controls of “Tejes” are made by HOTAS principle that allows to pilot a fighter without releasing control levers.WA R P L A N E S The fighter’s wing has reduced sweep in the root which is made in order to provide the pilot with forward and downward lookout as it is stated.5% 40 . On the seven external joints of a suspension (six under wings and one under PART OF CONSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS (BY WEIGHT) IN LCA AIRCRAFT Technical demonstrator (ТD) Aluminum alloys Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic Steel Titanium Other materials 57. TD1 and TD2 test fighters are equipped with the General Electrics F404-GE-F2J3 (1х7300 kg(f) augmented dual-flow turbojet. In the “air-to-earth” mode the radar carries out district mapping. containers with shoot off heat flares and chaffs) and external containers with active jamming equipment. In the aircraft design a number of additional measures on decrease of radar crosssection are implemented. aimed to shield compressor blades from direct radar tracking. The basis of this complex are two liquid crystal multipurpose full-color display (the size of the screen is 125х125 mm) with a pushbutton frame as well as the wide-angle indicator on the windscreen with holographic optics.0% 6. The Lightning container with thermal and television (with high definition) positioning and targeting equipment as well as laser range gauge and target designator (that provides possibility of application of guided aviation bombs (KAB) and other precision weapon without any external means of illumination) is supposed to be mounted on the special (eights) under fuselage suspension joint. The plane is equipped with a built-in GSH-23L gun (23 mm) with the allowance of am munitionof 220 rounds.0% Pre-production vehicle (PV) 45. In fuselage nose section the X-range MMR (Multi Mode Radar) multipurpose coherent pulsedoppler radar station is placed. As a result the MK1 fighters have been equipped with the US F404-GE-IN20 augmented dual-flow turbojets (8200 kg(f) and were updated specially for the requirements of the Air Forces of India (tropical edition). provides detection of small targets.5% 5.0% 2. The basis of the onboard radio-electronic equipment complex makes a duplicated computer (32 bit. their engagement with onboard weapons. In the twin-seater variant of LCA there are four displays (125х125 mm) as well as two multipurpose control panels which have liquid crystal displays. allocate two most priority targets among them and ensure launch of two “air-to-air” active radar homing missiles for one of the targets. As it was mentioned previously the wing construction is almost entirely made of composition materials. The slit vortex generators are mounted in the wing and fuselage matching joint. laser) Lightning container tested onboard one of LCA aircrafts in 2007. The development of the station was carried out by the HAL company together withERDE (Electronics Radar Development Establishment). Two fixed hemispheric section air intakes are placed on the sides of the fuselage. ADA programming language). however this engine never passed through the test stage. The plane having reduced static stability is equipped with the Martin Marietta four-channel digital electronic remote control system with the higher level of protection against external electromagnetic influences.0% 4. The works on integration of the Israeli helmet-mounted sight-indicator with avionics were conducted. Two speed brakes are situated in its tail-end on both sides of the vertical stabilizer and made of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. The station is capable to track up to 10 air targets. Besides onboard radar (the basic onboard information mean) the aircraft can be equipped with external multichannel (thermal.0% 2. The aircraft’s fuselage is semimonocoque type. Serial planes were supposed to be equipped with the Indian GTRE GTX-35VS “Kavery” engines (1х8500 – 8800 kg(f) with the Douti/Smith KADECU digital control system. Though dimensions of «Ajita» are brought to a minimum that together with the use of composite materials provides it with small optical and radartracking signature. There are both built-in electronic warfare equipment (station of detection of a radar and laser irradiation. The aircraft has modern information and control board of pilot’s cockpit corresponding to the requirements to aviation complexes of «4 +» generation. – Rather wide application of radio absorbing materials and coverings. It was designed on the basis of the Ericsson PS-05/А radar station. placed under the fuselage (it is similar to MiG-21bis fighter). Most of the longerons and stringers. There are no duplicating analogue or mechanical systems onboard. A three-piece wing-slat is situated on the wing leading edge and the wing trailing edge is occupied with two-piece elevons. On the right side of the fuselage at cockpit windscreen a fixed inverted-L type aerial refueling receiver is mounted. The remarkable feature of the aircraft weapon system is presence of both Russian and the western aviation weaponsin its structure. integrated with other elements radio-electronic equipment and weapons via three digital data buses which correspond to MIL-STD-1553B standard. For conducting near air fight the aircraft is equipped witha helmet-mounted visor manufactured in Ukraine.0% 43. television. upper and lower one-piece skin panels which are fastened with screws to the longerons are made of these materials as well. The internal tanks of the aircraft volume is 3. The slit antenna has small weight – less than 5 kg. flight in the terrain avoiding land obstacles fly-by mode.000 liters. – Use of passive sensors and tracking devices.0% 5.0% 30. In the long term the underfuselage fuel tank was planed to be replaced with a conforming external fuel tank of the same volume which provides considerably smaller aerodynamic resistance and smaller radar cross-section. Such measures are: – Giving to channels of the air intake of the bent Y-shaped form.

Х-59МК.1 fighters. RAH-66 «Comanche» or our program called MFI).900 kg) that however didn’t make any remarkable consequences for the program. that program the LCA program nevertheless will be continued and led to victorious end. judging by the media reports. that the serial craft possesses «superfluous weight».e. However the new contracts for the serial production with the ADA agency will be signed only after it is obvious. and the first squadron of 20 LCA combat aircrafts is expected to reach initial battle readiness in 2012. Now it may reach 1500-2000 kg as its best (not exceeding the corresponding parameter of Mig-21). As a result of all these disappointments in the end of 2008 the MoD of India took a serious decisionfor itself to refuse further purchases of the «Tejas» Мк. For such country as India which has ancient cultural traditions. acceleration characteristics and climbing capacity also decreased.30 times nevertheless forced the Air Forces of India reject further purchases of this “overweight” fighter. It has inevitably caused correction of other characteristics of the fighter.1 aircrafts. And more sophisticated missile of the 2nd stage should engage the targets on counter courses at a distance of up to 80 km. It is necessary to say.2 design a number of the improvements directed on optimization of aerodynamic characteristics and weight of a glider will be implemented.1. Maneuverability. one squadron). Probably. Short range missiles with TGS are represented at “Tejas” with the Russian R-73 and French Matra “Majic”. The ASTRA guided missile of the 1st stage should have the maximum range of fire equal to 45 km. 2008 .8.670 to 10. possess underestimated (in comparison with the estimated) flight characteristics and do not correspond even to «minimal requirements of the customer for combat load». The “air-to-surface” weapon includes Russian Х-59МЭ. The Russian R-77 guided missile (till 2010 India should receive 1600 missiles of the kind from Russia) and Indian DRDO ASTRA missile which will go through flight tets in 2011 are themedium range missiles with the active radar homing system. Therefore it is possible to expect.75-0. It is supposed. Replacement of some elements of design. It seemed after many years of delays that LCA at last came to the “home straight” and the Indian Air Forces have received the “national” fighter. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) with too optimistic belief of the developers in the composition materials design of the glider and overestimation of their ability to work with carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. «Shining» is a symbol of appropriation of entire independencein such major for national defense area as military aircraft engineering by the state. these aircrafts became comparable in the criterion of «range – combat load».4.13 times heavier during the period between the initial project and the first serial fighter (from 9. freefalling bombs and bombing cartridges of various types. makes not less than 7000 kg (and probably more).27-1. US or Russian program in the field of military aircraftwould be stopped (enough to remember a sad destiny of US programs of F-111B.e. that after similar delays and technical failures any European.2.1 the weight and the weapons designation on external joints of suspension may probably be essentially reduced. Thus. the acquiring of extra weight appeared during the design of a number of systems also took place. Х-35 and Х-31. By the middle of 2008 two LCA demonstration aircrafts three test aircrafts and two planes of Mark 1 first series had been constructed and transferred to flight tests (six more are under construction).1 aircrafts as it turns out.6-1. However as it turned out the optimism was premature: in the autumn of 2008 referring to the national Ministry of Defense it was declared. In various sources it was specified. that the maximum speed of LCA should be М=1. that it appeared to be rather essential. The craft should carry guided aviation bombs (up to KAB-1500). Probably the weight of the US F-35 grew even more significantly but also did not result in any troubles for the designers. It was reported. As a result the “Tejas” Mk. Probably this value is also maximum for serial «Tejas». the Indian Air Forces and the HAL company work on the sophisticated version of the craft called «Tejas» Мk. Their total time in the air exceeded 1000 hours in December. Combat load of 4000 kg became unattainable for «Tejas» Mk. thrust/weight ratio of the fighter (0. the value of M did not exceed 1. in particular – the chassis 41 . So. The exact figure of the overweight was not pronounced. Most likely. that the weight of empty “Tejas” MK. The first serial fighter according to the Minister of Defence of India should be transferred to the Air Forces in 2011.1 aircraft exceeds the estimated one by 1500 kg. It is possible to assume with a high level of probability. It has endangered the further continuation of the whole program. but also huge political value. it has not only defensive. Excessive weight of the LCA can be possibly explained F L E E T · 1 . serial «Tejas» weighs much more than its Swedish analogue «Gripen». huge human potential and thus some centuries were under a colonial heel. However at “Tejas” Mk. А-12 (АТА). however it is possible to assume. i. having limited the number of serial fighters with 20 units (i. However during tests. For example Mig-29 became 1. However the increase of this major characteristic by 1. French and American manufacture) could be mounted. Though it was decided to abstain from further serial orders of the “Tejas” Mk. that this craft meets the minimal requirements of the country Air Forces. unguided air-to-surface missiles.78 at normal take-off weight) became a little bit less than at MiG-21bison. However for India the «Tejas» aircraft is nevertheless more than just an aircraft. that the growth of the craft’s weight during its designing is quite usual.A I R fuselage) according to the initial projectvarious weapons with the total weight of 400 kg including short and medium range “air-to-air” missiles (of Russian. that in “Tejas” Mk.

By 2004 after many years of delays two MMR test radar stations were constructed. 20-28 targets). The modernized MiGs which got an Indian name MiG-21UPG (sometimes they are called MiG-21bison) started to arrive in the Indian Air Forces in 2002.000 kg(f). Thus the main attention will be paid to struggle for weight decrease and measures for chassis strengthening as well. It is necessary to say. the maximum takeoff weight has made 16. It has a small rectangular antenna. to put it mildly. However «Ajit» “quitted the stage” in 1991 still before the prototype of «Tejas» took off for the first time. practically simultaneously with the India-Russian fighter of the 5th generation. At the same time it is possible to assume that the characteristics of this station (which most probably is just going to be created) will be at the level of the latest European and American onboard radio stations with automatic phased array. In December. allowing to use the guided “airto-air” and “air-to-surface” weapons.2 twin-seater crafts will still be equipped with the F404-GE-IN20 engines (probably. The F414 engine (10000 kg(f) applied in F/A18E/F) or EJ200 (9200 kg(f) installed in EF2000) are expected to allow providing performance of primary requirements of aircraft performance characteristics which were initially required for the LCA craft by the Indian Air Forces. F-16I. The MiG-21Ml and MiG-23MF aircrafts also should be replaced since 2012 not with «Tejas» but with the multipurpose MMRCA fighter: 126 crafts of this type should enter the service (with transfer of the first vehicle to the customer in 2012) following the results of the international competition in which generation “4 +” fightersparticipate such as MiG-35. In particular. The difference is in absence of a fuel 42 .2. The model of this station was shown at the international exhibition «Air India – 2005» in Bangalore. However in 2006 it became known that works on creation of this aircraft radar met serious problems which questioned terms of completion of the program. And the radar station itself corresponded to the requirements of the early 1990s could not be considered modern any more in second half of this decade. simultaneous tracking of eight and engagement of two targets). that the LCA aircrafts first of all will replace the fighters of MiG-21 type and «Ajit».2 with Israeli radar station with automatic phased array called ELTA EL/M-2052 is observed. In 1996 the Russian-Indian contract providing modernization of 125 MiG-21bis fightersto the level of MiG-21-93 has been signed. Thus the modernized aircraft completely kept the high flight characteristics of the MiG-21bis fighter whichnot concede to the characteristics of «Tejas». F/A-18E/F (F-18IN). taking into account the reserve engines should provide manufacture of 125 «Tejas» Mk.2 in the serial configuration will take off not earlier than in 2014. The competition winner-company will delyver 99 engines. In particular. EF2000 and JAS 39 «Gripen». And the information presented in exhibition booklets. The agreement will include an option for additional delivery of 49 more augmented dual-flow turbojets as well. We remind that initially it was planned. Later the MiG-23BN fighter-bombers (entered the service f the India AF after the failure with “Marut”) were added to the list of aircrafts submitted for replacement for LCA. It may have allowed the management of the Indian Air Forces to take easy the regular delay of the LCA program connected with the necessity of creation of a new modification of this fighter. One more basic difference of «Tejas» Mk. the inertial navigation system upgraded with the module of satellite navigation and also the complex of weapons practically identical with the corresponding complex of LCA.2) is supposed also. Besides the basic single-seater variant of the «Tejas»fighter intended for the Air Forces. At the same time the “Tejas” Mk. the working out of other modifications of this aircraft is conducted. i. In January.2). using the option of 20 augmented dual-flow turbojets of this type). This aircraft in general is similar to the single-seater.2 fighters.000 kg. 2009 the ADA agency signed the contract with the European concern EADS.1 onboard equipment and weapons. After 125 MiG-21UPG practically corresponded to the level of generation «4 +» became part of the Indian Air Forces the problem of the 2nd generation fighters replacementbecame much less sharp. more powerful engine chosen in the framework of the international competition. This aircraft equipped with a new onboard radar with automatic phased array has the extended fuselage with the volume of the fuel tanks increased by 40 % and the F414G engine (10.1 can be a new radar complex. and by 2008 the program had been practically finished. «Rafael». modern weapons control system. to 7000-7100 kg). Chronic prolongation of implementation terms of the LCA program made in the mid-nineties the Indian Air Forces begin search of alternative variants of modernization fighter park allowing to support necessary qualitative level before the “national” fighter enters service. Most likely the modernized Swedish fighter «Gripen» NG which started flight tests in 2008 will become the nearest analogue of «Tejas» Mk.WA R P L A N E S (that indirectly testifies to considerable increase of weight of «Tejas» Mk. allowing to fly with supersonic cruiser speed (up to М=1. Presently the possibility of equipping “Tejas” Mk. «Bison» has received new pulse-dopler radar «Kopiyo-21I» with slit antenna. There is a twin-seater training-combat prototype PV5 is under construction. raise certain doubts. the declared ability of EL/M-2052 to detect to 64 air targets simultaneously looks colored (in the US radars AN/APG-77 installed at F-22A this parameter makes. In particular the training-combat twin-seater variant of the fighter was being created. In 2007 the agreement providing rendering to the Indian party help in operational development of the station by an Israeli company Elta was signed. It carries similar to «Tejas» Мк. Modernization concerned basically the onboard radio electronic equipment and weapons of the aircraft. Searching for a new onboard radar station corresponding to the requirements of the present day was begun at the same time.e. on various information. deprived of the disadvantages of the 1st generation fighters. However and these crafts left the service in 2007 not being replaced with a new Indian multipurpose fighter. The weight of the empty aircraft has increased by 400 kg (i. the declared range of enemy’s light fighters detection for EL/M-2052 of148 km looks quite convincingly. The program is calculated for 48 months.2 from Mk. practically not conceding to the MMR station created for LCA (target detection range with radar cross-section of 3 м2 is 57 km.e. that. that very little is known about this station intended for equipping of F-16 class crafts (its weight makes «130 – 180 kg»). providing rendering to the Indian party help in updating «Tejas». However the most essential part of modernization will be installation of the new. and ferry range with full fuel tanks is 4070 km. 2008 the ADA agency planned to direct to the General Electric andEuropean consortium Eurojet Turbo an offer on participation in this tender. After the winner in the tender of engine manufacturers is chosen the modernization of the LCA fuselage for the chosen engine will be performed. Thus the first «Tejas» Mk.

However later the plans were modified and the term of the «Vicrant»’s entering service was prolonged at least till 2015. The works on a three-dimensional thrust vector control with a axe-simmetrical nozzle control system. Thus it is required to add changes in the design of the deck-based aircraft similar to the changes in the design of«Tejas». MCA had to replace the “Jaguar” and “Mirage 2000” aircrafts in 2010s. The power-plant problem may also require resolving: even at transition to the F404 augmented dual-flow turbojet (10. The works on advanced. All these changes have resulted in increase in weight of the glider in comparison with the weight of a coast-based fighter. One of the constructional features of LCANavy which distinguish it from other deck-based fighters is the fuselage nose section with radio transparent cowling of the onboard radar which descends at take off and landing (as it is at Tu-144 or Т-4) by 4 degrees. 2005. Take off of a deck-based fighter should be carried out by means of a launching-ramp habitual to the Indian ship pilots. the length of 252 m and the width (by a flight deck) of 58 m is supposed to be equipped with four gas-turbine engine with total capacity of 108. The ship with the displacement of 37. Taking into consideration the long terms of construction both in the LCA program and in the construction of the Indian aircraft carrier.000 h. On the basis of the “Kavery” engine it was planned to develop an unboosted variant with the increased degree of limbation intended for the perspective training and combat aircraft. reinforced chassis with the increased course of the shockabsorbers ensuring landing to the deck of the Aircraft carrier with a big vertical speed and take off from a launching-ramp. That improves the lookout of the pilot at actions on the aircraft carrier deck. it was supposed to lower radar signature of the fighter essentially by applying some new. and now it is reported. that will inevitably require more increase the wing area. However after the signing of the India-Russian agreement on jointwork on creation of a fighter of the 5th generation.A I R tank for 410 l behind the cockpit instead of which the cockpit of the second pilot is created. The Air Forces of India together with the industry considered also plans of further development of LCA which possibly can be partially implemented in the «Tejas» Мк. Creation of this ship was conducted since the middle of 1990s in the framework of the ADA program(Air Defense Ship).2 project.500 т. It was originally planned. According to the estimations the new engine would allow LCA to fly with supersonic cruiser speed. more powerful variant of the “Kavery” augmented dual-flow turbojet were conducted. however the mixed plane park consisting of LCA-Navy and MiG-29К (the first aircraft of this type have been transferred the Indian Naval Forces in 2008) was being discussed later. 43 . and in 2017 it was supposed to transfer the second practically the same ship to the Naval Forces. At the expense of application of monocrystal blades developed by Metallurgical research laboratory of MoD of India. In particular.000 kg(f) the thrust/weight ration of the deck-based aircraft can appear insufficient to take off with full combat load from a launching-ramp. Apparently. 7th. It was reported.e. In the root of a deck-based aircraft wing the additional rotary surfaces are supposed to be installed. The small size of the fighter allows to do it without the system of the wing folding complicating a design. providing speed of up to 28 knots. according to the Indian experts. As a result the weight of the deck-based craft will grow even more. This system is regular for the majority of other modern deck-based fighters with large dimensions. theМСА program might have lost the urgency for India. and on a digital control system with the full responsibility intended for modernised augmented dual-flow turbojet as well. Essential changes have also been made in the fuel system of LCA-Navy: new means of quick fuel draining for emergency landing to the deck soon after take off are provided. Application of thrust vector control. and the ship project was performed with the assistance of an Italian firm Fincantieri SpA. In 1996 the financing of research works on creation of a larger multipurpose fighter MCA (Medium Combat Aircraft ) on the basis ofLCA were started. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) foreign (including Russian) organizations. However today after an actual failure of the «Kavery» program these plans will hardly be implemented in the near future. The deck-based variant of the LCA fighter is planned to be used from the board of a perspective light aircraft carrierproject «Vicrant» (the second with such a name) laid down at the shipyard of Cochin Shipyard Limited in Cochin on October. At the same time LCA-Navy should have insignificantly changed control system. the aircraft carrier should become operational in 2012. Their construction was essentially prolonged.p. Thus part of fuel is moved to the additional capacities located in other places of the glider. it is possible to assumethat real appearance of LCA-Navy on deck the Indian ship can take place not earlier than in the end of next decade (if it in general will take place). more effective radio absorbing coverings developed in India in the conditions of high secrecy since 1980s. that those fighters will be LCANavy..1 (i. should make about 8.000 kg).. ADS (project 71) has gradually grown to the sizes approximately equal to the sizes of heavy aircraft carrier “Kiev”. without use of catapult. Landing to the deck will be carried out by means of three-barrier arrester and brake hook. The help in creation of the Indian aircraft carrier was rendered by a number of F L E E T · 1 . Initially developed as a light aircraft carrier with the displacement of 25000 т. that NP1 can be presented not earlier than the end of 2009.. it was planned to increase gas temperature behind the turbine to 1850 degrees. that the generality in avionics of the deck-based and land-based fighters makes 99 %. Any characteristics of LCA-Navy were not announced but it is known that the weight of this fighter is 800 kg more than the weight of «Ajita» Mk. that essentially reduced its radar signature. Works on the deck-based variant of the fighter called LCA-Navy are going on. the Indian designers will encounter many difficulties in order to to deny the Americans convinced. In the design of the glider of the deck-based fighter the corrosionresisted materials are used. This aircraft was intended to complement the Su-30MKI heavy multipurpose fighters. allowed to create a variant of LCA without vertical plumage in the long term. that it is almost impossible to make a good deck-based aircraft of an land-based fighter. As a whole the twin-seater at insignificant reduction of range practically completely keeps the potential of the single-seater. In due time together with the pre-series LCA crafts two prototypes of this plane – NP1 and NP2 were laid down. It is supposed that the new Indian aircraft carrier will carry 12 fighters and 12 helicopters. According to initial plans.

It was arranged in spring 2008. Here are just a few of them. EADS. CEO Klaus Heinemann applied his signature at the F respective agreement at Farnborough Aerospace International 2008. for A350. United Aircraft Corporation. yet not through its own leasing arm. Speaking on behalf of owner at the acceptance ceremony in Sheremetievo was Erik Dahmen. Aeroflot distributed press-releases which stated that the deal for this particular airplane was signed in March 2008 (in other words. On December 10 Aeroflot – Russian airlines hold ceremony of meeting the aircraft arriving from Airbus plant in Toulouse where it was built. That work was meant to be additional orders for manufacturing of parts for Airbus mainstream models such as A320 family of narrow body jets.Vladimir Karnozov ARAB CAPITAL FOR AEROFLOT irst brand-new A330-200 entered Russian service in the last month of the past year. The Russian industry was also promised a work share in the A350 project. UAC and Irkut. A380 widebodies and. It seemed that AerCap was very much involved in the cooperative programs between the European and Russian industries. with Wahaflot Leasing 1 Limited based in Cyprus. but via AerCap leasing company. The Kremlin permitted purchase of new European widebody jets in return for its maker’s obligations to provide some work for the ailing domestic industry. which will spend in development a few years. Airbus. He introduced himself as senior director with Waha 44 . The Russian flag carrier placed order for 10 A330s. Airbus accepted this. Therefore. A330. Aeroflot and AerCAap – to name only big players. Aeroflot insisted on replacement of A330s for A350s when the latter becomes available. in the future. Among them there was minister for transportation Igor Levitin. it came as a big surprise when the very first A330-200 for Aeroflot appeared to be… owned by quite another proprietor! When the side VP-BLX landed in Moscow – Sheremetievo. a year after the bigger deal). Many dignities and ordinary people gave their attendance. Shortly after AerCAP agreed to serve launch customer for A320P2F converted freighters – the joint program of EADS. Airbus. The deal on ten A330s for Aeroflot was a part of a bigger one that involved the Russian government. But the minister did not spoke before audience. Why? Reasons were many. But this was not the end for surprises. with a rider of their replacement for A350s.

and 3% – in that of Goldman Sachs. Deliveries of these airplanes started in September 2008. But let us go back to the lessor. These shall complete in April 2010. It holds some 40% in Addax Bank based in Bahrain and has “interests” in Malaysia. Chairman of Waha Capital. The rest belong to public and unnamed private individuals. And this puts them on their guard. The new Aeroflot airplane is actually registered well off the Russian coasts. an Abu-Dabi leasing company. This and other news from the group can be found on their corporate site http://www. finance. it does not for most of the outsiders. Men calling themselves Wahhab’s followers fought against Russian army and law enforcement forces in Northern Caucasus and are answerable for many terrorist activities in Russia’s homeland territories. Little was heard about both of those. Waha Capital calls itself “diversified investment company”. These figures were given by HE Hussain Al Nowais.wahacapital. in the view of completion in February 2009. AeroflotNord signed for six B737-500s. the Abu Dhabi-based and Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange -listed holding company. AerCap’s involvement in Russian programs is longer and greater than Waha’s. an increase of 34 percent over the corresponding period last year. Aeroflot does not seem to have been listening to the authority. Most of aircraft are intended for Aeroflot – Russian Airlines and its subsidiary Aeroflot-Nord. Again. “This shows how important the Russian market is for us”. infrastructure and maritime and logistics sectors will exceed AED 20 billion over the next three years. On 19 October 2008 Waha Capital reported a net profit of AED 40 million for the third quarter of 2008. he had not expected this sort of challenge.A I R F L E E T · 1 . While “waha” and “Wahhab” may sound markedly different to the native dwellers of the Arabian peninsula dwellers. Ireland. this flow is prevailing in certain countries. Hence its registration: VP-BLX. As of late 2008. Deliveries started in December 2008. On 18th February 2008 Waha Capital.ae/. these transactions involved the securitization portfolio AerCo. “waha” means “oasis”). The Russian flag carrier also has on order ten A330s. Five of these aircraft were delivered to the airline customers. of which two were delivered in 2008. First AerCap-owned A320 was delivered to Aeroflot in July 2008. Aeroflot operated six A320 family aircraft. The remaining four aircraft are owned by the securitization portfolio AerCo. There was another reason for Levitin to stay silent. which sparked our interest. US. 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) Capital. announced that its investments in aviation. commented Frauke Oberdieck. Apart from Aeroflot. AerCap has it aircraft placed with SkyExpress (one B737-500) and Transaero (one B737-400). Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab an-Najdi (1703–1792) who started a new flow in Islam. Apparently. To many of the non-natives. including Saudi Arabia. The ministry made it clear that it prefers Russian carriers to put their aircraft in the Russian register and get “RA” registration. Waha Capital traces its history to Oasis Capital (In Arab language. on the islands of Bermuda. 2008. This is one of the reasons why the Russian minister for transportation preferred to keep mum at the ceremony. About 15% of company’s shares are in hands of Mudaba sovereign wealth fund based in Abu Dabi. for which AerCap acts as servicer/marketing agent. for which AerCap acts as servicer/marketing agent. Late last year the company had a total of 24 aircraft contracted for lease with Russian airlines. Below is the interview with Mr. waha sounds similar to the name of the religious leader of the 18 Century. Liberia and Cyprus. real estate. 45 . Remaining five deliveries are due by March 2009. Vice President Corporate Communications with AerCap. Now. perhaps not merely linguistic. Dahmen gave our correspondent at the delivery ceremony on December 10.

On the other hand. Waha is just registered in Abu Dabi. you are right. Both of our companies has a fleet of aircraft that we own and lease to airlines worldwide. it is a narrower market now. Erik Dahmen. It is a stable company. and one A320 which was delivered to Aeroflot two weeks ago. Obviously. It is not so much for Waha. My guess is that AerCap always had an intention to sell their aircraft. real estate. Waha capital. senior director. – Is the A330-200 being handed over to Aeroflot a good asset for your company? – It is a fantastic aircraft and a good asset. Sometimes you see that some of our airline customers are having financial difficulties. We do not have anything else in Russia right now. But these are people we do not have business with. That’s all. But while I am here in Moscow. – What are the Russian airlines you are going to speak to? – I do not really know. I think. The company in question is called AerCap. that will in the New Year sort themselves out. it is not related to the crisis. everybody heard of Abu Dabi and Dubai. fewer investors… so. you use your purchasing Interview with Waha Capital. Well. – Was the sale of Aeroflot aircraft caused by the world-wide financial crisis? – No. Thereby. Aeroflot has a very good name in the market. So. For sure. – How did it happen that AerCap signed the original agreement with Aeroflot for ten A330s. for us. 46 . I have spoken to Transaero. We are based there and have very close ties to the Abu Dabi government and other companies there and the United Arab Emirates. not at all. – Why AerCap sold Aeroflot’s aircraft to Waha? – I do not know exactly why AerCap sold the aircraft. we bought it from AerCap. It has strong shareholders. I am here to find out if there is something more we can do. Our corporate site is http://www. So. that of growth and the future. it affects us. I think that there is a good hope that in the New Year the crisis will loose up a little bit. finance. AerCap bought and leased ten A330s to Aeroflot. could you please tell us about your company? – Waha Capita is Abu Dhabi-based and Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange -listed holding company power. it is a truly Abu Dabi company. including us. But we have an internet site – when people can check this. as well as Sibir. We have spoken to some in the past. with a lease to Aeroflot. we agreed that would buy this aircraft well before the crisis even started. wahacapital. and do a transaction in the view that you in the future will be able to sell the aircraft. for example. but it is the case with some other leasing companies. plus an A320. does it affect your company’s business? – It affects everybody. Banks. As a leasing company based in Abu Dabi. That’s not my company. are optimistic. We like to think that we are part of this process. is a strategic move. it is all round good transaction. part of that strategy. I believe that there are fewer investors and fewer buyers. marketing. These are difficulties with the financial market. We are open for discussions for some more. Our company. but on the funding side. In our discussions with banks we have already found that. we did not buy aircraft directly from Airbus – instead. Smaller people selling. In fact. with a whole intention to make a profit. but we have no transaction apart from those two aircraft we have already purchased. Which.C I V I L AV I AT I O N that invests in in aviation. but the first aircraft was actually provided by quite another leasing company? – I do not know. – Once we touched on the crisis. We bought these aircraft and placed with Aeroflot. We have already found that people are less willing to lend money. Banks that are now having liquidity problems. or having difficulties like many other airlines in the market. – What’s in common between AerCap and Waha? – We are a leasing company and like AerCap. from AerCap. The crisis brings opportunities. infrastructure and maritime and logistics sectors. We are based in the country where there is a lot of strategic views. – It seems that the aviation market contracts. This A330. it brings challenges. the financing side. – Mr. professional. So. too.ae/. what they are doing in the world. Dahnen. it is actually owned by the Arabs. As it always does. Do you agree with this? – Yes. So. purchased one of the A330s. fuel prices etc. it brings opportunities for whose who stay in this business. we are also listed on stock exchange. of course I will to our friend in Aeroflot about opportunities to do more business in the future. And will be more readily available for the leasing companies like us and others. Besides. – How many aircraft has Waha placed in Russia so far? – For the moment Waha has only two aircraft for Aeroflot. – How many aircraft does it have in its fleet? – I do not know what is above the top of my head. For us as a leasing company I think the crisis brings new opportunities. I think that in future transactions you will find that there are fewer banks that are lending money. we are very interested in the Russian market.

A I R F L E E T · 1 . 2 0 0 9 · ( 7 5 ) 47 .

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