)

3

PROJECT MERCURY FAMILIARIZATION MANUAL SEDR I04-3 8Y AUTHORITy OE'_I / -i COPY NO.

___.
MANNED SATELLITETHREE ORBIT CONFIGURATION

CAPSULE

NOTICE: This document contains information

affecting

the national

defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, U. S. C., Section 793 and 794. The transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law.

• :: "
/--.

r,_A_,'_:_o CERTER sPAc_cP_.n

A IRCRA

FT
I NOVEMBER 1961

_ _oRc_, _o._ e_., _._. 6,,_/6-_ 8_o (_oD _ _c co_p,) ....
_i: _•

REVISED I FEBRUARY 1962 REVISED j MAY 1962

REPORT _aDDEt

-ql;_R ]J_4. 133

REVISED 1 Febr, mwy 1962 REVISED i May 1962

i

oF

PAGES

The pages of this Manual currently in effect ere listed below in numerical order. PAGENO. * A-I ISSUE ! May 1962 PAGENO. 3-44 and 3-45 ISSUE Basic

* A-Z * B C
I-I thru 1-3

1 May 19_. 1 May 196_ Basic
Basic

* 3-_ 3-47 * 3-48aria 3-49
3-50

1 May 1962 Basic 1 May 1962
Basic

*
* * * *

1-4
1-5 thru i-7 1-8 1-9 ÷._ru 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 and i-_ 1-23 2-1

i May1962
Basic 1 Feb 1 May Basic i May I Feb 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May 1 Feb Basic ! Feb Basic 1 Feb Basic 1 Feb 1 May 1 Feb Basic 1 May 1 May 1 May Basic 1 May Basic Basic i May Basic i May Basic i May Basic i May Basic I May Basic 1 May 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962

*

3-51

1 May 1962
Basic 1 May Basic I Feb Basic I May 1 Feb Basic 1 Feb ! May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic 1 Feb Basic 1 Feb Basic 1 May Basic 1 May Basic I May Basic i May i Nov I May Basic i May Basic 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 ,:il i_ .,

3-52 *_ 3-53 and 3-54 4-1 4-2 and 4-3 _.--4 * 4-5 _h-,.u h.-8 4-9 4-10 and 4-11 4-12 * 4-13 thru 4-17 * * * * * , * 4-18 and 4-20 _-19 4-21%h'r'U. 4-25 4-26 4-27 ;4-28 4-29 4-30 4-31

_'_|* 2-2 " 2-3 2-4 +.h-r'U 2-6 2-7 thru 2-10 2-11 and 2-12 2-13 2-14 and 2-15 2-16 * 2-17 2-18 thru 2-20 2-21 +_-a 2-25 * 2-26 * 3-1 and 3-2 * 3-3 and 3-4 3-5 * 3-6 3-7

1962 1962 1962 1962 19_ 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962

4-32 ana 4-33
4-34 ÷]_va 4-38 4-39 ;4=!;0 4-41 4-A2 and 4-43 4-4-4 4-;45.hru 4-54 t 5-1 " 5-2 and 5-3 5-4 and 5-5 5-6 and 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 and 5-ii 5-12 5-13 uhru 5-14 5-15 5-16 thru 5-18 5-19

1962
1962 1962 1962

* 3-8 ana 3-9
* * * * * * 3-10 3-14 3-19 3-24 3-31 3"32 3-34 3-35 3-37 3-39 3-40 3-43 _h_u. thru thru thru 3-13 3-18 3-23 3-_0

1 May1_2
1962

* _ 4-55+:_',-u-57 4
* *

1 May 1962
1962 1962 1962 _:;;;: 1962 1961 1962 1962

1962 * 1962 * 1962 * 1962 * 1962

ana 3-33 .rid3-36 an_ 3-38 thru 3-J_2

* 5-2o anl 5-21 6-I +_,'u 6-5 6-7 th.ru 6-].0 * 6-11 7-1 +.hru 7-_ * 7=5 8-1 thru8-3 * 8-4 8-5 thzu8-8 * 8-9
8-10

l May 1962 Basic Basic 1 May 1962 Basic 1 May 1962 Basic i May 1961 Basic 1 May 1961
Basic

* 9-1 and 9-2 9-3
* 9-_ t_u
9-11

I May 1962 i Feb 1962
1 May 1962
Basic

9-10

*

9-12
9-13 an_ 9-14

1 May 196e
Basic

.........

* 9-15*-_u9-17 9-18 * 9-19 9-20
*
*

i May 1962 Basic 1 May 1962 Basic
1 May 1962
1 May 1962

9-21 _u
I0-i and

9-25
10-2

* *

10-3 10.._ _
10-6

1o-5

Basic 1 May 1961
Basic

10-7 _ 10-9 10-10 * 10-11thru 10-16
II-i and 11-2

1 Maz 1961 Basic ]. May ].962
Basic

*

11-3_
11-5 ii-7

11-_

I May ].962
Basic

* _-6 * 1!-8
Ii-9 -<

z May 1962
Basic

1 May 19_Basic

* 11-10
11-11

iMay1962
Basic

* •":::'_' ;;;;--:'

11-12 ana 11-iz_ 11-15and 11-16 * 11-17 11-18 * ii-19_u
11-26 end

]. May 1962 Basic I May Basic 1962 I May 1962
Basic

* Inserttheserevisedand adde_ pa@es. Destroysupersededages p
in accordance with existin6

11-25
11-27

*

11-28 an_ 11-29 11-30 ehrU11-35

I May 1962

security regulations.

* 11-36an_ 11-37 * Le-Iand 12-2 12-3 *_u 12-17 * 12-18÷_'u 12-20
. 13-i thru 13-52

Basic 1 May ].962 I May 1962 Basic I May 196.2
i May 1962

---

&,

_lSEt_

1 February 1962

,_.L_,,,. ,,,,ou,,

I_a_O_T SEDR 104

Ev,seo i Ma 1962 7

nODS 133

_ .......

The purpose of this document is to present a clear, operational description of the various capsule systems and major components. Two types of.usage for the manual are visualized. The first is an orientation-in° doct_nation type document, The second use is as a reference document containing relatively detailed information on all systems and components. The manual is divided by capsule systems. The first part of each section is devoted to the description and operation of "specification compliance capsule" systa_. Capsule number 19 is the specification compliance capsule. It is a maturedthree orbital capsule and is representa_ive of "the Mercury program. Immediately following the specification compliance system coverage is the Test Configuration Capsule Coverage. This area compares the other capsules to the specification compliance capsule or to a prior capsule. The capsules are compared on a, "llke specification compliance capsule except as follows" basis. The Test Configuration Capsules are compared to the

".)

specification compliancedepending system or to any capsule on which reference other preceding capsule causes the least duplication. The reader will not be required to refer to more than two prior capsules systems iucluding the specification system. Separate information is provided for each capsule test configuration, when the _n_crmation is the same for each capsule it will not be repeated. All capsules w_1 be covered in this m_ual for one revision after the particular capsule has been launched successfully. After that date they will be dropped from future issues. Capsules rmmbered 2, 3, 4) 5) 6) 7, ii and 14 are covered in the i February 1961 issue of SEDR lob revised I August 1961. Capsule number 8 is covered in the I November 1961 issue of SEDR 104. Capsule No. 13 is covered in I November 1961 issue of SEDR lob revised 1 February 1962. Capsule No. I0 is an orbital training simulator and altitude chamber test unit, The configuration of the capsule is subject to change during various phases of the test program; therefore, this capsule is not described in this manualo Capsules .umbered 12, 15, 17, and 20 have been assigned an eighteen orbit mission and will be covered in SEDR I04-18. All capsule configurations are not finalized as of this printing, additional i-_ormation will appear in subsequent revisions to this document, reflecting changes as they are incorporated in the capsule.

._iiiiii_
.....

/

¢

SECTION
- :,.::..

INDEX PAGE

SECTION I
INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................

1-1
2-1

SECTION

II

MAJOR STRUCTURALASSEMBLIES ..........................................................

SECTION III
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM .................................................... 3-1 4-1

SECTION IV
STABILIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM.......................................................

SECTION V
SEQUENCE SYSTEM, LAUNCH THROUGH RETROGRADEOR ABORT .......... . ....... 5-1

SECTION
,

VI
6-1

ESCAPEAND JETTISON ROCKET SYSTEMS ...............................................

SECTION VII
POSIGRADE ROCKET SYSTEM................................................................ 7-1 8-1 9-1

SECTION

VIII

RETROGRADEROCKET SYSTEM..............................................................

SECTION IX
SEQUENCE SYSTEM, LANDING THROUGH RECOVERY.................................

SECTION X i
ELECTRICALPOWERAND INTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS.............................. 10-1

SECTION SECTION

Xl
SYSTEM ................................................................ 11-1

COMMUNICATION

XII
AIDS .................................................................. ..... 12-1

NAVIGATIONAL

SECTION XlII
:_;::" INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM......................................................... ...... 13-1

1-1

_"-_

SECTION

i

INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION CHANGED TO

_Ut"! A((lt:ltn

_-_, /

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

SPIKE

._........,:: ,_

ESCAPE RCCKET_

PYLON JETTISON

PYLON

"5
FIGURE 1-I- CAPSULE PRELAUNCH -CONFIGURATION
•PM,45-2C :

.ove ber
REVISED

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI REPORT _-J_R lO_

_SVlSED

_oma.

1_

I.

INTRODUCTION

TO PROJECT

MERCURY

;_;;;;_;:'::" i-i. .:.y..

MISSION

DESCRIPTION of man venturing fiction" into space has shifted quite recently Scientific and recent Today, space

The possibility from the fantasy progress

of "science but

to the re,lm man's ties

of actuality. to the earth,

has slowly

surely

loosened

technological flight

advances

have promised within

to release

him completely. capabilities.

is considered by

well

the range

of man's and Space

Tnltiated flight program

the National

Aeronautics Through

Administration, design many will

a space

is now underway. Aircraft

the

research, and their that

and production

facilities an _merlcan is Project f_

of McDonnell ";ill venture Mercury.

Corporation

sub-contractors, put _b_tmthere

into space.

The program

Fundament_lly, m-n_ed capsule

the mission

of Project orbit

Mercury about

is the projection the study

of a of man's and

into a semi-permanent flight,

the earth, safe return

capabilities its occupant sion, while

in space

and the subsequent

of the capsule that

to the earth's simply stated,

surface.

It is i_edlately scope

obvious

the mis-

is of tremendous

and magnitude, The date information

and requires contained in

exceptional this

coordination

of manpower mill

and facilities. detailed

and succeeding

sections to

provide

on the equipment

and procedures

utilized

accomplish

that mission.

1-2. .... 1-3.

CAPSULE General

DESCRIPTION

See Figures cally /-_ a conical

i-I,

1-2,

1-3 and I-_. conta_ng orbit,

The Project

Mercury

capsule

is basi-

structure launch,

a pressurized

area suitable

for human The

occupation "oase"

during

and recovery

phases

of the mission. to the ATLAS

of the cone

contains

provisions

for attachment

booster,

_,_,_ORT S_O_ 104
MOO[L 133

_T.LOUiS. M'SSO_

RE_',S_O 1_E.UAR_ 1962
REVISED 1 MAY 1962

............

1

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 13 3

ZI85.45

Z210.58

Z241,53

Z272.48 ESCAPE

Z303.43 PYLON

Z354.05

Z358.05

;_389.o5

Z 123.09

ZI46.126

I / i i t

/-'-"

F4.5o

Z7ZSO

_94.01

"7104.50

ZI3&_O

ZI61.71

2r_4.57

,, \
LXI2DO

Z209,07

.

RX 12.00 I

....

,

I

...... "',

8.75

"Z52.69 ATLAS

Z 103.4-4

S E CT iON _,

ADAPTER

FIGJ.)_E I-3

STATIONS

DIAGRAM

_,t,5-ms

REPORT MODEL ,

SEDR 104 ]33

ST.LOUIS

.

REVISED REVISED

.,.=::::::::,

\ \

REVISED REVISED

REPORT MODEL

"SEDR 104 '133

Y
" • ,_.Z.;iil +

NORMAL

ORBITAL FLIGHT

ROLL Z
÷

X

"_

PITCH

X

""-,-_J'"

Z

+

F_

y YAW

PITCH
PITCH tS DEFINEDASTHE ROTATION OF THECAPSULEABOUTITS X-AXIS THE PITCH ANGLE IS ZERO DEGREES (0 °) WHEN THE Z-AXIS LIES IN A HORIZONTAL pLANE. USING THEASTRONAUTS RIGHT SiDE ASA REFERENCE, POSITIVE PITCH ISACHIEVED BY COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION FROM THE ZERO DEGREE IO*) PLANE. THE RATE OF'THIS ROTATION IS THE CAPSULE PITCH RATE AND IS POSITIVE IN THE DIRECTION SHOWN AS ARE THE CONTROL MOVEMENTS WHICH CAUSE iT., THE CONTROL HANDLE MOVES TOWARD THE ASTRONAUT AND THE POSITIVE + PITC_" REACTION JET FIRES. i

ROLL
ROLL IS DEFINEDAS THE ROTATION C_THECAPSULE ABOUT ITS Z-AXIS. CLOCIO,VISE ROTATION OF THE CAPSULE, ASVIEWED FROM BEHIND THE ASTRONAUT, IS CALLED RIGHT ROLL AND IS DEFINED AS POSITIVE (+). TH S MOVEMENT IS iNITIATED BY MOVING THE CONTROL HANDLE TO THE RIGHT THEREBY FIRING THE POSITIVE (÷) ROLL REACTION JET. WHEN THE X-AXIS OF THE CAPSULE LiES iN A HORIZONTAL PLANE, THE ROLL ANGLE IS ZERO DEGREES (0"),-

ACCELEROMETER YAW
YAW IS DEFINED AS ROTATION OF THE CAPSULE ABOUT ITS Y-AXIS. CLOCKWISE ROTATION OF THE CAPSULE, WHEN VIEWED FROM ABOVE THE ASTRONAUT, IS CALLED RICHT YAW AND IS DEFINED AS POSITIVE (+). THIS MOVEMENT IS PRODUCED BY POSITIVE CbNTROL MOTION. THE CONTROL HANDLE IS ROTATED CLCCk'WISE (AS VIEWED FROM ABOVE THE ASTRONAUT) AND THE POSITIVE (+) YAW REACTION JET FIRES. YAW ANGLE IS CONSIDERED ZERO DEGREES (0") WHEN THE CAPSULE IS IN NORMALORBffALPOSITION (BLUNT END OF CAPSULE FACING LINE OF FLIGHT). WHEN TH_ POSITIVE Z-AXIS OF THE CAPSULE IS DIRECTED ALONG THE ORBITAL FLIGHT PATH (RECGVERY END OF CAPSULE FACING LINE OF FLIGHT), THE YAW ANGLE IS 180%

POLARITY WITH RESPECT TO GRAVITy

WITH THE CAPSULE IN THE LAUNCH POSITION THE Z-AXIS WILLBE PERPINDICULAR TOTHE EARTH*S SURFACEAND THE Z-AXISACCELEROMETER WILL READ +I "G'*. WITH THE CAPSULE IN AN ATTITUDE SUCH THAT THE Z AND X-AXIS ARE PARALLEL TO THE RARTH'S SURFACE AND THE ASTRONAUT IS IN A HEAD UP POSITION, THE y-AXIS ACCELEROMETER WILL READ +I "G". _' WITH THE Z AND Y-AXIS IN A PLANE PARALLEL TO THE EARTH'S BURFACE AND WITH THE RIGHT SiDE OR THE ASTRONAUT UPt THE X-AXIS ACCELEROMETER WILL READ -_I "G".

:

..... "_"::':':"

FIGUREI-5

CAPSULE POLARITY

ORIENTATION

WITH

RESPECT TO ASTRONAUT
pM45.-233

REPORT SEDR lOk MODEl 133

,

REVISED REVISED

through use of for

special adapters.

The "apex" of the Cone contains the devices

_--

recovering the capsule at the conclusion of a mission, and equipment which

would allow the astronaut to escape in the event of an emergency during the launch phase. Provided in the capsule proper are systems which regulate

environment, flight attitude, data recording and telemetering, and capsule recovery. When in place on the nose of the booster, the small end of the capsule is up. The Astronaut is on his back in a sitting position. During launch and

acceleration phase, the Astronaut faces forward with respect to capsule flight path. When the booster-capsule combination reaches a specific altitude, attiThe booster slows, and returns to the The Capsule is stablized momentarily,

tude and velocity, they separate.

earth's atmosphere _here it is destroyed. then rotated 180° about its yaw axis.

Throughout the remainder of the flight,

whether orbital or ballistic, the Astronaut faces aft with respect to capsule flight i-4. 1-5. path. Cabin Arrangement The equipment wltb_inthe capsule cabin interior, Figure i-6, is arranged so that all operating controls and emergency provisions are accessible to the Astronaut when in the normal restrained position. Cabin equipment basic_l!y

consists of an Astronaut's support couch, a restraint system, instrument and display panels, navigational aids, flight and abort control handles, food and water supply, waste container, survival kit, cameras, and electronic equipment required to operate c._-_,mication system. 1-6. Support Couch The Astronaut support couch (Figure 1-7) is designed to firmly support the Astronaut's body during the capsule launch, re-entry and landing phases. _

DATE'_OV,MB_196, Mc, DONNELL_ _._
REVISED | FEBRUARY 1962 ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI REVISED 1MAY 1962

OA_E
REPORT MODEL

1-_
SEDR104 133

FIBURE I-6 CABIN EQUiPMENT(ShffET

Of Z)

PM4S-_s-_I

,.,o
R M C i_,..'--_ IR 104 133

Mc, DONNELL_ __
ISSOURIj _

oA_
REVISED REVISED

1_0_E_.,1961
I FEBRUARY 1962 I MAY 1962

FIGURE I-6 CAEblN

EQUIPMENT

(_.SHEET Z.OF2)

_45-m..-_.

o_E
REVISED REVISED

,_OVE_,ER,96, MC'DOiN_NELL_fi __
1 FEBRUARY 1962 ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI 1MAY1962

PA_E
REPORT MODEL

,-11
SEDR 104 133

CO_C_

716C_E

1-7 BA%\C _JIS_IO_ [QUIPM[_I

l l llllmmD'

REPORT--_._L_.QL_ MODEt i'_'_

_IIJ_r_-_LOUI$ ,.gMI$_OUR _ _-_. _" ---_I-

REVISED 1 _Y REVISED

1962

_e ca_e

support peak

couch

also

protects

the

Astronaut possible adjacent

from

loss

of caps_e

consciousness _ct. b_he_. to

during The :_i_i:. :.

acceleration is cent_lly

and from located of

_J_Ju__y at to the

support The

couch is

large material,

pressure

couch

constructed

a crushable, a comfort

honeycomb liner. body

bonded couch

a Fiberto

glass

shell,

and lined with of a specific flight.

The support

is molded support

the contour during

Astronaut's

to provide

maximum

body

capsule

The couch

is fabricated entrance hatch.

in sections

to enable

couch

installation 1-7.

through

the capsule

Restraint

System restrain system (See Figure couch during 1-8) is designed maximum to firmly re-

_he Astronaut's strain the Astronaut system

in the support consists

capsule

deceleration. strap, a

The restrain lap belt, or release

of shoulder

and chest straps, straps

a crotch

and toe guards. the Astronaut, left

The shoulder by a harness

may be adjusted handle,

to restrain forward strap

reel control couch. torso,

located

of the upper firmly straps

side of the support lower

The lap belt and the chest Be

and crotch

support restrains

the Astronaut's the Astronaut's

strap and shoulder restrain the

upper

torso.

toe guards

Astronaut's the abort couch 1-8. Be a left _

feet.

_he Astronaut's control

hands

and arms near

are restrained the ends

by gripping

and flight rests.

handles,

located

of the support

Instrmnent capsule console, in fron

Panels

(See Figures

1-9 And i-i0) are located on a main panel instrmnent is located panel,'

instruments and a right

and controls console.

The main support

instr_nt

......

directly

of the Astronaut's to the periscope scope forms

couch, The main control

as viewed panel

by the Astronaut, so that

and is attached the Periscope

housing. the lower

is designed

display

section

of the instr_m_nt

DA_E1.0VEMBER196' MC'DONNEL_L_ _,_
REVISED I FEBRUARY 1962 ST.LOUIS REVISED 1MAY1962

_E.
REPORT MOOEL.

1-1_
SEDR 104 133

NOTE

- \\

FlraURF__ i-6

ASTRONAUTS

RIL__TRA!kiT SySTE_i),4 <

.

PM4_-_,0

DA_E '_OVE_BER196, M_,DONNELL__._ _
REVISED REVISED 1FEBRUARY962 1 1 MAY 1962

PAGE
REPORT MODEL

,-,s
SEDR 104 133

,...¢;

°

NOTE
[_ CAPSULE 16 AND 19

ILA-coN.j
gEAOY OFF

FIGUREI-10

LEFT CONSOLE

(SHEETI

OF 2)

PM4S-IGI

_,

PA_E
REPORT MODEL

1-16
133 SEDR 104

M_'DONNE__ C'___'__ DAT_,I*E_UA*_,9_2
ST. LO_UJS. MISSOURI _ I - r ,_ _-_ REVISED REVISED I MAY 1962

.::::_:::

EU_R _NOR_

_/[M_R02

"'_TEMP

SAFETY PiNS

(TYPICAL

ALL CAPSULES},,_

ECS CLOSULRLEcCAOpUPt_EN ?

E_ER

_

NOR_

CAPSULES t6

_

) _'_ER,_lvi °2 5

3 _,

1I

SUiT TEMP

7 1

5 ,7111,/3 n

£

E_ER _

NORM

CAPSULE
SUiT TEMP COOLER

18

CAPSULE

19

FIGURE 1-10 RIGHT

CONSOLE

(SHEET 2 OF2}

mATE
REVISED.

1 November

1961

__
--7"---''ST. _--_ LOUIS ----"_- MI=URI 3,

_2_.,

PAGE
REPORT

1-17
_DR 10_

,EVlS=-.

Hoo"-

133

_........

panel.

Navigational panel. upper

instruments Environmental section

are located system

in the left

and center

sections

of the m-ln in the right

indicators

and controls

are located indicators of the panel

of the main

panel.

Electrical in the lower on the left

switches, right

and c_-_,_unlcation system main panel. The left

controls

are located is located

section

hand console

side of the main

and is arr_n=ed in the fully and warm1-= lization hand

to provide

accessibility

and visibility includes

to the Astronaut a telelight

when

restrained panel,

position.

The console .ha controls control

sequence stabi-

and indicators

for the capsule and land_-£ hatch_

automatic

control

system,

environmental the capsule

system.

The right for

console,

located

below

entrance pole,

includes

controls

the environmental left of observation

control window, suit. Aids

system. enables

A window

located

adjacent

and to the in the

the Astronaut

to actuate

controls

_,11y pressurized 1-9. Navigational The capsule

is equipped

with navigational relative

aids

and instruments or landing. earth path

to enable The naviga-

the Astronaut tional aids

to compute consist

factors

to his flight clock,

of the perlscope_ rate indicator of th@

satellite

indicator, aids are

altimeter, located panel. i-i0.

angular

.,a the map Astronaut,

case.

All navigational to the main

directly

in front

on or adjacent

instrument

Controls Capsule controls escape are located forward of each ar_ rest of the support of the support couch left couch.

._:_;.,
: \_j:(

An emergency rest. vent

handle

is located

forward

arm

The escape inadvertent a manual right

_--_le actuation

is utilized

to initiate system, handle,

the abort the escape

sequence. handle

To pre-

of the escape control

is provided

F-

with couch

lock.

The manual is utilized

located forward attitude

of the support capsule in

arm rest,

to control

flight

of the

REPORT EDR 104 S

_

_{S_
' _*r_

_
J_

MODE, in
the event the autom_tic system failed.

____'i;__
X J

REVISED1 February REVISED 1 May 1_2

1962_

1-11.

Food, Water and Waste Storage All capsules will be provided with food and _ter sufficient for _ae

:_;:.-_

partlcular mission. 3,000 calories.

(See Figure 1-6).

The food will provide approximately

A _ter

supply of approximately 5.5 pounds is provided in a A mouth operated valve attached

flexible container, packaged with the llfe raft.

to the container and secured to the top of the life raft package allows the astronaut to obtain a drink in flight. interior of the entrauce hatch. 1-12. Survival Equipment The survival kit (See Figure 1-Ll), stowed at the left side of the couch, contains the following: 1 Water Container 1 LifeRaft 1 Desalting Kit (for 8 pts.) i Shark Repellant Package 3 Dye Markers I Tube Zinc Oxide i First Aid Kit I Bar Soap 3 Morphine and AntiSeasickness Injectors i Sun Glasses and Case i SignalMirror i SARAH Rescue Beacon I Food Container I Container of Matches i Whistle I Nylon Cord (iO ft.) i Signal Light i Pocket Knife A waste container is located on the

.....

A knife is located in the cabin for the astronaut's use_ s_Jacent and to the left of the observation window. 1-13. Cameras

A flashlight is located

_:_:.. ....

(See Figure 1-6.)

One 16 ram. camera is mounted in the lower left corner of the main Instrt_nent panel for viewing the astronaut's head and shoulders. A second 16 ram. camera is couch to record instrument

positioned above and to '_S

REVISED REVISE_

1 Febz,_a__'y i_62

.T. Loumeo. ,m.oum

REPORT. SEDR 104
MOD EL,--,_

panel and at

read/m_. pro_ed

These

cameras

operate orbit.

launch

and descent,

intervals

during

1-14.

BOOSTER DESCRIPTION The launch vehicle, or booster, used to project the Project Mercury capsule

into orbit is the ATLAS "D" missile. of the missiles.

Capsule adapters replace the nose cones

The capsule 'Base" is then attache& to the adapter _ith a At the proper time, explosive bolts in the cl-mp ring The adapter remains with the booster.

se_mente_ clamp ring.

are fired, releasing the capsule.

1-15.

_ULE

RECOVERY

A normal mission is intended to terminate with the capsule l_nding in a predetermined area of the ocean. Under normal circ,_atances, ships and hell-

copters will be stanai_g by with provisions to pick up the buoyant capsule ._Immediately after landing. Considering the possibility that the capsule could

land in other than the intended area; numerous devices, both electronic and visual, are automatically energized or deployed at the time of lan_ing to aid in locating the capsule. Depending upon the _eather, possible capsule damage

and the Astronaut's physical condition, etc., he may eltherstay in the capsule, or take to the life raft which is provided as part of the survival equipment.

l-Z6. CREW
1-17. Requirement s The capsule crew consists of one man representinG the peak of physical and mental acuity, train_g ::;;_;_: and mission indoctrination. Much more will be required

of the crewman than is norm_11y required of the modern aircraft test pilot. The cre_ must not only observe, control and co,_ent upon the capsule system, upon his own reaction while in a

but must scientifically observe and co_ent new,strange environment.

PA_E
REPORT MODEL.

1-20
SEDR 104 133

MCDONNELL

O"_E 1_OVE'ER196'
REVISED 1 FEBRUARY 1962 REVISED 1MAY 1962

//_

!

••

\

"IX %;i-if"

_i r

i_.ul_vl_,_,t.v._-c

./I

t-I'_ J') \ ,',M.._<_,

\

._v,s_o nsv,ssD.
I-i_. Selection

MCDONNELL sT.-ou,s 3,M,SSOUm

._.o_r ._._R 1n_ _oo_._ 133

From the large number relatively extensive possesses of this 1-19. _.all group testing

of men who volunteered selected. which

for Project

Mercury 3 a has undergone that he

has been

Each man

in the group conclusively

and exRm_natlon

has proven

the intelligence, type.

stam!ua

and mental

stability

required

for a project

Tr-_n_n_ An extensive training personnel program is being with conducted Project for the Astronauts The program components of each and will

other

designated detailed that

associated

Mercury.

provide a _ner

descriptions

and operation

of all capsule

in such cc_ponent will

the trainee

willl 5_I ly understand a particular decisions type,

the function

and the reasons be held
v.- :,)

for selecting current design

design. can be made

Supplementary known.

briefings

so that

Initial

training

F-

will

be of the aids

"group discussion" and equipment

progressing

to procedural

trainers. to achieve

Traln_ng

will be designed of proficiency will be

to train

the Astronauts

the highest procedures. a.

attainable

degree

in all normal sought : in the general

and emergency

The following

objectives

The Astronaut and plans

will be indoctrinated program. familiar with

purpose

of the space c_pletely Emphasis

b.

He must be procedures. normal

all normal

and emergency so that

will be placed

on this point, automatlcally.

procedures

are performed

_Imost

.......... _¿¿_ _

c.

He _ust mental

be indoctrinated and physiological

as far as possible aspects

in the environ-

of the mission. utility value he must and

d.

Since

the Astronaut

hlmself

has the highest

and is the most be

flexible

component

in the capsule,

able to handle

the normal

work load

in the capsule

REPORT ,__.,]I_ I0_ MODEL 133 still The completion function as an efficient trai_n_ scientific program will observer. assure

REVISED REVISED

of an adequate with respect

a far higher increase

level

of reliability probability 1-20.

to crew function, mission.

and of course,

the

of a successful

Physiological To minimize

Preparation of the Astronaut having to pass w_]l body waste be maintained and o

the possibility

solids for

for the duration

of a mission, prior

strict dietary This will

control allow

a considerable buildup

period

to flight.

a nutritional

physical upon

in anticipation physical

of the strlngent

demands

which

will be placed ss_e tlme 3 and ellm_na-

the Astronaut's the type

and mental which

facilities, remain

and at the

control tion

of solid

waste

will

in the digestive type

systems.

Finally,

low residue

or non-residue

food will be supplied

for the Astronaut's 1-21. Aercmedical it is extremely and recorded monltorin_ contribute respiration to register Astronaut's will attach dur_n_

consumption

durin 6 flight.

......

Instrumentation important all phases that certain bio-physical functions be measured will assist in

of the mission. acuity

Such measurements fittness,

the Astronaut's significantly

mental

and physical research. tranducers

and will microphone, are used

to aeromedlcal temperature physical

The blood

pressure

rate and volume, the Astronaut's body

and the _._ pickups are routed

reactions. extend

Leads

from the wiring

to term_nnl s which

through

the suit.

Capsule

to the suit at these facilities derived

points.

The instrumentation site prior

will be accomplishe( the pressure tape recorder
p

_n laboratory The data thus

at the launching

to donning

suit.

is supplied

intermittently equipment.

to the capsule

and continuously

to the telemetry

REVISED 1 1;'a'm.na_-y REVISED ]
f

]_

sv. uaum. M,noum

REPORT. _ MODF! 133

1Ok.

_y

30(g_

1-22. -._;_i_;_;;

Astronaut' s A_arel The Astronaut's appe_el will. consist of & completely and .boots. is pressurized Each Oxygen, suit for be enveloping pressurized

suit with helmet,

suitable

undergarments) interior plate of his to air

The helmet although is as and to the

face plate normal specially to temperature, pro-

can be opened while cedure fitted pressure For times. will be to

the capsule the the is face use

keep in

closed. suit. the

Astronaut regulated breathing

and trained and humid/ty, c_ort,

supplied

ventilation. suit at all

Astronaut

ventilating

should

supplied

1-23.

TEST CONFIGURATION Capsule

CAPSULE

NO. 16 AND 18 the same as the Specification Compliance

16 and 18 are basically

. .

Capsule.

:,...:;

<J

DATE REVISED REVISED _

1 NOVEMBER 1961

M_'DONNELL_L _ _,_-_
ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI

PAGE REPORT MODEL

1-25 SEDR 104 133

/

j--_

LEF_T CONSOLE FIGURE t-13 RIGHT AND LEFTCONSOLES (CAPSULES 8)
P_4SI£OB

!
i

'_
i

REPORT SEDR 10_. MODEL 133 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Capsule-booster Capsule

S1'.

REVISED REVISED

separation. systems.

end escape

.,_:=..;;

Environmental control system. Automatic stabilization system. Land4ng re-entry and recovery system. •

Posigrade and Retrograde rockets systems. Instrumentation and telemetry systems. objectives will be achieved:

In addition the follow_ a.

Demonstrate the ability of the capsUle and ground complex to initiate an acceptable re-entry after an orbital flight.

bo

Demonstrate the ability of ground range stations to perform the necessary monitoring and control functions during flight.

c.

Establish the adequacy of the location and recovery procedures associated with re-entry.

.-

d. e.

@_a!Ify the capsule primary systems for exit and re-entry flight. Determine the capsule I_,I I-scale motions and afterbody heating rates during re-entry.

f.

Evaluate the capsule environment for a one orbit flight, using the crewman s_--_lator. This test will determine the capsule's envirn_-_.ntal systems capabilities, for human _n_Abitation during the entire mission from pre,launch through the post-landlng phase.

1-26.

Crewman Sin_lator The support couch is not inst,]led in Capsule No. 8. Instead, an instrument The crewman

pac_e si_O_tor

and a cre_,_

simulator are _netalled.

(See Figure i-7.)

is a box-llke structure conta_nlng a carbon dioxide t_-_, water tnn_j This device simulates the carbon dioxide

strip heaters_ valves and controls.

DA_
REVISED

1 _ovember

ig61

__
ST. LOUIS 3. MISSOURI

mAGI
REPORT

1-27 SEDR 133

104

RaVlSEO

MOO_

OUtput, simulator _ the

perspiration

output, prior

and oxygen to flight

consumption

of a human

being.

The when

is calibrated special

and is activated is energized.

automatically

capsule

instrumentation

pac_,ge

1-27.

Instrument Capsule

Panels panels are slmllar for Capsule to the Specification No. 8 instrument Cca_llance configura.

No. 8 instrument See Figures

Capsules. tlons. 1-28.

1-12 and 1-13

panel

Food_ Capsule

Water

and Waste

Storage food, water and waste containers.

No. 8 will not contaln

1-29.

Cameras _he camera Camera, to installation an Earth in Capsule No. 8 will consist of an Instrument Camera.

Observer • (Refer

and Sky Camera Section XIII).

and a Periscope

Observer's

Instrumentation

1-30.

TEST Capsule

CONFIGURATION

NO.

9 CAPSULE to the specification capsule except in the follow-

No. 9 is similar Refer to Section

ing _s. 1-31.

II for structural

differences.

Mission Capeule

Description No. 9 Mission flight will be an Atlas, Three Orbit Flight. The primary and

obJecti_

of this

will be aeromedical environment.

instrumentation This flight achieve

of the prlmate w_11 the further follow'hE

the primate's the systems :

behavior listed

in a space

qualify

in Paragraph

1-25 and in addition

objectives .... a.

Evaluate

the effects

on a primate during

-ha test prelaunch

the capsule period

environment the

for satisfactory post z b. la_Jng

conditions

through

phase

of the mission. the heating effects of the launch and re-entry

Determine phases

in detail

on capsule

environment.

REPORT_ MODEL

1- 8
133 c. Demonstrate shield d.

Mc'DONNE
the _ntegrity of the

%_P.Z_

DATff

REVISED REVISED

1November

lq61

capsule

structure, re-entry

ablation from orbit. from orbit.

-_

and afterbody the capsule

shingles motions

for a normal during

Determine

a normal

re-entry

1-32. Support Couch
The primate designed during support couch utilized support in Capsule No. 9 (See Figure primate

i-7) is

to contain, an 'mm"nned to test

sustain capsule

_n_

a medium-slzed contains capsule

(ch4mpanzee) panel and is

mission.

The couch during

an instrument flight.

controls

the primate's

reactions

This unit

essentially supports panel,

a two-section

container.

The aft section the forward

is the actual contains

couch that

and restrains

the primate;

section

the instrument occupant,

controls, just

and observation

window. launch.

The primate A Hoist

couch,

including packed

is installed

prior to capsule

Assembly

in a plastic assembly recovery

bag is attached is used

to the primate in removing

couch

support

structure.

This hoist

.....

to assist

the primate

couch

from the capsule" during

operations. is accessible 1-33.

It is located through

aft of, and to the hatch

right of the primate's

couch and

the escape

opening.

Instrument The instrument

Panels panels on Capsule No. 9 are the same as used on the

Specification 1-34. Food_ Capsule primate.

Compliance Water No.

Capsule. Storage food

(See iFigure 1-9. )

and Waste have

9 will

and water

dispensers

within

the couch

for the

The waste

containers

are not

installed.

1-35. Cameras
Capsule Also an Earth of the earth No. 9 has an Instrument and Sky Observer and sky through Camera Panel and Primate Observer Csmeras installed. a portion ....

.....

is installed

which

will photograph

the observation

window. _ In addition

a periscope

OAT_ 1 N°vember 1c_l .rvlsEo .w,s=o

_z_Z

__ ST.LOUm S,MJ_moum

PAGf _om" _o-"

1-29 _T_ 133

10_

camera is installed which will photograph the view Refer to Wnstrum ntation Section XIII.

displayed on the periscope.

1-36.

TEST CONFIGURATION

CAPSULE NO. lO

Capsule No. lO is am orbital tralnlng si_11mtor and altitude chamber test unit. The configuration of the capsule is subject to change during various

phases of the test program; therefore, thls capsule cannot be accurately described in this mamual. When Capsule No. lO Is assigned to a flight mission

the final configuration will be included during a subsequent revision or reissue of this publication.

1-37.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES NO. 13 AND 16 Capsule No. 13 is the same as the Specification Compliance Capsule.

'

(Refer to paragraphs 1-1 thru 1-22).

2-1

S[CTION

II

MAJOR

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE INTRODUCTION ...................... ............. CAPSULE FOREBODY ...........................
CAPSULE AFTERBODY ..........................

PAGE 2-3 2"4
2-5

_'_-_i_,_-_
.:._'-.=..iii!ii_ ii!iii_iii__=

:.=.--..-._:.-:-:i_i_i!_!..--._::._:._.:._.::::::= HATCH .............................. ENTRANCE

2-7 2-11

,!iiiiiiiiiii!iiii!!_

RECOVERY COMPARTMENT

................

:!!i_-:_-:_iiii_iii!iiii_.:-_"i!: _/]/_;;; :, _-'. _;_;_:

IMPACT,LANDING SYSTEM................... ESCAPE TOWER .................................... PYLON-CAPSULE CLAMP RING ........... ATLAS MISSILE ADAPTER .....................

2-16 2- 20 2-20 2-21 2-24 2-26

',: ii!iiiiiii!_!_ii_iii_iii!iii

CAPSULE-ADAPTER CLAMP RING ......... TEST CONFIGURATION .....................

::'!_i_i!i_i!iiiiii_iiii I iiiiii_

PA_.
REPORT MODEL.

2-2
SEDR 104 133

MC'DONN___
ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI I

DATE1NOVE_.E, 19,1
REVISED REVISED I FEBRUARY 1962 1 MAY 1962

FOREBOOY VENT('IP.O _GE BULKI-IFJ_

DOOR =

SK IRT

LANDING GROUND HANDLING FITTING (2) "SMALL PRESSURE BULKHEAD MAIN ANO .... RESERVE CHUTES

._REII

NNG NA

:. --

DROGUEXX_ FIBERGLASS ATTACH CHUTE

REACTI ONNOZZLES

o

HEAT SHIELD
.,=,.==:w,=,

PERISCOPE AND UMBILICAL DOOR OE-STAI_ILI ZER FLAP

....,

FIGUI_E 2-1 CAPSULE ST_UCTUlaE SPECIFICATION CAPSULE _)

,:)M4S-ZO7C

mATE_ 1 November i@61 REVlSEO RSVls_o.
m

_

_ ST."OUIS 3, MmSOUm

p_r R_ORT HOOm.

2-3 ___ 133

i0_,

II.

MAJOR STRiETURAL ASSEM_T.rm_

.... _//._;:_

2-1.

INTRODUCTION The Project Mercury capsule, Figure 2-1, is designed to contain an

Astronaut, primate, or crewman simulator during capsule bs]]Istic or orbital flight. Capsule payload will depend upon mission purpose. (See Figure 1-7,

Section I.) provisions,

The capsule will also contain record1-= equipment, environmental and equipment necessary to control the capsule during flight.

The capsule is basically of a c_ical and afterbody.

configuration consisting of a f0rebody

Dur_ns orbital flight, the capsule forebody is forward with The capsule forebody is the large, dishThe capsule afterbody consists of The capsule is

respect to the capsule flight path.

shaped structure forward of the cabin area. ....... "

a conical mid-section attached to a small cylindrical section.

of a eonventional semi-monocoque construction utilizing titanium for the pr_ma_y structure. Capsule construction is designed to protect the internal cabin from Provisions are _ncorporated

excessive heating, noise and meteorite penetration.

in the capsule to permit cabin entry, exterior view_-=, normal anclemergency exit. Prior to capsule flight, an escape tower and antenna fairing are attached to the capsule afterbody cylindrical section.
i

The escape tower, designed to

aid in capsule-missile emergency separation, consists of a pylon framework equipped with rockets. The antenna fairing is a cylindrical shaped structure The

containing the capsule radio mA_n receiving and tran_m_ttlng antenna. :;:::_

escape tower is Jettisoned during the capsule launch phase or during an escape sequence. During the capsule land_ Z phase the antenna fairing is ejected

and serves to deploy the capsule main chute.
/

PAGE 2-_ REPORT SEER 10/4. MODEt 1_ 2-2. FOgm_O]Tf

M_DONNE_

__

• .DATE 1 November 1961 REVISED REVISED - _-

The capsule forebody, Figure 2-I, mainly consists of a large, blunt, dishshaped structure that is supported by the large pressure b,11_head_n,_ adjoins the afterbody conical section. The large pressure bulkhead InternA!]y The forebody dish-shaped structure

separates the forebody from the afterbody.

is an ablation heat shield that is designed to protect the capsule from extreme thermal conditions during re-entry flight. capsule damage upon landing impact. It is also designed to prevent

The heat shield is attached to the heat

shield attach ring, which in turn is riveted to the capsule conical section _n_er skin. The heat shield attach r_ng incorporates elongated holes, for the

installation of the heat shield to the capsule and to allow for thermal expansion. The ablation shield is designed to ablate heat and is constructed of A retrograde The

fiberglass shingles, radially lam4nated to form a smooth contour.

package assembly is attached to the heat shield by means of three straps.

retrograde package is Jettisoned fram the capsule following retrograde rocket firing, which initiates capsule re-entry. The forebody area, between the large pressure bu1_head and the heat shield, is vented to atmosphere through a series of vents located around the periphery of the capsule forebody, adjacent to the forebody and afterbody Junction. Two

toroidal shaped hydrogen peroxide tanks and six reaction control nozzles, each covered with N_-K heat insulation, are located in the forebody area. The fore-

body area also houses the heat shield release pnemmatic system. _mp.actskirt is also stored in the capsule forebody area.

A landing

The rubber-cloth
u:u:

impact skirt, attached to the capsule heat shield attach ring and the heat shield, is designed to absorb high energy shock loads encountered during a capsule landing on land or water; and also to stabilize the capsule during

OAT_ REVi_D

1

November

i_61

__ ST. LOUIS 3. MISSOURI

PAGE REPORT

2-_ SED_

10_.

.wis'_

.o0"-

133

Astronaut's egress, following a capsule land_,_ in water.

During the capsule

landing phase, the heat shield is released, and ext_n_s the _,l! length of the impact skirt. Upon heat shield contact with land3 air with_- the impact skirt

is forced out through a series of holes located in the impact skirt wall which in turn provides a cushion-like effect. To prevent d.ma_e to the large pressure
dur_- S 18_Iding,

b-lkhead in the event the heat shield strikes the capsule

the

large pressure b1_!khead incorporates a tel_norced laminated fiberglass shield f assembly. brackets. The fiberglass shield assembly is attached to the torus t.nk suppor_ Sandwiched between the fiberglass shield and the large pressure b,,IkFabricated of stainless steel and located about

head are sections of honeycomb.

the periphery of the impact landing skirt, are 21_ straps which prevent tearing of the impact IAn_Ing skirt during high horizontal velocity water landings. Located inside the impact land4ng bag and alternately located in relation to the steel straps, are 24 stalnless steel cables.• The cables retain the heat shield to the capsule in the eventstrap failure should occur. The afterbody

conical section exterior shingle a_Mnge_-_nt extends beyond the large pressure _,l_h_ad, to the forebody heat shield, end encloses the equipment located between the large pressure b),l_h_ad and the heat shield. Located adjacent to

the capsule forebody and afterbody Juncture, A,_ bolted to the heat shield attach
J

r_ng, is a fiberglass attach r_ng.

During capsule-adapter installation, the

fiberglass attach r_ng and the_ adapter attach flange are c_amped together with a segmented Clamp ring.
J

Receptacles for the capsule retro-pac_ze , adapter, and

the cl.mp r_ng pneumatic and electrical connectors are located under the forebody _;_;= ....... shingles adjacent to fiberglass attach ring. Six spr_n_ loaded access doors,

for the receptacles are incorporated in the e_nzles.

2-3. _DY The capsule af_erbody conical mid-section mainly consists of a pressurized

2-6
REPORT ,?_DR 104 MODEL.._._133 cabin that is supported The cabin structural

MC, " DON
t____i_" _ between a small pressure with '_j"

l ovember
" REVISED REVISED b1_l_h_ad and the large cb-nneled points. frames pressure ........ is

b,!l_h_ad. additional constructed together.

interior strength

wall

is lined

to provide

and equi_ent _nner

attach

The told-section shell, seam welded panels conical

of a conically The outer

formed

and outer small

titanium sealed

skin is beaded

to form

pressure

capable skin is

of withstanding re_nforced is bonded, M_n-K with

high pressures longitudinal

and structural hat stringers.

loads. A blanket

The outer

of thermoflex (beaded)

insulation skin. a

in between

the hat stringers, installed

to the outer

conical

insulation

is also

over the hat sections arrangement compartment. heat is s_m_lar

and covered to the

with

shingle

arrangement. on the

The shingle system

shingle

installa-

tion used section section

recovery

The forward

end of the conical of the conical insulationj heat, noise

is attached headed outer

to the forebody skin,

shield.

The combination

the hat section provide

reinforcements, the capsule with

thermoflex adequate

and external and meteorite Located normal flight

shingle

installation

protection. in the bottom attitude, of the conical section, door that as viewed encloses during capsule lower

is a retractable ground

the periscope

lens flange mechanically with

and the capsule 1_nWed

checkout

umbilical

receptacle. opens

The door, and closes attached The

to the periscope

housing,

automatically

periscope

extension

and retraction.

Two atu_liary provide ground

hoist handling

fittings,

to left hoist the

and right

side of the capsule, prior to

attach points. door, between namely the

fittings

are removed door,

capsule

launch.

An explosive shingles,

snorkel

explosive

is provided

in the capsule

.....

_mAll This

pressttre b,11_head and the capsule door Is exploded from the capsule enables

conical-cylindrlcal during capsule

sections

Juncture.

landing.

The exploding ....

of the door

frcm the capsule

cool air to be drawn

into the capsule

DA'I"_ REVISED -_v_.t._w..ST. 3, MISSOURI _ LOUIS ww_ REPORT _DR 10_

REVISe,

MOOre-

l_

through the snorkel valve when the cabin air inlet valve opens. 2-4. Entrance Hatch An entrance hatch, Figure 2-2, is located on the right side of the afterbody conical section as viewed from the capsule crew member station. Entrance

hatch construction, similar to the conical section construction, consists of an _,ner end outer (beaded) skin seam welded together _n_ reinforced with hat stringers. hatch. A waste container andthe Astronaut's knife are attached to the

An explosive charge, moulded in the hatch sill, is provided to quickly

release the hatch and enable the Astronaut to egress rapidly from the capsule. An explosive charge initiator, located in the upper aft corner of the hatch, is linked to an internal release control initiator. Prior to capsule launch, the

hatch is bolted and sealed into position with bolts, and two corrugated shingles are installed over the hatch. ,The bolts are inserted through the entrance hatch

sill, which incorporates the explosive charge, and threaded into the capsule sill. A magnesium gasket, with _nTaid rubber, forms the hatch seal when the Two hatch shingles are attached to the hatch (This

hatch is bolted into position.

stringers, but in no manner are they attached to capsule shingles.

enables the hatch to separate cleanly, upon ignition of hatch explosive charge.) Following capsule impact, the Astronaut removes the initiator cap from the i initiator, end the safety pin from the initiator plunger.
i

By depressing the

initiator pl_nger, the initiator's two sprlng-loaded firing pins strike the explosive charge percussion caps and detonate the explosive charge. action explodes the .hatch from the capsule. ;_:_:_:i .......... This

An exterior hatch release control

is also provided to enable ground personnel to explode the hatch in the event the Astronaut is unable to do so. Hatch retention springs# secured by pip pins,

are incorporated on the inner side of the entrance hatch to prevent injury to ground personnel in the event the initiator pl-_er is accldently depressed.

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 13_

ST.LOUIS

REVISED REVISED

OAV_ i November 1961 REVmZO.

_

_ SV.Loum 3, M,SSOUm

PAGZ R_,owr

2-9 _nR

i04

f

Two pressure valves, located in the hatch, enables pressurization and purging of the capsule, during capsule ground checkout operations. 2-5. Observation Window -

An observation window, Figure 2-3, located on the afterbody conical section provides the Astronaut with external viewing. m_n instrument panel, consists The window, located above the The Inner

of an _nner and outer assembly.

window assembly is made of three glass panes and a fourth image suppression filter pane. The three glass panes are sealed in a titanium frame that is

attached to the cabin wa!.l. Each glass pane is independently sealed to provide a pressure seal between the panes. secondary (reflected) images. The image suppression filter pane eliminates The

The filter pane is not pressure sealed.

outer window assembly consists of a glass pane sealed in a titanium frame, that is attached to the capsule outer skin.
J

The outer window assembly is sealed The The

separately, frum the _nner window assembly, to provide a complete seal. outer window conforms to the curvature of the capsule conical section. observation window is equipped with filters and door lids, enabl_ng the Astronaut to regulate external light entering the cabin. The observation

window includes a mirror assembly which increases the Astronaut's angle of observation. 2-6. Small Pressure _l _head The small pressure b,ll_bead internally separates the cabin pressurized area from the recovery system compartment and structurally supports the aft conical secti_.
:, :'_.:.

A'sealed escape hatch, Figure 2-4, internally actuated, is

. •:./.:_.::.-

provided in the small pressure b,1!_head to enable the Astronaut's exit follow4ng capsule landing. The dish-shaped escape hatch is constructed of a beaded

al, s-_num skin spotwelded to an _nner skin, that "is reinforced with structural
/

"Z" shaped members.

The hatch outer flAn=ed edge fits into the small pressure

REPORT MODEL

$EDR i04 ]33

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

,,,---....
:::,

A

OAV_ .¢v,s¢-.

I November i_i

__._,_

_,_ _T"---"'m-. 3,M,ssou,,, Lou,s "_ -----'0"

PAG_

2-iI

R,a=om" _._.n@10b. HO._ 133

R_v,smD

a /-

_ts/hl_

r_.

Expena_

the re-

talner ring by raislng the hatch handle, wedges the rets_ner r_n5 between the ..._._;:.:.;;: b,_IM_ad
..,:::::.

sill and the hatch f1,_ed

edge and forces the hatch flange aft to

provide a sealing action. to the conical section _ner 2-7.

The titanium small pressure bulkhead is seam welded skin and bolted to the conical hat stringer flanges.

Large Pressure _,_h_ad supports the forward end of the conical section

• The large pressure b,,1_ad

and internally separates the pressurized cabin from the forebody heat shield. The large pressure bnl_head is constructed of a combined inner and outer titanium skin. The outer skin is beaded and seam welded to the lnner skin.

The b,_1_bead is reinforced with horizontal channels installed on the outer skin. The b-l_head Inner skin is provided with two vertical c_nels, centrally

located and spaced, that furnish structural attach point for the Astronaut support couch. Honeyc_nh shelves are provided on the b-1_head lnner skin, outThe b,,1_bead

board of the two vertical channels, for equipment installation.

outer flange ring is bolted to the conical section inner skin and the b-l_head is also bolted to the conical section inner attach rlng. Vents are provided

in the large pressure b_,l _head to enable overboard venting of the capsule battery vapors _nd environmental control system exhaust steam.

2-8.

RECOVERY COMPARTMENT The capsule afterbody, Figure 2-1, basically consists of the short cylin-

drical section and the truncated cone shaped structure. ........... _

The cylindrical section

is referred to as the capsule recovery system compartment and contains the landing parachutes, recovery aids, and the reaction control nozzles. cone shaped structure, refer_d encloses the pressurized cabin. pressurized The truncated

to as the capsule afterbody conical section, The recovery compartment is connected to the The recovery system compartment

cabin by a small pressure bu! kbead.

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

_.

ST, LOUIS_

MISSOrJ_

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE 2-4

CAI:>_ULF ESC_,PE

HATCH

CHUTE

REPORT_DR MODEL. 133 is

PAOE 104 -lU
a cylindrical formed

,MC, DONNELL
ST. _":I titanium skin structure, reinforced MI$SOUR

DATE REVISED
REVISED with longitudinal A

hat stringers, and covered with a corrugated beryllium shingle arrangement. layer of thermoflex insulation is installed between the hat stringers and the external shingles to prevent excessive heating within the compartment. The

i:_ii:

shingles are individual panels bolted to the hat sections with allowances for thermal expansion. A set of reaction control exhaust nozzles are internally

located every 90°, between the comgartment inner skin and the external shingle inst-!lation. The recovery system compartment interior is structurally divided The compartment left section houses the recovery The right

into a left and right section.

aids, electrical wiring and plumbing routed through the compartment.

section of the compartment houses a fiberglass container, structurally divided into two sections that contain the main and reserve parachutes. The container

can be removed by the Astronaut from the cabin following capsule landing, to permit egress through the recovery compartment.

2-9.

ANTENNA FAIRING The capsule antenna fairing, Figure 2-5, is a cylindrical shaped structure

that houses the pitch and roll horizon scanners, and the main receiving and transmitting antenna. The antenna fairing basic structure is of titanium constraction An 8 inch window assembly is located

and is covered with '_ene-_l" shingles.

around the outer base of the fairing and acts as a dielectric between the top of the fairing and capsule. The window assembly consists of a silicone base, In line with the three

fiberglass insulation, vycor glass and teflon strips.

teflon strips and attached to the antenna fairing shingles, are three laminated fiberglass guides. The fiberglass guides and teflon strips prevent damage to An aluminum bi-conical An electrlc

.....

the antenna fairing when the escape tower is Jettisoned.

p-

horn is internally located at the base of the antenna fairing.

i HI,_---

RIEPORI_ ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

SEDR104 133

/-

FIBERGLAS3 ATTACH RING

• EXPLOSIVE / VALVE \\

\
\

.i

,

'\

REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED

_

_'_:

:'_._-- , . . %

_*_,.,_ _ _,

-' _,_'.:,_:4_,

f

REPORT-__L.-MODEL--._ insulator :' :_ _. _ i_

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI _

REVISED-_ REVISED--

and lockfoam, located above the bl-eonlcal horn, aid in antenna fairA pitch horizon scanner is located at the top of the antenna

ing insulation. fairing.

A roll horizon scanner is located in the side of the fairing, in line The fairing is attached to the capsule by a A steel post located in

with the pitch horizon scanner.

mortar gun located in the capsule recovery compartment.

the center of the fairing is used as a guide when the fairing is Jettisoned. Three index pins and six support clips, in the antenna fairing lower mating flange, align with three holes and six brackets in recovery compartment mating flange. The antenna fairing also houses the drogue chute. Three cables retain

the drogue chute risers to the fairing when the chute is deployed. 2-10. De-Stabilizer Flap A sprlng loaded de-stabillzer flap is attached to the top of antenna fairing, opposite the pitch horizon scanner. The de-stabilizer flap ensures capsule During cap-

correct re-entry attitude during capsule abort and re-entry phases. sule launchlng phase, and up to the capsule-tower separation,

the spring loaded

de-stabilizer flap is held flat against the antenna fairing by means of a nylon cord routed through two de-stablizing flap reefing cutters contained withln the antenna fairing housing. which Jettisoning of the escape tower actuates the cutters the spring loaded flap to the outboard fairing position. is auto-

sever the cord releasing descends

When the capsule

to lO,OOO feet altitude, the antenna

matically Jettisoned from the capsule by the firlng of the fairing mortar gun.

2-11.

IMPACT LANDING

SYSTEM

The capsule impact landing system, Figure 2-6, is designed to absorb high energy shock loads encountered during landing; and also to stabilize the capsule

@

following a landing in water.

The impact system basically consists of a heat

shield release mechanism, heat shield retainlng straps (24), heat shield reten-

REVISED REVISED

1 FEBRUARY1962 1 MAY 1962

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL_

SEDR 104 133

REPORTSEDR 104 MODEl.. 133 The impact normal Deploy skirt is phi-e, to eject

-18

Mc'DONNEL L ST. LOUIS MISSOURI
stored the in the capsule IO,OCO forebody feet area.

REVISED_;_ _'e_l._u_:::t._.l._2 REVISED During energizes the the capsule Main .........

lo ber

landing Relay

capsule

barostats

the s_utenna fairing, 2-7.) Ejection

which

in turn deploys fairing

the main the ante_ to the the Main release the

parachute. fairing Main

(See Figure

of the antem2a

closes power

separation Switch

sensing Relay

switch, #1 (time

directing delay

24 V D-C electrical _lve power seconds

Inertia Relay limit

relay).

later,

Inertia system Landing release

#1 energizes s_Itches

to direct

electrical

to the heat shield Bag Relay.

and also

to energize

the Landing power

Energizing

Bag Relay explosive

directs

24 V d-c electrical

to ignite

the 2 heat

shield •

sqtuib valves. valves mechanism a_lo_s 3,000 psig _is nitrogen action pressure moves to flow to

Ignition the 2 heat

of the squib release

shield

actuators.

the heat

shield

from the capsule. the mechanism Signal Relay.

Simultaneously switches

_rlth the actuation to energize relay_

of the release

mec_ism,

.....

2 limit

close

the Landing

Bag Extension power to illumiWhen by while the the

Energizing

the signal

directs

electrical

nate the L_ndzLng _ actuator spring capsule during bag piston _fl]y

Telelight travels _e

(green)_

indicating

a sa_e condition. the actuator

to the open limit, impact lan_i_g

is locked

loaded

lock pin.

bag circuit

is de-energized

is in orbit. re-entry _ll

Placing arm the

the la_Ing circuit

bag s_Itch

in the "Ab'20" position operation of the landing

allotting normml

system. In the event the heat shield limit mechanism failed to actuate, and release the

heat shield,

the t_

s_Itches

will remain Th_

open and the Landing

B_g War_

Light Relay _II illu_te

energize within 2 seconds. B_ Telelight should switch

in turn directs power to an _m_e_fe condition _ SWITCH to

the La_ng

(red), indicating place the _NDING

the _tronaut. position.

_ae A_tronaut the landing
!

to the "MAN" the

Placing

to the manu_3,

position

energizes

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT. MODEL

SEDR 104 133

PAGE .2-20 REPORT -_._-1_-MODEL i_ _ ""

McDONNE .........

DATE 1 November 1_61 REVISED REVISED

the mechanism to release the heat shieldj and in turn the limit switches will close to illuminate the telelight (green)........

2-12.

ESCAPE TONER The escape tower (Figure 2-8), designed to aid in Capsule-missile emergency The pylon is

separation, consists of a pylon framework equipped with rockets. a triangular

shaped structure that is designed to support an escape rocket and The pylon is constructed of 4130 tubular steel and is The base of the pylon structural tubing is A four foot escape rocket casing is Bolted to the bottom of the escape

a Jettison rocket.

approximately lO feet in length.

bolted to a steel flanged attach ring. bolted to the top (apex) of the pylon. rocket cas_ is a Jettison rocket.

Electrical wiring is routed through the

structural tubing, from the rockets to connectors_ located on the pylon attach r_ng. Pylon tubular structure is covered with heat protective material. Prior

to capsule launch the pylon is instnlled onto the capsule, by clamping the pylon attach ring to the capsule recovery system compartment with a chevron shaped, segmented clamp r_ng. in tension. Explosive bolts connect the clamp ring segments

The bolts are fired to separate the clamp r_ng when the pylon is During capsule normal launch the escape rockets
i

Jettisoned from the capsule.

are fired to separate the pylon from the capsule.

In the event the capsule

escape system is activated, during latmch phase, the escape tower is fired to propel the capsule away from the missile and then the Jettison rocket is fired to separate the pylon from capsule.

2-13.

PYLON-CAPSULE

CLAMP RING

The clamp r_ng consists of three chevron shaped segments that clamp the pylon attach r_g to the capsule recovery system compartment flange. Three

explosive bolts, with du-1 ignition provisions, connect the ring segments in

MAC _3_.C (_v

14 Oct. 55)

REVISED.

INov er

_ DONNE j Mc,
St'. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

. Rl_U,oFrr

....

,_DR

lO_

.sv,ssn.

No--,.

133

clamp

ring

(Figure

2-ii),

but

considerably until ring.

smaller

in size.

The clamp bolts r_

ring are fired is from is

retains which

the pylon

to the capsule the clamp

the clamp

ring explosive

in turn with

separates a heat

The exterior

of the clamp

covered excessive bonded clamp

shield to protect capsule

the clamp

ring and explosive of thermoflex shield

bolts

heating

during

launch. shield.

A layer

insulation

to the r_ng

interior screws.

of the heat

The heat

is attached

to the

with

Am aerodynamic the capsule

stability during

wedge

attached phase.

to pylon _at Six cable aid in when

shield, straps,

aids bolted

in stabillzlng to the pylon separation bolts

the launch ring ring

structure

and clamp the clamp

stability segments

wedge,

capsule-pylon the explosive

by retaining

of the pylon

are fired.

;............. 2-I_.

ATLAS

MISSILE

ADAPTER adapter, Figure 2-9, is a slightly the capsule with tapered, cylindrical missile." to

The Atlas shaped Upon structure

missile that

is designed

to mate

the Atlas

adapter

and capsule

installation

to the missile,

the adapter

is bolted is of

the missile

and the capsule construction

is attached

to the adapter. _ feet

The adapter in height.

semi-monocoque basically

and is approximately corrugated

The adapter riveted and with

consists

of an outer titanium

titanium

skin assembly,

Seam welded two titanium fl-uEed fl-nEed ":;;

to an Inner support

skin assembly between inner

and internally

reinforced

rings,

riveted

the ends surface

of the adapter. of the adapter.

A steel The

r_n E is riveted ring is provided

to the bottom, with holes Alignment Riveted

to enable marks

the attachment

of the adapter

to the missile adapter-mlssile

with bolts. allg_ment. ring.

are provided inner

on the ring for proper of the adapter with the capsule

to the top,

surface

is an alumlnt, m flR_ged forebody fiberglass

The adapter during

aluminum capsule

ring mates

attach

ring,

to adapter

installation.

PAGE. REPORT MODEL.

2"2t2 SEDR104 133'

DATE REVISED REVISED

1 NOVEMBER 1961

"

DATE

1 November 1961

__ --

_._,_ _"_''--'°ST. LOUIS 3, _ _ MmSOUm

r_R_PORT
MO_

2-23
SEDE i04

R[VlS[D
IREVISIED
m

An al_=_-_nt mark on the adapter ring BY axis enables proper ali=nment of
,f

capsule to adapter.

The top of the aluminum ring is slotted at 120° intervals,

to provide adequate clearance for the capsule retrograde rocket assembly attach straps, when the capsule is attached to the adapter. is riveted internally, every 120°, to the adapter s_n. A metal striker bracket When the capsule is

attached to the adapter, these striker brackets depress (open) the capsuleadapter separation sensing switches, located on the bottom of the retrograde rocket assembly attach straps. The capsule is attached to the adapter by -

installing a chevron shaped, segmented clamp ring over the mated flanges of the capsule forebody fiberglass attach ring and the adapter upper ring. A retainer assembly, attached to the adapter interior skin, is provided to prevent the retro-package and the explosive bolt fragments from striking the Atlas missile adapter LOX t_uk. The retainer assembly is a cup shaped structure,

that fits over the retro-package dome, and is supported by three metal straps that are attached to the adapter with cable assemblies. A vent port, located

in the adapter skin, receives the missile boil-off valve tube and enables the relieving of liquid oxygen from the mlssile. off port, is an adapter door installation. Opposite the liquid oxygen boilThe door installation provides A fiber-

access to the booster and Capsule heat shield area while on the pad.

glass shield attached above the vent port opemlng, streamlines the adapter and shields the boil-off tube. Two stretch fittings , located 180° apart at the

upper section of the adapter, provide a means of supporting (stretching) the missile while in the vertical position following adapter installation. 7111_i/_ Six

cable assemblies, attached to fittings spaced around the adapter outer corrugated skin, are attached to the clamp ring that attaches the capsule to the adapter. The cables retain the clamp ring to the adapter separatlon. following capsule-adapter

PAGE

___b.

'

REPORT S.F.,DRlO_ MODEt 2-15. 133 •

McDONNE•
CLAMP RING clamp ring,

DATE I November REVISED" REVISED

IQgl

•• ST. LOUIS, MISSOUI

CAPSULE-ADAPTER The capsule-adapter

Figure

2-10,

is provided

to attach

the

capsule

to the adapter. the capsule bolts,

The clamp launching in turn three

ring

secures until

the capsule r_

to the adapter is separated by means

throughout of explosive The clamp mate with

phase

the clamp

which of

allows chevron

the capsule shaped attach dual

to separate t_t

from the adapter. installed, upper connect every the

r_ng

consists

segments,

when

the capsule Three

forebody explosive

fiberglass bolts, with

r_ng and the adapter ignition provisions,

support

ring.

the 3 clamp ring 120 °, to the striker

segments

in tension. r_ng.

A metal

striker

bracket ring

is bolted,

inside

of the clamp

When the clamp separation

is installed, switches,

brackets

depress

the capsule

ring

sensing

located

in the outer

periphery

of the capsule clamp ring

forebody. with a heat shield that protects of three and three adapter

The exterior the explosive fairing

of the

is covered heating-. directly

.....

bolts

from excessive which

The heat

shield

consists bolts

assemblies fairing The

are located which

over the explosive

segmented clamp bolts

assemblies fairing piece pieces ring

cover which

the remainder

of the capsule

ring.

assemblies installation. are made support

locate directly

over the explosive from aluminum are

are a three

The top piece

is _fabricated fairing

and the two bottom fastened

from i titanium. fittings.

These

assemblies

to the clamp is insulated

The interior

of the fairing fairing assemblies The

assemblies

with thermoflex. whose

The three

segmented

are of a titanium segmented straps fairing

construction assemblies i

interior

is Insuiated

with

thermoflex. Six cable aid in when

'are bolted adapter retaining

to the adapter cable fitting.

clamp

ring,

are bolted

to the capsule by

These

straps

..... the of

capsule-adapter explosive bolts

separation, are fired,

the clamp cable,

ring to the adapter around

An electrical to each

clamped

the interior to two

the adapter,

is connected

of the clamp

ring explosive

bolts,

SECTION'C-C" FIGUPtE Z-tO CAPSULE ADAPTER CLAMP RING pM4.S-Z6

REPORTSE]3R1C_

MISSOURI

REVISEDl February

1962

MODEL 133

J

REVtSED 1_

1962

receptacles in the capsule forebody area and to t_o receptacles on the missile. A pne,_tie line is also connected to one end of the explosive bolt and to a

...... .... ;.....

quick disconnect in the capsule forebody.

2-16.

TEST COHFIGURATION CAPSULES

2-1%

mRST CO_FIGURATIONS CAPSULES 16 and 18 structural assemblies are basically the same as

Capsules 16 and 18 _Jor

that of the s_ecification capsule.

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

'"

_

BOLT

HATCH

_WASHER

INSULATION

INSULATI()N

--

Z-If.

-

PAGE

2-28

M_DONNE_T_

A

/_/__

DATE _, November 1961 REVISED REVISED A camera is internally

REPORT S_DR 10_ MOOl_l 133 _._,

ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI m,, ...... _ ii J: -_--

photographing of the earth aud sky during capsule flight. located adJacemt to this window. window assembly.

Each cabin window consists of an Inner amd outez

The cabin inner (main) window assembly consists of four glass The glass panes are the panes.

_ ...

panes sealed in a titanium frame attached to the cabin wall. spaced and independently sealed to provide a pressure

seal between

The outer cabin window assembly consists of a glass pane sealed in a titanium frame that is attached curvature snorkel 2-21. to the capsule outer skin. section. The outer pane conforms to the a

of the capsule conical

Capsule 8 does not incorporate

explosive , door. Autemma Fairing

The antenna fairing destabilizing flap on Capsule 8 does not contain a horizon scanner cover. (See Figure 2-1).

.2-22. TEST CONFIGURATIONS CAPSULES 9, i0, 13 and 16 Capsules 9, IO, 13 and 16 major structural assemblies are basically the same as that of the specification capsule.

A

__

i

3-I

SECTION III

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

TABLE TITLE

OF CONTENTS

PAGE

REVISED I REVISED.

By

l q_

urr.Louls, MIUOU.I

REPORT. _]lq MODEl 133

104

izI.n osumemL cow s oi,
3-I. I_.SCRII:_I_Ob
The envlron-_ntal _he Astronaut ventilation ventilation with control system Figure 3-i, provides the Capsule Cabin and

a i00 per cent oxygen

enviror_ent during _

to furnish the capsule environmental

the breathing, orbital flight and

and pressurization for a 12-hour

gas required

post-landin@

phase.

control

system from the

also functions Astronaut's event

in the following

wan-_.r:

Removes

odors,

CO2 and moisture usage of oxygen cabin

suit circuit;

provides

an "emergency rate" .i

in the and suit

suit circuit

pressure

drops below 80°F;

4.0 - .3 psia; _intains an emergency

temperature ca_ility Ing _

at approxL_ateiy and operates

provides

fire extinguishing System function-

in "_ightless" controlled

or "high during

g" conditions. of flight.

be autom_tical!y automatic

all phases manual

In the event to insure

the system system

control

malfunctions,

controls

are provided

operation. The environmental control mode. system is designed primary the to he operated mode3 Suit to in either the

suit, control, closed

cabin is

or

emergency

The system and enables

environmental in the con-

normally

u_ilized

Astronaut

function

suit circuit

during cabin

pressurized

and emergency

(depressurized) control

ditions. mode will insures control .

In the event continue

one control

lode _e,lfunctions, mode,

the remaining

to operate. survival

The emergency

suit environmental

control,
l

Astronaut modes

in the event (See Figure

both the suit and cabin environmental 3-2. ) a primary Primary oxygen and secondary oxygen systems

malfunction.

_he environmental suppI_ for both

control

system _rovides

the cabin and suit circuits. the secondary pressure.

and secondary

oxygen

are h_sically
f

the same, except

regulated

pressure

is lower ci_cui_

than

the primary

oxygen regulated

A _anually

controlled

cooling

.=v,sEo Rev,sEo

M,DO ES

.Loulss. MISSOU.,

R=.o.'r

for suit and cabin systems, is provided to control suit and cabin temperatures du_rlngcapsule flight. The capsule environmental control system components are

located below the Astronaut's support couch adjacent to the large pressure b_11_head and also on the interior of the small pressure bulkhead adjacent to the capsule escape hatch. System m_2ual controls are located on the left and right

consoles; system instruments and warning lights are located on the main instrument pane i.

3-2.

CABIN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL During capsule normal orbital flight, the environmental control system is

normally operated in both the cabin and suit environmental control mode.

Opera-

tion in the cabin control mode permits the Astronaut to open his helmet faceslate for short periods of time. furnished The capsule pr_msry breathingj and secondary oxygen supply gas. The de-

the cabin with pressurization, with automatic

and ventilation

cabin is equipped compression, vent ilat ion.

and manual controls control,

for cabin ventilation, post landing

pressurization,

temperature

landing and

The cabin Is cleared

of contaminants

and a lO0 per cent oxygen environment The purging operation During orbital flight, The

is made available by purging the cabin prior to launch. is accomplished :cabin pressure cabin pressure by utilizing the Capsule controlled Leakage Tester.

Is automatically relief

by a cabin pressure pressure buildup

control valve. within

valve prevents

excessive

the cabin

and provides a manual means of decompressing the cabin in the event of a fire or
,-.-.-...v.

buildup of toxic

contaminants.

A water coolant supply tank,

common to both cabin

and suit circuits heat exchangers, provides cabin cooling.

In addition to its for the selector and

cooling capability, the coolant tank is a source of drinking water Astronaut. valve, which Cabin temperature is controlled by a m_nually

controlled

regulates the amount of water entering the cabin heat exchanger,

REPORt
MODFt 133
in turn located exchanger valves, capsule provides cabin cooling on the inlet to provide located isnd_ng side cabin

Ilmm , ir's iia fi
._
by means of water of the heat cooling
J

R V,SED 1
'PI'.._ I
evaporation. forces

1962
fan, the '"

REVISED
The cabin cabin air throu@h air inlet

exchanger,

_.:_-:-_.
• := .... =

and ventilation. bulkhead,

Cabin

and outflow during the

on the

samll

pressure

provide

ventilation

and post

landing

phase.

3-3

SUIT During

ENVIRONMENTAL capsule oxygen

CONTROL orbital flight, the capsule co=mon oxygen supply control should

normal

furnishes circuits. occur should

simultaneously circuit

to the suit and cabin malfunction,

environmental

If a cabin

such as cabin

decompression,

at a t_-_. when the Astronaut _,m_diately close

has his faceplate Closing

removed,

the Astronaut initiates the suit _.

his faceplate. mode

the faceplate

suit environmental control circuit. operating controls

control

and confines

the Astronaut

to the closed

While regulator oxygen

in the suit

environmental

control

mode, 5 psia

the suit pressure and replenishes circuit operation.

the suit pressure

to approximately normal

consumed

by the Astronaut, is also

during

suit control

Suit circuit coolant filters, comfort. A water moisture upstream oxygen _.

pressure

utilized

as a means control J

of pressurizing incorporates

the water compressors_ maximum evaporation.

The suit

environmental

circuit

absorbers

and a temperature temperature

control

to insure Astronaut's by means of water

Suit circuit separator frc_

is controlled oxygen supply.

utilizes

the common oxygen heat

supply

pressure,

to remove located on the _.....

the suit

circuit

A compressor, forces

side of the suit supply throughout

circuit

exchan&_r, providing

the suit circuit ventilation.

the circuit,

suit circuit

REVIS=O

S'r. LOUm 3, M;SSOUm

REPOFtT

_DR

104

R_vJsEo.
f_. During through the capsule the cabin landing air inlet and post landing phase, valve to provide

Moon.
atmospheric

1_,_

air is drawn in

suit circuit

ventilation.

3-4.

SUIT EMERGENCY While operating

CONTROL in the control suit mode environmental automatically control activates mode when during suit orbital circuit flight, pressure

the

suit

emergency

decreases manual

below

4.0 + ll psiapressure. " 3 of the emergency is autom_tlcally mode. activated

A control During

handle

is provided landing

to enable phase, the The actuate

selection mode

the capsule

emergency

to increase

Astronaut's

cooling. valve

environmental simultaneously control be mode

system to

oxygen the

rate valve

and the

suit circuit from the

shutoff

switch

environmental control

system mode.

suit environmental of these valves may

to the suit emergency or msuual.

Actuation

either

automatic

Operation in the suit emergency control mode, during orbital or landing phases, basically consists absorber, of el_m_nating heat exchanger suit circuit and water oxygen flow through units. the the

suit CO 2 and odor landing phase,

separator

During

oxygen

flow through

the Compressor

is maintained. of the Compressor. operating

During

orbital

phase, oxygen of oxygen emergency generated source

flow

is eliminated these

by deactivation

El_m_natlon in the suit

flow through control heat, mode,

accessory
i

components, supply pressure

while

reserves

the oxygen

to remove suit,

the Astronaut's a breathing

pressurize Astronaut. light,

the A, stronaut's

and provide

for the

An 0 2 EMERG ....... indicates Manual

located

on the main system

instrument _ panel, in the

and a tone

generator mode. right

when the environmental to activate the

is operating

suit emergency on the

provision,

suit emergency

control,

is located

console.

REPORT MODEl, 3-5.

3-8 l r3h .q_nl_
13_ OXYGEN SUPPLY

McDONNE ___;U_
_

REVISED REVISED

l ovember 1 M_y 1962
_"

The environmental bottles. The primary llne, that

system

is supplied

with oxygen,

from

primary

and secondary

and secondary forms

oxygen bottles oxygen supply

are dlrectly

interconnected control

by a supply valve, water

a common

to the cabin pressure

suit pressure separator.

regulator,

emergency

oxygen

rate valve, supply and

and the sult circuit incorporate valves. The and secondshut-

The primary

and secondary pressure

oxygen reducers,

lines check

off valves, pressure

pressure

transducers, transmit to a dual

transducers bottles?

oxygen

pressure,

present tape

in the primary recorder,

ary oxygen metry unit.

quantity bottle

indicator, pressure

and to a teleby

The primary pressure oxygen

oxygen

is reduced oxygen

to lO0 +_ lO psig, reducers are

a primary provided fails

oxygen to

reducer. pressure oxygen

Two primary reduction, bottle

pressure

insure The

in the event

one pressure

reducer

closed.

secondary reducer.

pressure

is reduced reduced

to 80 psig by a pressure, being

secondary greater oxygen supply oxygen,

pressure the

The primary oxygen supply

oxygen reduced

supply

than supply

secondary

pressure, with

permits

the primary oxygen

to be utilized

during

normal

conditions

the secondary

in reserve. in the event

The oxygen either

supply

line check

valves

prevent

the loss of reducers

the primary

or secondary

oxygen

pressure

malfunction.

3-6.

COOLANT normal

PRESSURIZATION capsule

SYSTEM flight, the coolant pressurization system con....

During furnishes trolling oxygen

orbital

the cabin the cabin

and the and

suit circuit

with provisions Water cabin

for independently is supplied, under

suit circuit

temperatures. tank to the

pressure, which

from the capsule in turn provides and

water

and suit circuit The heat

heat

exchangers absorb heat

cooling

by evaporation. oxygen and boll

exchangers steam.

from the cabin

suit circuit

it off as

3-9
DATI_

l Wovemberlq_
1 J_ lC_

7_[C'D0___/___T| A
_l'.t.ouls.

"/°
MIssOum

PAGE
REPORT. _R 10_

REVISED

REVISED-

MOOEL 133

The coolant pressurization system contains a li_e from the suit circuit to pressurize the rater coolant tank, enabling rater flo_ to the heat exchangers. _e cooling circuit basically consists of a water tank, cabin and suit temcontrol valves, heat exchangers, and indicators. EXCESS CABIN _0

perature

AND EXCESS SUIT _0

lights are located on the main panels and temperature con-

fro! valves are located on the right console.

3-7.

OPERATION The environmental control system is designed to sequentially operate auto-

natically during the launch, orbit, re-entry and post-landing _hases of Cal_Ule flight. _e mode in vhich the environmental system is operated is dependent

u_on the existing conditions within the cabin and suit circuits. During the l_re-launchImhaseof operations, the capsule oxygen and rater supply are fully serviced and a capsule l_reflightis perforn_d. aLr ture is ducted thro,l_ the capsule hatch to _re-cool the capsule Refrigerated cabin and struc-

during capsule In,flight.

The refrigerated air SUl_Plyis remov=d and an

external sUl_Y

of freon coolant is directed to the cabin and suit circuit heat

exchangers, through the umbilical, to continue pre-cooling the capsule structure
i

and cabin equilxnent. The oxygen supply bottles shutoff valves are opened and the Astronaut is connected to the capsule suit circuit by attaching the suit circuit personal leads (flex hoses) to the Astronaut's pressure suit. confessor :_,_ and cabin fan are activated. _ _ suit

suit clrcult is purged with an suit circuit purge

external source of lov pressure oxygen applied through _ valve.

Following the purging operation, a suit circuit leakage check is per-

s-lo
REPORT ,_D_. 1Oi¢ MOOWt 133

M,DONNELL
ST. LOUIS; MISSOURI faceplate closed.

.DAl E ber ove
REVISED REVISED The capsule entrance hatch is

formed with the Astronaut's

bolted into position and the capsule cabin is then checked for leakage and purged with oxygen. oxygen The suit circuit incorporates provisions for obtaining launch purge

_::_:

samples. umbilical plug is disconnecte_

Forty-five seconds prior to launch, theground and freon coolant supply to the capsule ceases. cabin pressure relief valve maintains

During launch and orbit, the at approximately 5.5 differ-

cabin pressure

entlal (cabin/amblent) psia.

During capsule launch, the suit circuit pressure equivalent to cabin

regulator malnta_ns the suit circuit pressure appro_m-tely pressure.

The suit circuit oxygen is kept free of contaminants by a solids trap The solids trap removes foreign particles hair, etc. The CO2 and odor absorber such as filters

and a C02 and odor absorber. food particles, masal

excretions,

odors and CO2 from the circulating oxygen.

Moisture from the suit circuit The pne_im_tically tank. Cabin valves

.....

oxygen is removed frc_ the system by a water separator. activated _d water separator deposits the moisture

into a condensate

suit circuit

temperatures

are controlled

by manually

operated metering

that regulate the water flow rate from the water coolant t_nk to the cabin and suit circuit temperature heat exchangers. of water Upon reaching altitudes where the saturation gas temperatures,

is lower than the cabin and suit circuit will provide

the cabin and suit circuit heat exchangers ration.

cooling by water evapo-

Prior to capsule re-entry from orbital flight, the Astronaut positions the temperature control valves to a COLD setting. When the capsule descends to an ....

altitude of appr_m-tely (Door is located

2_1,0OOfeet, the snorkel explosive door is ejected. exterior. ) At an altitude of approximately 17,000 venting

au capsule

+ 3000 feet, the cabin air 4_Set and outflow valves open barometrically the cabin to the atmosphere. Operation

of the suit circuit compressor draws out-

DATE 1 November 1961 REVISED REVISED ..... _ ..... :_:_

__o_

ST.LOUIS 3. MISSOURI

pAmm 3-11 REPORT .ql_.l_R 1(_ MODEL 133

side air into the suit circuit through the ejected snorkel door opening, the snorkel valve and the open cabin air inlet valve. The air, clrculat!_g through

the suit circuit, is relieved into the cabin and in turn flows out through the cabin air outflow valve. Simultaneously, with the opening the cabin air inlet '

and outflow valves, the environmental system mode of operation switches to the suit emergency mode, but the suit compressor continues to operate. Switching

to the emergency mode provides a greater cooling capacity for the Astronaut. When the capsule descends to approximately lO,0OO feet altitude, the antenna fairing is ejected. Ejection of the antenna fairing directs capsulepower to

ignite explosive squibs, and in turn open the cabin air inlet and outflow valves. (Opening of the cabin air inlet and outflow valves, when the anten-a fairing is ejected, ....... is provided to supply ventilation air into the cabin in the event of a An inlet

capsule low altitude abort (below 17,000 feet) during capsule launch.) air snorkel valve and an outflow air diaphragm flapper ventilation

valve located

on the unpressurized side of the small pressure buIWhead -- opposite the cabin air inlet and outflow valves, prevent water from entering event the capsule submerges relief valve, located and suit circuit, valve closes. operate into the cabin in the "A vacu_

after landing in e water environment. between

in the flexible ductlng suitl circuit

the cabin air inlet valve the inlet snorkel

enables

ventilation

whenever

Dur_

the post-landing compressor

phase, the Astronaut may continue to suit circuit ventilation. The

his suit circuit

to provide

suit circuit compressor draws atmospheric air into ;he suit circuit, through the cabin air inlet valve.

3-8.

CABIN ENVIRONMENTAL Operation

CONTROL control system in the cabin environmental

of the environmental

/

:

control mode,

(Figure 3-3), after the capsule has entered the orbital flight

path; permits the Astronaut to open his helmet faceplate and be exposed to cabin
_lr __

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL 133

3-1

MqDONNE
ST. LOUIS MISSOURI

oA,l,ovember REVISED
REVISED_ .

environment for short periods.

The cabin circuit also provides a manual method The cabin pressure relief valve In the event cabin pressure tends

for decompressing and repressurizing the cabin. relieves cabin pressure in excess of 5.5 psla.

to exceed the 5.5 psia differential (cabin over ambient), the relief valve will open to relieve the excessive pressure. In the event the cabin pressure decrease_

below 5 psla, the cabin pressure control valve will sense the pressure drop and open. Opening of the cabin pressure control valve allows oxygen to flow into the The suit pressure regulator will sense the increase in suit pres-

suit circuit.

sure, and relieve excess pressure into the cabin. Routing the cabin pressure control v_lve oxygen supply through the suit circuit, provides a constant purging of the suit circuit. 5.1 +- .2 psla. Cabin pressure control valve maintains cabin pressures to

.3

During orbital flight, cabin gas is circulated throughout the cabi_ by the cabin fan, located at one end of the cabin heat exchanger. cabin gas through the cabin heat exchanger. The cabin fan forces through

.....

The cabin gas circulating

the cabin, absorbs the heat generated by the cabin electronic equipment and in turn is cooled when the gas passes through the cabin heat exchanger. Water from

the water tank circulates through the heat exchanger and absorbs the heat from the cabin gas passing through the heat exchanger. and passes overboard through The heated water evaporates steam vent. Regulatlng

the large pressure bulkhead

the amount of water entering the heat exchanger provides cabin temperature control. A cabin temperature control valve, located on the right console, is
:,:,:L.

man,,-lly operated by the Astronaut to control cabin temperature. In the event of a fire or a buildup of toxic contaminants, within the cabin, the Astronaut may manually decompress the cabin by actuating the DECOMPRESS "T" h_ndle, located on the left console. The decompression handle is connected to During decompression of the cabin, ....

the cabin pressure relief valve with a cable.

DATI[ RE:VISED

1 ov ber

Mc,
_

St". LOUIS

3. MISSOURI

REPORT

SEDR 104 133

3-13

REVISED

MOO='

the cabin pressure control valve closes when cabin pressure decreases to 4.1 psia. .... _-_/._-7_ Following fire extinguishment, or the removal of toxic contaminants 3 the

Astronaut may repressurize the cabin by closing the DECOMPRESS "T" h__ndle and actuating the REPRESS "T" handle. The REPRESS "T" handle is connected to the When the cabin has been repressurized In the event of a

cabin pressure control valve with a cable. to 5.0 psia, the REPRESS

"T" handle must be manually closed.

cabin decompression, due to a metorite penetration or excessive cabin leakage, the cabin pressure control valve will close automatically and prevent oxygen flow

to the •cabin, after the cabin pressure decreases to 4.1 psia. cabin pressure environmental control valve control reserves the remaining enabling oxygen

Closing of the

supply for the suit the mission.

circuit,

the Astronaut

to continue

Prior to capsule re-entry# the Astronaut should assure that his helmet ........ faceplate is closed_ and pre-cool the cabin structure and equipment by positioning the cabin temperature control valve and suit temperature control valve to the cold settings. During capsule descent, cabin pressure is maintained at

approximately 5 psia pressure, until the cabin altitude is approximately 27,000 feet. At 27,000 feet altitude the cabin pressure relief valve begins to open, atmospheric air to enter the cabin and equalize capsule internal and + When the capsule reaches 17,000 _ 3000 feet altitude, the

allowing

external pressures.

cabin air inlet and outflow valves open and the cabin fan ceases operation. Opening of the cabin air inlet valve provides suit circuit. outside air ventilation for the

Suit circuit air is then vented to the cabin and out through the If the cabin air inlet and outflow valves fail to open

cabin outflow valve.
,:. :...

:: ....

at 17,000 +.3000 feet altitude, the Astronaut should actuate the SNORKEL pull ring to open the valves. In the event the Astronaut fails to open the cabin

/

air inlet and outflow valves, the valves will open automatically at 10,0OO feet when the antenna fairing is ejected. Ejection of the antenna fairing directs

REPORT MODEL.

SEDR 104 133

REVISED 1MAY1962 REVISED

\//

,_-,
_ FIC_U_E 5-5

_>/ _
_ , CABI_ ENVII_ONMEkITAL CONTROL _'M*s-z_o

!!E!!!I
REVISED i MB_ 1_2 electrical squibs, :_---_ :_::_::::_ ....... _

M LL
s'r.t.Ouls, umsoum REPORT _]]L/:[ lO_

133
Ix;wet to ignite the cabin air idler and out, let valves A snorkel explosive provided ventiprevent

which

in turn mechanically side of the cabin provided on the the the cabin

open the valves.

valve, flapper valve,

I

on the inlet lation wa_er capsule valve fr_

air inlet side the

valve and a dlaphragm of the cabin lands air in the outflow

outlet when nBy and to

enterin6 landing,

capsule suit

water. for

Following

Astronaut indicator panel is

operate a cabin

compressor

ventilation. are provided A the sensor

A cabin on the .r_rtial ........ ! oxygen main

pressure instrument sensor circulating

temperature pressures correlation Pressure

indicator and

indicate below the

cabin the cabin.

temperatures. to measure by the

pressure content

provided throughout

clock

measured

is
petrel. _=i to A CABIN indicate

toanindicator "CABIN ,=ked o2"locat,,donthe instr nt ,--in
PRESS cabin light and tone generator, has decreased is also located below 4.0 psia on the main panels when pressure pressure.

.-

3-9. SUIT E_/:ROS_'W£_ cormoL
_ae suit environmental control circult_ Figure 3-_, is supplled oxygen from

the il the

cabin

pressure

control system

valve. oxygen

During supply,

capsule through the

launch suit

and

re-.entry

phases, and

envlromnen%_!

pressure

regulator

utilizes i!1

cabin pressure

ass

reference

to control

the suit circuit

pressure.

when the Astronaut's the suit e=vlronmental closed, the suit pressure regulator helmet faceplate is control mode, (helmet faceplate cloged)_ While operating in oxygen from the suit pressUre absorber, the suit suit circuit (more regulator heat regulator exchanger, solids than 2._ will trap. flows through water In the separator, event the the suit compressor, Astronaut's suit below and circuit cabin pressure oxygen _ressure), CO 2

._

and suit,

odor and

._.,:._._. ,.;.:_ ..... _,,,_:

pressure the suit

decreases, pressure

to 3.5 inches sense the pressure

of water drop

open,

allowing pressure the

oxygen " : _: within suit

to flow

into the suit circuit - water system

to maintain

the suit circuit When

2.5 to 3.5 inches w_ntal control

of cabin pressure. is guarded against

not in operation, by

...Z_.._

environ,

contamination

a neoprine

DATE
t

1 NOVEMBER 1961

.Evls=o I FEBRUARY1962
_._._._"_?_,_ REVISED 1 MAY 1962

INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE _A"

pACKAGE

"C" TEMPERATURE

"_

FROM 8kOOD SENSOR MEASURING ,,_TOSUI SYSTEM

_

PRESSURE

!
J _ EMER _NOLE 02 RATE
(RIGHT CONSOLE)

IPRoMo o,N
l_ EMERGENCY I I HEAT EXCHANGER OXYGEN

RATEVALVE

WATER SEPARATOR

ABSOP'_ FROM SUIT r COMFORT VALVE TO STEAM VENT

_ WATER SEPARATOR SOLENOID VALVE

TO WATER COOLANT TANK

ATE PROO_MER

115V EA_ AUTOMATIC,C (_ SUIT BUS 5A 5A

24V D--C _A ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL &U _TAL _j_ 5A MINUTES)

_I
i

_
• t3

OIM
I

_ERGENC_

_,,,.,,_" NO._ _,.v<, : 0

.._

_

_

NO.,

_

_

,oNE eo_ .w GENERATOR pM45-29_

24V MAIN SUIT FAN D.-C BUS

_

SUIT FAN SWITCH

! !

PAGE REPORT 4ODEL

3-16 $EDR 104 133

NOTE
SUITpReSSURE

SUPPLY

--

"1

SNORKEL -6,NTPAIRIN(_ EMERGENCY SEPRELAY HOLD RELAY NO. 4 " NO. 3 POWER_LAY PANELNO. 2 m

SNORKEL DOOR EXPLOSIVE

I I

VACUUM PD C B K J _CABIN AIR INIFT VALVE PURGE VALVE RELIEF VALVE

BY-PASS

28V D-C MAIN SQUIB BUS

_) • I :

NORMAL INLET POWER SWITCH )

,,,SQUIB

I

I

•-J ,
DOOR RELAY ' IN_T AIR •' DOOR RELAY 21,0_1 FOOT BAROSTAT RECOVEftY _LAy PANELNO. I L L,

,

GROUND TEST SHUTOFF VALVE FROM OXYGEN SUPPLY _

SCHEMATIC OPERATION

DEPICTS SUIT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL DURING CAPSULE ORBITAL FLIGHT.

SUIT PRESSURE REGULATOR

--LEFT CONSGL rPANEL

SUiT CIRCUIT SHUTOFF VALVE

SUIT CIRCUIT FLOW \ _SNORKEL _ULL RING C A 8

SNORK

SNORKEL EXPLOSIVE DOOR

ANT

FAIRING

BMERGENCY HOLD RELAY NO. 3 2 VACUUM D C B 'K J F CABIN AIR INLET VALV_ PURGE VALVE RELIEF VALVE

SEP RELAY NO. 4

POWER RELAY PANEL NO.

BY-PASS

J

28V D-C MAIN SOUl8 8US

AlL _

I : i

I

NORMAL INLET POWER

SWITCH

SQUIB

1

T
A, _

"-

1

i
4. t I --t_ -..J --

k', j

4k

I I

INLET AIR DOOR RELAY • ' 21,0(X) FOOT 8AROSTAT .... RECOVERY RELAY PANEL NO, I 1 lit

EMERGENCY INLET AIR DOOR RELAY _;_ : _-_!", _. _!CL_ ;_C,', _"

FlCaO_[-5 _T EM(._C,_kL-L;nTROL 3

Mc'DONNEL_L_,_ _" _
ST.LOUIS , MISSOURI
' PRESSURE

(.;ROUND TEST SHUTOFF VALVE

• i

INST _UMENTATIGN PACKAGE "A 'l

OXYGEN SAMPLER

SUiT CIRCUIT RELIEF VALVE SOLIDS TRAP

SUiT FROM

_¢ I SUE J ,'TO

SHUTOFF VALVE

F._

_OR _11

SUIT COMPRESSOR B

--I

]_

I

_¢_:2

NO.

l

_ EMER 0 2 RATE HANDLE (RIGHT CONSOLE)

_;_

HEAT EXCHANGER PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL

WATER

;...

,. :

RATOR ::
"; '" " " FROM OXYGEN CO 2 AND ODOR ABSORBER •_ _,CUUM .,ELIEF VALVE ,_ FROM SUIT p'COMFORT TO STEAM VENT VALVE SUPPLY

"

_ SOLENOID

_. VAL','_

SUIT COMPRESSOR

E

NO. 2

";_
I I I
K B v. r" O

%
,
C F

J_O_ENSATE
o

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AUTOMATICIC _ SUIT BUS

O

5A SA

I

1 . T1 =_
I

t *

. !o .

[
J SELECT RELAY SUiT FAN SECOND) (T.D. 12 I ISV A-C I" FAN BUS

I''_'
e"_l_=_*

SUIT FAN CUTOFF ! RELAY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL BOX SUiT FAN 24V MAIN D-C BUS (_._SA _1_ I

SUiT FAN SWITCH

_O.';',,,'l_/"_lrp_

PAG E REPORT

3 -1 7 SEDR104 13 3

JL
f _UIT PRESSURE _ENSOR INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE "A" C PACKAGE "C"

MODEL

SENSOR. FROM ELO00 TEMPERATURE MEASURING PRESSURE SYSTEM

TO SUI _-----_ _k

SUPPLY

FROM O_GEN,_

EMERGENCY L __ RATE VALVE

OXYGEN

P_,'_A TE

PROGRAMER

o
_U,TOB_S P _ 24V D-C

I f_ _°
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL _U_TA L _ 5A ,A

CCLOSEO30_ECONO$/30

24V O-C '_ I DtM EMERGENCY '

1

"

I

2

SIGNAL

LIGHTS

i--o
b-

-?
pM43-300

PAGE REPORT MODr.t coated • be suit _e

_-18 ._RI_ 10_1. 1"t_ nylon closure

MCID()NNE_

%_ ST. LOUIS. MISSOUIll

DATE l November REVI.SED _m.__ REVISED

1961

_ coupling. control _e system two closure inlet coupling and outlet is

attached ducts.

to

the

ends

of

environmental suit circuit During

incorporates normal

compressors operation

that.are

installed

l_llel

to each other. circulates circuit. _-

suit circuit

the #i suit

cc_pressor the suit duct-

suit oxygen

from

the pressure switch

suit outlet,

_roughout

A a_ferential

pressure

is vented the #i senses to

to the inlet

and outlet

In6 of the #i

suit compressor.

In the event switch power main from is

suit compressor the pressure the #2 to l_sses

malfunctions, the

or fails to operate, #1 suit compressor, is

the differential and in turn d_ects on the flowing

drop across suit compressor. selection the that

operate

A SUIT FAN switch of either compressor. odor

provided O_gen

inst_a-nt the

I_meI,

enable

compressors into

through sections

CO2 and contain dioxide

absorber.

The absorber and litblum

divided hydroxide

individual odors

activated from _

charcoal oxygen,

removing

and carbon Filters, dust from

Q

to prevent remove

any discomfort charcoal

to the Astronaut. hydroxide

incorporated entering Suit removes Suit

in the absorber_ circuit

or lithium

the suit circuit

oxygen. is controlled oxygen by a suit heat flowing through exchanger, that

temperature the suit pressure

heat from

circuit

the heat exchanger. coolant tank,

circuit

oxygen

is utilized

to pressurize

the water

to provide

waterflow

to the heat exchanger. control valve, located

The waterflow on the right

in turn console.

is controlled Suit pressure

by a suit temperature and temperature pressure ROHMENT and

sensors,

located to the

in the suit circuit, SUIT gNVIRON_ENT

transmit

suit circuit SUIT ENVIand @

temperature

indicator.

The

indicator, _

located

on the main l_el, _e water

is a dual face separator

indicator

indicates

PHESS

and SUIT TEMP. moisture from

is a filter-type flowing through the

Sl_Onge, that collects

the suit circuit

oxygen

DAVR
REVISED

i November

i_i

_
ST. LOUIS

%0_G_
3, MISSOURI

PAG_
REPORT.

_-19
S_DR 10_

._,SED

MOO_

133

separator. the water storage by

At timed from it.

intervals, Water

the

sponge

is pme1---tically sponge is drained The

compressed into sponge

to remove

removed

from the

a condensate is compressed provalve for to

tank,

located

adjacent by

to the water oxygen

separator.

a piston

that

is actuated

pressure.

The capsule separator valve,

programmer solenoid

rides 30

2_V D-C electrical every

power

to energize Energizing

the water solenoid

seconds

30 m_nutes.

the

opens

the valve The

allow water

oxygen

pressure piston

(IOO psi) to actuate incorporates before two ,_ and after

the water ets.

separator

piston.

separator

The magnets

aid in determ_uimg flowing through

the position the water

of the piston

actuation.

Oxygen,

separator,

flows to the closed suit. Oxygen,

emergency

oxygen

rate valve suit, then matter oxygen

and through passes such as food supply. of

the Astronaut's through a solids hair, trap

pressure trap, nasal

fro_ the pressure to remove from the

that

is provided etc.,

amy foreign suit circuit

particles, The solids

excretions,

incorporates blocking

a relief

feature, flow. The

to prevent

the possibility shutoff

foreign located tion

matter

suit circuit

suit circuit locked mode.

valve 3 posi-

downstream

of the solids

trap,

is mechanically control

in the open

during During

operation capsule

in the suit environmental pre-launch phase# the

suit circuit source. Suit

is purged

and

saturated is also suit

with

oxygen

from an external a freom The

low pressure

heat excb-nger supply,

supplied circuit during pressure psia by

with

coolaut_

from an external oxygen mode

ground

to provide the capsule

cooling. the

suit circuit

circulates operation.

throughout During

suit circuit, flight the 5

suit environmental the

control

within the

suit circuit regulator. at a capsule

is auto_.tically During the landing

maintained phase,

at approximately the capsule 21,000

pressure close

feet barostats _ of the inlet 21,000 air door

altitude

of appro_m*tely

21,0OO

feet.

Closing the to

feet barostats relay.

directs

2_V D-C electrical air door

power

to energize power

EnergizXng

the inlet

relay directs

_*_i_e_

_.c_ T_J_

REPORT _qR.T)R0A 1 MODEL. 133 ignite an explosive

S-O

MC, ST. DONNELL
squib, which in turn ejects the snorkel

.O TE.1 ber REVISED ov
REVISED explosive door.

(Door is located on capsule exterior. )

When the capsule cabin descends to an
--/=_.:_:--_

altitude of 17,0OO +_3000 feet, the cabin air inlet and outflow valves open barometrically. The suit compressor draws atmospheric air into the suit circuit

.....

through the ejected snorkel door opening, the snorkel valve and the open cabin air _nlet valve. In the event the cabin air inlet and outflow valves fail to open the valves by actuating the SNOREEL pull If the Astronaut does not open the valves

open, the Astronaut may _ually

ring, located on the left console.

mnnually, the valves will open automatically at I0,0OO feet when the antenna fairing is ejected. Ejection of the antenna fairing directs electrical power to

ignite the cabin air inlet and outflow valves explosive squibs, which in turn mechanically open the valves. Opening of the cabin air inlet valve automatically

switches the environmental s_stem mode of operation to the suit emergency mode, but the suit circuit compressor continues to operate to provide suit circuit ventilation. Also, opening of the cabin air inlet valve directs electrical power

to close the suit circuit shutoff valve, which in turn mechanically opens the emergency oxygen rate valve and provides electrical power to illuminate the 02 EMER light and operate a tone generator. Electrical power is also provided to

energize the emergency air inlet door relay, which in turn directs electrical power to ignite the snorkel explosive door squib and eject the snorkel explosive door. (This provision insures the ejection of the snorkel explosive door, in Air circulating through the
=,,,,,, v:::x, •

the event the door failed to eject at 21,000 feet.)

suit circuit is vented through the suit pressure regulator to the cabin, and in turn is vented out of the capsule through the cabin outflow valve. During the

capsule post-landing phase, ventilation is provided by operating the suit circuit compressor, which in turn draws outside air in through the cabin air _nlet valve and vents cabin air out the cabin outflow valve. In the event the capsule sub....

oA_
Rh-VISED

1 November

1961

__.__
-_'_ST. _ LOUIS ----'-_" 3, MISSOURI

rAGZ
REPORT

3-21
L_,_ "] ('_

_sv,sso

.oo_

1"33

merges inlet
L_-L,

momentarily, valve

following

a water flapper

landing, valves

the b,ll

float

in the cabin valve

air

and the diaphr_ Seating

in the cabin

air outflow prevents cabin with

will

seat.

of the valves circuit

(snorkel

ann flapper), through

water

from and valve

enterln5 outflow closed

into the suit valves.

and cabin,

the open

air inlet

Operation a vacuun

of the

suit circuit

compressor

the snorkel

will

create

in the flexible

ductln_,

located

between

the cabin in the and

air inlet flexible flexible allows

valve

and the will

suit circuit. open when inches enter

The vacuum

relief

valve,

located

ducting, ducting

the pressure of water.

differential

between

the cabin relief

is 10-15 to

Opemlng

of the vacum, flexible

valve ducting, valve

cabin

pressure

into the valve

suit circuit b-11 float,

air inlet

and unseat is above

the air inlet This

snorkel action

if the

capsule

snorkel

the water. to

in turn allows During provides

outside

air to enter submersion,

into the air

suit circuit

continue

ventilation. relief valve

capsule

cabin

enterln_ _the open vacuum

suit circuit

ventilation.

3-10.

SUIT EMERGENCY The suit emergency

CONTROL control, the cabin Figure 3-5, is provided to insure control Astronaut's malof

survival function. opening t_n

in the

event

and suit environmental control supply

circuits

Operation

in the suit emergency oxygeh _ate valve, to

mode basically oxygen

consists

the emergency

at a rate greater which in turn removing 02 in the

normal;

and closing flow

of the

suit circuit the temperature light

shutoff

valve,

eliminates •ulits,

oxygen

through

control

and impurity

lll_m_nation to E_RG

of the 02 EMERG position, mode.

and the _.ovement of the E_G system operation

rate handle

indicates

environmental

suit emergency When normal circuit

control

operatlng

in the

suit environ-_ntal oxygen

control rate valve

mode,

during

capsule the suit suit

orbital shutoff

flight, valve

the emergency is open,

is closed,

suit compressors

are operativej

and the

PAGE

3-22 104

REPORT _DR MODEl, l_

M,DONNF g
_ ST. LOUIS,

-DATE 1 November 1_1 REVISED REVISED The _ ,

circuit pressure regulator is controlling oxygen flow to the suit circuit. emergency oxygen rate valve r_m_ins closed as long as suit circuit pressure remnlns at approw_mAtely 5 psia pressure.

In the event the suit circuit pres-

'_:.:.:

sure drops to 4.0 + .i psia, the rate valve internal aneriod extends, to offseat
" .3

a poppet, and allows oxygen from the oxygen supply to flow through the rate valve and into the suit circuit. The extension of the rate valve aneriod, due to low

pressure, actuates a l_m_t switch that provides electrical power to energize the suit circuit shutoff valve solenoid add the suit fan cut-off relay, ill,-,_nate the 02 E3_RG light, and operate a tone generator. _nergizing the suit fan cut-

off relay removes the IISV A-C electrical power to operate the suit circuit compressor. open. relay. (At an altitude of 17,000 +.3000 feet, the cabin air inlet relay will

Opening of the cabin air inlet relay de-energizes the suit fad cutoff The de-energized suit fan cutoff relay routes power to the #i suit cirIf the #i suit circuit compressor fails to operate within 12

cuit compressor.

seconds, the suit fad selector relay will energize and allow power to be directed to the suit fan cutoff relay and then on to the #2 suit circuit compressor.) Energizing the shutoff valve solenoid releases the shutoff valve shaf_ arm, and mechanically moves the EMERG 02 handle, right console, to the EMERG position. Movement of the EMERG 02 haudle moves a cable, that is connected to the emergency oxygen rate valve shaft arm, and mechanically actuates the emergency rate valve to maintain the rate valve in the open position. With the emergency oxygen rate

valve open and the suit circuit shutoff valve closed, oxygen from the oxygen supply flows into the pressure suit and is discharged through the suit pressure regulator relief valve. the position, compressor F._RG 02 handle the emergency to the NORMposition rate valve the to resets the the close light, shutoff position_ and in turn valve -

Actuating to the open suit

oxygen extinguishes

starts

operation,

02 E_RG

OA'rR 1 November

I_61

PAGE

_3-2_

a_Is_
.r_,m¢o_

_.-ouls 3,MJssou.=

._oav _ED_ i0_
MOO= 133 The

switches the suit circuit operation to the suit environmental control mode.

suit emergency mode is also automatical]y selected durin6 capsule landing phase, ._:;:.:-_::. when the capsule has descended to an altitude of 17,000 + 3000 feet. +-3000 feet the cabin air inlet valve opens. At 17,000

Open!ng of the cabin air _n_et

valve actuates a limit switch that provides electrical power to operate the suit circuit compressor and close the shutoff valve, which in turn mechanically opens the emergency oxygen rate valve. An inlet power switch, located on the main

instrument panel to the right of the satellite clock, is incorporated in the. environment control system. suit envlron_ntal The _nlet power switch allows operation in the

control mode in the event the cabin air inlet valve prematurely Premature opening of the cabin air inlet valve deacti-

opens (See Figure 3-2).

vates the cabin fan and closes the suit circuit shutoff valve which in turn opens the emergency oxygen rate valve. • emergency mode. The suit circuit is now operating in the

To Inltiate transition back to the suit environmental control With the inlet

mode, the _nlet isower switch is placed in the BY-PASS position.

power switch in the BY-PASS position, the cabin fan is activated (See Figure 2-3) and the suit circuit shutoff valve is deactivated. The EMER 02 handle, right

h-nd console, is now placed in the NORM position; placing of the EMER 02 handle to the NORM position opens the suit circuit shutoff valve which in turn closes the emergency oxygen rate valve. Lug in the suit environ_ntal The environmental control system is now operatTo prevent snorkel door separation

control mode.

upon premature opening of the cabin air inlet valve, the emergency inlet air door relay is interconnected to the _ntenna fairing separation relay dur_ •:._-;:descent. After opening of the cabin air inlet and outflow valves, the _nlet

power switch is placed in the NORMAL position.

-

3-11.

OXYGEN SUPPLY During the capsule pre-launch phase and prior to inst-]Iation of the capsule

REPORT MODEL.

SEER 10_ 1_

REVISED _-._--REVISED

entrance ground ary sure and

hatch, crewmen, supply

the to

capsule activate

oxygen the valves,

supply

shutoff

valves Opening

are of the

manually primary to oxygen the

opemed, and cabin rate

by

oxygen Figure

supply. 3-6,

secondpres-

;;-_::_;;_

oxygen control the suit

shutoff suit water

provides suit valve. bottle of the

oxygen

valve, circuit operation, 200 oxygen and

pressure separator the to

regulator, solenoid oxygen

emergency

valve,

During approxin_tely secondary line

when du_ line

primary near

pressure primary the priory system panel, primary and

drops oxygen

below supply; supply A to supply, the

psig, Sul_lY continue _ge, oxygen

depletion will the

pressure to supply

override environmental

oxygen with is

pressure

oxygen. provided

quantity indicate are

indicator remaining to

located supply.

on the

main

instrument

Two transducers, of oxygen quantity

secondary

provided

enable

telemetering SYSTEM

remaining.

3-12.

COOLANT

PRESSURIZATION pressurization cabin

The coolant water heat cuit. cabin, through heat coolant

system,

Figure

3-7, basically control valves,

consists cabin

of a

tank,

and suit temperature heat exchangers, after cooling

and suit cir-

exchangers, During suit

inverter

and an excessive hatch

water

warning

capsule

pre-launch, inverter

the entrance is achieved and

has been

installed, (F-11_)

circuit

and

by supplying

freon

the capsule

umbilical

connector

into the cabin, heat from

suit and inverter and suit air the environFreon flow-

exchangers. through system

The freon coolant the heat exchangers, located

absorbs

the cabin through

flowing mental

and boils in the large absorbs

overboard pressure

steam vents,

bulkhead. heat from

ing to two inverter in the same manner seconds When_he and prior

heat _exchangers as the cabin

and dissipates heat

the inverters
"".'S_S

and suit circuit the freon 115,000 by water

exchangers. supply

Forty-five

to capsule reaches cooling

launching,

coolant feet

is discontinued. inverter, cabin

capsule

approximately is achieved

altitude,

suit circuit

evaporation,

that

occurs within

REPORT _ MODEL I,':JS

1011,

REVISED_,_,,Ir4t.h,I_,UAwjLI_, REVISED May 19_, i

the heat exchangers.

_e

coolant pressurization system pressure relief valve

remains open, during capsule launch, until the pressure decreases to approximately 7 psia. The relief valve closes at 7 psia pressure enabling the coolant

pressurization system to operate. Water from the water coolant tank is supplied, under 6.1 psia pressure, through the temperature control valves, to the suit inverter and cabin heat exchangers. A cooling pressurization system pressure relief valve relieves Oxygen from the suit circuit pres-

pressures in excess of approximately 7 psia.

surizes the water coolant tank moving the tank diaphragm, which in turn forces the water supply out of the tank at a rate dependent upon the position of the temperature control valves. The temperature control valves control the amount

of water entering the heat exchangers, and in turn controls cabin suit and inverter temperatures. Water within the heat exchangers absorbs heat from the _ heated water

cabin and suit oxygen, flowing through the heat exchangers.

evaporates and flows out through the steam vents, located in the large pressure bulkhead. In addition, heat generated by the inverters is drawn into the cabin Indicator lights are _rovided on the

heat exchanger by means of the cabin fan.

main instr_-_nt panel to indicate extreme cold conditions in the cabin and suit
i

heat exchangers exhaust ducts, which could possible freeze and plug overboard steam vents. If the heat exchangers exhaust ducts temperatures drop below 42°F, Closing o_

a thermal switch, located in each of the exhaust ducts actuates close.

either thermal switch directs 24V D-C electrical power to Illuminate either the EXCESS CABIN H20 or the EXCESS SUIT H20 light, and operate the tone generator;

_iiii__i-

thus indicating to the Astronaut of extreme cold temperatures in the heat exchangers exhaust ducts. The Astronaut must then position the cabin or suit

temperature control valve to a warmer setting, in order to reduce the possibility of water freezing in the exhaust duct.

RZVJSED l

Yay 1962

en'.Louls s. Mzssoum

RF.VORT. S_

lOk

3-13.

SYSTEM

UNITS

3-14.

PRIMARY _he primary

AND SECONDARY

OXYGEN BOTTLES spherical Couch shaped ox_,gen bottles to the capsule are located conical section oxygen,

and secondary support

beneath

the

Astronaut's pressure

adjacent

and large stored

bulkhead.

Each bottle at 70°F

has a capacity temperature. system

of _ pounds Reduction

under a 7500

Psig pressure

of pressure with i00 Psig; Servicing filler coup-

for utilization pressure

in the envlron_ental_control Me primary supply

is accomplished

reducers. oxygen

is reduced

to approximately 80 psi6. disco_-_t

the secondary

supply

is reduced

to approximately through a quick

of the oxygen bott_les is accomplished ling.

3-15

SUIT CIRCUIT

PRE_

REGULATOR regulator, Figure 3-8, is provided suit circuit dioxide to regulate oxygen con-

The suit circuit oxygen pressure

pressure

to the suit circuit absorbed is

and to replenish

su_ed by the Astronaut, leakage. trols sure suit The regulator circuit

by moisture type

or carbon

or lost through that circuit cabin conprespressure

a demand in

diaphragm to cabin

operated pressure.

regulator Suit

pressure

reference

is maintained normal pressure circuit also circuit regulator

approximately operation, on the sensed

2.5 - 3.5 inches under upper on the ideal side lower

of water below leakage)

during Cabin suit tor suit of

system is

(no cabin of the side that

conditions. diaphragm _e regulaand

sensed is

regulator of is to the used shut 4.6

control diaphragm. to off . relieve cabin .2

pressure

contains

a resilient

type

diaphragm are

excessive vent port In

pressures. in the event

Two ansroids cabin pressure

provided decreases

below

psia.

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

I FEBRUARY

1962

1MAY1962

TONE

_

SUIT LIGHT

M20

OFF

• •

TONE TONE

.....

I_ _LtG
(J_ TEST EXCESS CABIN--"

A
TO PQESSU_E

swrrcH
SUiT

::'/?.:. ....

W,TC.
TONE TONE _/_ ,_OFF 6E N E_ATOR_C)

t
_ _IBI SUIT El RCUIT FLOW , ORIFICE

0,
O

L,O.T
Dlbl. E NvlQONMENTAL. WARNING LIGHT _WIT¢ H

-T'J
RELIEF { 24V0C VALVE

i

CHECK VALVE

CHECK

VALVE

5A
5A CONT_0L 24V OC W._, TE R TANK

COOLANT

CABIN TEMPEP.ATURE CONTROL VALVE

INVERTER CONTROL

TEMPERATURE VALVE

SUiT TEMPE_ATJ_E CONTf_OL VALVE

ORIFICE

FREON CHECK V/_LVE FRE.ON CHECK

J

FREON CHECK VALVE

0R_.PICE

METERING

VALVE

OI_IF'IC_-

_UIT CIRCUIT FLOW L_ llS'_ D,_ l HEAT EXCHANGER HEAT EXCHANGER HEAT EXCHANGER J50 _A.) (blAIN IN_ERTER

SU_T

HEAT ._:-.. ::'.::/? : ..........

EI(CHANGE_

IHVERTER

LARGE

PRESSURESUPPLIED OORING

8ULKHE_

'I'

t"

l

CAPSULE

SROUND OPERATION

ONLY)

NOTE
SCHE']aATIC 0{PlCTS CI2(UIT OPERATION

UMBICF..AL PLU6
COOLING DURING

__

No_.ALApsu_ c FU_HT

7IGURE 3-7

COOLING

CIP.CUIT

PM45-36_

MAC P.31C (REV 14 DF,C 80) DATF REVISED REVISED I May

x,o ber 1961
"I_62

]|

/// 6,

,

/__..

,Ao
REPORT MODE! _DR 133 10_.

trr. t.outs. Mltmoum

_ :'::_-_' :Z:';';;;;:

the event of pressure

cabin leakage, valve frm will

not decreasing open to replenish

below

4.0 - .i psia, pressure will to

_he cabin
• .2

control

cabin valve

5.1

-

.1

psia.

Y_de up oxygen suit circuit

the cabin

]n'essure

control

flow through relief valve

the and

and out through At

the suit pressure suit circuit (sui_ relief

regulator

into the cabin. pressures due to

this time,

pressures above valve.

will

exceed required

cabin to open rate
o

pressure pressure

differential regulator

cabin)

the suit circuit will determine

The cabin leaka@e will exceed

the amount

the suit circuit

pressures

the cabin

pressures. During tor relief H20 above d/aphragm sure. normal capsule ascent, cabin pressure decreases, to within and the regula2 - 9 inches the control

d/aphragm cabin

relieves

suit circuit capsule

pressure normal

pressure.

During

orbif_l

flight,

will regulate

suit circuit pressure

pressure will

in relationship

to cabin presto offseat a

An increase

in cabin

act on the _la_a_ to increase cabin

poppet valve and allow inches of _0 below

suit circuit pressure.

pressure

to within pressure off cabin

2.5 - 3.5

cabin

In the event extend

decreases vent port valve

below 4.6 • .2 psia, of regulator. to the cabin cuit pressure vided

the aneroids

will

and close

Two 60 cc/min bleed sensing

ports will then bypass diaphragm

the poppet

side of the control

and regulate

suit cirare proor either is the flight.

to 4.6 * .2 psia.

Two aneroide

and two bleed

ports

to insure regulator

operation,

in the event either operation

aneroid

bleed port fails

to function. in cabin

Descent pressure

of the regulator normal

same as an increase

during capsule

orbital

3-16. _e

SbqT CIRCUIT

SHUTOFF

VALVE valve, Figure 3-9, is designed to shut off oxygen

suit circuit

shutoff

REPORT_EIR 1OZt MODEL l__'_L__

3-3o

,Mc, DONNELLf

REVISED REVISED

1 M_y 1962

flow to the suit environmental circuit accessory components, whenever the suit circuit is operating in the emergency mode. Closing of the suit circuit shutoff

s--.

;;_;_

valve reserves the remaining oxygen supply for the Astronaut's pressure suit. The shutoff valve, spring loaded to the close position, is latched in the open position during normal suit circuit operation._ Valve is maintained in the open position by a solenoid controlled detent pin engaged in the valve spoon arm. A micro switch, depressed by the valve arm, completes the solenoid circuit when the valve is latched open. Opening of either the emergency oxygen rate valve

or the cabin air inlet valve directs an electrical signal to energize the shutoff valve solenoid. Energizing the solenoid retracts the detent pin And allows Closing of

the valve spr_ng to rotate the valve spoon to the close position.

the valve opens the solenoid circuit and opens the emergency oxygen rate valve, through an inter-connecting push pull rod. opened by the E_ The shutoff valve is mechanically The shutoff valve

02 control handle, located in capsule.

is interconnected to the emergency rate valve, so that when the emergencyrate valve closes, the shutoff valve opens.

3-17.

EMERGENCY OXYGEN RATE VALVE The emergency oxygen rate valve, Figure 3-I0, is provided to supply a

regulated amount of oxygen directly into the Astronaut's pressure suit, in the event -_!function occurs in the suit circuit operation. The rate valve is

designed to operate automatically and contains provisions fo_ manual operation. The valve, closed during normal suit circuit operation, contains an aneroid that senses suit circuit pressure. Whenever suit circuit pressure drops below 4.0

.....

+ .i psia, the aneroid extends to offseat a spring loaded Poppet and allow oxygen: pressure to enter the dianbra_n chamber. The pressure in the diaphragm

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

SUIT

PR_SURE

REGULATOR

2)-

"-'_

FIGURE

_-

8

%UIT

F:::'P, ESSURF_..

_E_ULA"FOR

PM_,5 - IS@

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

.

1 MAY

1962

SUIT

CIRCUIT

5HUTOFI

= VALVE

FLOUR

.= 3-9

%UIT.

CIRCUIT

%HUTOFF

VALVF PN_45-_52 ]_

_ ::_;::;;_

chamber

increases

and

fully

strokes

the

l_Pl_t,

allowing

oxygen

to

flow

into

the Astronaut's with lever

suit at a fixed

flow of .049 to .051 #/rain. a control I_ver light, switch

Sinnlltaneously *_ough a

the offseating mechanism, valve,

of the poppet,

is actuated

and directs ill_ainate dur!n_

electrical

to close

the suit circuit comvalve of
o

shutoff pressor

the 02 EMERO capsule

and stop suit circuit Suit circuit Therefore,

o_eration

orbital c_ygen

flight.

shutoff closing

is interconnected the shutoff shaft valve

with emergency actuates

rate valve. oxygen poppet

the emergency

rate valve _nual inlet. Oxygen chamber.

control

to close off oxygen flow to valve into suit circuit rate valve through control F_a

then flows

directly

the valve

aneroid

Emergency control F_RG switch

shaft actuation 02 control rate valve

actuates

a pin to depress console) by _11 be to

and also moves _rgency position _th

handle

(right

position. F_

oxygen EM_RG

may be

opened

manually

selectlng

02 control described

handle. above.

Operation Whenever shutoff

same as control 02 control and emergency

shs£t arm is moves rate

operation, to NORM, valve closes.

the EMER opens

handle

the suit circuit

valve

oxygen

3-18.

SUIT C_RCUI_ The

COMPRESSORS environmental control system utilizes two electric 3-4). One

suit circuit

motor

driven,

single-stage,

centrifugal circulation

coerpressors (See Figure of gases within

compressor the o_h_r ,_._.:_.:..:., failure. vated by

is for the normal is a standby If the normal s l_ressure electrical

the suit circuit; c_apressor is actithe standby is

co_ressor c_pressor

used in the event of normal fails, swatch _e the standby directs

compressor lx_er to

differential connections.

which

compressor

only time the suit cce_ressor

REPORT MODEL

SEOR104 133

REVISED REVISED

// ( ! /.

. ..

._,ii

E.ME_G,

ENC¥

Oa

_ATg

VAL.Vg

F_.O_ CAPSUL£

To S_T ORCU_T .lllmll_ _'_

,--,_A_U_L CONT_OU

POPPET _

_

CO_TRO__ SW_TCH

FIGURE B-10ENIERGEBIC'/ _ RATE VALVE O

REVISED I M_y 1962 REV!$Fn

_'.Lou, s. M,ssoum

REPORT. DR _ MOD_ 133

lO_

inoperative
•..:_.:.:_:_

is during

orbital rate is

flight when valve. being

the Astronaut supplementary 20,000

is utilizing oxygen feet, ambient the from suit

oxygen the cir-

:_::-_:

fro_

the

emergency oxygen

oxygen rate will valve

When used

emergency cuit

below

compressor

continue

to operate

to circulate

air to "the

Astmonaut.

3-19.

CO2 AND ODOR A.ikqOIL'Sg_ CO 2 and odor absorber, Figure 3-11, is l_rovided to remove Astronaut is

emil-ted odors basically contains circuit carbon

and carbon

dioxide

from the suit circuit. into two sections. obJectional

The absorber The inlet

a metal activated oxygen.

cannister charcoal

divided

section

that removes

odors from

the suit removes

Lithium The

hydroxide, section

located

in the center

sections

dioxide.

outlet

is an exit filter,

provided

to prevent oxygen by a spring replaced

charcoal flow. force. prior

and lithium _he charcoal

hydroxide and llthlmn

dust from entering hydroxide granules

the suit circuit are compressed should be

To insure proper to capsule mission.

absorber

operation

the absorber

3-20. _e

SIIT CIRCUIT

HEAT EX_ heat exchanger offset (Figure 3-12) is of a plate one pass fin construc-

suit circuit rectangular

tion with

fins, double

sandwich,

on the oxygen of the

side and two pass, heat :.;:..: ..... Water exchanger

single

sandwich

on the water circulating

side.

The function

is to cool the Eases cooling

throughout

the suit circuit.

from the water at which

tank is routed

to the Inlet side of the beat density woven felt pad. through the

exchanEer

point

it is directed

to a high

function

of the felt pad is to evenly

distribute

the water

PAGE 3-36 REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL. 133 heat exchanger.

M_D

0NNE_

_o_uz _

DATE I N°vember 1961 REVISED I May 1962 REVISED

As water passes through the felt pad, it comes into consurfaces on the water side of the heat exchanger. _,_;;:_

tact with the heat transfer

The water then absorbs the heat from the circulating gases and the water is then boiled off as steam and dumped overboard.

3-21.

WATER SEPARATOR The water separator, Figure 3-13, is provided to remove moisture, con-

densed as a result of suit heat exchanger operation, from the suit circuit o_jgen. The separator is basically a filter type sponge that collects moisture The sponge, pneumatically compressed,

from the oxygen passing through it.

removes the condensate from the sponge and deposits it into a storage tank. During suit circuit operation, the sponge filters moisture from the oxygen

flowing through the sponge.

Once every 30 minutes, for a duration of 30 sec-

onds, the capsule programmer supplies electrical power to energize the water separator solenoid valve. Energizing the normally closed solenoid valve opens

the valve and directs oxygen from either the primary or secondary supply to the piston stem and the piston plate chambers. Due to the difference in area, on each side of piston, the piston raises the sponge out of the suit circuit oxygen flow and is compressed against the z separator housing plate. condensate tank. Water squeezed out of the sponge drains into the the termination of squeezing (30 seconds), the

Following

water separator solenoid valve is de-energized and the solenoid valve closes. Oxygen below the separator solenoid valve. piston is vented to cabin through the separator iii_'_

Oxygen above the piston, entrapped by a check valve, forces the sponge into suit circuit oxygen flow.

the piston down, thus returning

Suit circuit pressure is also supplied to top of separator to aid in forcing

DATE REVISED

1 NOVEMBER

1961

MCYDONNE_

_ ST.LOUIS,

______6_'_#'_'_ MISSOURI

PAGE REPORT MODEL

3-37 SEDR 104 133

REVISED

i: i i i -

FIGURe_S-If COzAND

ODO_

/S, IBSORBER -rl, i

PM45-1S6_

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133

ST.LOUtS,

MISSOURI

" REVISED REVISED

J

5U_T NEAT F.XC_A_ER

F _:_. _ N E

I N LE.T

_'_
Ot,JTLE.T

5ECrl0N SHOWIN_' 0PEI_ATtON

3-39
OATE 1 November 1961 Mc'DONNE_.._ ,/_ _T // " (.._4_._z_ /_ PAO_ _

REYISEO )_.y 1962 1 REWS_V

__

sT.Lou,,.,,,_u_

REPORT _I:IR 10_ mO0_ 133

the ........ = water the tion

s_onge from top in of the

down. entering sel_rator, event suit flow

Two check the suit

valves, circuit valve

located and also is

on top

of

se,r__rator, water

prevent into deplesqueezing will consel_rator posf-

prevents to

backflow oxygen

b check separator

supplied developed not be by

prevent

mechanisms flow vLll

a leak. affected, the aid sponge. in

Durt__ as oxygen

operstlon tlnue piston tion of to

circuit +.h,'ou_

ox_rgen are

normally

occupied The magnets

The water the

incorporates _he piston

t'wo magnets. before and after

determining

actuation.

3-22.
_e suit ...... vhich

SOT.mS _LP
suit circuit outlet solids The trap, Ylgure trap byl_ss collected consists to 3-i_, of insure solids. is located a _0 micron o_eration in the pilot's mesh in the screen event filter the

oxygen

duct.

incorporates become

an integral choked with

trap'would

3-23.
_ _--_r

CABIN.RAT EXCEA_
cabin as the heat exchanger suit circuit heat (Figure 3-15), cools the cabin cabin gas In the same exchan_r cabin gas.

exchanger fan to the

except draw

the

heat

.employs an electric Internal structure

driven motor ls the same as

in and reclrculate heat exchan_r.

suit

circuit

3-24.

_
_he capsule

WA_
rater

TA_K
tank is a pressurized is displaced by oxygen compartmented from from control and cabin wlth cylindrical of shaped a

container ::": ::.":= rubber frc_ water the

(Figure

3-15). is

Water activated to

the tank by means _e suit circuit. which control

bladder tank

which is to _ected the

Water the The water.

three

manual inverter

valves heat

supply wa_er

suit

circuit

exchangers.

capsule

T_nk also l_rovldes the Astronaut

a source

of drinkln_

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133

REVISED REVISED

F_GUP..E. 5-1:5

W,_,TF_I2. SEPh,_h,TOI_.

PM45"I_7_

REVISED REVISED

MISSOURI _ll

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133

----

PRIMARY FLOW 5ECONDARY FLOW

•FIC_I2REg-I4- 5L31T CIRC_IT

50LII_S TRAP

PM'_S-ZSlA

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUl

REVISED R EVISED

COOLIN _ DUCT

REVISED 1 Mm)" 1962 REVISED. "k_

in-. Loum, _'.,uoum

REPORT. EDR i0 _, S MODE[ I'_

3-35. .............

CABI_ _ae

PRESSURE

COBOL

VALV_ valve, Figure

cabin

pressure

control

3-17, is provided
valve contains

to maintain

cabin pressure that sense

to 5.1 .4 .3 psia. pressure.

_le control cabin

two aneroids 5.1 Z .3 psia, pins,

cabin

Whenever

pressure

drops below

the aneroids which in t_u

partially permit senses

exlmu_ oxygen

and unseat

the spring loaded

metering

to flow

into the suit circuit. in pressure, and relieves

The suit pressuit circuit. proto

sure regulator pressure vodes 5.1.,

%he increase

to the cabin. purging

Directin 6 oxygen flow of suit circuit. contract, When

through cabin

the suit circuit increases

constant -3 psia

pressure

the aneroids flow.

allowing

the metering

pins to seat and or whenexpand the

shut off the oxygen .... ever cabin pressure the

In the event of cabin + .3

decompression,

drops below _.0 - .1 psia, inlet port. valve, q?n_s prevents

the aneroids oxygen flow,

fully

and seat against cabin pressure

through

control

and reserves

the remaining in the valve control

oxygen

su_ply for operation to

the sult circuit. in the event enable cabin that

Two aneroids one aneroid

are provided

to insure

fails.

A manual cabin

is also _rovided

pressurization

in the event

depressurization in the cabin,

was m_n_lly offseats a

selected. spring cabln_

Actuation Poppet

of the REPRESS

"T" handle,

loaded

in the valve and allows should

oxygen

to flow directly cabin

into the repres-

REPRESS

"T" handle

then be pushed control

in, following automatic

surization,

to enable

cabin pressure

valve

operation.

3-26. '_: ; _e

CABIN

PRESSURE

RET,_

VALVE valve, Figure 3-18, autcmLtically dur_n£ launch, orbit, controls re-entry

cabin

pressure relative

relief

cabin pressure and landing

to ambient

pressure of a water

phases.

In the event

landing,

the valve

incorporates

REPORT MODEL.

SEDR 104 ]33

REVISED REVISED

.... =y.

\

/"

TAN'A.

_,

/ t/"

/

FIGUP, E

3-1G

CAPSULE

WATER

TANK

_M4JS-ZS8

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS

MISSOURI

REPORT. MODEL

$EDR 104 133

" t/ ,:3_

CABIN PR£SSURE CONTrOl,_ VAL'VE

FIGURE 3-17CA, E4N PRESSURE

CONTROL

VALVE

_M4S-_SSA

-46
REPORT _EIR 104 MODEl ._3 1 provisions means

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS MISSOURI to keep water from entering the cabin. The valve also

l,ove r 1961
REVISED 1 _y REVISED 1_62 features valve

for manually

decompressing spring spring separated

the cabin. control control

The cabin

pressure

relief

:::::

consists section. cabin

of a calibrated The calibrated chambers

section section

and a _ppet incorporates

valve ambient

control and meter-

sensing

by a sensing The poppet valve,

diaphragm, valve

spring

loaded

ing valves porates loaded

and calibrated control

springs. arm,

control stem

chamber

incor-

a manual poppet

a check chamber

poppet

orifices, chambers.

spring

valves,

poppet purging pressure.

diaphragms cabin launch, valve

and poppet pressure will

After

the cabin ambient

operation, During relief

be the same as begins until

the existing to decrease, the pressure sure relief psia

as ambient relieve

pressure cabin

the cabin

pressure

will

pressure

differential valve will

(cabin/ambient) cabin

reaches pressure

5.5 psia. build

The cabin

loresof 5.5 will

then prevent re-entry

up in excess Cabin

throughout

the orbit,

and landing

phases.

pressure

he vented, Cabin cabin

through will

the poppet also

stem orifices, through

into the poppet the cabin

valve

chamber. into the port, to (cabin/ chamber

pressure sensing

be vented, Ambient

air filters, via

chamber sensing

pressure

will be vented, springs

the ambient

into the ambient respond ambient). and ambient

chamber. pressures

The ,calibrated in excess

are designed 5.5 psi sensing

to differential When

of approximately the cabin 5.5 psia valves

the pressure chamber

differential exceeds

between

sensing

approximately The metering

_cabin/ambient), will then be of 5.5 :_:

the calibrated lifted psia

springs

will 'retract. allowing

from their

seats,

differential port.

pressures

in excess

to escape than

through

the ambient stem

Due to the ambient rate

port being of the excessive will exceed

larger

the poppet cabin

orifices, (inside

the dissipation the poppet valve

differential

pressure

chambers)

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORTMODEL

$EDR 104 153

/

CABIN

_REgS1JRE.

I;qE-LtEFVALVE

REPORT SEIR I04 MODEL. 133

MISSOURI

_

DATE1 November1962 1961 REVISED1 _y REVISED

the rate of buildup

in the poppet valve chambers.

This will momentarily cause The

the cabin pressure to be greater than the poppet valve chamber pressure. greater cabin pressure will act against the cabin diaphragm, unseating the poppet valves.

_:_;;_:; ........

_he poppet valves will then air in the relieving of excessive If the Astronaut executes a manual decompression of

differential pressure.

the cabin, the check valve acts as an exhaust for poppet valve chamber pressure. During orbit, the cabin pressure relief valve will prevent cabin pressure buildup in excess of approximately 5.5 psia. Cabin pressure in excess Upon

of approximately 5.5 psia will be exhausted to the outside atmosphere.

re-entry, when the ambient pressure becomes 15 inches of water greater than cabin pressure, the poppet valves will commence to open allowing ambient pressure to enter the cabin. Valve relieving operations will then be In the event the capsule makes a water land-

similar to those during launch.

ing, the poppet valves will not open until water pressure exceeds cabin pressure by 15 inches of water.

3-27.

SNORKEL AND DIAPHRAGM FIAPPER VALVES The cabin inlet air snorkel valve ahd the cabin outflow diaphragm flapper

valve act as water check type valves.

During the landing and post landing

phases, (often reaching a pressure altitude of approximately 17,000 ft.) ambient air is circulated through the valves. In the event t_e valve parts

were under water, the valves would seat and prevent water from entering the •cabin. '

..... _"

REVISED i REVISED

MB,Y i_

st'. LouIs, Mlnoum

REPORT_.q_ 104 MODF_133

.::-. .........

3-28. _e for It the is

_s.B_ AIR _ cabin suit a spring to capsule spring (_a_im_ air circuit lo_ launch, loaded inlet

VALVE valve, cabin Yi_e during spoon valve pin type is 3-19, capsule valve manually on the provides landing _d is ventilation and _ic_ly closed diameter so of that the post and landing cooling _ases. controlled. one aneroid and the

and

close, the detent

PriOr

latched large

mechanism plunger

rides

allowable

pull to set detent

pin is five

(5) pounds);

valve arm is engs_ed aneroid locking pin.

by the release During capsule

link, which launch

is en_==_=edby the spring loaded expands valve due to decreasing mechanism s_ll detent

the aneroid down. _

cabin pressure, pin then slips

and forces the aneroid off the plunger landing large

plunger

diameter

onto the plunger descends

diameter.

During "

capsule

phase,

when the capsule the aneroid moves

to an altit,_e presupward,

of approximately sure increases.

17,000

_+ 3,000

feet,

retracts

as cabin plunger which

Retraction

of the aneroid the plunger pin spring. spring

the aneroid d_Lmeter,

engaging compresses

the detent

pin against locking

larger

in turn

the aneroid llnk

_his action valve

raises

the locking _e valve arm

pin from release is attached switches.

and allows

loaded

to open.

to valve

shaft and moves

with clos_n£, directs

thereby

disengaging power which

micro-

Disen_ge_ent

of micro-switches

electrical valve,

to stop i_ turn

cabin fan operation opens the emergency

and close oxygen

the suit circuit A ma_!

shutoff

rate valve.

control

arm is provided alti-

to enable valve tu_o. ::_ .... Actuation

opening

in the event

valve failed

to open at specified contacts

of the manual and disengages

control locking

arm, mechanically, pin from release

the iockvalve to

ing pin spring open.

link,

allowing

In the event

of a capsule

low altlt,-_e abort, opening.

an explosive

squib will forc, reset to

the locking

pin up, to enable

valve

Valve must be manually

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

REVISED REVISED

f=t

REVISED 1 ]_S.y 1_. REVISED.

rr. Lou,,. ,immure

REPORTS]_R lOJ_

close ";_:_;-

_osition.

Ol_ning

of the

valve

enables

suit

comI_ssor

to

draw ambient

air into suit circuit to provide suit circuit and cabin ventilation. The cabin air outlet valve is basically of the sue construction and

functions in the same ms,her as the cabin air inlet valve.

3-29° _e

VAG'UIJ_( RET,T'mrVALWB vacuum relief valve Figure 3-20, is designed to o_en at a pressure

differential of i0 to 15 inches of water, to provide suit circuit ventilation whenever the inlet snorkel valve closes (ball float seats). _he relief valve

is located in the flexible ducting, between the cabin air inlet valve and the suit circuit inlet duct. In the event the capsule submerges momentarily, fol-

lowing a water landing, the snorkel v_Ives ball flo_ts will seat (close) and prevent water from entering into the suit circuit and cabin. _e ol_ration of

_h_ suit circuit compressor and the closed air inlet snorkel valve wtll create a vacuu_ in the suit oircuit air inlet duct (flexible dncti_). When

cabin l_essure exceeds the flex duct pressure, by i0 - 15 inches of water, the vacuum relief valve will open. the valve poppet surface _I_ pressure differential (between As the valve opens, cabin pressure acting on

be great enough to hold the valve open until the cabin and duct) is approx_tely 2 inches of

water or less.

Suit circuit ventil_tion is provided by _

cabin alrj entering float

the opened v_cut_ relief valve, wheneYer the inlet snorkel valve baJ is seated (closed).

Also, the opening of the relief valve removes the vacu_

in the flex duct to enable the snorkel valve ball float to ,re=eat(open) when--:,-:--._ ever the snorkel valve is above water.

S-SO.

_ST

CO_FIGURAT_ON CAPSUI_S

REPORT MODEl.

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOUF

REVISED REVISED

...::::.

'

/.-,SEAL

.-_

HOUNT

_KG

_OLT

TO CABIN

..i ] _ou,.r

FIGURE5-20 VACUUM

RELIEF VALVE

pM,5-zz_,_

DAT_ REVISED Febl"lJIIL._v 1962 1

/./ REPORT. _
i

10_

aEv_SED1 _y

l c_

MOD_t

133

3-31. _ST CORFIGt_ATIONCAPSULE NO. 16
-:..:_.:.Capsule specification 16 environmental capsule. control system is basically the same as the

3-32.

_T Capsule

CO_IGURATIONCAPSULEN0. 18 18 enviro_-_ntal
capsule except

control

system is basically
A coolant

the same e_ the
indication circuit

$peelfleation (Refer

as follows :

quantity Oxygen

to Figure

3-21) is incorporated in a coolant coolant tank. quantity

on capsule oxygen

18.

stored undez" to pres-

500 psig pressure surize oxygen oxygen ...... _ _ suit the water supply supply circuit in the

bottle

is utilized decreases

A pressure

reEulator

the coolant quantity from 0xygen transducer

500 psig to 6.1 psla pressure. should will coolant deplete continue cireu/t or malfunction, to is pressurize monitored

In the event oxygen the by

the coolant

at 5 psia pressure coolant of _s_lk.

water means

quantity and

a pressure

_--trmnentation Also the

package. l_rtial pressure indicator is not installed.

"CABIN 02"

REPORT. MODEL

5EDR

104

)URI

REVISED REVISED

133

STABILIZATION CONTROL SYSTEMS
TABLE TITLE AUTOMATIC STABILIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM .... ___ SYSTEM DESCRIPTION....................... SYSTEMOPERATION .......................... SYSTEM UNITS ........ .......................... RATE STABILIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ...................... SYSTEM OPERATION ......................... SYSTEM UNITS .................................. REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ...................... SYSTEM OPERATION ........................ SYSTEMUNITS ............................. .... HORIZON SCANNER SYSTEM SYSTEMDESCRIPTION ...................... 4- 3 4-12 4-19 OF CONTENTS PAGE

4-24 4-25 4-25 4-27 4-29 4-36 4-40

_.....

::

!ii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ' .................... 4-.,, TESTCONFIGURATION CAPSULES ........ 4-55

_o

REPORT MODEL_

SEDR104 133

_.,

M_,Do_E_. °... ,_o-,,,,, t, _._
ST.LOUI REVISED REVISED

IV.

STABILTZATION

CONtrOL

SYSTEMS

-:_ ....

4-1. GENERAL
Stabilization Stabilization Scanners a stable Hold of the capsule System in space is accomplished with two These by the Automatic the Horizon and maintain Attitude

Control

in conJtmctlon System. automatic

sub-systems, establish

and the Reaction platform with

Control

systems

four basic

modes;

Damper,

Orientation,

and Re-entry. System

A redtmdant

rate

'back-up"

system,

the Rate

Stabillzat$on with

Control

(RSCS), of

is also provided. controlling

The RSCS with

provides

the Astronaut

an emergency of a failure indication 4-2 through

method

the capsule

a "rate-stlck" System.

in the event a vls;,-_ paragraph_ involved

in the Automatic roll_

Stabilization attitude

Control

Tn addition,

of yaw,

and pitch describe

is provided. systems

The following and f_mctions

_-56 briefly

the indivldual capsule.

for the specification

compliance

4-2. 4-3.

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM

STABILIZATION

CONTROL

SYSTEM

I_SCR!PTION Stabilization Vertical Gyro, Control System (ASCS) is composed switch, of a (yaw, of

The Automatic Directional Gyro,

.05g accelerc_eter and an Amplifier the capsule 59 pounds. in conjunction DAMP-FBW

Rate Gyros Unit.

roll and pltch)3 the indivldu_l weight

a rate damper_ components within

Calibrator

Location Total

is shown

in Figure

4-i.

of the ASCS

is approx_tely are provided

%_aree switches AUTO/RATE
=:...v.' ::-"

with the ASCS. switch

The GYRO switch on the posiin a In the is

COMD

switch 3 _d console. COMD

the NORM-AUX With

are located

........

Astronaut's tion

left

the NORM-AUX in AUTO, no

DAMP-FBW

switch

in the NORMAL

and the AUTO-RA_ autcmatic position,

switch

stabilization

is accomplished

.

completely FLY-BY-WIRE

_an_er, the

requiring

assistance

from the Astronaut. and 24 V d-c power

automatic

feature

is disabled

REPORT _EDR iOi_ MODEL I_._L___ connected 7, this to the _Ly-By-Wire stabilization 4-9)

"

REVISED REVISED--

l_m_t is

switches

on the

Astronaut's

control

stick.

position

accomplished

through

An electro-mech_nlcal control stick in the .......

az--,_gement desired of tion full

(see Figure

by movement of the thrust actuation yaw,

Astronaut's

plane, travel,

l_w And high i.e.,

occur pitch,

at approximately or roll.

30% and 75%

3.9 ° and 9.8 ° for

The AUX DAMP posi-

disables both the automatic and fly-by-wire function, permitting rate The GYRO switch is a three position swi%ch inIn the CAGE position the Attitude

damping as a singular feature.

corporatlng a CAGE, FB_._,and NORMAL position.

gyros are mecbnnically caged and the Horizon Scnnner slav_ng function is dlsabled. In the FP_R.position theAttitude gyros are uncaged; the Horizon Scanner The NORMAL positlon uncages the attitude The AUTO/RATE COMD switch provides In the RATE

slaving function remains disabled.

gyros and permits Horizon Sc_n_er slaving.

a method of energizing either the RSCS or ASCS systems as desired.

....

COMD position, the attltude gyros and slaving circuits remain energized although they are not used to control the capsule. 4-4. ASCS Se_uenclng The following paragraphs, _-5 and 4-9, describe the ASCS sequential operation under normal and abort conditions. Figures 4-2, 4-3 and 4-4 are provided (See Figure 4-12. )

for clarity and should be followed closely in conjunction with the text concernIng the various modes of operation. 4-5. Normal Saquenc_ng In Figure 4-2, the progress 0f a normal orbital m_ sslo_ is shown divided into eight phases apprQpriate to the following discussion. The ASCS is in the "ready" status prior to separation of the escape tower, its gyros are _mning _,!!y energized. and all circuits except the final 12 output relays are

RSCS operation is prevented by the AUTO/RATE COMD switch being Phase (A), involving gyro slaving to the Horizon Sc_er

in the AUTO position.

REPORT_2t_,J._.t_ MODEL 133

ST.

REVISED1 Feb_t_az'y 1962 REVISED1 Ma_" 1_962

pitch and roll outputs during ascent, is to minimize gyro errors which may accumulate wh_le the capsuleis being boosted. Phase (B) starts after capsule separation when a brief, five-second to tumble. signal
:'_:_:;_.)

.....

commands the ASCS to provide

rate damping to stop any tendency

Phase (C) is initiated at the completion of five seconds of rate damping. The ASCS is placed in the orientation mode, capsule turn around (180° counterclockwise Yaw Rotation) is accomplished, and the capsule is pitched-down to the retrograde firing angle within 30 seconds. Pitch, roll and yaw gyro slaving

to the Horizon Scanners is provided during phase (C) and for the first _½ minutes of phase (D) to yield a good yaw-angle reference prior to settling down in orbit. In phase (D) the capsule is in orbit. An orbit pitch attitude of -34°

(small end down) is held so that the capsule is ready for an immediate abort. The attitude gyros are slaved to the Horizon Scanner as long as ASCS GYRO switch remains in the normal position. by-wire control may be utilized During the orbit phase manual control and flyas desired. Rate damping becomes optional under

manual control conditions by positioning of the ASCS bIODESELECT switches and RCS Controls. ASCS or RSCS. phase (D). orientation By switch manipulation, rate damping is provided by either the SeeParagraph 2-3. Rate _yro run-up is continued throughout (D) is an automatic return to the

Another feature utilized in Phase mode.

If the capsule drifts (from orbit attitude) beyond the

limits of the retro-interlock sector switches, automatic return to orientation mode w_]1 occur at + 12° pitch, _+30° yaw and roll........ In phase (E) of Figure 2-2, rate gyro run-up is automatically assured by relay switching I0 minutes prior to retrograde attitude.

.....

REVISED REVISED

1 MAY 1962

ST.LOUIS

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104. 133

-

__ ,_

'

!t

i r,g +,

I

0

_:

c_

_

:IS

,0

i _.

P" ;_ _ pp,0 ,o

Op_ _oJ

:::........ c_

_ _

._- o _,

%

I

"_

]

I

_32N3n_33S

_-_ISV_ VqO_3 _ONV_03

/ [

:"$U_E

4-3

A_C3 A'\ISSION pI_OFIILE

p,_-_

PAGE REPORT _-_ I0_ SEDR MODEL 133

M_D(_

__'F,

DATE I N°vember 1961• REVJSEOI May 1962 REVISED

The Astronaut may change any one or all three Of the capsule attitudes maintained by the ASCS by changing the space reference plane or planes of the attitude gyros To maintain the new reference plane or planes, the Horizon Scanner slaving command must be stopped by placing the _vro switch in the Free position. New re-

ference planes must be established by the Astronaut while the ASCS is in operation by placing the _ro switch in the Free position, manually turning off the

ASCS fuel in the axis or axes affected, utilizing manual control to position the capsule_ and then caging and uncaging the gyros. to fully automatic operation The ASCS may then be returned of Horizon

in all three axes with the excepticn

Scanner slaving.

To utilize Horizon Scanner slaving, the capsule attitudes must range of the scanners and the _vro switch must be

be within the observation placed in the Normal

position. Tr sigrml and maintains capsule in high torque retrois discontinued the retro rockets at this time. are fired.

The ASCS receives grade attitude Thirty seconds

(phase F).

Horizon Scanner slaving attitude co,and,

after retrograde of retrograde

During the period

rocket firing the ASCS utilizes

high torque F_trograde

action to hold the capsule within one degree of the ideal angles. rocket firing co,and and ASCS high torque switching

co, and occur simultaneously is

Rocket firing is completed in 20 seconds and the high torque switching co,and held for 23 seconds. Upon completion the capsule entry drag. to accurately Finally, of retro package jettison, the ASCS automatically pitches

to the post-retro fire attitude The ASCS returns maintain

(phase G) in preparation

for re-

to orientation mode with constant scanner operation attitude. switch, the

.....

the re-entry

when re-entry

is sensed by the .05g accelerometer

eighth and last phase (H) of the ASCS performance starts with the turning off of the attitude gyro power. During this period the ASCS initiates and maintains

R£VlSL_D.

ST.

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

"

RE_ORT

_R

10_

R_V,S_D
a constant Rate damping ..... _ .... in this power phase ro11 rate of lO°__s_nimize to stabilize main the re-entry deployment_

Mo_
touchdown trajectory. at which

133
dispersion. operation

is provided continues

ASCS time

until

chute

.11 ASCS

is removed. Pilot-override provisions fly-by-wire ASCS permit interruptions of the precedin E "norm-1 " control degree manipulation the Astronaut reliability features which and is

sequence return

by manual,

or RSCS

stlck-steering

to the

"normal"

MODE.

Thus to a significant Full caging utilization and other

the intelligent augmentation are intended lists the

"back-up"

for the ASCS.

of this switching

principle to make

has led to gyro the capsule

manually

controllable.

The following the

table modes

switch after

and control attaining

positions

necessary

to achieve

four basic can be of the

of control obtained by

orbit.

Variations

of the various detailed

modes

further available

switch manipulation. is contained

A more

discussion

con-

trol modes

in SEI_ 109, Capsule

Flight

Operations

Mmnual.

SWITCH CONTROL MODE Auto/Rate Cored

POSITION Norm-Aux Demp-FBW

RCS Auto

"T" "HANDLE POSITION Fuel Manual Fuel

Sys.
AUTOMATIC FLY BY WIRE RATE-STICK DIRECT (With Rate AUTO AUTO RATE AUTO COMD NORMAL FLY BY WIRE NORMAL AUX. DAMP I_JSH ON PUSH PULL _ ON OFF ON _

Sys.
COMD COMD

RATE

RATR. COMD DIRECT

per)
_-6. Abort Sequencing abort sequencing (See Figure 4-4) is progrA-m_d abort to correspond can be when ASCS

In general, to the divided

safest procedures into three types,

at all times. namely

The possible before tower

situations

(I) abort, after

tower

separation

rate damping _raJectory

is required ; orbital;

(2) abort and

separation

but before

the paragraphs

is truly

(3) abort

from orbit.

The following

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

•.nO@

Z

_p.

,.) _.#t.,J _

_<_

,__

/ /

.....

)

I

_

c_ IZ

I..._,', _1--

/

/

I I

I

I I

_

-

_ '=' _<-><"

/ _

,

/ /

/

__,-,_: d_._

',.D

<

:_
\ _ \

-'o ,_-l._l._ _ ,.,,," ,_ _ _ o_ I_

I J _if
_ \ " ,_.Q _[ "_ ""

FIGUI2E_.-4. A_C5 EME2GENCY

OPE2,_TION

p.,_-_,_c

REVISED

S'I'.LOUIS

3. MI58OURI

REPOR"t"

S_R

"t(_

REVmED 4-7 through 4-9, discuss ASCS 4-7. Abort Before To_r Separation

MODm.

l_'_

in each of the abort conditions.

If an abort mission is started during the period when the booster and sustainer following (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) engines are burninK, operations and sustainer the ASCS is been utilized achieved. cut-off. for rate damping only after the

external Booster

h_ve

engines

Capsule separation from -d-pter. Escape tower rocket firing. Retro rocket separation from capsule. Timed arrival at appreciate pe_k of trajectory.

Separation of escape tower from capsule.

Upon completion of the latter operation, the ASCS is c_,;;_anded provide rate to damping, usin_ the rate gyros which are continuously energized during the normal
. ascent and "abol_ tz_jectory" flight. A consCaJlt roll rate of 10 ° tO 12 ° per

secon_ 4_.

is Abort

employed. After

Ra_e dp_ping To_r S_tion is engine

ceases

upon deployment

of the

m_in

chute.

The first

operation

cut-off.

This

is

followed

immed/ately

by

capsule separation, posi@_de sig-A1 sequence to the ASCS. tendency to tumble.

firing, _=_dthe normal mission post-separstion The effect is _._ea!,te _-ping of any capsule

After 5 seconds of rate _-_ping, the automatic sequence Then either Upon

cu._ands capsule turn around an an _ttitude angle of 34 degrees. the Astro_ut

or Ground Command must initiate retrograde sequencing.

achl_vlng the proper roll, pitch and y_w angles within rather wide "permission" ......... _-:; bounds (See Paragraph 4-53 Page _-6)_ the ASCS enables rapid-sequence retro rocket firing to proceed. NOTE ASCS "permission interlock" during retro fire can be over-

REPORT_-MODEL 133 _ ridden at any time by the Astronaut.. It is also

REVISED REVISED:--. noted that . ..... .....

the Astronaut may switch to the Rate Stabilization Control System at any time should a mnlfunction occur in the Automatic Stabilization Control System. After retrograde operation, the abort mission in this case proceeds as in the normal mission post-retrograde time and distance intervals). 4-9. Abort From Orbit Whenever an abort from orbit is initiated, the normal autnmatic or _nnual retrograde operations will apply. However, if mam_A1 retrograde operations are sequence (except for the difference in trajectory

utilized the pre-retrograde period of gyro slaving to the Horizon Scanners ("last look") will be eliminated.

4-10.

SYSTEM OPERATION Overall system operation is best explained by Figure 4-5. The Amplifier

._

Calibrator receives inputs from sensors on the left side of the page and generate outputs to Display and Reaction Control devices on the right. The four basic Data

operations are slaving, repeating, mode switching and torque switching.

flow pertaining to the Indlvid_lalYaw, Roll and Pitch channels is illustrated
i

in Figures 4-6, 4-7 and 4-8. and require no explanation.

In general, these diagrams are straightforward However, the method utilized in deriving Directional

information is unique to a degree and warrants the following discussion. The Pitch gimbal (vertical gyro) is processed continuously during the orbital phase of the normal mission, so that the capsule "local vertical" reference revolves 360 degrees during each orbital cycle. The gyro slavlmg principles which permit Directional follows: (yaw) In¢ormation to be derived are as

After initial slaving and settling of the roll and pitch loops, the

REVISED REVISED_

1 MAY 1962

ST.LOU IS ,,M_.SSOURI

REPORT MODEL_

SEDR 104 133

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=G'JQE 4-5 ASCS BLOCK DIA,GI_AM _*,>-*,a

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133

41SSOURI

REVISED REVISED

1 MAY 1962

L

i g

I U4

_

"

5
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p_4.si4_.c

D*TE '_OV*_.**,_, MC'DONNELLLL _ __
REVISED REVISED 1MAY1962

P*_E
REPORT MODEL

'"_
SEDR 104 133

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133

ST.LOUI:

REVISED REVISED

1 MAY 1962

I
_tSEO REV)SeO i

1961 McDONNE IT .
1 May 1_i62 _-, _._u,=.N,=mau,_, Report SZDR 104 . MOOre a.33

ASCS controls the capsule to the connaaudpitch attitudes and to level roll attitude. ::"T?'_ Initially, after separation and capsule turn-around, soae yaw error drift during boost. Since of

(as great as iO degrees) may exist due to d_ectional

the Roll g_mbal of the vertical gyro is the inner gimbal, yaw mlsali_ant

the capsule causes the Roll gimbal output to contain an error component due to the constant orbital (pitch) angular rate. Thus a comparison of the Roll Horizon

Scar_er and vertical gyro roll indications will provide an error signal producing a roll g_mhal toE_,_ng rate. This torquing rate _hich is a direct functio_ of gyro.

yaw error is used to slave the yaw gimbal of the d_ectional

Another area that warrants discussion is that of torque switching, i,e., the thrust output of the Reaction Control System in conjunction with the various modes of ASCS operation. Figure 2-10 serves as an introduction to the torque switching behavior of the ASCS. For maximum conservation of control fuel, the behavior varies accordA so-called "phase-plane" plot

_mZ to the ASCS mode appropriate at a given time.

of angular rate vs. angle is shown in the lower right corner of Figure 2-10 adjacent to a typical Pitch time-_istory for the "Orbit" mode. Current ASCS

design permits a plus or m_nus 5.5 degree oscillation about the nominal orbital attitude, which in turn is referenced to the Horizon Scanner's sensed "Horizontal The oscillation is non-sinusoidal because of the discontinuous torque program; pitch rate is a square wave, and pitch angle a sawtooth_ both hav_n8 a characteristic period of 220 seconds. Portrayed on the Phase-plane, the "Orbit"

mode oscillation is a gentle drift from -5.5 degrees relative pitch angle to +5.5 ......
_-.ii_

degrees relative pitch (-39.5° to -28.5° degrees, referenced to true horizontal). This drift lasts for approximately one-half-period of t_o m_nutes. When the

error becomes +5.5 degrees, a low torque pulse causes the angular rate to reverse from +_ to -_ deg/sec., where upon the second half-period Is spent drifting

REPORT MODEL.

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE 4-g

ASC5

FLY-BY-WII2E

CONTE'OL

_.,_°a

._Js_D Rm_'.. SL=_. j. ...... slowly

1 May 1962 _._, through zero to-5.5 e_le torque

_r.-oum_.M,SSoum_---_" _

REPORT MOO"

_ 133

104

degrees

error, Figure 4-10 shows the case high-torque were adequate to sector

As another

of ASCS torque-switchlng, logic phase-plane

'_Retrograde=Hold" nozzles control switches bounderies motin_ capsule

diagram.

In this which

are utilized the gentle

instead

of the low-torque

nozzles

orbit

oscillation. sector

A series of attitude switches

gyro repeater step-llke

and rate-gyro wlth_n

pickoff

are used to define contour while is shown to

the phase-plane. frc_ a large

A typical

illustrate

the

resulting motion

disturbance

torque

in this mode.

When'the step,

results torque

in a pitch

rate value

above

the right-hand attains occurs

stair

high negative rotates thrust c_I_I_=

is applied

until

the capsule The inverse

a negative

rate and

into the

"no-torque" or other thrust.

region.

if the retro-rocket into a situation logic of shown

eccentricity for positive rapid

disturbances

force the capsule

The net effect control

of the torque-switching

is to maintain retrograde Other and

and reliable

during the important

operation

firing. modes of operation During requlr1_ torque switching logic are "Orientation" is uti-

"Rate Damper".

orientation

mode both high and low torquing attitudes.

lized to rotate is also applied

the capsule during

to new preset

Both high and low torque signals are needed are

rate damper mode logic. In this

but only rate gyro case, torque

as a basis horizontal

for switchlng lines

switching

boundaries

on the phase-plane.

4-Ii. 4-12.

SYSTEM

UNITS Calibrator Calibrator functional unit can be "functionally" divided mode into four

Amplifier The Amplifier

sections. ..... and torque

These

sections

are slaving,

repeating,

switching

swltchlng.

_
REPORT MODEL

,-2o
SEDR 104 133

M_,DONNELL__ _
ST.LOUIS, MtS. ¢ URI

D_T_ ,.ow_._.196,
REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

DAT_
REVISED

1 November

l_l

_
rr. Louis 3, MISSOURI

_

PAGE
REIDORT

_-21
_T)R 1(_

REvlss=

.o0_

133

_-13.

Attitude This

Gyro

Sla_ng amplifiers au_ m,.-._ng networks Sc-nners fr_n which accept roll

section

contains

and pitch

information gyros.

from the Horizon Thus 3 u_on

and geneltate currents an external with t_m_-£

to torquers the in,

in the attitude Gyros' Roll_

command

devlce_ directions

Pitch

and Yaw gimbals

are aligned

corresponding

or perpendicular 4-14. "Repeater

to the orbit Section section

plane.

(Ref. Para.

4-10. )

The repeater including received used two

is a group

of servo-mecb-n_isms Attitude gyro

(four in present'design, outputs, which are and

for pitch

angle

repeating).

at the

calibrator which

in proportional serve as roll, and external

or "analog" pitch and yaw

form,

are amplified sources

to drive

shafts

signal

for both The

internal ..... _.... on-off ductive

(torque

switching) control on the

(display

and telemetry) it desirable The

purposes.

reaction sectors

of the Mercury shafts of three

Capsule

_kes

to use conserve as

of the repeaters.

sectors

attitude-level _'15.

references

for torque

switching.

Y_xle Switching This section

Section establishes signals the proper corresponding attitude angle bias, mode

of the Calibrator status,

torque

switching

and interlock

to the _CS

c_.._n_ed

by external

devices. NOTE

The

sum of alI such external a "master s. section uses sequencer"

devices which

is, for ASCS design coordinates all automatic

purposes functlon ._,;_ The mode-swltching though these

c_aet,

solid-state

swltcb_ng

circuits.

Al-

circuits they

contain

many

transistors,

diodes,

and other dependent

electrical upon reference

components, voltage

are of a class levels.

that is not

critically

or temperature

REPORT SEDR IO4 MODEL 133 4-16.

MC, fit. DONNE

REVISED REVISED

Torque Switching Section The torque switching section contains transistor and diode circuits similar

to those in the mode-switching

section.

Torque switching circuits receive the

':_:_

step-function outputs of the attitude gyro repeaters, plus the outputs of the rate gyros. u_a_ The latter (rate) signals come from sector switches replacing the Using these step-wise indications of

proportional

rate gyro pickoffs.

attitude and rate conditions, along with the mode switching section output defining the current phase of the mission, "decisions" are made which result in

energizing of the appropriate Reaction Control valves. 4-17. Accelercmeter The acceleration Switch switch is a hermetically sealed instrument. The basic

mechanism consists of a centrally located mass supported by a cantilever spring. The mass is damped by the viscous shear action of the fluid which fills the case. Switch actuation is caused by the displacement of the mass element. An Acceler-

ation force of .05g, in the axis normal to and in the direction away from the base, is required to close the circuit. Mmchanical stops are provided to re-

strain the mechanism and to protect against damage when subjected to excessive acceleration. 4-18. Attitude G_ros The function of the attitude gyros (vertical and directional) is to determim attitude angles between a set of fixed axes in the moving capsule and the reference axes which are fixed in the orbital plane but which are _oving with the local vertical. ity. Both attltude gyros are "free" gyroscopes with slaving capabil-

A means is incorporated for caging and for obtaining electrical signal

_:!"_!:_

(synchros) outputs which define the attitude of the gyros with respect to two mutually perpendicular axes. The attitude gyros possess unrestricted mechanical -

freedom in the outer axis and + 83° (minimum) of mechanical freedom in the _nner

REVISED. REVISED.

ST.

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

RI_ORT. MODE3.

_DR

104

133

ax__s. It is noted that the degree

does not necessarily reflect Due to

the attitudes permissible by manually steering the Capsule in orbit. :;;;_:;7

limitations in the Horizon Scanner system and the repeater section of the Amplifier Calibrator, manun1_ control of the capsule should be l_m!ted to -+30° in all axes. However, barring equipment malfunction, exceeding these limits If these limits are exceeded, it Input

will not prejudice the success of a mission.

is recommended that the gyro switch be placed in the F_E. position.

power requirements are ll5 volt 400 cps single phase (gyro motor), and 26 .volt, 400 cps (synchro and torque motor). 4-19. Attitude and Rate Indicator The Attitude _A Instrument panel. ........ _: Rate Indicator is mounted on the upper portion of the _In

The indicator provides visual indications of Capsule Rate and The attitude indicators are driven The

Attitude in the Yaw_ Pitch and Roll planes.

by the attitude gyro synchro outputs (through the Amplifier Calibrator).

attitude indicators are calibrated to indicate capsule attitude within a range of + 180° except for Yaw which shall indicate 0°, 80°, and 270° in a clockwise direction. The rate portion of the indicator is driven by the miniature rate

transducers (See Para. 4-26) which also serve as sensing elements for the Rate Stabilization Control System. for all three indicators. The range of rate indication is 0 to +_6°/sec.

The roll rate indicator has the additional capability

of being externally s_itched to a range of 0 to 15°/sec. in order to monitor re-entry roll rate. 4-20. :_..::;.j Rate Gyros The rate gyros perform electrical circuit switching functions at specific rates of angular velocity about an axis perpendicular to the base of each unit, referred to as the "input axis". yaw axes, respectively, Rate gyros are used in the pitch, roll and

Each rate gyro consists of a high speed rotor, mounted

Mc,
MODEL_ REPORT-._,D_--_-_ ......

DA,E,ovember 1
REVISED-REVISED

in a gimbal rlngj in such a m_nner that it is free to process about one axis only (the output axis) which is perpendicular to the spin axis of the rotor. The output signals are generated by the motion of _ipers, attached to the gimbal
i

"

ring, moving across the contacts of sector switches. are met by 115 volts, 400 cps.

Input power requirements

4-21. _-22.

RATE STABILTT.ATIONCONTROL SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The Rate Stabilization Control System provides an excellent alternate means

of capsule attitude control in the event of failure in the Automatic Stabilization Control System. It has been shown by flight simulation studies of the m_uual

control problem that the Astronaut should, by utilizing the Rate Stabilization Control System, be able to approximate retrograde attitude error perfoz_ance of the Automatic Stabilization Control System. In addition, the Rate Stabilization

Control System provides a completely redundant rate-damper and prog_.,.ed roll rate during re-entry. The Rate Stabilization Control System consists of three miniature rate gyros, three (signal pickup) potentiOmeters, three channels of electronics (rate damper) contained in a 300 cubic inch box, one switch, and six solenoid control valves_ which utilize the manual reaction control fuel and thrust c_J-bers. Figure 4-1 shows the location of the major components within the capsule. weight of the Rate Stabilization Control System is approx_mp.tely25 pounds. Power requlrement_ for the Rate Stabilization Control System are met by 24 volt d-c and ll5 volt, 400 cycle a-c. Po_er is connected directly to the rate See _ Total

damper box through the AUTO/RATE COMD switch mounted on the left console. Figure 4-12.

.*c:t=,¢,- t:tTA,.SO_

-- "_

i_L . _:

-

!111[

L

r.[[

A

_

1,-25
REVISEO. RL_ISED. St'. "'_ _7-=_'-LOUlS w_"_"MISSOURI 3, REPORT MOO_ S_DR 10_.

4-23.

SYSTEM Figure

OP_ATIOB is a functional channel block d___ of the Rate the Rate Stabilization Stabilization and Control Control

4-11

System. System

A typical provides

is shown.

In general,

.the Astronaut The

vlth a reduod-nt

rate _m-ping

"rate-stlck" stick

steering

feature. are

outputs of the rate transducers
in the angular st_.,_-tlon networks. r_te errors and,

and the control

potentiomenters works cc_are

combined

The suma_Ltion netexceed preset

the calmule's 2 de_sec

if errors and Yaw, solenoid stick

dead-zones, off-on

in Roll and 3 de_sec is c_nd_ System. System by With

in Pitch

the approprlate control valves in

corrective Reaction

torque

energizln_ the

the Mann_l (Rate damper _:: .... when

Control Control incl_ng

control

at zero deflection three constant axis roll raterate

Stabilization is achieved,

operational)

an automatic de_sec

an automatic

7.7 +2

re-entry rates

is sensed. other than

By -mnlpulation zero (appro_m_tely This

of the control proportional

stick_ to

steady-state deflection) accelera-

angular

stick

be &ttalned tion (Torque)

if desired. response which

is in contrast

to the proportional in event

remains

as an alternative

of malfunction

in the Rate

Stabilization

Control

System.

4-24. 4-25.

S_ Rate Darner, The rate Box box provides three cha_nnels of tx_n-istorized of the Rate Stabilization network, preamplifier electronic Control and demodul_tor, seven The rate-

_-_per

unit

comprising Each

the rate-damper channel circuits. _mlov contains

portion a s_-tion

System. .... ;;_ ....

and two trigger pounds damper capsule 2 de_sec

The 5_ x 6 x 9 in. box weighs and 1---ediately aft of the

approximately stick.

and is mounted box mounts

control

two AN L-ype electrical The in pitch dead band and y_w

connectors, ad_us_ents _s and

one for GSE and which are provided to

one for are a in

intercon-ectlon_ to 4 deg/sec

a 1.5 de_sec

3 de_sec

p_og.
REPORT. MODEL

_-2_
SEDR104 133

M_'DONNELL_L _ _,_
MISSOURI

o_T_ ,_OVE_BER,96,
REVISED REVISED 1 FEBRUARY 1962 I MAY 1962

REVISED

ST. LOUIS

3. MISSOURI

REPORT.

_DR

104

REV,sa=,

MOO=,.

133

the ro11 axis.

Si_nals from the rate transducers and stick potentiometers are

sent to the rate d_._perbox where the two signals are s1_mmedtogether forming an error signal. The error signal is sent to a two stage voltage amplifier In accordance with the magnitude will select one of two transistor

followed by a double ring diode demodulator. and phase of the error signal the demodulator

operated relays which applies a 24 volt d-c output signal to appropriate solenoid control valve such that corrective torque is applied. 4-26. Miniature Rate Transducers Each of the miniature fier, and a demodulator. rate transducers consists of a gyroscope, an ampli-

These components function together to produce an a-c All three rate base. Input

output signal proportional to input rate of change of attitude. transducers are identical except for gyro orientation

in the transducer

A special Indexing feature prevents installation in the wrong location. power utilized by the rate transducers is ll5 volts, 400 cycle a-c. 4-27. Control The three Stick Potentiometers identical 1000 ohm 120 turn potentiometers

are connected to the

manuel control stick linkage in such a m_nner that output signals are produced proportlonal to stick deflection in the Taw, rollj and pitch planes. Active

sector is equA! to 40 degrees with a m_imum without electrical discontinuity.

of lO degrees of over-travel

4-28. 4-29. _

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The Reaction Control System is used for capsule yaw, pitch and roll control.

The system is a pressure fed monopropellant, catalyst bed design.

The right

angle thrust chambers obtain thrust by decomposition of 90% hydrogen peroxide (H202). The system is divided into two individual systems; one for auto-_tlc The auto-

control (ASCS), and one for manual control (control stick and RSCS).

FIGUP.E4-tZ

POWE_q

DISTF_I_LJT_ON

DIAGRAM

PM 45- 159A

Rk-V|SED.

ST. LOUIS

3. MISSOURI

RE,PORT

_Dl_.

I0_"

,_w,SED.
.j_

__

Moo_

133

matic system consists of a pressurization system, an "electrically" controlled solenoid fuel distribution system, an_ twelve thrust chm,_ers. The manual

system is s_mSlar to the auto_R_tic system except that it consists of only six thrust chambers. The manual system also utilizes proportional "manually" con-

trolled fuel distribution valves in addition to the electrically operated solenoid control valves. ents within the capsule. Figure 4.-13 shows the location of al! system compon-

4-30.

SYSTEM OPERATION The following paragraphs, 4-31 through _-35, briefly describe the operation

of the automatic and manual systems.

Figure 4-18 and 4-19 should be followed

closely in conjunction with the following text. ..... ...... _-31. Automatic System The automatic system consists of twelve hydrogen peroxide monopropellant thrust chambers of fixed thrust levels and their associated valves; lines, H202 tank; pressure regulator and pressurization bottle. (See Figure 4-1A.) The

auto_matic system can be essentially divided into three sections; pressurization and fuel supply, distributlonj and propulsion units. stable hydrogen peroxide The fuel supply is un-

(H202) contained inside a flexible bladder which in The flexible bladder has a fuel Helium, under pressure,

turn is contained in a half toroidal tank.

capacity of approximately 32 pounds of liquid H202.

surrounds the bladder containing the H202 ann acts as the pressurization agent. The Spherical helium tank, pre-serviced to 2250 psi, has a capacity of 265 cubic ............ " inches. The following sequence of events occurs in producing a thrust output. Assume the bladder is serviced with H202 and the helium sphere pressurized to 2250 psi. Upon opening the helium regulator manual shutoff valve, helium is

allowed to pass through the filter, regulator, checkvalve, and finally surrounds

PAGE,, REPORT MODEL

4-30 SEOR 104 133 -I

OAT E REVISED REVISED

1NOVEMBER961 1 1 FEBRUARY 1962

I MAY 1962

REVISED RL'-VISED

1 ove ber

MCDONNELL
. ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT MODE:/-

4-u
_ 133

104

the bladder pressurizing

it to _80 psi.

The helium pressure forces the H202

out of the bladder through the perforated transfer tube and into the down-stream _;_ lines. By opening the mmnual push-pull shutoff valves the H202 becomes available Upon receiving a 24 V

at the "electrically" operated solenoid shutoff valves.

d-c signal from the ASCS or fly-by-wire control system, the appropriate solenoid valve opens. H202 enters the solenoid valve through an integral 165 micron where it is

filtration screen and passes into the corresponding thrust ch_ber decomposed and produces the desired thrust. See Figure _-20.

System cccaponents not directly associated with the preceding explanation of a thrust output are explained provides a means of monitoring present in the bladder. ......
f

as follows.

The helium pressure transducer

(by proper calibration) the percentage of H202 tube in the propellant tank (external

The perforated

of the bladder)

is used to prevent the possibility of trapping helium pressure

while servicing the H202 bladder. 4-32. _nual System

The manual system (See Figures 4-15 and 4-16) consists of six thrust chambers of the same configuration as those in the automatic system with proportional thrust output added. trolled in either of two ways: The fuel flow in the manual system may be con(i) by manually controlling the proportional A two position

control valves, or (2) by electrical solenoid control valves.

selector valve is provided such that the method of control may be selected. See Figure 4-19. The m_n,,l control valves have a dead band of -+1/16 of an

inch frcm theoretical neutral and a total stroke of 3/8 of an inch from
:_._ _;-._

•.....

theoretical neutral for each thrust chamber.

The throttle valve arm assemblies

or bellcr_nks which rotate these proportional control valves are designed to shear at less than full Astronaut effort on the manual control system. Figure 4-29. See

In the event a proportional control valve should Jam and immobilize

FIGURE.4-14-AUTOMATIC QCS INSTALLATION

pM4s-zz_

REVISED REVISED

1 MAY

1962

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

REPORT - MODEL.

$EDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

\ \

\
_\
\

,
\ < ..P_

FIGUEE 4-17

TNI2EE AYd5 HAND CONTI2OLLEI2

p_l_-s_A

PAGE . _-B6 104 REPORT SEDR MODF! 133

MCIDONNE_

%_ ST..LOUIS,.MISSOURI _._,_ .... _r_r.'._+.,.._._r._.-_ .

DATE i November 1961 REVISED REVISED

the manual control system in one axis, increased Astronaut effort would break the shear pin in the bellcrank and free the system. The manual control system could

then be utilized for automatic control system fly,by-wire switch operation or manual control system "rate stick" potentlometer deflection. 4-11. See Figures 4-9 and

The remainder of the manual control system is similar to the automatic

system except for fuel capacity, which is 23.4 lbs. of H202 for the manual system.

4-33. SYSTEMUNITS
Due to the simple nature of the system components, a discussion of each is considered 1_noecessary. However, two items (thrust chambers and propellant fuel) do warrant brief explanations. _-34. ProPellant Fuel (H202) is a clear, colorless which are miscible liquid soluble with water. in all proportions Hydrogen peroxide in when

Eydrogen peroxide water and most

substances

catalytically decomposed releases water vapor, oxygen gas, and heat, composition thrust. when properly contained and controlled is capable

H202 deusable

of producing

One pound of H202 solution 60 cubic feet of gas.

(90%) when properly decomposed will produce Hydrogen peroxide (90%) freezes at ll.3°F,

approximately

and boils at 286°F. 4-35. Thrust Chamber

The thrust chamber assemblies (See Figure h-20) consist of a stainless steel chamber that contains a metering orifice, a distribution disc followed by a catalyst bed and then a nozzle. nickel screen wafers. The catalyst bed contains a stack of removable The :._::.

The screen gauge resembles co, on household screen.

screen is covered with an electrolytlcally deposited coating of 99_ silver and 1% gold (called drexite) that e_ha_ces the catalytic properties of the nickel. The open area between the catalyst bed and the right angle nozzle forms a short

REVISED • REVISED

ST.I

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

41SSOURI

REVISED REVISED

O_TE 1_0V*_..1961MC'DONNEL_L_ C___'__ P_E
REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962 ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI REPORT MODEL

,-_9
SEDR 104 133

DF

I LB THRUST

/-._PACZR

_--E!_T M BAR_IER

6 LB.TuRuST

1

.......

"

'

_

SCREEN

...........

24 LI_.THRU_T

/

FIGURE

4-?_0 REAE]'IQN

CON]'_OL'T_9,L_ST

C_Kbl_ER

.M45-'__',

R :POt rv,nr
MODFt plenum 1_ chamber H202 of the to smooth out the " " '_j| flow prior through steel " ! tO reaching the

REV,SEO
REVISED nozzle upon throat. actuation the the flow

enters

the thrust valve.

chamber

a metering porous input. takes

orifice

solenoid the

The stainless bed with

plate

distributes

and presents stage of the

catalyst bed,

a uniform reaction

Upon entering place.

first gases

catalyst the

a violent of the

Expanding

rush through the right

remainder nozzle.

catalyst

bed resulting

in a thrust (and most

output

in

angle

The majority

of the decomposition cups.

violent)

ta_es 1400°F to

place

within

the first

two catalyst area.

Temperatures

of approximately cups are form of

can be expected a complete reaching

in this

The remainder

of the catalyst any liquid

assure from

decomposition the nozzle.

process

and to prevent

H202

_-36.
4-37.

ORIZON SCANNER SM _
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Scanner System incorporates system two identical a roll scs_nlng and pitch produce upon units. The of the Horizon the that orbital slaves ScsDuer is to provide mission. The reference an output co-._n4 phase of the normal attitude sc_uers the ASCS gyros to the proper angles progr_,_,.,er. Basic Construction
J

..
components the

The Horizon purpose during signal

from an external 4-38.

Figure

4-_I

is a photograph are mounted prism

of a Horizon

Scanner circular infrared

Unit.

_%1_ major

and "subassemblies scanning prism

from the large drive system,

plate ,and include detector,

assembly,

electronics, plate is

synchronous flange outside

switches,

electrical

connector prism

and cover. compartment

The circular projects

.:_::

mounted

so that the

sc-nning

into the

space and

of the vehicle. functional

The elctronics sections

system

is completely on separate

transistorized circuit

the various

are fabricated

printed

1 Novem r
REVISED

,MC'DONNE
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI REPORT

u-,l
_R 104

._isEo
.... boards.

,

MOO_.

133

Three of these printed circuit boards are enclosed in the shielded The remaining boards are fastened to For rapid servicing the four

housing fastened to the circular plate. ...........

the four posts mounted on the circular plate.

posts with attached boards can be replaced as a single unit, or individual boards can be replaced as required. 4-39. Special Features The Horizon Scanner has a number of special features. It is compact in (3.02 "lbs). The shutter in

size (6 5/32" long x 5 7/8" diameter over-all) and light in weight The scanner is equipped with a centrifugally - activated shutter. prevents solar radiation from dwelling upon the detector

and resulting

probable d_m_ge during those periods when the scanning prism is not rotating. Another feature is a special circuit which can be used to disconnect the error signals from the vehicle reaction devices during those periods when the presence of the sun in the scan path or the loss of horizon would result in erroneous error signals. The final feature of significance is that only a single power

source providing llO volts, 400 cycles, 3.2 va is required to operate the entire System. The highly regulated power supply in the system ellm_nates the need

for the bulky batteries usually required to bias the infrared detector.

4-40.

SYSTEM OPERATION Operation of the Horizon Scanners depends upon infrared radiation received

from the earth as compared to the essentially zero radiation from space.

These

differences in radiation levels provide a sharp radiation discontinuity at the :.=i_i"._!!; -horizon. The Scanner system uses this discontinuity for both day and night When the capsule is oriented so that the earth is

vertical reference sensing.

present in its scanning path, there will in general be two points where the seam intersects the earth's horizon (See Figure 4-22). The scanner detects

the thermal discontinuity, or change in radiation level, between the earth and

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVI,_CD

FIGURE 4-21

WIDE ANGLE HORIZON

SCANNER

D,TE '"O"*M'_"'
REVISED REVISED

MC, DONN
MISSOU

P'_E
REPORT MODEL

_''_
SEDR]04 133

a

i

• _'16.4-22 I-IOP, J.ZON SEM£O.i:_.SC_

PATTEI:_-,._

,,_ as .2/? A

. OE . REPORT_-MODEL 133

Mc'DONNELL MISSOURI
_

D ,E 1No=ber REVISED
REVISED --

space at the two horizon points.

The Sc_:_er then bisects the included o_gle

from itself to the Horizon points, compares the direction of the bisector with that of a fixed reference in the capsule and generates linear error signals proportional to the angle between the bisector and the fixed reference. As

....

previously stated, these error signals (roll and pitch) are used to slave the ASCS attitude gyros. The of each

Figure 4-23 shows a simple block diagram of the Horizon Scanner. following discussion entails a brief explanation of the functioning

block as related to the over-all operation. 4-_1. Radiation Gradient At Horizon

There is a large difference in the radiation which the detector receives as it scans across the boundary between space and the upper atmosphere (troposphere)

This change is approximately equal to that from black bodies at 0°K and 200°K. respectively, and the radiance difference is approximately 0.003 watts/cm2 steradian. The location of this gradient is sharply defined, and it is much

....

larger tba_ any others that can be encountered during the scan cycle. 4-42. Correction For Reflected Solar Radiation

Sharp radiation gradients do exist because of reflected solar radiation, Such gradients are found at cloud edges# topographical irregularities on the
0

earth's surface and the terminator line between night and day.

These radiation

chsnges can be filtered out so that the horizon gradient is the onSy one that is detected by the system. Selective filtering can be accomplished since most of
.:::,:

the reflected solar radiation falls in the spectral region between 0.2 and 2.0 microns, while the radiation emitted by the earth and troposphere is at wavelengths longer th_n 5 microns. The filtering is accomplished by a germsulum As a filter, germanium sharply

prism and field lens in front of the detector.

....

cuts off all radiation at wavelengths shorter than 1.8 microns while transmitting

R_'VISEO.

1November Mc'DONNEL L
ST. LOUIS $,

RE_'OR'I"

_)_

i0_.

R_v,s_o.
very uniformly radiation from 1.8 to 20 microns. ..... _._,_. ..... over 90 percent of the reflected solar radiation. in the electronics remove any residual effects. 4-_B. Scanning and Radiation Detection

Moore.

i_3

The use of this filter removes Signal clipping techniques

Details of the scanning prism assembly can be seem in Figure 4-21.

The

infrared detector is fixed to the center of the circular plate and its field of view extends through the circular opening in the center of the scanning assembly.

The detector field of view is 2° by 8° and the presence of the scanning prism has the effect of deflecting the Scanning cone is llO °. it 55° from the normal. In operation 3 the drive Thus the apex angle of system rotates the scanning

prism and the detector field scans the field of view through the conical pattern described previously. Different amounts of radiation strike the detector during

various portions of the scan cycle, and the amplitude of the detector output changes accordlngly. The detector output signal is processed by the electronics

system and the error signal produced is available at the electrical connector. 4.l_. S_nchronizing Generator

Closely associated with the prism drive system is the reference signal generator. The output of this generator is a square wave signal at a frequency This signal is the fixed reference against which the The reference signal is triggered by the The

of 30 cycles per second.

detector horizon signals are compared.

interaction between a magnetic pickup coil and a semi-circular steel vane.

vane is imbedded in a slot cut into the surface of the scanning prim- _ssembly ............ gear. A pickup is mounted so that the end of its magnetized core comes close As the scanning prism assembly turns, the ends of

to the surface of the vane.

the vane pass by the end of the magnetized pickup coil core, generating the reference pulse. A subsequent electronic network converts the pulse to a phase The use of this signal will be considered later

locked 30 Cycle square wave.

PAGE 4._16 REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL__ 133 in this section. 4-45. Sun Shutter

_

_____ MISSOURI

DATE 1 NOvember I_61 REVISED REVISED

The sun shutter consists of a pair of spring loaded metal slides which fit into opposed transverse assembly. slots through the tube section of the scanning mirror

_.:.:-:__

When the Scanning mirror assembly is not rotating spring tension When the

pulls the two slides together and the detector field is obstructed.

sc,nuing mirror is turning, the centrifugal force on the slides is sufficient to open the shutter. _-46. Infrared Arrangement Infrared radiation from the field of view strikes the infrared detector and produces the electrical signal which is processed by the electronics system. The

infrared detector is a thermistor bolometer with its active element _mmersed in the germanium lens. The active element is a rectangular flake of thermistor material and is connected in a bridge circuit with a similar compensating flake which is shielded from radiation. The two flakes are oppositely biased and their Junction is conBy immersing the active

nected to the input of the preamplifier which follows.

element in the rear surface of the germanium lens the over-all detectivity can be increased by a factor of about 3.5 over an ,m_ersed same field of view. detector having the a high negative

The material in the thermistor flake has

_emperature coefficient of resistance. material is raised, the flake resistance

That is, when the temperature of the decreases. Since the surface of the

thermistor flake is blackened', it absorbs impinging radiation and its resistance is decreased. When the shutter is closed, both flakes in the detector bridge Since both flakes have the same linear characterGradual variations in ambient temperatu_ ._._:-

are at the same temperature.

istics, their resistances are the same.

change the resistances of both flakes by equal amounts and the voltage of their

REVISED REVISED

ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

_'_)_ l'_

104

Junction remains the same. focused .......

When the shutter opens, incoming radiation is the compensating element is shielded from out-

on the active element;

side radiation. resistance

The temperature of the active element is changed, sad its different from that of the compensating element. As a

becomes

result, there is a voltage change at the Junction of the two flakes sad this chauge is connected causes the detector in the radiation changes during to the electronics system. As the scanning pris_ turns sad

field of view to cross the horizon, there is a sharp cha_e striking the detector. The result of the radiatiom of an approximate square-

level

a complete

scan cycle is the generation

wave signal at a frequency of 30 cycles per second. Electronics system is physically arranged so that functionally related parts are located close to each other. .... • ... The electronics system is divided into

eight major circuits , located on individual printed circuit boards. cases, the requirements of c_pact and economical construction

In some

have resulted

in two or three related booster

sub-circuits amplifier,

being located on one board. signal centering circuit

Thus, the functionally inverter-l_m_ter

and phase

are located on one board which the block diagram by dotted lines. are not closely circuit board. that follow describe Although the power

(Figure 4-23) shows as divided generator circuits

supply and reference

related in function they are both located on the same printed

The paragraphs sad sub-sections

the functions

of the major is made

sections with

of the electronics

system.

The description

reference to the waveforms generated by system operation, and these are shown in Figure 4-24. Functional description will be made at the level of the major

circuits and sub-circuits shown in the block diagram Figure 4-23. 4-47. Tmmersed Detector

The radiation falling upon the detector determines the waveshape of the

PAGE REPORT MODFI

_-_ .q_-DR lO_ 133 output signal

_

__

DATE 1 N°vember REVISED REVISED

l_l

detector radiation ously, shows abrupt The

which

is to be processed by the

by the electronics sc"nn_ng'cycle of Figure

system.

The

characteristics

are determined

described

previ-

and are that

shown as the first radiation

waveform, than

WF-I, space

4-24.

The waveform is an

earth

is higher

radiation

and that there scans across place

shift

from one level

to the other

as the detector to take

the horizon the of

change

in radiation

requires size,

200 microseconds time

because

detector radiation cycles

is of f_n_te level across

and this

is required

for a complete Thirty

shift

the entire

surface

of the detector.

complete

of radiation

change

take place output

in one second. which results from the radiation the radiation a longer signal

WF-2 changes with The

shows the detector place

signal This

taking

at the detector. the shift

signal

resembles

the exception reason for this

that

between

the two levels 2 milliseconds

takes

time.

is that

apprg._m_tely

is required

for the output.

.....

active

detector

flake

to reach

the half-level

of its now stabilized in the order

The detector _-/_8.

output

signal

has an amplitude Amplifier

of 2 millivolts.

Pre-Am_lifier

and Booster

Circuits is direct-coupled to the inl_at of

The Junction the pre-amplifier. per second.

of the two thermistor The pre-amplifier

flakes

has a voltage

gain of 400 at 30 cycles stages to provide good

Direct-coupling response ifier

is used.betweenlr_-amplifier phase shift.

low-frequency wlth_n the

and to prevent to provide

Negative

feedback

is used in

the pre_. loop

stable

gain,

and the RC coupling to compensate

network

feedback time

provides

a high-frequency shows

boost

for the long The rise time at the halfgain of 5 at The of

detector

constant. has been

WF-3 reduced

the effect

of this boost. 350 microseconds

the waveform level point. per

to approx_mRtely provides

The booster second. signal

amplifier

an additional of the booster of 5 volts.

voltage

30 cycles

WF-4

shows the output is in the order

amplifier.

peak-to-peak

amplitude

REVISED REVISED

MISSOUR_

'

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

"_°_*l'5'M

IMM_'RS'_,D O-_ ?£CT0,¢_

'7

i

L-MAGNETIC

DL'T£CTI_ CI J:_CMt T-

L C_I"I;_t T

t

.....

8_Q_

AMP

/-

REPORT - MODEL

SEDR

104

o-ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

.

REVISED REVISED

133

WFI-

RADIATION

ON DETECTOR

WF 7- PHASE

INVERTED

LIMITED

OUTPUT

_IGNAL

_ACE I 33M. aEC.--_ l_2_O#J _EC

! WF 5- ]NPUT_ TO PHA_E DETECTOR _CwJRCE VI_P_T1NG ARM t_.? AT_SOURCE AT R 601 \ LOIA O _ LOLA/D/'i_v

'.<.......

WF 2:- DETECTOR

OUTPUT

50 _ WF 3PREAMPLJF!ER OUTPUT

LOAD WF 9- CHOPPER INPUT ( AT N0.1 P- LOAD_ ".%v_J RCE-'d

CONTACT)

KiDS WF4BOOSTER AMPLIFIER SEC WF4A-BOOSTER AIv'iPLIFIER OUTPUT (35" DRO_=ED OUTPUT ( 0 ° HORIZON) WF I0}'}ORIZON)

I _-CHOPPER

_T

I"--1 _L_J

I

I ,i2°v

OUTPUT_

(AT

NO.? CONTACT)

_iOi_._.,, i-_ _r'_,_ -JSv LOAO ,SOURCF..

WF5-

SIGNAL

C-NTERiNG

CIRCUIT

OJTPuq-

WF&-

LIMITER

AMPLIFIER

OUTPUT

/

.Qv\

'.@v
!NTERNAL _iP_NAL WAVEFORM_

o... NO

HORIZON # J,

.._. NORMAL

APPROX. 36 N_SEC

+13To !6 VDC HORIZON _ ... /THAN o J'_TTER MU_T 6E LE55 5" _ 3EC WITH RFESPECT LEADING ED_,E TO

J-. LOW ALTITUDE 0 -

Z) PO_IT_ I I

TILT Ii .

',

'I

', /OLTS i

b- l
QS04 - C 2) DEFECTIVE Q 305 I--L 1

b
TRANSISTOR _ 14-V NORMAL o _I4V NORt,_AL

I 3) IN_UFFI(_IENT !GAIN (_R PARTIAL SIGNAL LO_ I i I I I I I +?_9 I I /OLT3 I i _IGNAL DROPPED I , HORIZON I I =_ -0 t -_I--INCREASED

_.. PARTIAL FAILURE OF 5WITCHINgI1 DEFECTIVE_ _ _

C_ NORMAL

i I . _ I i _, _f. _UN IN SCaN I I I"_T- _ MSC'C-'I I NORIZONJ 'l•

t#OLTS. _{. TYPICAL W OTH CAUSED SY .SUN PULSE ,) •"0L.T3 LOCK-OUT SIGNAL LOCK-OUTTO GROUND _ ""."_:. ........ Z) "__ LOCK-(X)T TO -i4 V

!

-0

_ I NOIRM;_. HORIZON DISCONTINUITY ;OLT5 -0

_. I;',4PERFECT SYNCHRONISM

LIMITED

SIGNAL

OUTPUT

AT

P-IOIC LIMITED

_

-_

r_ OUTPUT

r__" AT P-iOIA PM'$5-Z20A

" "

SIGNAL

FIG-.4-24-

HORIZON5CANNER WAVE

1,5

mare

._v,s_o

1 November 1961

__

,r,'.-ou,s ., .,_ou.,

_AQ-

.,morr ,_.nR i04
.omm. 13_____3

4-_i

Rev,seD__ 4-_9. Signal Centerin_ Circuit

In the signal processing considered previously there has been no particular interest in the voltage level of the average sign_. signal level is important in system operation. However, this average

The reason for this is that the

error signal must be deterred:ned only by the phase angle between the horizon and the fixed reference should have no effect. in the vehicle, Amplitude and amplitude variations in the signal of changes When.these of the

variations

will take place because

in earth temperature at different parts of the trajectory or orbit. amplitude variations are combined with the rise-time characteristic

detector there

is a difference

in phase between different

portions of the lead-

ing edge and the fixed reference signal. by amplitude ckanges due to c_ges

Error signals would also be affected

in amplifier gain and supply voltage.

L_m4t_ng can be used to eliminate the amplitude variations but the llm_tlng slice must be taken at a point of minimum phase Variation. These variations Using an RC

are greatest at the peaks of the wave and least at the center.

circuit to couple the signal to the l_m_ter would balance equ_1 areas of the Signal waveform above and below ground. Changes in the angle of horizon de-

pression would cause a shift in the d-c level of the signal.

Hence, a signal

centering circuit is employed before the limlters to assure that the same center slice is sampled for phase shift under all conditions. circuit consists diodes conduct of two diodes c_ected back-to-back The signal centering as d-c restorers. The

on opposite peaks

and thus permit the associated

capacitors

to charge up to opposite peak values of the signal. _::i_-! ';;

The two levels are then

m,,med in a resistive divided network, and h_1f the sum is sampled by tapping the divider at its m_dpoint. An emitter follower couples this signal which is

shown in WF-5 to the l_m_ter circuit.

REPORT"q_'D_lO_ MOO_t 133 4-50.

.AOE

Mc, ST. LOUIS DONNE

DATE l'ovember REVISED
REVISED

Limiting and Phase S_litting Circuits The signal next enters the first of a pair of cascaded feedback smrplifiers,

each of which acts as a limiter and phase inverter. a grounded follower. emitter stage which performs the phase

The amplifier

consists of

inversion,

and an emitter

The feedback ratio is about 50:1 and the over-all gain of the section The output swing is lO volts each side of the fixed lO-volt level.

is about 30.

A low. output impedance is maintained during the time when the emitter follower is in cutoff by feeding the signal from the collector stage directly through a shunt diode. The first of the grounded emitter

section of the feedback Its output signal is the

amplifier is fed by the signal centering circuit. "limited signal output" and shown in WF-6. another llmited amplifier substantially

Part of this signal is fed to it under-

the same as the first, where

goes a second inversion to become a mirror image of the output of the first section. WF-8. The output of the l_mlter section is thus the dual signal shown in signal carries the signal information, in cancelling the presence of the

While either

image signal will be found useful in the 4-51. rectified signal.

out undesirable

ripple components

Phase Detector A pair of s_mmetrical, l_mlted signals enter the detector section (WF-8).

Frc_ these the detector derives difference cepts. between the reference sensitive

a d-c signal which

is proportional

to the phase interor

pulse and the midpoint consists

of the two horizon

The phase

rectifier

of two SPDT p_larized signal.

relays,

choppers,

driven in phase opposition

by the reference

These are desig-

nated KLO1 and KI02 (WF9). full wave rectification,

The use of two choppers provides the advantages of low ripple. _-

notably

To understand the action of the synchronous rectifier, it is essential to know the relative phasing of the drive and horizon signals. Since the two

DATE i November i_i R_VlSEO REV,_D.

__._

__ "_sT. _'_" _ Louis3. MISSOUR,

PAGE R_ORT MO_

_-53 SEDR 104 133

choppers are driven 180° out of phase, the arm of one connects its capacitor to the source while th_ arm of the other connects its capacitor to the load. • _.._._ Switch-over takes place when the radial sector of the sc,nn_ng beam crosses the vertical reference mark of the sensor and switching back occurs 180 ° later. receives part

Thus, when it is co=_ected to the source each storage capacitor of th_ sky pulse and part of the earth pulse. during the switched in portion switched

The capacitor is charged positivel negatively during the is parallel to

of the earth pulseand

in portion of the sky pulse. each capacitor Therefore,

If the sensor horizontal charged

the horizon, tive charge.

is negatively

an amount equal to the posiIf the sensor tilts wlth recharges positively is not no

the net charge is zero.

spect to the horizon eq_l L;_ ........

the amount that each capacitor

to the amount it charges negatively.

The net charge is, therefore,

longer zero.

The net signal at the input of the d-c amplifier is thus positive

for a positive tilt of the sensor (cw as viewed from the sensor along the scan axis) and negative for a tilt in the opposite direction. cate respectively _-52. the voltage of each VF-9 and WF-10 indioutput.

chopper and the uncombined

D-C Amplifier output of the phase detector is combined and filtered in an R-C net-

work at the input of the d-c amplifier. approxlmately The amplifier

The signal at this point varies

lO0 my per degree of tilt and the average level is - 0.15 volts. input is at high impedance to maintain a low ripple factor. With

a gain of approxi_Ately tilt of the sensor, _,:_;

three, the output of the amplifier

is 286 my per degree

reversing polarity at zero tilt.

Part of the output is

fed back to the emitter of the input stage. mlnlm_zes _-53the output drift with temperature

The balanced circuit configuration fluctuations.

SP-HL Detection There

Circuit under which unwanted error signals are generated,

are two conditions

-54
REPORT SEDR 104 MODE[ 133

Mc'DONNE
$$T:_'_Ui$',

D ,El ove=er
REVISED REVISED Signals _

namely, when the sun appears in the scan and when the horizon is lost.

produced under these conditions trigger a logic circuit which indicates by its output that the sun is present or the horizon is lost SP-HL circuit). the vehicle (hence the designation

....

This output can be used to disconnect the d-c error output from system. The effect of sun presence is shown graphically in

guidance

the waveforms of Figure 4-24. into the signal train, be false.

The sun pulse introduces an unsy_ametrical element derived from it is likely to

and the horizon information

The presence of the sun's radiation is perceived at the detector. The stars second of an

The sun radiation is hundreds of times greater than that of the earth. and other bodies produce stage of the pre-amplifier three to four volts. output. negligible signals. When a sun pulse

occurs, the

puts out a negative pulse

with a peak amplitude

This pulse causes the Vold Signal Circuit to produce

When a horizon is present in a normal scan a signal of 5 of 6 volts from circuit suffices to keep the void circuit amplifier shut off.

the signal centering

The absence of the signal when the horizon is lost has the same effect as a sun pulse -- it causes the void amplifier to conduct with a consequent output current

of 4 ma into a load of 2000 ohms or less. 4-54. Phase Reference Signal Circuit A phase reference signal is produced by the scannlng system whenever it

passes through

its highest point with respect to the Sensor.

The reference

signal is generated in the scanning system.

It consists of two equally spaced

pulses, one positive and one negative, for each revolution of'the scanning system. These pulses trigger the bistable multivibrator. The two-level detector

section is in synchronism

with the scan cycle.

The output of the reference

generator under various operating conditions is shown in Figure 4-24. 4-55. Power Su_pl_r All the power required to operate the sensor is derived from the llO volt,

EJ

REVISED

1 Feb.lffuary

l(_62

me. Loum. Mm,IOU_

REPORT

_]_.

:l.O_

REV_SEPI May 1962

MOOEI

13_

• ..... -_;;_i

4OO cps 14he by a built-ln power supply. transformer.

Input to the supply is through the 1.Lke an auto-transformer The transformer

The primary of this transformer is tapped

to provide low voltage a-c to operate the scanning motor.

secondary output is full wave rectified to product, -30, +30 and +16 volts d-c with respect to ground. The +30 and -30 volt outputs are fed to the Regulator. Part of

The +16 supplies the reference generator, and void signal circuits.

the transformer secondary voltage is rectified separately to produce -nregulated power for use in the reference generator and the void signal output current

amglif_r.
4-56. Power Regulator and Super Regulator Circuits The Regulator circuits convert the outpats of the power supply into regulated voltages for use in the sensor. Most of the voltages are regulated

by cascaded zener diodes which maintain a substantially constant voltage across their terminals by an effect s_m_lar to break-down in a gas discharge regulator. The regulator also contains a s>_aetrical arrangement Of transistors connected as emitter followers. Since the base potential of each transistor is fixed by

zener action, the output voltage is accorS_ngly regulated with reasonably low noise. This output is filtered and further regulated in the Super Regulator

circuit to provide the highly regulated voltage required by the detector and pre-_plifier. This voltage is extremely stable and its noise content is The zener diodes used in these circuits are 1/4

essentially transistor noise. watt units which regulate

within 5%.

• .:.::::.-

4-57.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES

_E
MODEL REPORT

SEDR 104 133

_'_

MCDONNELL_f _ _
_

O_TE ,_OVEMBER19.1
1FEBRUARY 1962 1 MAY 1962 REVISED

\

\

\
%HEA_ P|N _"

FIGURE

4-Z5

MANUAL

P,£..5 THROTTLE.

',//kL.VEAND

_ELLCP,_NK

PM45"_70

REWSED_62
REVISED_62

REPORT SEDR10/4
MODEL__L--J

.:::;_:_.

4-_8.

TEST

CONFIGURATION

CAPSULES

NO. 16 AND NO. 18 System in Capsules Refer No. 16 and No. 18 to Paragraphs 4-1

The AutQmatic are the same through 4-59. 4-56. Automatic Same

Stabilization

Control

as the Specification

Compliance

Capsule.

Stabilization

Control

S[stem Refer to Paragraphs 4-2 through 4-20,

as Specification Control

Compliance.

h-60' Reaction
Same 4-61.

S_rstem Compliance. Refer to Paragraphs 4-28 through 2-35.

as Specification Scanner

Horizon Same

S_stem Compliance. Refer to Paragrsphs

as Specification

h-37 through 2-56.

f

,f

SEDR 104 REPORT MODEL, 133 ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI REVISED REVISED

DATE R£VISED R_V,SEO

1 N°vember

i_I

__

__ml ww-_.._._ST. MISSOURI _ LOUIS 3,

PAGE RE_ORT .oom.

4-61
SEDR lO_ 1_3

_-64.

Autc_atic In general,

Stabilization Capsule slight

Control

System is the same as Specification in the area of normal
I

No. 9 ASCS

system

Compllanc_ due

._;::._

Capsule.

Some

differences

do exist

sequencing of ASCS

to the different sequencing, refer

missions

involved.

For a detailed h- 9.

description

normal

to Paragraph described

4- 5 through

Normal _sequenc_ng quate for Capsule

in the foregoing ASCS

referenced

paragraph

is adefairhas b_[

9 with

two exceptions.

operation Also

ceases

at antenna converter

Ing selsaration when been added to the

the ASCS power to permit Control Control

is removed. telemetering System.

a yaw data

system

the co_,.,,_nd signals to Paragraph

generated

the Automatic 4-65. Rate Same .......... through 4-66.

Stabilization Stabilization

Refer

13-145.

System Capsule. Refer to Paragraphs 4-21

as the Specification

Compliance

4-27. Reaction Control System System on Capsule No. 9 is the same as the stick specificainstalled

The Reaction tion compliance M-_ml

Control capsule

with two exceptions. Control System

The control peroxide

is not

and the

Reaction

hydrogen

fuel t-_k

is connected fuel supply for

to the Automatic the autnm_tic _-28 through

Reaction

Control See

System

to provide 4-27

an additional Refer

control 4-35. Scanner

system.

Figures

and 4-28.

to paragraphs

4-67.

Horizon

System compliance Capsule. Refer to Paragraphs

Same

as specification

4-36 through

4-56.
4-68. TEST CONFIC43RATION CAPSULE NO. 13 Control Systems for Capsule apply 13 are identical Specification to

The Automatic .... those discussed

Stabilization

in Paragraphs

4-2 through

4-56 which

to the

Compliance

Capsule.

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL 133 4-69.

,,OE4-6

MC, DONNE

D,,,E l,o',ember REVISED
REVISED

Automatic Stabilization Control System Same as Specification Compliance. Refer to Paragraphs 4-2 through 4-20. _: _ Refer to Paragraphs 4-28 through 4-35.

4-70.

Reaction Control System Same as Specification Compliance.

4-71.

Horizon

Scanner

System Refer to Paragraphs 4-37 through 4-56.

Same as Specification Compliance.

4-72.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES NO. 10 AND 16 The Automatic Stabilization Control System in Capsules No. l0 and No. 16 is

the

same as the Specification

Compliance

Capsule.

Refer to Paragraphs

4-1 throu_

4-56. 4-73. Automatic Stabilization Control System
Same as Specification Compliance. 4-7_. Reaction Control System S_me as Specification _-75. Horizon Sc_n_er Compliance. Refer to Paragraphs 4-28 through 4-35. Refer to Paragraphs 4-2 through 4-20.

System Compliance. Refer to Paragraphs 4-37 through 4-56.

Same as Specification

SEDR !04 REVISED REVISED ST.LOUIS REPORT MODEL ]33 •

:L. -.

L

=-..:./G= THROTTLE VALVE

FIGURE.

4-z@

MANUAL

RC.5 THROTTLE

VALVEANO

BELLCg,/_NK

PM45"?.70

5-1

_--.

SECTION V

SEQUENCE SYSTEM, LAUNCH HROUGH RETROGRADE OR ABORT

1/.l_y

" _p

p,_ REPORT MODEL

s._
SEDR 104 133

M_'DONNI_%__l/_Z_0.____7_4"_
_

DATE ]NOVEMBER196] REVISED , REVISED

/

\_"

® @

@
_.t

@
-.zg

@

_.J

Z

,..5

,,o

_

_

'_ _

_ •

_ o ,_ _ <.

_-

<_o= _ <_-

_ _ 0_O_ <_ __,° '4 _ _

__£ =°

/1

@@'-'S®

®@®®@®

©

',
,, ®

®
®

("

" FIGUI_ES-I NO_m/kL M_SSIONSEQUF_NCE

_R

_

REVISED

M 'DONNE MISSOURI . ST. LOUIS 3,

REPORT

5-3 10_ _

V.

SEQDq_E

SYSm_M,

LAUNCH

THROUGH

RETROGRAIE

OR ABORT

3-1. 5-2. 5-3.

NORMAL LAUNCH

MT_SION THR_JGH

SEQUENCE STAGING

_ESCRIPTION The launch through r,--_I_s staglng _-_ctlve sequence until establishes At basic references at time of

launch booster

and then eng_

sta_.

staging J the missile's bolts being fired after

sel_rates, time

resulting

in the escape rockets

tower

a twenty

seconds

delay.

The escape

are fired z system

i_ediately becomes

after

tower bolt

detonation

and subsequently

the 1=_i-

armed.

5-A.

OPERATION The sequence system is initiated after liftoff by two 28 V 4-c (See Figure
latch_n_

a_,,ls This

frcu the missile is known
3

which zero Orbit switch

occur

at 2 inches

5-2).
relay

as time aN

reference relay box

and energizes located

a Time Zero the

in the NO. controlled

La_Ich back-u_

_Ith_n

capsule.

An Astronaut from

is provided These

in the event saws signals The

the 28 V signals are also

the missile

40 not

reach

the capsule.

sent to the M_tmum Altitude the time occur

Altitude Sensor

Sensor in

,ha the Satellite establishing

Clock.

sl_A1

to the _um versus will

results may

the functioa 135

of t_-

li£t-off

an abort

occur.

At a!_roximately separation Booster will

seconds

missile will

staging cause

whereby

the _ech=_cal power to the po_r the 20 Bolts

of the booster Separation

*ngine Sensor

the loss this Time

of capsule

_gine

rel_y.

Through

de-energlzed Delay relay.

relay, After

be applied

to the Tower powmr

Jettison

20 Second to

secon_ time Powmr f relay

delay,

will be applied Jettison Power

energize

the Tower Time

Separation Delay and

and the Tower Bol_s

Warning, TAght is armed

2 Secom_ by both

relay. Isolated _uib

The Tower 4-c

Separation

relay ARM

the _

squib bus through

the SQUIB

switch.

When energized,

the Isolated

REPORT

SEDR 104

_{J_._lx._.._.__l_Q_il_-t_.

REVISED

1 MAY

1962

MODEL

133

_

REVISED

TV_

JETT

[ ',1 _o_,_. "_"_
2L000 FT

[

( D_--

Et_E_.-

C._5dLE--0WE_ Of%CONnECT

'lq
AP._A

,

_EL_.Y

OELAW

RELAY

t--I
k,

5T_qll'q_

,

(j %Ec x O)

REL_W

:
<:os-:._. _ -

A
. [ Ji .

-;:_._ _='r ii
E':f_NE

=_'e 5e_

row_-_.

"(';'(,;'"v,'"'.'///Z///,/;,?

I} _::

gOOLTER

s_,_sea
C:-ksex3_-'_

Esa.
A A

NOTE5
U%E W ATL_.% F_,_LS"TO ORODULE LOSS 0_" Zg ',/OLW% _PO',,WE_
IF ESCAPE ROC_.E'T%

g_]
LW%-OFF
7\RE ANb

%IG, MAL
"VMRU%T ,.,./_

DEGA>d%

wO

.20

FA_L

TO

c_.

LIFT-OFF

C_L(} Q_

8%

VOLT%

_,'_

I

_. E L__,'{ I

.... .....

_w_TC

r*

NIAXIMIJ M ALTII dOE _E_%ON

t q i_ __..

v

_EVISEDI Hay

1962

.

_. ).ou,=. M,s=ou_

RFJ)ORT

SEBR iOh

._

bus power three

fires two of the five squibs

squibs

(2 bolts)

and main

squib bus power Relay will

fires also be

of the five when

(3 bolts). Bolts

The Tower Relay

Ring

Interlock

energized Tower

Tower

Seperation

is energized. Clamp ring _mit

As the three

segmented to con-

Clamp ring

separates,

the three Tower Isolated

switches return through Escape their

the normal tacts.

position

and a11ow squib

and Main

squib bus power

The Isolated

bus power energizes Jettison Rocket

both the Emergency relay, while

Rocket squib bus Fire

Fire relay power relay.

and the Emergency

Fire relay

the Main

energizes

both the Escape

Rocket Fire

and the Jettison and Jettison both squibs

Rocket

As the contacts

of the Emergency either

Jettison fire

Rocket

Fire relays

are connected rocket Rocket

in parallel,

relay will sources.

of the Jettison and Escape fire both the Emer-

from the two different

power

The Emergency

Escape

Fire relays are connected

in the identical

same manner Power

and will

squibs of the escape rocket gency Jettison Relay which and Jettison

from both power Rocket

sources.

to energize

Fire relay is

routed t_hrough the Time Delay Clamp

.O2g Thrust Cut-

energized As the Rockets

through result

the Spacecraft

I Second delay

and Thrust Ring

off Sensor. the Escape Rockets

of the i second

the Tower

separates,

fire

and separates

the tower

fr_n the capsule

with the Jettison between Separarelay and

unfired.

_nen this are

is accomplished,

two electrical power No. panel from

disconnects the three Separation When

the tower

and capsule relays.

separated the

and remove

Tower

tion Sensor

Through light

de-energized

I Tower

Sensor

the green JE_/ TOW_ the capsule allowing separate,

on the telelight

illum_nates.

the tower

the No. I and No. 2 Tower

Separation Chute

Relay_

are de-energized Time

power

to energize After

the No. i and No. 2 Hain delay, the Main 2 Second are armed. descends

System Arm 2 Second arm the 21jOOO

Delay Relays. baroswitches seconds f",

2 secon_o

Chute Relays Time Delay The power

foot

and the F_Lu

Chute Delay

relays. circuit

After two will hold at foot range) at

the I0,000

foot baroswitches the capsule sequence

these two points until which time the landing

down through Refer

the 21_OOO

is _n_tiated.

to Section

IX of this manual.

REPORT _

10_

M,DONNELL
-_; STAGING

D TE REVISED
REWSEO ....

MODEL_ 133 5-5. 5-6. sgcom)

_SCmZPTIOS
Second staging is _n_tiated are fired by sustalner engine cutoff at which to time the .2Og. The

capsule three

adapter

bolts

provld_

acceleration

has decayed

posigrade

rockets

and the four

explosive

electrical

disconnects

are fired

4mmediately Capsule

after

the bolts is sensed

are detonated and initiates in which

and result five

in capsule of rate

separation. damp_ which and

separation

seconds

is followed settles

by orbit

oriBntation attitude.

the capsule

rotates

180 ° degrees

into a B_° orbit

5-7.

OPERATION At approximately 285 seconds time Cutoff Cutoff after d-c launch, signal second staglng w!l_ occur (See

Figure

5-3)-

At this Engine

a 28 volt Relay. Sensor T_

frc_ the missile drops below

will

energize .20g the after

the Sustalner switch Capsule

When the thrust closes. Power

.20g, the through Relays

in the Th_ast Separation Time

is then

supplied Cutoff Bolts

1 Second delay

Delay

and Sustainer

Engine

the 1 Second Capsule

to energize 2 Second

the Capsule Time Delay bus

Separation relays.

Power

and the

Separation power

Warning

Through

the energized Separation Delay relay Bolts. to

contacts,

from

the _in

and Isolated through

fire the Capsule Light Time

Also Main bus power illuminate the Red

is supplied Capsule

the Warning Light rlng

Separation

Sequence clamp

on the Left separates power

Hand Console. the PosiDisthe .....

When the Trl-segmented Capsule Adapter Ring

Capsule-to-Adapter Limit Switch to close

it n]lows

supplying Fire

to energize

the

grade Rocket Fire, Emergency connect Squib Fire relays. of these

Posigrade

Rocket

and the Capsule busses supply Rockets

Adapter

The Main and relays

Isolated

power

through four

energized Capsule

contacts

to fire the Posigrade The Posigrade

and the

Adapter

Explosive

Disconnects.

Rockets

create

sufficient

1November

Mc, DONNELLj/S

5-7

....

thrust

to

separate Limit

the capsule which

from the adapter. are attached

This

allows

the three straps

Capsule

Separation Power vates

switches

to the retrograde the closed

to close.

from the Isolated the #i Capsule Warning

squib

bus flows through Sensor relay

contacts

and actiCapsule from

Separation

which

extinguishes Light. Time Power Delay

the Red also

Separation the Capsule relay. relay

Light

and illuminates relay

the Green

flows

Separation

Sensor

to the 5 Second relay

Damping

Signal

Activation bringing

of the Damping

Signal

actuates

the orbit attitude.

orientation

the capsule

to a 34 ° (blunt end up) orbit

5-8. RE-mcrrz 5-9. nESCRE=TION
In order sequence touchdown closing switch launch time The must for the capsule be initiated to impact at a designated 3000 nautical normal area, miles the re-entry up r_ze of the is by Clock. prior the The to The

approximately of initiating Signal

point.

The method

re-entry

sequence

of the Retrograde may be activated for a calculated

Firing

switch

within

the Satellite into the at booster Command

by the run-out re-entry time.

of time pre-set Timing starts

clock

lift-off. when

may also be pre-set sequence may be

by the Astronaut directly The final

or by Ground Ground

necessary. and the

star_ed

by using method

Ccmm_and transmitters

Capsule start

C_..u._ndReceivers.

is for the Astronaut button.

to m_n_A11y two methods with the Sequenc_ attl-

the sequence the

by pressing clock.

the Retro A brief

Sequence

The last starts

by-pass closing _ L Fire rude

satellite

resume

of the sequence which

of the Retrograde Time Delay

Firing relay.

Signal After

switch,

energizes

the Retro

30 Second

the capsule Retro

has attained Rockets will

the proper

and the time delay When the Retro

has run out_ the three Rockets Rocket

fire 5 seconds is in the Relay is is

apart. '-

fire and the Auto Assembly Jettison

Retro

Jettison Time

switch Delay

"ARM" position energized

the Ratro

60 Second

and at the

run-out

of the 60 second

time delay

the retro

pacW-ge

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133 _

REVISED REVISED

I MAY

1962

-.%
";;':,/i/!/.,;_/.I/.:: (,/t.'7/I,% :(?? I/?/7:/} Y//ff/i '/ !'l, ;'."i _._ _ _ _ . = _ 4 __

i
t J

:

77

T
I

_, 7

_ <'--

, I

i'

..........

j

rD

,.

5erZ _ juJ j)b

'

'
j _ __ ,_
/.,, /_ tn_ C6 _ 0

i

,
"-:-_
¢'Y v

i
.
Lq

,

7

_,v

__ ,_ _> ,;+ o_

.
i

"

j_O

c_ _

> O_ I

z_

g_.3

r .A.: _7_ ,

_

....

fi

H

l

C,_

FIChU,RE-3 SECOND 5 5T,_i_._ (.gLOCKD_AG, Rk,M)

_,_._-_L_:,

REVISED

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI _

RE:POR'r

5-9

_'E]_:_. 104

RE'VISED

M OOICZ.

1"_

....

Jettisoned. tion

The retro package retro package

separation electrical

is sensed

and results

in the

separa-

of the three

t_nbillcals.

5-Io. OPER IO (seeFigu
The through switch three Time Relay satellite the Capsule in the "NORM" previously Delay relay clock Retro Separation position Fire relay switch is armed by Main Squib bus power Delay

(See Figure Fire

5-h). switch

With the Retro closed by Fire

and the Retro

any of the SO Second Indicator light. With to the delay.

mentioned

methods,

the Retro

Rocket

Sequence

is energized. illuminating in the

At the same t_the Green Retro

the Retro Sequence

Sequence

is activated Delay

Indicator

the Retro contact

switch

"INST" position Relay

power

is supplied

directly

of the Attitude

Permission sCa_ _,n_

No. 1 by-passing sequence will

the 30 second

The Astronaut .... Sequence Retro

may manually on the left Relay

the Retro console

by pressing energize to be

the Retro

switch

which

the W_ergency The Retro through

Sequence

and allow

the normal

sequence

followed. power

Interlock the _rgency Permission firing. Sequence attalned

switch

in the ASCS Calibrator Fire No. 1 Relay

closes

_llow_ng

to flow

Retro Relays

and energize

the No.

1 Ann No. 2 Attitude for Retro the Retro Rocket Rocket

when

the capsule Attitude

is in the proper

position on when

The Red Retro Fire Relay, the proper

telellght time delay

is switched is depleted

30 second re-entry

and the capsule

has not

attitude. Permlssion light Power Relay ext_ngc_ishes the Red Retro Signal Attitude Latch

Normally, telelight,

the Attitude

illuminating Rocket

the Green

and energizing f_ the

the Retro Squib

and the Retro routed first through the Left

Fire Relays. Rocket

Isolated

bus is now in turn firing

the Retro

Fire Relays after

to the Retro time

Rockets

(No. l) Rocket, later will

a 5 second

delay

the Bottom the Retro Fire

(No. 2) Signal

]Rocket and 5 seconds Imtch Relay, a circuit

the Right

(No. 3) Rocket. to energize

Through the Retro

be cc_leted

Signal

M ,DONNELL¢
REPORT SEDR lob MOOEL133 _ a_T._tOUlS. M_i_I__ Disengage 23 Second Time Delay Relay. Signal Disengage

1No e be 1961
REVISED l May l_62 REVISED

The power to the coll of the Retro Fire to be completed to the ASCS Calibrator

Relay allows the circuit

resulting in hi-torque RCS operation.

This high-torque operation will last for of total retro rocket fir-

23 seconds, which is 3 seconds more than the duration ing. The high-torque mode holds the capsule

in the 32 ° attitude while the roc23

kets are firing.

At the end of 23 seconds, the Retro Fire Signal Disengage

Second Time Delay relay will energize removing power from the Retro Fire Signal relay and thus r_noving the high-torque "AUTO" position the Astronaut signal. With the Attitude switch in the the .."o.

may press the Retro Fire switch

energizing

1 Emergency Retro Fire relay allowing Isolated bus power to energize the No. 2 Emergency Retro relay powering contacts on the No. 2 Attitude Permission Relay firing the Retro Rockets when the capsule assumes the proper attitude. With the

Retro Attitude switch in the "BY-PASS" position, and pressing the Retro Fire switch _hich energizes the Attitude Permission By-Pass relay, the Ratro Rockets _d]] be fired regardless of the attitude of the capsule. Latch relay is energized, Main Squib bus po_r Rocket Assembly Jettison When the Retro Signal to energize the Retro

......

is supplied

60 Second Time Delay relay and the Retro Fire Warning After the 20 second time delay has run out When the No. 3 Retro Rocket is this causes

Light 20 Second Time Delay relay.

the Red Fire Retro Telelight is illuminated.

fired the pressure switch on the No. 3 Retro Rocket is de-actuated, the No. 3 Retro Rocket Monitor Relay to energize. Rocket Monitor Relay will cause the Retro r_noved from the red Retro Fired Telelight Telelight is illuminated.

Energizing the No. 3 Retro thus power is

Fired Relay to energize,

and the green Retro Rocket Fired .:.

With the Automatic Retro Jettison switch in the "ARM"

position, at the end of the 60 second time delay the Retro Rocket Assembly Jettison 60 Second Time Delay relay allows power to energize the Retro Rocket Assembly relay. Jettison relay and the Jettison _etro Warning Light 2 Second Time Delay Retro telelight is

As the 2 second time delay is expired the Red Jettison

&/

RENiSED May 1962 i RE;VISED illuminated. bus power will The Retro

_ Lou,,. M,,,ou,, i_MODEI Rocket Assembly of the Retro will drop Jettison relay

REPORT SEDR 104 13) directs Main and Isolated The bolt by a The

to the two squibs

Rocket Assembly

Jettison being

Bolt.

fracture

and the package between

free of the capsule, shield and Retro

assisted

coil spring dropping Retro

installed

the heat assembly

package will

Assembly.

of the retro package

frc_ the capsule (single pole

_11ow

the three

Rocket Assembly

Separation

Sensors

14mat

switches.) to return Separation relay relay.

to their normal

position

energizing

the Retro

Rocket

Assembly Separation

This w_11 allow the Retro Rocket firing the six squibs the electrical '_e,u power

Assembly Retro

Umbilical Rocket

to energize,

of the three plugs

package

umbilicals

and Jettison

umbilical

m_1]iseconds Umbilical

after

dropping Relay

of the retro package. is activated_ the Green it removes light. the time dethe .O5g When

the Retro Rocket Assembly from the Red Jettison Rocket

Separation

Retro

telelight relay

and illuminates is energized,

the Retro

Asse._oly Separation Time Delay

it activates

Accelerometer lay, the relay •OSg relays. Jettison moves

Arm 5 Second functions

relay.

At the end of the 5 second bus power Retro Power which

supplying

a ground for Main

operates Drop,

The energizing Sequence

of the No. I and No. 2.0Sg Drop, and .O5g Retro and switches Telelight involed

Sequence

Assembly

Drop relay_

reas

power

from the various

relays

in the Retro Sequence

• well as extinguishing

the Retro

telelights.

5_;U.. ESCAPEs_,l:_ _=_.. (_rm,_AZ, D_CE_'ZON
The ride _-ade t_m_out ].O fOOt, . t_pered & ss£e rocket escape means system, sustainer tubular end. steel system of pr1.-_!ly ccmslsts prelaunch be orbit. a 4 foot of a tower and _-_tiated The staging. after to_er assm_ly deslgned By ut_ltzin_ booster assembly rocket bolts sta_Lug consists mounted secures to to prothe p_si-

a_boz't between escal_eS operation structure clamp _

m_y still until with

and of its of a

escape

A segmented

with

3 explosive

the hue

M ,DONNELL ST. LOUIS MISSOURI
MODEL. the l'_q tower to the recovery plate _ compartment is _per flange. z_ocket has been Attached w_Lch fired is

REVISED REVISED to to the escape the

rocket tower under

nozzle assembly normal

adapter after

a Jettison rocket

used

Jettison however,

the escape conditions

for an abort;

launch

the escape engine

rockets

are fired

to accomplish

tower

separation

at time

of booster

separation.

5-13.

ESCAPE

_IRE

LIFTOFF

_RE

UMBILICAL signal

DISCONNECT the M_yday switch relays. This

Only one ground signal is a direct

controlled

will energize abort

hard_line from the blon_house relays. In the event is unable that

through ,.mr

the missile on

to the capsule thm launch there abort Ground Through

Mayday

the capsule

be aborted abort

pad and the missile method which

to transmit

the hardline pins

signal,

is one other wired

may be selected.

Umbilical

4_ and 45 are

end transmit

28 V power Latching capsule

from the blockhouse relay, energizing

to the capsule's and Iock_ng izlthe relay. "

Co-,_and Abort this energized

Signal relay

28 V Squib relay;

Arm Bus power however, power

is transmitted will not continue may

to the pole through this

of the Ground relay until

Test Umbilical the relay

is de-energized.

The only way the relay if this abort

be de-energized is required first select

is by eJect_n_ it would switch

the umbilical. be necessary to pins

Therefore,

_thod to

to be used the Abort

for the blockhouse _

conductor

_ower

and 45) and t_en milliseconds

thereafter

eject

the umbilical.

5-14.

ESCAPE During

BEFORE

LIFTOFF there eject

A_

UMBILICAL

DISCONNECT 50 to 90 seconds is two inches are: between time

countdown umbilical

will be appro_mately and time zero_ which

.LL

of capsule

liftoff.

During to

-

this period, missile Ground

the three

available

methods

of abort

(1) The blockhouse paragraph; handle. (2) These

hard_llne abort c_d receivmr

signal as explained abort signal;

in the previous Abort

(3) Astronaut's

three

REVIS_:D.
II

s'r. Loum. M,ssou, .. m
1 .

REPORT MODEL 1-33

REVISED, --, methods _i result in

_ energizl_ _he _ r-_ys.

5-15. ESCAPE AFTERLZFTOFF
" After llftoff, (Time Zero),

TOWERSEPASA 0
there are three methods by _alch slg-_1 previous third Time _vo an abort may

be _-_t_ated. z_,u% Abort

They are: both

(1) Ground which were F=_lure two previous the to T_-_ the

ecmmama

receiver methods in

abort the Th_ to the

and (2) A_tropszag:raph, method Zero has '

handle,

possible Detection

(3) The Bo_ter been being liftofT non-effective de-ener_ize4L. and

Catamtro_h!c in the

mystem. due is

pare4_aphs Zero M_day r_l_y relays

relay after Failure

However, a circuit

ener_ize<l if the

inches

comple_es

Catastrophic

De_ection

relay

is _e-energlze_l by io_s

of power

frum the missile.

5=I. o ra
When the the abort sensor

.oa
May_ay relays (see a decay are energized, the abort light v_1 "111,_te The thrust to the Ca_p-

sequence

Figure 5-5 and 5-6) W'II1:O_CUr in thrust to After .20g, _h_. w_l

as follows. apply power

w-_ll sense

mule 1 second

time delay

relay. Capsule

the 1 8econ_

time _e!ay relay

relay.

After

the I second time delaythe Ring Interlock Relay w_ll War_

S_el___tlon Bolts Power A!-o power

and the Capsule to the Cap15 Second

be energized, Time D_!ay have

will be applied

sule Separation Time Delay Altitude _Ay

Z Light

relay and the Tower el_p_ed the Abort Sensor

Jettison

r_IAy.

After

15 seconds

Relay

in the MaY_w--the time Jettlreto

Sensor

is energized. for the c_psule tower.

The M_ to reach a

Altitude

computes

require_

eafe d_m,_4C bolts

_resaure squibs

before

sorting t_e escape le_ng return

The capsule

separation

will be fired, limit switches

the capsule-adapter to their no r_1

clamp ring add allowing energiz_

the three

positions Adapter

the Emergency Squib
k

Escape flr_n_

Rocket the escape The escape and

relay and the Capsule

Disconnect

Fire

tee/y,

rocket an_ the four c_psule rocket's 56,000 pounds

ex_pter

explosive sepez_te

_-co_ulect

squibs.

of thrust

will

the capsule

from the missile

I MAY 1962 REPORT MODEL SEDR 104 133 _£_II_.LOUIS. __ MISSOURI REVISED REVISED

i

[

i

L - = EGLE.

I _.':.T_O ROGK_.T

_X T _.".,M X',3T _

REL&_(

J

R _.L &"(

_,TT_TUDE

I I
C:TRC :l_t, _ ! . . ,

'

l

'
_.oO<_Tg

'
?,_7 RO ",_0L< E=',rE REL_-

9 _P_E

[ t

--']

J i
i MOTES \TTI"_D;-- ;]T&INED _S

f_ J ;-.:_T_O _,_.2

* i
i

....... :

,-':_\_ _

_ £_

_,FT£P.O 5£t 1.3. Z

{Z_ %_Z.T.U.') ROCXtT 9_t%%U'_,_ %';;.YC,rt

l

,_-"TF._ S£% T.D. Z E_ERC_iZED bY_E-_V,,T;AT:NG"1_.3 _L-"_ ',LLh_Tr H_t£OR it,; .-;: -:- t5

SEPcRATiO_

MODE

_

_

c, g,'_,_L Z_LA.Y

_

<23 _£CT.b)

l
J L;M%IL;C_,L SE.==_T,Ol _ _'_T_C ROCKET %£PARATION _ Z:_-._,O ROCKET _.S%_M_LY _ J I _=J I A_SEM%'.Y ZE.TTISC'-_

'L:-,-A'_

I

SENSOP.,

:-TT _.C_ _,_LA'C l j

II

J(_OSEC.T.t£) _,-L_X

T

T

I

'

b_gC: ", M:,.%T

_OLT

Y

JETT!%0_ R.ET P..O

l

REL&Y

j

FIGURE

5-4-

_.ORM_,L

RE.-E,'_TRY SEQt]ENCE

PM¢S-%3sA

REPORT SEDR 10Jr MODEL_133 _rry sensor turns it _wy l_m_t on the fr_ switches Green

-16

MqDONNELL "
ST. LOUIS t the sustainer also capsule Interlock Assembly Retro The energizes S_lon Latching Jettison switch bolt by a for the and will coil =n_ at a s_Lll the C_psule angle. Separation and The thrush the two and _,._11e_ When the close the abort the squibs the =1.o

DAT1 I"o e=1961 REVISED February
REVISED Z _ The capsule Se_or energizes relay of 1962 separation rel_s, the which Tower energizes the assemof the ,

telelight, relsy. relay fires fracture sprin_ purpose.

Separation the Retro

Abort Rocket Auto bolt. bein_

interlock "ARM" position of the _1 the

Astronaut's bly Jettison

retro drop he_t

rocket free shield a ._v_,.the Tower are ring

pack_e between capsule and three the

capsule, retro altitude, tion the Bolts

assisted assembly in Relay, clamp to

and

packa6e

this

reaches energize tower bolts

contacts Power tower retul_ Rocket

MAX ALT SENSOR wl]] firing ring the bolts. As _11owin6

SeI_-

fractured,

se_nents to

separates nor _1 position Through fire the

three the and

rover

_4m_t Jettisc_ 1 el contaets The

switches _ud Main tower tower Jettis_

their

energizing these relays

Emergency their par-l

Fire bus

relsys. will of

and Isolated ,_r_l tO be ca!_sule

power

the two squibs capsule The Sensor _ si6nal De-ener_izin resultin_ separation relays to the

of the Jett ._son z'o_Ee_. in of separ_tin_ either the cou_andin_ Separation which the _-connect Abor_ rote Rate t_,_

Jettisoned electl_lcal the This _-_ the

clear

disC_mnects. Separ_tion w_ send

de-ener_ize Damping until will relay. time also of sta_

TOwer relay chute two

energiz_£ ASCS

_-_plng relays

_eploymen_. 2 second timers

6 the recovery

Tower sequence

in

the

will

arm

the _1 _OOO foot 5-17ESCAPE _

and i0_000 TOWER of

foot baroswitches SEPARATION an abort after

after

2 seconds.

.._.:.:.:... tower separation are identical command reFailure to

The methods the methods ceiver abort _ed

lnitL_tin6

for the escape (_) Astronaut

after liftoff Abort

and are:

(I) Ground

signal;

handle;

(3) Booster

Catastrophic

MqDONNELLLL
REVISED REVISED I FEBRUARY 1962 1 MAY1962 ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI REPORT MODEL SEDR 104 133

--72;-_

1

E=OCK_<3US£

'

G_,OOND

GROUND

RELAYS _I_

Ca_SULa UME_._CA.

CO_.IM. ,_T:OR r
S!GNA_ R_._AY

:_$T _B_L',G_,L
/ RELAY _DE-ENE_G,)

CA,_.S j;_. E6PARAilON
_.3_.15

ALTITUDE

,A;SL_. R

SEPARATION TELl.LIGhT 6 R

I

ABCRT

L,_NT

I

13" _TT IS TIME O 5_C. O N DE L _kY

_ LIGNT .k,NIN,_ 2 Ti:dE _E -_,Y

I_OLTS 5_-PARATION

I,
--CAPSJLE SE_ARATIC_I " SEXC }K RELAY5 _.._ >_,2 a,T ( , ESCAPE : : :

'
=._A?E -_,r _OCKET - -_,K_ _£LAYS ICC_(ET

+
dA; _ JLF. AOAPT[R CL_-MP _ING LV:T 5W, N =C

L
T O'_. _ _EPA_ATION ABQ P.T _NTE_LOCK _=-LA, Y ]O',_;-_ , .C':T _Ob. _,';. _,_T - '-E v_.k'l £E.AY ADAPT E_ :..XPuO9 _,;" Ub_(OWMECT A_APTZR 5_-_CCNNECT _QC_3 _=_£ P-ELAY _;_T-,CON , "CK-:T _]_E ¢._LAY$

. ..:..

REIRO WAP, NI_G LIGHT TiM_

_O_ER {PA_TiGN' :';OLT_ ]OWEK

TO_VE_ TOWER #.1NET _LT9 ,2,;,Xl(_ .,,%I;T " ,_ETT_SON <OCNZT

_-oEEC
_ELAY

_.c_7

,:'.. _E_Y

f,,',.'[ TC his

KET,KO SWITCH (ARM PO£1TION)

:,SCKLT .ETTI_ON _.LAY E

_OCKEr JETTI_ _OLT

PACKAC_E L_blIT EWIT_mES

_OCKET ___ A,_TiO_ P RELAYS

'

_EIRO

Jc_;l_-'_N TE_E,*GMT

_i_

S_TEM 2 S:-C. T '.;_ 5_.AY

RATE _'-_MP } _{.LA_"

bEPARATION A6ORT "NTER°LO_K

' _1_ ( RETRO ;,C,.xL r

_,'C,<L A6EE_':._ _IM!_iL_AL KEL.AY I

I0 00(> cT, _A_O :{-i:=. "-_ ............ :::=::; _V. ,TCH /_

k _"

RATE DAMPIMO FE_¥ [ t [};Ai_ _TL_N -C"V E r" RELAYS

• i(T

ANTENNA CAIRINO EJECTOR z -.

Z_ E#ER_/Z£O 7#ROJ.'_H T_,¢Z_SE_I_T/O# Rt#& Ifr£;Lb,:_ RELAY AND ,20g Y/l_JG
_TNTERLOCK RE'LAy

.,'_.'_ CAPSUL_ RELAY IS ENF-._IZEa /3_'X TOWEt_' SEPAf,ATIO.¥ X_I.YG E#E_IZ£D Z,VT_J_-

_E_SOR _ /_
.29G

THRUST HAS 5ENS_O CUT O#_ SENSOR
._.FDCAP SEP I 3E:. //_

v,:'_.T::_.:NC;_:.h:_U __,!;.,_Y ,__ :_L:X_E r.-_. :,,cu_T:" sT_-_R,,.
b,ViTC_ L_CL_ED i£E,O_v C,2,',2;[

• '
:

LO:;X RELAY 13 ALTO

Tl_f o_r
f/l£_GlZEb

_.-*j_ _AS ar-.-_
;'

_...,,_.t-,_r__ BEFOI_E SEPERATIC:ktBLOCK DIAGRAM

"_':-'_"_ t

REPORT _I_IR I0_ MODELLI_3

,AOE -18
Detection

Mc, DONNEL_L
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI Any of the three methods will energize the

DA 1,ove-." E REVISED i February
REVISED 1 _m,y 1962 MAyday relays.

1962

system.

The

sequence which occurs by the energizing of these relays is described in the folloving paragraph.

_...

5-18.

Operation vhich energizes the MAyday relays also is transmitted to the shut the down the energized _in armed. sustainer engine (See a lx_er and the to .20g Figure circuit .20g the 5-7 and 5-8). is contacts contacts completed of the close Through to the

The si_ missile contacts to of

M_yday relays, instr_nt As thrust p_nel decays

ABORT light cutoff sensor

on the are

thrust and I_ver

is applied to Capsule Sel_LratlonDelay (i Sac TD) Relay.

After i Sac has elapsed

the Capsule Sel_ration Bolts Relay and Capsule Ring Interlock Relays are energized and five capsule separation bolt squibs are fired separating the capsule adapter clamp ring. The sequence folloving clamp ring sel_ratlon is the Re-entry _y be acc_-

same as the normal sequence (Refer to Paragraph 5-7).

plished by any of the emergency procedures (i.e., Astron_ut or ground initiated). Refer also to l_ragraph 5-9. If the abort is initiated before the capsule has

ob_alued the correct velocity for orbital flight and it is not desired to fire the noted way for retro that rockets, even if is the the retro capsule package does must be not attain of retro Jettisoned orbital rockets. manually. velocity the It should be

quickest

re-entry

by emergency

firing

5-19.

_ST

C0RFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 16

5-20.

_ Capsule No. 16 is the same as Specification Compliance Capsule.

...... iiiii ....

D^_E ,.o,,,M._,9_,
REVISED R!EVISED

Mc, DONNELL_._r _ __,_
ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

P^_E
REPORT MODEL

_-,9
SEDR 104 133

.:,::.:;,::

rf

_

• .

__
<f -Jut

_ _
{_

Z

_
_

n'°<: _Z

°_
Up.

•_ °

_ _', o_

-_r-

........
(_)

_ _ _ o_° o_ oo_°_
_

', ®

_®®®®® ®

\ \

FIGURE

5-_T.ESCAPE

" 5"t"STEM

AFTER-

RATION

p_
REPORT MODEL

_-_o
SEDR104 133

Mc, DONNELL_ ___-_
ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI

D'TE ,NOV._..1961
REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

I

ASOQT

U_HT

]

I _(Ot.'_ CO'vwl,.VwO MAYOAY _ LAYS

5EPAP, A_K)N _LTS _'0_";_ P-

CAPSULe. 5gPARATION _LT5

_*BORT $AA NO{,.E

_f

MISSILE ENC_INLS

5H'J_O;_

Ch,pSLILE SEPARATION WARNIN_ LIOHT I 5EC.'CD.RE.LAY

CAPSUL_ ADAPTER SteP'RATION P,INC_ LIrv_T _WIT_tAES

_.ATASTROPNIC

_[f

4 CAPSULE _APTER EXPLOSLVE DI'_CONNEC;S

ADAPTER DISCONNECT SQU_B FIRE KELAY

ROCKETS _iP,. F RELAYS

.

R

R

S EPARATIOKI P,£LAYS

SENSO_

SENSOR

LIMIT

P,0CKET5

SWI TEH_.S

FI
5 SEE.. 5 5£C. RINa _'NTE,_LOCK _NZ#6,JZEO RELAr

51(._NAL 5 5EC. r.D._EL, Y _AMPlNG /_

/_

RFMOVED

AFTER

_,%

APPLIED AFTER

I

j

_

_ND 8APLVLE SEP. I 8EC Tl.t_[ DELAY' THRUST COT, OFF SE,vso.e ,qA5 $E_ED .20_ RELAY I,_ ENEP, gIZK:D

_CAPSULE I_

hLhO

Oag_r
ORIENTATI0N kEL_,Y

ORG_OL_N 0
C O Mtv_ AN 0 INITIATE REE.NT_Y

FIGURE 5-8

E5CAPE

SYSTEM

AFTER

TOWER SEPARATION

(BLOCI6, DIAGRAM)

P'a_s-zo_

5-21
FJ

REVISED 1 _lfl'bZ_ REVISED ].!'-14b,_" _1_. 1

]C_. _

rr. l.o_s. ML_--_Jm

REPORT. _ MODEl_ 133

]'O_l"

5-21.
i':ii:!:!!!) events differ switch fired supplies a_t£viati_

_
C_l_ule that in and the

co_z(_._x_og _
No. take 18 is the same

!o. 18
eus Sl_ecific&%lon the circuitry sensor %o indicate to 2_0 the Red Yire in C_l_lle the is in 'the sequence relay of of panels • l_essure have sensor Relay and

place:

hovever_ manner _onitor velocity bus

Retrograde in the _lace Retro the Rocket

follovi_ rocket When the a_in

a velocity relays

used that ft./see Re%to

retro

Rockets velocity Fired

properly. pre-ial_Ct_ the _e

decreases ¢o energize from the

I_ver pover

relay Green

removes Lighl;.

Retro

telelight

tl]umLtnates

i

J

,_AT_ 1 _ov_ber l_l ,_,sEo i_,ssD
position

__

_.Lou,s a..lssouR,

eAg_ ._oRT .oom.

5-21 _ 104 13_

and complete a circuit to the _,_rgency Jettison and Jettisgn Rocket Through

Fire relays and to the Emergency Escape and Escape Rocket Fire relays. _::_;:_;

these four relays which are connected in parallel for each rocket circuit, the rockets are fired and the tower separates from the capsule.

5-23.

Re-_-tr_
The same as Specification Capsule except that the velocity sensor is re-

placed by three pressure switches, one on each Retro Rocket. Closing of these pressure switches energize three Retro Rocket Gone Relays which extinguis_ the Red Retro Telelight and illuminate the green Retro Telelight.

5-2_. TEST COSFIGURATIONAPSULENO. 9 C 5-25. c_e_ rel
Capsule No. 9 is the s_ as the Specification Cc_liance Capsule in the

sequence of events that take place; however, the circuitry Relay panels differ in the
fO_O%r_n_ _nner:

in the Retrograde

5-26. l_e-_tr 7
The Retro Rocket Fired Relay which extinguishes the Red Retro Fire telelight and illuminates the Green light is energized by a pressure switch located on the Right (No. 3) Retro Rocket in place of the Velocity Sensor. All the Retro

telelights are extinguished through a series of relays except the Retro Jettison light which remains on.

5-27.

_T

CORFIGt_JtTION CAPSULE NO. 13

5-28. Oeneral
::_ Capsule No. 13 is the ssme as the Specification Compliance Capsule in the sequence of events that take place; however, the circuitry in the Retrograde relay panels differ _n the following manner:

_E _L_ _-_ REPORT
MODEl, 1.33

Mc, DONNE_ MISSOUII _.___ LOUIS

REVISED REVISED

DA,E'=_ _

_X

5-29. Re-_tr 7
The Retro the .05g Retro telelights Teleli@ht are Power ext_nm_ished Drop relay through is not a series in the of relays and the except Retro that .....

circuit

Jettison light remains on.

5-30.

TEST CO_ON

CAPS_._

NO. iO ARD 16

Capsules No. i0 .n_ 16 are the same as Specification Capsules.

6-t

_

s_cTJoNw

ESCAPE AND JETTISON SYSTEMS

ROCKET

TABLE TITLE

OF CONTENTS

PAGE 6,-3 6,-3 6-3 6-5 6-7 6-11

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION......................... SYSTEM OPERATION ........................... :-:::.:__-:_ i11 i'! _iliiii!ili_-Hi=_ -ABORT HANDLE .............. ,................... ESCAPE ROCKET....... ,......... ,..............

_._.=.=.-...-_.....=_-=.-._.==..=.:_":-':-': ROCKET............................... ...... JETTISON .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

._'_!!!_"!i!:i'iii_L:!.::,_ff L:L:; :_=_L_, "!" ":.:-:'::

,_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiilN.

,ii_iiiiii!iiii!iii!iiiiiii_ii_

TESTCONFIGURATION .......................

_ii i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i!i!i i i i i i i i !i !i i _
====================================================================

._ii!_i_ii!iiii!iii_i!ii_!iii_!i!Hii_i!i!ii_iii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_
==========================================================================

.,_iii!!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii,.
;i:::." :::_i!!_i_i::iiii_i_iiiiigii!i_iiiiig_iiiiiiiiiii_i:::'

i i i i!i i i i i i i i!i i i i i i!ili

===================================

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 |33

ST.LOUIS

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

._3

......

__.

"_
_c+

_
¢o

r_

"

,

i

o

N
Z_:,_ _+- u _.

FIGUI_E _-I ESCAPE

SYSTE_A

(SI4EETI OFZJ

_

.

REVISE_D.

s'r. LOUIS

3. MISSOURI

REPORT

.¢i_'_

10_.

._,s_o.

MOOL

133

".......

VI.

ESCAPE

AND JETTISON

ROCKET

SYSTEM

.............

6-1.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The escape system consists of the capsule pylon, escape rocket and pylon 6-1. of where same

jettison These events

rocket.

The system

also utilizes

items

illustrated

on Figure

items

are not part

of the escape function.

system, Dur_

but assist normal

in the sequence conditions their

to complete is never

the escape initiated,

flight

an abort function system

all of the associated For a written discussion,

items

perform

but in different of the

sequences. items under

description refer

of the escape V.

and diagrams

to Section

6-2.

SYSTEM The

OPERATION electrical When system provides for an abort any time after the ring

capsule

gantry

is removed.

an abort rocket 2500 clamp

is initiated,

the capsule

adapter

cl,mp to an

is released, altitude sensor, ignited,

the escape

ignited, feet. ring

and the capsule

is carried

of approximately the capsule tower

At this time, is released, Two

by means

of the altitude Jettison tower rocket

the tower after

and the escape chute

tower

jettisoned. Two seconds Twelve

seconds drogue

jettisoning, the the

the drogue antenna heat

is deployed. is released.

after

chute

deployment,

fairln£

seconds

after

antenna

fairlng

release,

shield

is released, the escape tower

extending system

the landing

impact

skirt.

During rocket

a normal to

mission separate

where

is not utilized,

the escape

is used

the escape

from the capsule.

"__:-

6-3.

ABORT

HANDLE handle's used primary function is to initiate during the abort sequence. of the For

The abort The handle abort

is also

as a restraint

handle

launch. left

Location arm rest.

handle

is forward

of the Astronaut's

support

couch

'

...... i

I

REPORT MODEL.

SEDR104 133 :

ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

._ts_'= ,,wts_

_.-ou,s

3,Ml_oum

.t_=oe'r _,n_ 104 .o0_ 133

an Astronaut initiated abort, the"reiease button located in the top of the handle must be depressed, _;;_":/!!-_ allowing the handle to be rotated outboard. When

moved to the abort (outboard) position, an electrical switch is actuated, which acts to detonate the capsule-to-adapter clamp ring bolts. The escape

sequence is then initiated, providing that the main umbilical has been disconnected. Before umbilical release, the abort handle is inoperative. (See

6-2.)
6J¢. ESCAPE ROCEET The escape rocket consists of an electrically actuated igniter assembly, a ¼ inch _130 steel case, rocket nozzle assembly, plenum chamber and a solid fuel propellant 70 inches. (See Figure 6-_). The length of the escape rocket is approximately The

The diameter of the rocket case is approximately 15 inches.

weight of the motor•prior to firing is approximately 350 pounds.

For aero-

dynamical stability, ballast is added to the top of the rocket (See Figure 6-1 Sheet 1 of 2). cones. The nozzle assembly incorporates three equally spaced exit

The exit cones are canted at 19 degrees from centerline of rocket case

to centerline of exit cones so as to direct the rocket blast outward and away from the tower and capsule. The plenum chamber incorporates a Jettison motor The

boss which facilitates for the installation of the Jettison rocket motor.

Jettison motor boss also provides for the attachment of the thrust alignment mirror. The optical sighting of the resultant thrust vector is accomplished

by the thrust alignment mirror. ............... a mA_mum

For off the pad escapes the rocket will'obtain

capsule altitude of approximately 2500 feet.

The escape rocket propellant is a polysulfide _-,-onlumperchlorate formulation which is widely used in the rocket industry. __-, The United States Bureau of The propellant The

Explosives classifies the propellant as a "Class B Explosive".

is sensitive to pressure and a spark or flame may easily ignite it.

PAGE. REPORT

6-6 SEDR 104

MCI DONNE_,_ _ 1 ST.LOUIS,

_O_j./_. ..... MIssouRI

DATE REVISED

I NOVEMBER 1961 1 MAY 1962

MODE" 133

REV,SED

LEFT

R_VlS=O

s"r.Loum 3, M,ssoum

A_Pomr

,?_DE 104

.w,ssD,
/_

.ooi..

1_

propellant grain is an internal burnlng nine point star which Is cast directly into and bonded to the case. With the nine-pointed port design, the possibility This is due to the improved alignment between The nominal resultant aY1al thrust at

-.-

of thrust mlsali£_ment is reduced.

the star ports and the exhaust nozzles.

70 degrees F is 52,000 pounds for O.78 of a second; it then drops off uniformly to 5000 pounds in the next 0.6 of a second. reduced rate to zero. approximately 56,500 The thrust will then diminish at a

The total impulse of the motor, at sea level, is pounds second.

The escape rocket igniter is a head mounted dual unit with two completely independent initiation systems to each unit. each unit has independent circuitry The dual initiation system to batteries. This igniter This

from different

is cylindrical in shape, and is a central dynaflow type of long duration. ..... igniter is essentially a miniature rocket motor.

It incorporates a small pro-

pellant grain which can be ignited by either of two squibs sumrounded by boronpotassium nitrate pellets. Surrounding this is an annular plastic tube

filled with a metal-oxidant mixture in which are located two sets of four squibs. Either set is capable of initiating the igniter. Each igniter has

two initiation systems, either of which can start the igniter in the event some of the squibs are inoperative. The igniter is a Class A Explosive.

6-5.

JETTISON ROCker
The Jettison rocket is a qualified Thor retro unit and is manufactured by

the Atlantic Research Corporation. .......

The rocket consists of an electrically The

actuated igniter, a motor case and a tri-nozzle assembly (See Figure 6-5).

nozzle's cones are canted at a 30 degree _nEle (from centerline of motor case to centerline of exit nozzle). It weights 19.5 pounds, has a length of 18 inches

a diameter of 5-5 inches, and produces 785 pounds of thrust for l._ seconds at 70° F. in vacuum. The rocket has been successlS,11y_fired from -75° F. to 175° F., ......... __ _

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133 __-, A
1,.- ,,,

ST.LOUIS, L I e-- ....

MISSOURI r.--- ....

REVISED REVISED

'/\
)

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133
o

IGNITER FLIGWT WEA n CAP

LE

I

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 " 133

ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

POTTING/

I .
45 _ _-L_O_V • MOTOR C_SF -_ _BONOING Rll_G

C EO'_F)

,

_--LIMER

.>
X_ ) ' UOZ.ZL.F_.,. ---_ IN..5_.._T _OZZLE _,S__BU"f E

_

!*

!!
j 'J . ','_'_J ....

ELECTRICAl. bIAC'_RKI4

FIGUI:2E

(=-5

JETTISON

EOCKE'T

p,,_s-m.¢

RL:VISED N_.V_,__62._ _ "l R_-v,SED. _....

_

re. -outs,vM,ssoum

REPORT.SEDR 104 MOOEt 133

and from sea level to vacuum. The Jettison rocket igniter is a head mounted unit with dual ignition

.:;;;;_.:..

capabilities.

This _n_t is cylindrical in shape with a hexagon-3 head and The igniter contains approx-

threads into the top of the jettison rocket.

imately 7 grams of USF-2D ignition pellets which are ignited by either of four squibs. Each pair has independent circuitry from a different power

source and either pair is capable of i_nlting the pellets.

6-6. 6-7.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES TEST CONFIC_'RATIONCAPSULES NO. 16 AND 18 Same as specification capsule.

i-

i i

7-1

_i_ _ _;_:_ _ i:_ :_i_ _

_

SECTION

VII

POSIGRADE

ROCKET SYSTEM

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........................ _:---_, _ ....... .......... !...... = iiiiiiii!iiiiiii_i !H!!!!i!iHi i i!i!i i_i!_ SYSTEM OPERATION ............................ POSIGRADE ROCKET........................... TEST CONFIGURA TION ......................

PAGE 7-3 7-3 _7-3 .7-5

PAG_
REPORT MODEL SEDR 104 133 A -- -

,._./_
ST.LOUIS, ......

t.,_____
MISSOURI L

DATE
REVISED REVISED

REVISED REVISFD

1 ovember

,MCDONNEj
ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI _:"I

RI_IPOR'r MODlg_

SEDR 133

104

VII.

POSIGP_n_ ROCKET SYSTEM

7-1.

SYST_

I_SCRIPTION

The posigrade rocket system consists primarily of the three posigrade rockets and igniters mounted in the retrograde package and the associated wir_nz necessary to ignite the rockets at the proper time. (See Figures 7-1 and 7-2. )

7-2.

SYSq_.MOPERATION

o

The purpose of the posigrade rockets is to accomplish separation between the capsule and booster at a rate of 15 feet per second when orbital velocity has been achieved. They also perform the ss-_ separation function during an The three rockets are fired simultaneously;

abort after tower separation.
:u :..

however, should two of them fail, the remaining unit would successfully affect separatlon.

%3. POSIGRADEOCKET
The posigrade rocket primarily consists of a nozzle assembly and case, a solid propel!ant and an electrically actuated igniter. " It is a cylindrical

device measuring appro×_m_tely 14.7 inches in length, 2.8 inches in diameter and weighing approximately 5.2_ pounds. This rocket is basically an Atlas Reliability has

retro-rocket with m_nor changes for increased reliability. been gained by two methods;

(a) Dual ignition of the igniter squibs from two

different buses, (b) only one of the three rockets is necessary to accomplish successful separation. Due to the wide temperature range of these rockets, The propellant utilized in the

a temperature control system is not required.

posigrade rocket is Arcite 377 which provides an average thrust of 370 pounds for one second in a vacuum.

REPORT MODEl..

SEDR 104 133 !

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

"TO

::7::::::.:

oosto_.Aoe ROCK_'TS 2 AND _,

':1_::::""

'] -

1
,11

5L"
A_
I

.....

PO_)IGR_,O p _ ROCK_'T _ BU_.

V
PQ_IGRAO_ _'_',A ERG EMC,Y FIRF..

, '
1

'11 _ ,
NELA_

,I
POSI_RAOE FIR, E.

I

_OCKET R__LAy "

C=t_O_Mt_t T_-_T _M_ILIC_L !_-L_ t AND _y D_y ALARM RELAY_.

__

I='IGURE

7-2

PO_IGRADE.

ROCKET

IGNITION

SYSTEM

SCHEMATIC

PM4S-GC=A

R_'VISED

i

Febr!.,%ary

10_2

S'I'. LOUIS

3. M|SSOURi

REPORT.

_R

l(_l"

R_VlS_D 1 May 1962 ....._ 7-4. Rocket l_n_ter The posigrade ........ capabilities. rocket igniter is a head mounted

Mo_'_

i_

unit with dual ignition

The igniter is cylindrical in shape with a hexagonal head for This unit

threading it into the top of the posigrade rocket (see Figure 7-1). contains approximately 3 grams of ignition

pellets which are ignited by either

of two pairs of squibs. power

Each pair has independent circuitry from a different

source and either pair is capable of igniting the pellets.

7-5-

TEST CONFIGURATION

CAPSULES

7-6.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES NO. 16 AND 18 Same as specification capsule.

.s

CONFIDENTIAL

8- 1

RETROGRADE ROCKET SYSTEM

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

.._ _ -,_;:;-i:_ : _!-_--"_t_ '_ ..................... iiiiiii_i_:i_ii_

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .......................... ROCKET MOU NTING ........................... RETROPACKAGE ELECTRICAL WIRING. SYSTEM OPERAT,ON ............................ RETROGRADE ROCKET ........................ TESTCONFIGURATION .......................

PAGE 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-6 8-8 8-9

REPORT MODEL

$EDR 104 133 m

ST.LOUIS, -" " -

MISSOURI , _

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE

8-1

P.f

_OCKE.T

SYSTEM

mM4-5-65A

DAT_ 1 No_er Rw,s,,o R_,SEo

l_l

__ _

s'r.Lou,s3.Mmsoum

P^e_ 8-_ R,mom'r_ 104 Moo_. 133

VIII.

_

ROCKET SYSteM

8-i. _

_ESCRIFrlON

The retrograde rocket system consists primarily of the three retro-rockets, their pyrogen ignitersj an_ the associated wiring necessary for rocket _Ition. The retro-rockets are housed in the Jettisonable retrograde pac_ along vlth

the _s_.m'aae:oo.kets. (s_ _re
8-2. ROCKETMDUNT_

8-l.)

The retro-rockets are mounted in the retro-packa_e which, in turn, is mounted to the capsule by means of three straps Joined at the bottom center of the package by an explosive bolt. si_!, + Sixty secands follow_ retrograde firing

the bolt detonates, the straps are released_ and a coil spring ejects capsule. To protect the rockets_ particularly from

the packa@e away from the

mlcro-meteorites, each rocket has a metal cover over its exposed nozzle end. The cover is blown off by rocket b!e_t at time of light,off. rockets capsule's is so designed predetermined as to direct center the resultant at time thrust of vector _unting towards of the the

of gravity

firing.

8-3.

_"_0

PACKAC.E_C_RICAL

WIRING

The retro package is supplied electrical power through the three electrical explosive disconnects tb=t are e_A!ly positioned ar_,_ the base of the capsule.

Electrical wire bundles frc_ the discn_-ects follow

the three retrograde pmcka@e

retension str_ps down to the retro p_cka_e, where they enter this unit through .... ru_er grommets. are _tthln routed the pac_+_e all wirin_ for the face retro rockets_ into sensors each

_na heaters .

to the outside

of the

pack_e

and then

retro rocket through the slotted metal shield. e_losive bolt wiring remain within the package.

Posi_c_le rocket wlrin_ and (See Figure 8-_. )

PAGE
REPORT MODEL

8-4
SEDR 104 133

MCDONNELL
REVISED

1NOV . 1961
1 MAY1962 REVISED

_RE-BET

_J

RETROG, R_b£

I

_J

%E_A.,RA, TION

(:_0 %EC T.O.)

R

C_

P.

AT'T_TUDE

AuTOM _,'T _C

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1A%C5

C,_.LIgR k-TOR

A,TT_TUOE

PP,-T..-%[T

[

_,_,A/N

'----'_ RETg-.O \NTF_RLOCKI

L_ I PERMI%%\O_

--

J

ROCKET 5

_'_

F t_F... N_'% REL

RO%Z_T MONITOR REL_,y

_ _

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WA_,_ANC_ L/_aT _-ELA.'Y

=

P.E=RO cotGN_,L LATCV_ REEKY

[_D _) RE'TKO ROCKET

I)W_ REMOVEOA_"TE9.%0, %_-c. ArIEg. __ _EC.-f.O E.NERGIZEO O_-ACTUATIN_ BY NO,3 RETRO ROCKET PRESSURE %WITCH VELOCITY SENSOR INI CAPSULE 18

IA%C%

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I_N_,_NINC_ L_G_T J _ J C_ %EC _T.OJ J __ 1 RE L_.'Y I

3ETT 1%0/-_ RETRO D _5¢.0NI'_.OT BOLT I

FIGURE 8-P_RETROqRADE ROCKET AOTOMATIC FIRINQ %VbTE_

P_s-_

D TE
REVISED REVISED

MCDONNELLH,
ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI_

P, E
REPORT MODEL. SEDR 133 104

SELECTIOM

,ll

_

JE I

_.NU_ 12ECOVEQ.Y _. H.

L FAILU_.F.. OF" _T_-_.LITE CLOC.,XT_ l:;Ok_CTIOk.I

C.LOC.Y.. _.U t'J.;OUT. ....... ._jr _.ETQOIM 0. _.ELAYSEQ' T _&LI_Y _T_ 2E'rl_o P-OCKF-T FIEF. _EO, _2EL _' I_I.Ay{'_I_SEC,T,n_

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,, _"'__ /J // #,_" I T_ _ _ I Dowc_p. • _ _T I I :

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•\

_

_L_V

I

#

_

J

_F.Lk'4(20 SECT._.)

--

--

CAPSULE

IS IM .CZETIZO

_ .JA_h',_LV A_EF.i_BLY

_

I

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_,
-

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_SOLATa_ i ,,, i
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_ET_0

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,SOLATEO FIGURE 8-3 EETROP.OCKF:'I" OV'EREIDE FIRINGSYSTEM SCHEiV_kTI( _Y

pN_4s.

REPORT 10_. 8EI)R MODEl i_ 8-_. SYSTD4 OPerATION

ST.,LOUIS, MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

The purpose of the retrograde rocket system is to slow the capsule prior to re-entry. which defined sequence attained, attitude the Act,m__flrln6 of the rockets is preceded by capsule as follows: _11 not is positioned to the "retro" attitude. a 30-second period during "Retro" The limits attitude firing have been is _::::_:

34 ° + 12.5 ° Pltch_ beRin_ nomally_ until

0O + 30 ° Bnl _ or Yaw. the "retro" should Should attitude the the

and v_ 11 be temporarily _4m_ts after the sequence

interrupted has begun. overrldden.

capsule need

exceed a_.se,

the ho_=ver,

the above 1_mlts may be _,..11y

Firing of the rockets, which occurs Of the following: (i) Satellite

at flve-second Interv-_, can be initiated by _

clock rtmout; (2) Astronaut selection; (3) Ground c_---d. rockets _II fire.

Any one of the

effect a satisfactory re-entry in the event the other two fail to for retro fire, the entire retro6rade p_cka6e

Sixty seconds after s_-1

::::::

is Jettisoned.

8-5.

ROCKE_,FI_U_
All three rocket fire relays receive _ Y d-c sinmltaneously; however, the

No. 2 an& No. 3 rocket fire relsys have a five- and ten-second time delay_ respectively. Therefore, the following table shows when each rocket receives its fire Note that the asterisk Indl-

signal and the length of burning time thereafter. cares t_me of firing. 1 P/_ e 2 _
4

Left No. Bott,',-,

+ . ._ +

No.

R:i.ght Wo. 3 _

* I 2 3 _ 5 6 ? 8 91o 11 12 13 i_ 15 16 17 181920 SECONDS

+

.:_:/-

The z_ro

rockets a_e fired se_uentlall_ to avoid the ineffective results

DATE

1

November

i_i

.

_.,,h_

_)__

PAGE

8--7

RE'Vm_D. from a failure of either of the first two rockets.

Monm-

133

Consequently_ if No. 1 rocket

failed to a degree which would disrupt the retro attitude position t the ASCS attitude interlock would remove power fl_ also the No. 2 rocket fire relay. the attitude perml ssion relay and

The capsule could then be repositioned auto-

matic-11_ or man_Rlly by the RCS, end upon regs_nl,8 the 3_O position, the No. 2 rocket fire relay would receive power and fire. if the No. 2 rocket were to fail. The ss_e sequence would occur

(See Figure 8-2. )

8-6.

EETRO ROCKET EMERGENCY OVEHRIDg There are four telellghts on _he Astronaut's left console which concern

the retrograde system. light.

The first one is RETRO SEQ. and is a green function

This light will ill,_In-te when the retro sequence is starCed, either The purpose of

by the satellite clock or by the button adjacent to the light. "

the button is to initiate re-entry prior to satellite clock runout or failure

of me.

8-3.)

The next two telelights in the retrograde sequence are REPRO ATT. and FIRE HE_O. For a normal flight, the RETRO ATTITUI_ s_itch adJacen_ to the The EE_O ATT. light w_]] illm-_nate ApproxiIf

RETRO ATT. light should always be in AUTO.

green as soon as the capsule reaches the 3_° retro attitude position.
m-rely

forty seconds later the FIRE RE"_O telelight should illuminate green.

the RETRO ATT. telellght _l,--_nates red, the Astronaut must check the capsule attitude in order to determlne if the capsule is in correct retro fire position. If the capsule is found to be in the correct attitude, then the Astronaut should ::::,, position the RETRO ATT. switch in the BY PASS position, _ RETRO button. Ten seconds later the F]I_EEE_O also push the FIRE

light should illuminate green. correct

However, if the Astronaut determined that the capsule was not in the r_ "

position, the fly-by-wlre system should be employed in order to correctly position the capsule in the 3_° attitude. (See Section IV.) When this is acccm-

PAGE

8-8

_

%_

DATE

1

N(_V_er

l_l

REPORT _ MODEL-J33plished the

10_

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI .

REVISED REVISED green.

_0

ATT. ATT.

telelight

should

lll_=!,_te

If the RE_O illuminates leaving

telellght £11_.,_nates green, but the FIRE RETRO telelight
to the FIRE RETRO telellght should be pushe(

red, the bu_cton adjacent ATE. switch

.....

the RETRO

i_ the AUTO position. RE_O. This telelight _0 w_ll ill_mln-te In the to

The fourth green event supply c---_t 60 seconds light

telelight after the

is the JET_. illumination

of the FIRE

teleli6ht. should be

this

illuminates source

red, the adjacent of power

button

selected

an alternate be Jettisoned dur_n_ bolt

to the Jettison or ove_ide

bolt.

If the retro package it will be ejected w_]] detonate the

by the a_tcmatic when

method_

sometime explosive

re-entry or burn

the extreme

heat encountered to Allow

the retention

straps

the coil

spring

to eject

the pac_-_e.

8-7. _o
The means ture

ROCKET_J_ERS
retrograde rockets only. are equipped A resistor with b1-_k_t type thermostat moisture type heaters operated heater by

of ground between

power

maintains

temperaon the

75 ° +_ 5°F and nozzle

95 ° +. 5OF preventing

from collecting

retro-rocket

closures.

8-8. RETROGR_n_ ROCKET
The variation mately have retrograde of the _el rocket, manufactured
s

by

Thiokol

Chemical are:

Corporation, weight

is a

TE-236.

Leading

par_ic_1,rs

Total

approxi-

69.55 pounds, length 15._ inches, diameter
impulse of approx_--_tely each for 13.2 to the 13,000 pound

12 inches.. seconds, time.

These

rockets an average _

a total of

providing

thrust of the

992 pounds

seconds

action

Due to the importance rocket provided fiz__ng from syste_ separate and are _

retrograde employed. sources.

system Dual

overall

mission,

a redundant has been case

has been electrical

ignition

to all igniters to motor

Heaters

are bonded

and nozzle

closure

MAC 231C_.

(;t7

APR

Sg)

_,,,, iNo=,),_,-,961
REVISED 1 February_ 1962 REVISED 1 May 1962

Me, DONNE ._r_._w_._ _LL.J _P.
5-r.Loum,Mmsou,_

,,o,

8=9

REPORTSEDR 1O_ MODE_ 133

thermostatically controlled.
"::':::L.

...........

8-9.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES

8-10. TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 16 Same as the Specification Capsule. 8-11, TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 18 Capsule 18 is basically the same as the specification capsule, except the Velocity Sensor energizes the Retro Rockets Fired Relay illuminating the F_re Retro Telellght.

REPORT MODEL

$EDR104 133

ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE B-.4 RE'FRO

PACKA_,F_

EIFCTRICAL

INS,TALLATION

p_,_s--/_

i " 9-1

_ _"

SECTION

IX

_:i _ • • __i

SEQUENCE SYSTEM LANDING THROUGH RECOVERY

...... .,_-._._ i
I

.-_. ..... _ .............

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

iiill ii_:1 ;iliit _:::::::i
.::...._

_i i/_

_,_ : _',_
::_.'"

_:_:_:_ ............... -,--,,,_,--

AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION 9-3 T'TLE PAGE .. AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE OPERATION .... 9-3 EMERGENCY SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION... 9-6 EMERGENCY SEQUENCE OPERATION ... 9-6 SYSTEM COMPONENTS ......................... 9-11 TESTCONFIGURATION CAPSULES........ 9-25

! i_
_

.. '!

_-'_ _ _ "_ ._L_-__ ;_'7__i,'-.._,i

REVmED 1 February
REVISED.,,

1962

,T. Lou,,,,. ,,,,o,,,
"r#-

REPORT SEDR 10_
MODEL "1-33

IX.

SEQUenCE SYSTEM LANDING THROUGH RECOVERY

':::_._.::;:

9-1.

AUTOMATIC SEQUenCE DESCRIPTION The landing and recovery sequence system provides automatic electrical

sequencing to land the capsule safely after an abort or after re-entry, and to initiate locating aids for assistance in the subsequent recovery. The primary

(completely automatic) system incorporates a drogue parachute, used inlt_ally to decelerate and stabilize the capsule in the initial phase of recovery an_ a main parachute which ftu_therdecelerates the capsule. Capsule landing is

accomplished by a 63 foot diameter parachute which is deployed at I0,000 feet. In the event of a main chute failure, a 63 foot diameter reserve chute may be deployed by the Astronaut's manuo! selection. Both main and reserve chutes Automatical ly, the reefing

are reefed to limit shock loads at initial opening.

line is severed after a predetermined time delay and the chute will open 15,11y, lowering the capsule at the prescribed landing speed. After main chute deploy-

ment, the landing impact bag is extended, providing a cushioning effect for the landing impact. Immediately after impact, the main chute is automatically disThe Astronaut _iI_ then egress

connected and the reserve chute ejected. normal ]y.

9-2.

AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE OPERATION On tower separation, power is removed from the Tower Separation Relays

allowing the Main Chute System Arm 2 Second Time Delay relays to be energized _,:,, (See Figure 9-I). _er the 2 second time delay has run out power flows through the Main Chute Delay 2 Second Time Delay relays

the closed contacts energizing

which in turn after a 2 second delay arms the lO,OOO ft. Baroswitch.

The 21,000

ft. Baroswitch is armed through the closed contacts of the Main Chute System Arm

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL 133

JR!_,

REVISED1 May 1962 REVISED

2 Second Time Delay relays. switch is actuated,

Upon descent to 21,0OO ft. the 21,000 ft. Barothe Drogue Deploy relay, firing the Drogue Chute

energizing

Mortar, deploying the Drogue Parachute. celerates the capsule. At approximately

The Drogue Chute stabilizes and deI0,000 ft. the I0,000 ft. Baroswitch in the removal of ground circuits and Also, the Main Deploy

actuates the Main Deploy relay resulting

firing of all four squibs of the Antenna Fairing Ejector. Warning Light 2 Second

Time Delay relay is actuated, and at the end of 2 seconds Telelight is illuminated. through Fairing The Antenna Fairing Sepof the Switches.

delay the Red Main Deploy

aration Sensor Arm relays are energizing Main Deploy relays arming the two Antenna

the closed contacts Separation Sensor

The firing of the four Antenna Fairing Ejector Squibs causes the Antenna Fairing to separate from the capsule. Fairing to the Main Chute, extracts The Main chute opens initially A lanyard, connected from the Antenna

... ....

the Main Chute from the chute compartment. to limit shock loads.

in the reefed condition

Four seconds after the chute is deployed the reefing pyrotechnic fi,11 y. charge in the reefing line cutters

line is severed by a the parachute to open

allowing

The separation of the fairing from the capsule allows the Antenna Fairing
i

Separator

Sensor Switches

to function.

Through the switches, power is routed k_en

to energize the main Ejector

Relay firing the Main Ejector Bag Squibs.

the squibs fire, they generate a gas, filling the Main Chute compartment

the Ejector Bag at the bottom of At the same time

aiding the ejection of the chute.

the Antenna Fairing Separation Signal relay is energized, illuminating the C_een Main Deploy Telelight and removing power from the Red Telelight. Power is also

.;;;_ ...

9=5
REVISEDI February, 1962 RSVlSEDi May 1962 directed Inertia through Switch the Antenna Fairing Separation relays. Sensors After sv.Loum._M,sso, m REpoRT.SEDR MOO_t 133 the Main time delay Bag 104

to energize the 12 second

Arm 12 Second contacts

Time Delay

th_ energized Extend

allow power

to be supplie d to energize Time Delay and Inertia is supplied

the Landing as well With

and Landing

Bag Warning

Light 2 Second Switch power

relays

as power the

to the Landing Landing

Bag Unlock

Signal Limit

Switch. to close

Bag Switch

in the AUTO position, relay

the contacts releasing time'delay Bag

of the Landing the heat runs shield

Bag Extend

and fire the Landing landing bag.

Bag Valve

squibs

and extending

the impact Light

As the 2 second

out the Landing

Bag Warning

relay

illuminates

the Red Landing Signal

telelight. switch

Upon heat shield

separation

the Landing contacts

Bag Unlock power

Limit to energize

is actuated

and through Signal

its closed relay

is directed

the Landing

Bag Extend

illuminating

the Green Landing

Bag Telelight

and extinguishing the Red light. -Inertia contacts System Switch

The force of impact on landing operates the the Impact is supplied contacts relay. Through the closed Landing Relay, Aids

and in turn energized relay, power the activated

of the Impact Through

to energize

the Post

Relay.

of the Post Landing Relay

System

power is transmitted Switch. powered tion. Through Flashing When

to energize

the Impact

Signal,

and to the Rescue System relay

the closed Recovery

contacts

of the Post Landing is completed

the selfin operaand is the

Light

circuit

setting

the light

the Impact

Signal relay

is energized

the Green Main Deploy Aids

!rending Bag Telelights illuminated. Rescue :" .... Aids

are extinguished Aids

and the Red Rescue

Telelight

Wquen the Rescue switch, the

switch is placed System Power

in the "MAN" position

Post Landing Time Delay

Drop

Hold and the Capsule At the end of the I allowing the Main

Stabilization

I Second

relays

are energized. relay

Second time delay Disconnect z contacts releasing

the Capsule

Stabilization relays

is activated

and Reserve

Disconnect

to be energized.

Through

the energized are fired, fire

o_ Main the main

Disconnect chute

relay,

the Main Chute

Disconnect

squibs

from the capsule.

The Reserve

Disconnect

Relays

REPORT SEDR 10_t MOD_ 133

9-6

Mc'DONNE
sir. LouIs, MISSOURI

D ,E eer19621961 1. REVISED1 May
REVISED

the Reserve Chute Disconnect Squibs releasing the Reserve Chute and energizes the Reserve Deploy relay. The Reserve Deploy relay fires the Reserve Chute Deploy

Gun Squibs deploying the Pilot Chute and the Reserve Chute Ejector Bag squibs. The Reserve Chute Ejector Bag Squibs activates the gas generator which has a one second delay in ignition time before inflating the ejector bag expelling the Reserve Chute and the dye marker. The energized Rescue Aids Switch Signal relay and illuminates the Green light.

removes power from the Red Rescue Aids Telelight The Post-Landing

System Power Drop Hold relay energizes the Post-Landing System At the end of the 30 second time delay

Power Drop 30 Second Time Delay relay.

the Whip Antenna Extend relay is energized firing the Whip Antenna Extend Squibs activating the gas cartridge extending the active element of antenna to its full length. When the Post Landing System Relay is energized on impact, power is reAfter a 30 second delay the

moved from a number of components in the circuit.

Post Landing System Power Drop relay is energized removing power from the remainder of the components, except the Whip Antenna Extend relay and the Rescue Aids• Switch Signal relay which leaves the Green Rescue Aids Telelight illuminated.

9-3. EMERGENCYSEQUENCEDESCRIPTION The Emergency manually provisions of the landing initiated
J

system basically by the Astronaut.

consists

of

•operated back-up

systems

The appropriate The Main and

button, pull-ring, emergency Reserve system

and switches controls

are located on the Left Hand Console. deployment of the Drogue, aids.

manually initiate

Chutes,

extend the LAnding Bag,

and initiate rescue

zz:L•::

9-4.

EMERGENCY

SEQUENCE OPERATION

(See Figure 9-3)

On descending

to 21,000 ft. and Drogue Chute failure is detected by lack ....

of opening shock and by visual check through the window, depress the Drogue

REVISED REVISED

I MAY

1962

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

i

..... ,

\

_/

\

:

/

/
, WNIP PILOT -CHUTE LAMYA R D ANTENNA

/

,,

_:_ESE.N'VE

CHUT_

F_ISER

FIGUI2E 9-2

MAIN AND 12ESE]2VEPAI_ACNUTE

SYSTEM(SPiEETIOFZ)

_,s-_s-,

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.LQUIS

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

1 MAY

1962

.::::::-

\.

FIGUI_E 9-2 MAIN AND I2ESEi_VE PA!_ACHUTE SYSTEM SMEET"Z OF2)

p_45-_,_,

&r

REVISED i May 1962 REVISED

sT.Lou,s. M,UOUm

REPORT SEDR MODEL 133

104

-'-" ;;;iiiiii:::

button. energized Chute.

Depressing

the button

allows

the Emergency

Drogue

Deploy

relay

to be

and the Drogue

Chute Mortar

squibs to be fired fails

deploying

the Drogue of the check has Main

If the Green Main Deploy deployment

telelight

to illuminate,

failure

Main Chute

may be detected by

a lack of opening

shock,

a visual

and no decrease not deployed, Deploy Fairing relay,

in rate of descent. the MainDeploy

Upon determining

that the Main Chute the Emergency

operating firing

Pull Ring energized Ejector Squibs,

due Antenna

Fairing

ejecting automatic

the Antenna sequence. When

and deploying Deploy

the Main Chute telelight

through

the normal

the Green Main

is illuminated

and the rate of descent

is above

32 feet per second, or did not deploy, Reserve ......... Deploy

check the chute visually actuate the Reserve Deploy

for damage. Pull Ring contacts,

If the chute is damaged which energizes is applied from the deploying generating dUe to the capsule. the a gas

relay.

Through firing

the energized

power

Main_3hute

Disconnect

the squibs Chute

disconnecting Gun Squibs Bag squibs bag which

the chute are fired are fired

At the same time, Pilot after reserve Chute,

the Reserve

Deploy

and the Reserve delay

Chute Ejector

a I second Chute. Twelve

inflating

the ejector

aids in deploying

the

seconds

after

the Main

Chute

is deployed

the Green

Landing

Bag tele-

light

should

be illuminated.

If the light energizing

does not come on, place the Emergency Squibs, Landing

due Landing Bag Extend shield Aids

Bag switch relay,

in the "MAN"

position,

firing

the Emergency

Landing

Bag Valve

releasing impact

the heat

and extending Switch ..... i _ii_ Rescue Chute By-Pass

the ira@act landing relay is energized.

bag.

Ten minutes activated,

after

the Rescue the

When

the relay power

by-passes

Aids switch Disconnect

and energizes as well

the relays as the

that supply

to fire the Main Disconnect, Deploy

squibs

squibs

for the Reserve,

Gun, and the Ejector ' placed in the "MA_'

Bag in the same manner position.

as would

be done if the switch was

.Avz

iNov_mber

i_i

___

PAGm

9-II

.,_2szo .,_Iseo 9-5. 9-6.
..... type

--'TsT.Louls3. "_ ---O" M,_ou.,

._o.v MOO=

_n. I_ 1_I

_/'b'_

co_:oh_i's

zsC,_E P_c_'_
The drogue drogue chaff parachute with assembly integral (See Figure drogue cover. 9-5) consists of a conical drogue ribbon-

canopy

riser, mortar

deployment _"ne drogue

ba6_

mortar, _s a

sabot, conical ribbons

packet,

and drogue

parachute

canopy

ribbon

parachute having 8 gores of 2-inch wide, 460-ib. tensile
suspension lines of l,OOO-ib, feet tensile

stren@_ch each.

and 8 tub1_]_arnylon is constructed to an effective total porosity

strength

The parachute (restricted) constructed is 36.S%. tensile .......... • chute riser

to a diameter dis_eter is 27.9%

of 6.85

and permanently of pocket

ree_ed The

of 6.0 feet by means

bands.

and the effective riser is made from

porosity three

(through layers

reefing)

The 30-ft.

long integral

of 3,000-1b. parawithout dedurlng

strength stabilizes

low-elongation and decelerates

hot-stretched the capsule. Dacron

Dacron

webbing.

The drogue 2.9 ibs. parachute parachute

The canopy riser.

weighs

,,d 5.9 ibs. including bag and serves a dual

the 30-ft. function means of

The drogue the drogue

ployment ejection The bng covered weighted the bag

(I) protecting

(2) providing

for orderly sateen

deplo}_nent of the drogue reinforced of glass which with nylon

parachute. webb_n_ is and

is manufactured at the upper at the upper

of cotton

fabric

end with end with at the tapes riser

a heat

insulator

cloth. assists

The bag

a 0,5 lb. lead disc completion to which

in stripping Inside in with

from the canopy

of llne and

riser

stretchout. during packing

of the bag are _ cotton order to provide cotton orderly cord.

the riser

is secured

deployment.

The mouth

of the bag

is clos@d

a light

9-7. _ROGUECHUTE_RTAR AND SABOT
T_ drogue parachute with ejection _x_car is a device to overcome for positively local deplo_ gradients bag

the drogue

parachute

sufficient The drogue

energy

pressure

and gravitational

forces,

parachute

is packed

in a protective

PAOE
REPORT MODEL.

'-'2
SEDR 133 104 1, 2. _. 4. S, 6. 7. 8. 9, t0.

Mc'DONNELL
MISSOUF " ANTENNA FAIRING EJECTOR _UN PlLOTCHUTE OEPLOYMP_,.I,.I'rrddN PlkO-r CHUTE O_'LETEb SEA MARKER SHAI_K REPELLANT RFSERVE = CHUTE ANO _AC_ EJECTION BAG%(2) , GAB 6_MED, ATOR_ (2) INERTIA _WITCH

DATE 'NOVemBER,96,
REVISED REVISED 1 FEBRUARY 1 MAY 1962 1962 --

II. 0ELETED 12. ¢JJIRVIVAL, KIT (_, MAIN C.J-IUT,_ AND _,AG _ 14. BAPOSVVITCI-.tE._ ('_') 15. ANTENNA LANYARD 1(5. CHAFF PACKET fT. RECOVERY LAGHT 18. WJ4Ip ANTENt_& |9. PA_:>J_CHUTE DISCONNEC'T_ 20. DROGUE MORTAR '

{, _ )

"\

FIGURE 9-4.

LANDING AND RECOVERY

%Y_TEM

INSTALLATION
PM45-74C

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL•

SEDR 104 133

FIGURE 9-5

DROGUE

PARACHUTE

REPORT_ MODEL 133 stowed The sabot below _nitiaily by _n the functions mortar

ST. LOUIS _" tube on top to of

I$$OURI

REVISED REVISED sabot (See Figure 9-6). from is

a l_htwelght the parachute charge.

as a piston from

eject

pack 3 when pressured The pz_eLlant to produce charge

Ease s generated fired _nto

a p3_otec_nic c_mnber of

a breach

=_=i i volume,

blgh pressure

which is subsequently vented through a .m.11 orifice and into the =A_n chamber at relatively lower pressures. =tn4mmn, since the pressure In this m-_ner, reaction loads are kept to a is hot expended instantaneously. The pressure

energy

sesl4-g quality of the sabot is derived from an "0" ring, installed in a groove near the base. Two _m,11 holes are located in the "0" r_ng groove to vent air For proper

trapped in the mortar tube underneath the sabot on installation.

operation, the "0" rlug and the _nner wall of the mortar tube, which is always in cuntact wlth the "0" r_ng, are lubricated before installation. The drogue
• L/

parachute pace is retR_ned in its stowed position within the mortar tube by a thin metal (Rene "41) cover which is attached to the upper surface of the Three cut-out sections, provided in the sides of the cover, The cover

antenna housing.

permit rout_-g of the steel cable risers into the drogue chute can. is designed to constr-_ tions and also the time to require

the chute in its compartment against negative deceleramintmA_ Pressure forces to break loose fr_n the its attachments cover to deflect at

of deployment.

o_ _he chute

pack

causes

such that attae_-._nt tabs i_.]Iout from under attaching screw heads through a slotted hole designed for this purpose. The energy required to expel the drogue pressure _ases, generated by

chute from its compartment is provided from h_h ignition of a pyrotec1_ulc ch-_Ee. powder, _tion contained in a propellant

The cartridge is loaded with 66 gralnsof can attached to a steel body which houses the

wiring, and terminates in an electrical co_nector.

The ignition cir_-

cuitry consists of two separate and individ_-1 bridges, either of which is capable of i_t_ng the _xr_lercharge upon application of the proper current.

DATE REVISED REVISED

I NOVEMBER 1961 I MAY 1962

MC/

DONNELL _
ST.LOUIS.

___O'_Jy_J_'_

PAGE REPORT MODEL

9-15 SEDR104 133

MISSOURI

..,:::.,.,

I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

"O" RING SABOT INSULATION COVER CARTRIDGE

6. CHAMBER

FIGURE9- 6 DROGUE CHUTE MORTAR ASSEMBLY

Mc, DONNE_ z
REPORT SEDR 104 MODFI 133 9-8. MAIN PARACHUTE The main parachute assembly consists of: deplo_i,_entbag, and parachute foot nominal diameter ringsail disconnect. tvpe. St. LOUIS, MISSOURI

X oe er196X
REVISED1 May 1962 REVISED

...... Main parachute canopy, riser, conopy is a 63 is a slotted canopy is fabricated from

The main parachute parachute

The ringsail

similar in design to the ringslot parachute.

The parachute

2.25- and l.l-ounce per square yard nylon parachute 48 suspension lines of 550-pound bag which tensile strength.

cloth into 48 gores with The main parachute is packed

in a deplQyment

provides a low snatch force and orderly deployment from cotton sateen fabric, reinforced and glass cloth

(See Figure 9-7). with nylon webbing insulation.

The bag is manufactured

and covered at the upper end with Thermoflex

Inside the bag, midway

along its length, is a pair of transverse

locking flaps. entanglement deployment. 9-9. PARACHUTE

Their function is to separate the canopy fabric from possible the lines and to cause full time stretch-out before canopy

with

DISCONNECT are attached to the capsule by a device and to disconnect the

Both main and reserve parachutes designed parachute to sustain the parachute

loads during descent

on ground impact (See Figure 9-8).

The disconnect

function is neces-

sary to prevent capsule upset or damag6 by dragging in surface winds after touchdown. The assembly consists of _ separate details installed in a mounting

structure which is an integral part of the capsule. looped around the arm which piston. it. transmits

The parachute riser is through the

the load _to the structure

The shear pin restrains

the piston from any motion impulse from

tending to displace

On ground impact, and electrical causing it to fire.

the inertia switch reaches the thus generated, forces _

squib cartridge

The gas pressure,

the piston forward into the arm recess, cutting the shear pin in the process. _] displacement of the piston removes parachute load transmission to structure,

@w

REVlS_DI May 1962 REVtSeO. ._._._:,,,

=v._,m.,,,mou_

l_S'Ol_'l', 104 SEDR MODEt 133 The loop of the parachute riser The lead buffer

allowing the arm to rotate around the pivot pin.

slips off the _rm and the disconnect function is complete.

serves to absorb energy of morons piston and prevents rebound of the piston back into the locked position.

9-1o.

PA CHUTE
assembly consists of: The pilot chute deployment gun

The reserve parachute

and lartyard,pilot parachute, reserve parachute canopy, reserve parachute deployment bagj and reserve parachute disconnect. The reserve parachute deployment

bag is similar to the main parachute deployment bag with the addition of flaps at the upper end of the bag to contain the packed pilot chute. parachute disconnect is identical to that used todisconnect The reserve parachute 9-11. PILOT PARACHUTE The pilot parachute is a flat, circular type, 72 inches in diameter with a 30 ft. bridle. It is manufactured of 3.5-ounce per square yard fabric in the canopy is identical The reserve

the main parachute. canopy.

to the main parachute

canopy and 2.25-ounce fabric in the vanes.

9-12.

PILOT CHUTE DEPLOYMENT

GUN gun (See Figure 9-9) initiates the first step ' Either gas pressure or an

The pilot chute deployment

in the sequence of reserve parachute deployment. electrical

impulse will cause the gun to fire, thus expelling a 12-onnce prothe reserve parachute pilot chute. The pilot chute

Jectile to which is attached .......... _,

inflates and in turn pulls out the reserve landing chute, completing the sequence. Whether fired electrically or pneumatically, a one-second time delay is provided This delay

between receipt of the impulse and detonation <....

of the main charge.

permits the main parachute (if deployed and damaged) to separate from the capsule, to avoid entanglement with the reserve parachut e to be deployed. The gun

REPORT MODEL.

SEDR104 133

_ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE 9-'7 MAIN PARACHUTE AND PACKING BOX

-_

Ii S=TU_, S_PIN 5 j
41

• SHORTING iRE W SQUIB CARTRIDGE BusHING

6. PISTON 7. LEAD BUFFER 8. ARM

FIGURE 9-8

MAIN AND RESERVECHUTE DISCONNECT

REVlSE_ May _ 3. REV,SED-.-_,,

ST.LOU,S. M,_Um

REPORTS]_R 104 MODEL 133

is basically a tubular body which contains the main firing cartridge and the projectile assembly. The projectile assembly is held in place by a pin which The main cartridge, which generates (I) Gas presis

is sheared when the projectile

is expelled.

the gas pressure to eject the projectile, is fired as follows: sure, through the gas firing mechanism

(supplied when RESERVE-PULL-RING

operated), drives a firing pin into the primer cap at the base of the main cartridge, the charge. tion. (2) initiating A min4._ a time delay train, causing a subsequent detonation of
o

of 750 psi gas pressure is req,14_ed for pneumatic

opera-

An electric impulse is received at the time delay igniter installed After a one-second delay, the igniter fires through it instantaneously. Firing charac-

through the side of the gun.

the wall of the main cartridge and detonates

teristics of the igniter cartridge are as follows: per bridge, All Fail Current of two individual 0.5 amps per bridge.

All Fire Current 2.5 amps The ignition circuit Muzzle consists

bridges terminating

in a 4-Pin receptacle.

velocity

of the projectile is 250-300 ft/sec.

9-13.

PARACHUTE

EJECTOR

BAGS air cells made of lightweight rubberized

The ejector bags

are inflatable

nylon fabric (See Figure 9-10). II inches in di_eter

The design inflated shape is that of a cylinder, The upper end of

and approximately 35 inches in height.

the bag if slanted at _11

inflation to promote Jettison of the parachute pack

overboard on landing impact.

9-14. ::=: .....

PARACHUTE

EJECTOR

GAS GENERATOR of gas to inflate The reserve

This is a device to provide a rapid and sufficient vol_e the main and reserve parachute ejector bags (See Figure 9-11).

parachute gas generator is similar to that used for the main parachute except
/

the additional feature of one second delay in ignition time.

The generator

functions to produce gas by the relatively slow burning of a solid powder

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST.L

RI

_t

REVISED REVISED

BODY 3. PROJECTILE

5. 6.

ELECTRIC CARTRIDGE MAIN TRIDGE .....

FIGURE 9-9

PILOT CHUTE DEPLOYMENT

GuN

"_--..

FIGURE 9- 10 PARACHUTE

EJECTOR BAG

Mc,
REVISED Ha?" 1962 1 REV)SED propellant the ejector also in the ma_n chamber. a 3/8 in.

./o
sv. Loum.,_,_oum

,Ac,
REPORT. SEDR 104 MODe! 133

The gas is directed diameter s_4nlees temperatures

from steel

the

main chamber into The tube tolerable with values lugs

bags through as a heat

tube.

serves prior

exchanger ejector

to reduce bag°

to within body is

to entry

_nto the

The generator

equipped

for mounting to the parachute container with four bolts. acteristics are as follows: 9-15.D_EMARKER PACKET

Tgnition circuit char-

All Fire Current 2.5 amps, All Fail Current 0.5 amps.

The dye marker packet is a post landing recovery aid which performs its function by dissolving in water, thus producing a highly visible yellow green patch. Approximately I pound of fluorescein dye is packed into a soluble plastic The entire packet The

bag, which in turn is packed into an outer aluwLtur,_ container. ...... _-

assembly is ejected overboard, at the time of reserve chute ejection.

fluorescein dye forms a spot on the ocean surface which is visible from an airplane IOjO00 feet high at a distance of I0 miles on a clear day. CAUTION The dye _-rker package should be stored in a dry place and not be exposed to water in any way.

9-16.

RECOVERY

LIGHT

To aid in the visual location of the capsule after landing, a flash_-= light is installed in the recovery compartment. ..... ..... The intensity of the light is

such that it will be visible in normal darkness for 40 nautical miles and up to an altitude of 12,000 feet. m4_teo The flashing rate is approximately 15 flashes per

Powered by self contained, dry cell batteries, the light's circuit will

be closed through an en-rgized contact of the Post Landing System Relay which
\

is activated by the closing of the Inertia switch on impact and energizing the

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEl, 1_ Impact relay. _

ST. LOUIS, MI$$OUk, _ - ' ,, ,t_ -j-

REVISEDI February REVISED1 I-_1962

1962

The light will operate for approximately 28 hours.

"

9-17.

WHIP

ANTENNA

To provide operation of the HF voice receiver-transmitter and HF recovery beacon, a Whip Antenna is used. The active element is stowed in a collapsed

condition in the recovery compartment and when extended is approximately 16 feet long. The antenna is extended by a gas cartridge which is activated when

the Post-Landing System Power Drop 30 Second Time Delay relay energized the Whip Antenna Extend relay. When it is extending a galling action takes place

between the segments of the active element holding it rigid in the extended position.

9-18.

BAROSWITCHES There are two pair of Baroswitches used in the recovery system (See Figure

....

9-12).

In these switches an over-center

spring is included in the design to

minimlze chatter during vibration and shock and to prevent contact oscillation. One pair of switches is set to close at 21,OOO feet and the other is set to close at 10,600 + 750 feet. ment. The switches are located in the recovery compart-

9-19.

SWITCH

The inertia Switch is essentially a spring device actuated by mass (See Figure 9-13). A landing shock of 7.5 plus or minus 1.13g's minimum will produce

momentary closing of two electrical contacts, thus completing an electrical circuit. This switch is used in conjunction with a latching relay which receives

.....

an electrical pulse and, by latching into a latched position, provides continuous electrical continuity. The inertia switches used consist of four separate snapcase.

action switches and two separate masses, all housed in a com_n

DATE REVISED REVISED

1 NOVEMBER 1961 1 MAY 1962

MCDONNELL_, _ __
r

PAGE REPORT MODEL•

9-23 SEDR104 133

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

....

i

1, 2.

ELECTR{CAL CONNECTOR MAIN CHAMBER

4. 5,

TUBE FITTING ATTACHMENT LUGS

i

3. PROTECTIVE CAp

6. SHORTING PLUG

!

FIGURE9-11

MAIN AND RESERVECHUTE GAS GENERATOR

. ::::.

_A_
REPORT MODEL

9-"
SEDR 104 't33

M_'DONNELL_____._
ST.LOUIS, MISSOURI

DA_E1NO_E_.R196,
REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

r

"

FIGURE 9-12 BAROSWITCH

FIGURE 9-1 3 INERTIA SWITCH

REVISED

I February 1962

sv.Lou,s.-,_m

REPORT. SEDR 104 MODEL 133

REV'SEDXNaYI962

9-20.

TEST CONFIGURATION

CAPSULES

9-21.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES NO. 16 AND 18 Same as Specification Compliance Capsule.

i

DAT_

1 No_e.m_r

l_l

___ _7--_'-ST, _"_- MISSOURI LOUIS 3. _

PAGE REPORT

9-_ _ 10_ ,

REVISED

R_,SK. electrical electrical action pulse cont_ty. switches and, by _l_tch!-_ The inertia _-to a latched

MODEL position,

133 continuous snap-

pro__des

switches mAsses_ all

_sed consist

of four

sel_L-_te case.

and two separate

housed 4n a cc_ax_

9-22. 9-23.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES TEST CORFI_UEATION CAPSULE NO. 8 The normal mission sequence and escape sequence for Capsule No. 8 differs

from the Specification Compliance Capsule as described in the follo_n Z paragraphs. The reserve parachute is replaced with a flotation pack. This flotation

pack will be attached to the main parachute in such a manner as to act as a buoy after main chute dlscc_nect to _-ble recovery of the main parachute. which rema_s Three dye

marEer packets are installed in the antenna fair_, " the m-ln chute.

attached to

These markers will assist in locatln6 the floating main chute

and amtenna fairing. 9-24O_eration The capsule's lan_ tower separation. system is armed by 28 volt d-c power at t!_ of escape

Both isolated and main battery power circuits are applied

through the de-energlzed _mpact relay No. 1 located in the No. 1 recovery relay box, through the de-energlzed No. 2 and No. 3 orbit attitude relays and the deenergized No. 2 and No. 3 tower separation sensor relays located in the No. 3 launch ,-_ orbit relay box_ to the two 3 second time delay relays located in sequence are ..... controllers, units A and B. two separate After the 3 second to the t_ -_ four delay both relays The

energized

and complete

circuits

baroswitches.

Baros_itch contacts will be open due to altitude being in excess of 21,000 _., and therefore Upon re-entry switches are the frum actuated power orbit, circuit at will an altitude drogue stop at the of 21,000 is open contacts feet deployed the of the two 21,000 -_ a chaff switches. ft. baro-

and the

parachute

package

REPORT MODEl-

$EDR 104 ,133

_...L._IIS,

MISSOURI¢ " " _

REVISED REVISED

FIGURE 9-15

BAROSWITCH

FIGURE 9-16_ INERTIA SWITCH

_EVISED

ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

_

lO_

is ejected.

The drogue chute stabilizes and decelerates the capsule; the e_ef As capsule descent passes through the

pac_ase disperses finely cut metal foil.

I0,000 ft. level, the two remaining baroswltches will close caus_-_ d,,alcircuits through the _mA11 pressure b,,Ik_ead disconnects to the system A and B sequence controllers. These two circuits energize a main squib short (auto) relay within

each controller unit, result!-_ in the removal of ground circuits for all four squibs of the antenna falr_n_ ejector. At the same t!-_, and by the same power

that energized the relays, power is applied to the pre-_-_unded circuits of the four antenna fairing squibs through the de-energized main over-ride relay. the circuits are completed to the four squibs, two other branch circuits are applied to the two antenna fairing separation sensor l_m_t switches. The fir_-_ A As

of the four squibs causes the antenna housing to separate from the capsule. .. lanyard, connected frc_ the antenna house_rig the main chute, extracts the to

main chute from the main chute compartment.

The separation of the housing from

the capsule -flOWS two antenna fairing separation sensor l_m_t switches to spring to their actuated position. Through these two double _le, actuated limit

switches, three signals are returned, two entering the system A and B sequence controllers where they start two 12 second t_me delay relays, and the third signal enter_n_ the No. i recovery relay box where it energizes the four antenna fairing separation relays. tion relay, Through the energized No. 3 antenna falr_-_ separa-

in the No. i recovery relay box, a 28 V signal is cow,feted to the Power is also applied

Main Deploy telelight, illuminating the light Green.

through the contacts of the No. 3 antenna fairing separation relay to fire the :,:: .... two Main Chute Ejector Bag Squibs. bag to be gas _nflated -_ The firln_ of the squibs allow the eject

therefore, s_--Lltaneousl_ eject the ma_. chute as At the run-out of

the chute is being extrmcted by the antenna fairing lanyard.

the two twelve eecond time delay relays_ the relay coils are energized and arm_-S

REPORT MODEl

9-. o SEDR 104
I_

Mc, Um DONNE
_

REVISED REVISED

the contacts of the inertia switch.

At the time of landing the inertia switch

will sense the impact and complete two 28 V signals to the two inertia switch slave latching relays located in system A and B sequence controllers. These

two relays when energized will in turn energize the two reserve and main'Jettlson relays in their respective sequence controller boxes. The energized reserve

and main Jettison relays will fire the two squlbs of the main chute disconnect thereby releasing the main chute from the capsule. will not be fired at this time. The reserve chute disconnect

The main battery power circuit that energized

the system A reserve and main Jettison relays through the inertia switch slave relay is now continued out of the system A sequence controller to the No. 1 recovery relay box. This is the first time in the overall sequence that a dual This 28 V circuit to the No. 1 recovery

redundant circuit is not provided.

relay box passes through this relay box to the No. 2 recovery relay box where it again passes through the de-energized air shutoff relay and out of the No. 2 recovery relay box after branching into two circuits. One circuit is applied

directly to the Astronaut's rescue aids switch and the other is returned to the No. 1 recovery relay box where it energizes the four impact relays. Through

the energized No. 1 impact relay the self-powered recovery flashing light circuit is closed starting the flash_n_ light t,ooperate. Through this same relay, power

is removed from the two 3 second time delay relays and the Main Deploy telelight
t

will go out.

With the rescue aids switch closed, a 28 V circuit is completed Through

to the No. 1 recovery relay box where it energizes the rescue aid relay. the energized relay the Tor_ and starts timing.

Bag Deflate 5 second time delay relay is energized
:::uz:::

Power circuits to the two squibs of the reserve chute dis-

_

connect, and also to the two squibs of the reserve chute deploy gun and the two squibs of the reserve chute eject bag are completed. Simultaneously, the reserve -

chute is disconnected, the reserve pilot chute is deployed and the eject bag be-

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133

FIGURE 9-17 SEQUENCE CONTROLLER SYSTEM A AND B

REPORT _I_ MODE[ neath Torus 1_3 the

10_ _ reserve chute is

ST. LOUIS p MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

inflated

forcing relay

the

chute

out. Antenna squib.

After

the

_out relay is

of

....

Bag Deflate .I lowing extends

5 Second power to

Time Delay

the Whip antenna

Extend

energized Cartridge 9-25. 9-26.

flow to the whip element

The energized

Gas

the active Sequence

its f,!11 length.

Emer_enc_ Description The landing

and recovery Compliance

man_mlly Capsule

operated

emergency

system

is the s_._

as

the Specification

but Capsule

No. 8 is _mm=nned.

9-27. Com_nents
9-28. Sequence There within Controller l.n_Ing Assembly and recovery system sequence controllers 9-18). located These sequence

are two

the pressurized

section

of the capsule relay systems

(See Figure

controllers sequencing controller deployment

in conjunction and provide assembly

with three capsule

boxes with

accomplish initial

all the

system The sequence

....

other

cc,,_an_s. needed

contains

the relays,

fuses,

and timers

to accomplish

of the chutes

in proper

sequence.

9-29.

TEST

CONFIGURATION the

CAPSULES

NO.

9 AND 13 Compliance Capsule.

Basically

same as Specification

9-30.

TEST

CO_FIGt_ATION

CAPSULES

NO. I0 AND 16 Capsule.

as Specification

Compliance

i

I0-I

,_,
• .\....

SECTION

X

ELECTRICAL POWER AND INTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
.... _._

-

i __ __ __ _=__ ....................... ...............................

TITLE ELECTRICALPOWER SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM OPERATION SYSTEM UNITS .....................

PAGE 10-3 10 5 10-11

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

_i_!i_i_i_'_._i_ii_ii_= i i i i i!i i i i i i i i i i i_ :iiiii_ii!ii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_j_',

TEST CO N FI G U RA TIO N CA PSU LES. 10-12 I N TERIO R LIG HTIN G ............................ SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ..................... TEST CONFIGURATION, 10ml2 10-12

CAPSULES . 10-14

: :-.-. ::: :...: -

......

• i

iii!
::!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_

i.

!ili

I_AaX 1 November 1961
REVISED

M DONN
!
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI _

a¢__.t

PASE
REPORT. ,q]_.T_ 10_

REVISED

MODEL

133

X.

ELECTRICAL POWER AND _IOR

LIGEKING SYSTEMS

....

lO-1. 10-2.

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The capsule power supply consists of three main batteries, two standby

batteries through

and one isolated battery which supply 6, 12, 18 and 24 volts d-c circuitry to the d-c power distribution busses. Distribution Low priority

control

is accomplished

through high priority

and low priority busses.

busses may be switched off to conserve battery power. supplied through a diode panel prior to launch.

External d-c power is

(See Figures 10-1 and 1012.)

The capsule ammeter is used to indicate bus current when capsule power is applied. Capsule bus voltage may be read on the capsule d-c voltmeter when

external power or battery power is supplying the busses. The d-c electrical loads are supplied through fuses, except the "Abort" Control which incorporates a solid conductor in place of a fuse. d-c circuits utilize two fuses in parallel for redundancy, Some of the

with a two position

switch which permits operation in the normal (No. l) position or the emergency (No. 2) position. emergency, In addition, to prevent possible loss of power durln_E= an is installed in place of a fuse in the emergency

a solid conductor

(No. 2) position of the following circuits. (a) Emerg. Capsule Separation Control

(I)) Tower Separation Control (c) ..... (d) (e) (f) _,erg. Maln Chute Deploy Retro. Jett. Control Retro. Man,,-1Control Reserve Chute Deploy Reserve Chute Deploy

(g) _rg.

REVmEO

1

February

1_2

ST. LOUIS

3. MISSOtJRI

REPORT

,Q_.T_

] C_

._v,szo1 _y
The ............ s-c

1962
are not fused

_
because of inherent overload

MOOZL 133
protection in the

loads

inverters. The a-c power inverter a-c. tion is obtained battery by using voltage two main Inverters and one standby phase

to transform

to 115 volt, control

400 cycle,

single

The a-c voltage busses.

is fed through

circuitry

to the a-c distribu-

10-3. 10-4.

SYSTEM

OPERATION
o

D-C POWER The main

CONTROL supply consists of three 3000 watt-hour in parallel to the diode

24 volt d-c power 10-2).

batteries. circuit

(See Figure

Each battery

is connected Individual

by an ON-OFF prevents from

switch on the battery. discharge main through

reverse

current

protection d-c power

a faulty

or low battery.

The 24 volt source

the three

batteries,

or from

the externa]_ power

prior to launch, is connected

is supplied to the main d-c bus.

The main 24 volt d-c bus inverter filter inputs. to

directly

to the 250 and 150 volt-ampere standby batteries are

Two 1500 watt supply c_unications system. and are batteries. Standby-battery various ......... power system The

hour

inst_l!ed

in the capsule

bus voltage batteries

and to act as diode ON-OFF

standby power for the main reverse switches current located protection on the

standby

incorporate

connected

to the

circuit through

taps 3 through Prior

fuses,

supply 6, 12 and 18 volts circuits are energized fuses.

d-c to the by externa_

busses.

to launch

these

through

the umbilical d-c power

disconnect application panel.

and external

power

Stand.

by battery switch

24 volt

is controlled

by the STDBY BATT. in the OFF or

on the main

instrument

This

switch may he placed

ON position. to the capsule

In the OFF position, electrical systems

the m,ln batteries through the main bus.

supply 24 V d-c power In the '"ON" position,

PAGE

lO-,
lob, standby

MCDONNE .r'
.,.T_I_.. LOUIS, MISSOURI MJSSOURIT. Lou_!s, _,: _ 24 V d-c bus is connected power hold to the capsule directly to the main

DATE l ovemberl l.
REVISED REVISED bus and both battery 10-2). after

REPORT SEW MODEL 133 the

groups

supply

systems

in parallel. a HOLD

(See Figure comm_d

An emergency umbilical through essential extend

circuit

is utilized cabin

in event heating

is initiated

.....

separation. the periscope circuits

To reduce

and provide removes

external

observation

the emergency

hold

circuit

power

from the nonand to the as follows: contacts hold open

and also applies

powe r to the cabin switching

vent

squibs

motor

of the periscope. from the booster

Circuit

is accomplished normally

The hold

signal

is applied

through

closed

of the ground relay. contacts emergency Power

test umbilical from the main

relay

to the solenoid applied

of the No. 1 emergency through the normally

d-c bus is them hold relay

of No. 1 emergency hold relays.

to the solenoid relays,

of No. 2 and No. 3 power from some of _

Actuation

of these

removes sensor

the non-essentlal same time, hold relays power

circuits, is applied

and energizes

the impact

relay.

At the

throug h the normally

open contacts vent

of the emergency

to extend

the periscope, Isolated voltages standby current

and fire the cabin is installed emergency

squibs. emergency audio

A 1500 watt-hour bus and squib firing

battery

to provide voltages

and to supply batteries protection

to other circuits battery bus also

in event

the re, in and reverse

are depleted.

.The isolated

incorporates through through battery

and is connected taps supply

to the isolated 6 and 18 volts The 24 volt

an ON-OFF

switch.

Isolated

battery

d-c isolated switch busses. the 24

self-contained output

diodes,

to selected

system busses.

is available

through

the ARM position BUS

of the. squib

arming

and through The volt Isolated output

the EMERG 2_ volt

position d-c output

of the AUDIO may also be through

switch to the associated in parallel position with

conuected the STDBY

of the standby

batteries

of the ISOL-BTRY --

swltch. External d-c power is supplied through the umbilical cable to capsule

i0-7

REVIS_DI Fe_i1962
REVISED I _v ]9_q _

_.Lou,s_t_ou_

RE_RT _
MODEl 133

IO4

_ _ .....

circuitry.

This power is used for pre-launch operations in order to conserve the Normally 24 volts d-c are supplied thrm_h three inputs

capsule battery supl_.

to the external power diode panel, to the main isolated; and standby busses. 6, 12, and 18 volt external power is supplied to three inputs and through three fuses in the capsule to the appropriate bus. Only four external power SUl_plies are used to supply the 6, 12, 18 and 24 volt requirements. selector switch per_t voltages as desired. A d-c voltmeter and

the astronaut to read individual battery and main bus The d-c ammeter is used, with the ==-_ter switch in "the

NORM l_ositionto indicate d-c load current from the batteries in the circuit. A zener diode panel is incorporated connecting zener diodes between ground and each of the M_in and Isolated 24 volt d-c busses which provides protection for the transistorized equil3_entfrom transient spike volta@es (See Figure i0-2). .... 10-5. 10-6. A-C POWER ARD CONTROL M_in Inverter Main 115 volt 400 cycle a-c power is supplied by two inverters, of 150 voltamperes and 250 volt-amperes each. _mely the ASCS bus and FANS bus. The a-c load is d/vided into two groups The 250 VA inverter supplies the ASCS bus and The main d-c bus powers the 150 VA The

the 150 VA inverter supplies the FANS bus.

(fans bus) inverter through a line filter circuit and a 24 eml_re fuse.

250 VA inverter (ASCS bus) is also powered from the main d-c bus through a llne filter and 25 ampere fuse. The d-c power is controlled thro,,_hthe NCR_L posi-

tion of the ASCS, AC BUS, and FANS AC BUS switches on the main instrument panel. The outputs of the FANS and ASCS inverters feed the solenoide of the fans bus _;:.:_,:. relay and the ASCS Bus Relay. through These energized relays feed the inverter output

the closed contacts of the relays to power the fans and ASCS busses.

Fie
10-7.

Io-3.)

Standby Inverter Standby IISV 400 cycle a-c power is supplied by one 250 volt aml_re standby

FIGURE10-3 A-C POWER CONTROL SCHEMATIC

PM_S-z_

REVISED I May 1962 REVISED inverter. and Fans . The standby A-c busses _

s'r.--OUlS._,$SOUR,

REPORT. SEDR" 104 MODE[ 133 or both, ASCS

inverter will

supply

a-c power position

to either,

by selecting

the STANDBY

on the respective panel. inverters

ASCS

................ AC BUS or FANS AC BUS switch In event respective will of failure

located

on the main

instrument

of either

the 250 VA or 150 VA Main will

the

Fan Bus relay

or ASCS Bus relay the standby

be de-energized. relay which

This action apply

automatically from

energize

inverter

in turn will from

d-c power standby Fans ment

the filter

to the standby through

inverter. contacts

The a-c output

the ASCS or instruby

inverter

is then directed to their when

in the de-energized

Bus Relays panel

respective

busses.

A warning

light on the main into operation

indicates

the standby

inverter

is switched

reason

of failure

of either of the main inverters.

(See Figure 10-3. )

10-8. .......
F-

PO?W_R DISTRIBUTION D-C POWER DISTRIBUTION D-C power is taken battery from three separate battery, groups, Various namely the main which operate

10-9.

battery, from

standby

and isolated

battery. method

sub busses

these (a) (b)

sources

and the bus separation

are as follows:

Main d-c bus directly

to the main batteries. bus frcm main bus through

Main 24 V d-c antenna separation separation relay. plus lO minute

(c) (d) (e) (f) :'::::::: (g) (h)
/-

Pre-impact

from main bus through

impact

relay.

Main 24 V squip bus through SQUIB ARM S_ from main bus. Pre-impact main bus through impact relay from main bus.

Audio bus from main bus or isolated bus through AUDIO BUS SW (3 position, Isolated Standby center OFF). to isolated to standby battery.

d-c bus directly d-c bus directly

battery.

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

ST. LOUIS ,MI_SOURJ _P-'t_"_-* ..... J" ' ....: " "_ _"PY--" - _ " _ i .. . ," "_

REVISED REVISED

NOTES
',.!.2y _.._: _N3._qL':.EDIN CAPSULE FOR GROUND TEST5 OR FLI_,FIT NAY b& !N$,,t. LLEDIN CAPSULE FOP, GROLIN..b TESTS bO KtOT It4<bTALL IN CAPSULE. MAY _F___ ACTIV/kTEp AND LISF_.9FOP, £OW@., 5Y.STE _ T_ST_/GT-_OUN CAET FOR, b "TH_,UTHE.HATCH POWF_I_"AN _A_E2Y CI4ARCER 5T.S b T__ ..... J:--i;.i.

O¢:F

!
: I

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C 1-4

(IZ u) 7__.

18V I: C (1500 (5000 0_0o r,.iSoo CliO0

Ir I: 24A
A W I-4) WH) WN) WN) WN)

IE4',/

IG _ }

[_F_.AGLE PICNER MAR 4-028-1, MAC 45-79707-15 EAGLE PIENER ,v,AR 402.7-E,,MAC 45-7_707-21 AGLE PlCHER ;'/'AP, 4028-A, N'AC 4.5-7£707-19 A&LE P_CHER MAP,4028-_, MAC _5-79707-/£ AG,LE PICHER ,'_AR4028-_/r'4DE4587020-5

...... ....

OFF

- "_4.'4 (__ A_

4.',/, ,

EA_LE PICHER MAR 4027-I,, [:AG.LE PlCHEA klAR 4027A/ EAGLEPIqNER/'4AP., 4o27c,,

MAC 45-79707-15 klAC 45-797o7-17 PlbE 4.587020-3

(5000 (3000 (3000

WH) Wt4) W/q)

":.:'.:_:: .... ":

FIG, 10-4 bATTE_iY" INTERklAL WIRING

DIAGRAM

PM 45-93A

1
REV)SED

1961 Mc,
,rr.,.ou,s. _',_,s,oU,,
MODE[

10-'11 RS'ORT SEDR 104 133

REVISED May _.962 1

(I)

Isolated 6 and 18 volt busses directly to taps on isolated battery. NOTE The 12 volt tap on the isolated battery is not used.

(J)

Standby 6, 12 and 18 volt busses directly to taps on standby battery.

I0-i0.

D-C PO_F_RLOADING 10-5 for graphical summary of the Primary D.C. Power Loading.

See Figure

I0-II. 10-12.

SYSTEM UNITS BATTERIES

The batteries consist of series connected silver-zinc rechargeable cells having a nominal potential rating of 2_.5 volts and a minimum capacity rating of 3000 watt hours for _he three main batteries, 1500 watt hours for the two standby batteries and 1500 watt hours for the isolated battery. is equipped with a pressure from 5.5to 14.9 psi. relief valve designed to maintain Each battery internal pressure The

The pressure relief valve is externally mounted.

rated capacity of the battery is at a 40 AMP/HR rate, but short pulse currents up to h2 amperes can be delivered. The battery electrolyte consists of a 40 percent solution of reagent grade

potassium hydroxide and distilled water and is used to activate the dry.charged battery Just prior to use. recharged by any constant After the first discharge cycle, the battery,may be current battery charger. The batteries furnish power

for all electrical equipment in the capsule; therefore, proper servicing and maintenance ..... is of extreme importance. The batteries are designed for flve com-

plete cycles of discharge and charge; however, for highest reliability, units do not exceed four cycles or an activated life of 60 days prior to flight. internal wiring of the 1500 watt-hour batteries, see Figure I0-_. For

<.

10-13.

INVERTERS 250 VOLT-aMPERE A_D 150 VOLT-AMPERE

The d-c to a-c inverters installed in the Project Mercury space capsule are

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL. 133

lO-12

M,DONNELL"
_

"

-- -

D TE February1961 1No ember REVISEDI 1962
1962 REVISED1 May at full rated power The
_L:::
:::::

of a solid state design capable of operating output in an ambient atmosphere

continuously

of 160°F or 80°F at 5 psia 100% oxygen.

output is ll5 volts a-c _+ 5%, single phase to ground, with a freque_ncy of _00 cycles _+ 1.0% and essentially sinusoidal in wave-form. A short circuit across

the output of an inverter will not damage the inverter or the wiring involved in the short circuit due to inherent inverter design.

10-14.

D-C AMMETER 0-50 AMPERE

The d-c ammeter is located on the main instrument panel and provides the Astronaut with an indication of total current drain from all batteries. sensitivity. The

basic ammeter movement has a 50 miliivolt resistance is connected

A shunt of suitable a low resistance

across the input of the meter providing

path to ground with

the proper voltage

drop at 50 amperes for a meter movement

atfull scale deflection.

10-15.

D-C VOLTMETER

0-30 VOLTS and its selector switch, are located on the main instrument can be determined by placing the D-C VOLTS

A d-c voltmeter, panel. switch Approximate

battery, condition positions

to the appropriate

and reading
i

the individual

battery voltsges.

lO-16.

TEST CONFIGURATION

CAPSULES NO. 16 AND 18 the same

The electrical as the Specification

power system cn CapSules No. 16 and 18 are basically Compliance Capsule.

10-17.

INTERIOR

LIGHTING
_:

lO-18. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Interior lighting for the Capsule consists of four fluorescent flood lights .....

and a series of warning telelights. of cabin and system telelights.

See Figure 10-6 for location and arrangement

M 'DONNEL L fi
REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962 i__ _ ST.LOUIS, MISSOUBI

P* E
REPORT MODE[

10-1
SEDR 104 133

_

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S4I,I

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WRCER 5ER

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900 I
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100 i

JIOC • I

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CUVTE

DISC.(RES.,ClOS, ,_ EJECT"

13EC) ......

RES. CNUTE DEPLOY V/HIP ANTENNA

NOTE

',:" _ _-z._ _ 53 _ .qF RECOVERY _ATE=_ 5EP
3_.0 PRO_RAt_hIEP "A*

[E> TRA,'_3;_#T

WHERE

APPLI.:ASLE

r-PO3T PERIOD IZHRS,

-7
c_

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kl;_4l S

- OFF

!7
i

FIGURE

ic-5

D-C

WATT

HOUR

LOkDING

PP,_3--274

REPORT S._.DRI0_ MODEL. 133 I0-19.

lO- .

Mc'DONNEL L ..C '
touls,
__

MISSOUri

REVISEDI February 1962 REVISEDI May 1962

lovem er 1961
---

Cabin Flood Lights

Two fluorescent flood lights are mounted on brackets to the right and left and above the Astronaut. Power for the cabin lights is supplied from the ll5 V

a-c Fans Bus and controlled by a three position sole, the switch positions

switch located on the left conThe cabin flood The

are marked BOTH L.H. Only and OFF. especially

lights are of high actinic value, lights produce

suitable for camera usage.

little heat and have a low wattage rating

of four watts each.

(See Figure 10-7.)

10-20.

Photo Flood Lights flood lights are mounted on brackets in Paragraph 10-19. to the left and right The photo flood lights

Two fluorescent

of the cabin flood lights described

are identical to the cabin flood lights and are controlled by a PHOTO LIGHTS switch, which has an ON and OFF position. on the left console. The PHOTO LIGHTS switch is mounted

....

lO-21.

Warnin_

Teleli_hts are provided for various capsule systems and are mounted The

Warning

telelights

on the main instrument and left console panels as shown on Figure 10-6.

telelights are connected to the various 'systemsto notify the Astronaut of mal' function of a particular system or verification of an individual function. Power

for the telelights

is supplied by the Capsule 12V d-c or 24V d-c bus through a A DIM'BRIGHT Switch is provided for

five ampere fuse as shown on Figure 10-7. daylightrdarkoperations o ....

10-22.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES NO. 16 AND 18 lighting system on these Capsules is the same as the Specifica(Refer to Paragraphs 10-18 through 10-21) (See Figure

The interior tion Compliance 10-6 and 10-7. )

Capsule

P_E
REPORT MODEl

10-16
SEDR 104 133

M_'DONNE__ __
S_'.LOU _ • IS . MISSO URJ

D_TE,NO_E_BE_I_6,
1 FEBRUARY 1962 REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

I

r

i

-_

_

I

_

)F

!

i
r'O O _P

.

Z_L_

-

1_

_i

I',

J_

1

w_

_;_

_

(
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I

!
g ,
_o
,_o Jz

_°z o_

_o

FIC.L_RE I0-7

ll1"_EtlOt LIC_HTS AND WA?NIN_

LIC_I4TS SCMEMATIC

_¢s-z,_o

DATE
REVISED

i November

1961

M,DONNF.
,
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI

PAGE
REPORT

10-17
_'_.T)R ] _)4

REVISED -co,_!-_unieatlons bus voltage The standby
__u_ v::

_ and to act as standby diode power

MOD_Z.

133 system. and is

for the main

battery

also incorporates through through

reverse switch

current

protection

...........

connected

to the circuit battery taps

an ON-0FF diodes,

located

on the battery. d-c to the by externa/ Sta_1_switch

Standby

supply

6j 12 and 18 volts are energized diode

varlo_is system power through

busses.

Prior

to launch

these

circuits

the umbilical d-c power

disconnect application This

and external

power

package. BATT

by battery on the main position.

24 volt

is controlled

by the STDBY in the AUTO voltage

instrument

panel.

switch may be placed in main

or /4ANUAL to a level

In the AUTO position, standby battery

a decrease voltage

battery

some-_hat below relay relay ..... relays to

causes

the No. 1 secondary normally open

bus control of this These d-c bus. to the

energize.

Power

is applied

through

contacts relays.

to energize

the No. 2 and No. 3 secondary contacts w_hich lock their relays

bus control solenoids power

have holding

to the main is applied

With the solenoids removes volt The

No. 2 and No. 3 control of the secondary voltage

energized, Energizing

bus relays.

the secondary the standby

bus relays battery 24 output. light of

from the secondary

bus and connects with the

output secondary

to the main bus bus relay also

in parallel energizes

reduced

main battery indicator

the STANDBY battery.

D-C AUTO Signal

indicating STANDBY The 24 volt

automatic lamp

use of the standby operation of this

voltage

indicative system. battery

D-C AUTO

is supplied STDBY BATT

to the instrumentation connects the standby the

MAN position output directly

switch

to the main 24 volt

24 volt d-c bus. than

d-c bus 8nd through No vls,ml Astronaut indication

secondary of

bus relay ......... this use

to the secondary of the standby An emergency

is made and

battery hold

other

checks

of current

voltage. ce_,_Bd

circuit

is utilized To reduce

in the event cabin heating

of a "hold" the emergency hold

after

umbilical power

separation. from

ClrCtL%t removes

the secondary

and the main

ASCS busses

and applies

FIGURE

Io-_ A-C POWEI_ CONTROL

SCI4EM/kTIC (.CAPSULE NO. _

_¢s-_

REVISED.

ST.

LOUIS

3.

MISSOURI

REPORT

._'1_.1_1_

_ C_

REVISED. power • ..._!!I!I_L..._,,_,_. cult to the cabin vent

__ squibs and to the extend The motor 'bold" of

MOO,_, the

133 Clr-

periscope.

switching

is accomplished normally

as follows. contacts

signal

fr_n the booster test umbilical

is applied relay

through

closed

of the No. 3 ground hold relay. Power

to the solenoid

of the No. 1 emergency normally open

from the main hold

d-c bus is applied relay open

through

contacts

of the No. 1 emergency hold power relays. to the

to the solenoids contacts

of the No. 2 and No. 3 emergency hold relay relay apply

Normally solenoids

of the No. 2 emergency bus re]ays,

of the secondary periscope. apply Other

impact sensor

and to the extend 3 emergency

motor

of the

normally

open contacts

of the No.

hold

relay 24 volt

power to the cabin (See Figure

vent

squibs and remove

power

from the main

ASCS bus. 10-20. 10-21.

10-7. )

A-C Power Main

and Control

Inverters bOO cycle a-c power inverter. is supplied by one 250 volt 10-8. ) flight ampere

Main, inverter

115 volt,

and one 150 volt between

ampere

(See Figure During

The a-c load when the ASCS bus while the

is divided

the ASCS bus and the the 250 volt powers

fan bus.

is the primary 150 volt 300,000 wetters The main ampere feet,

a-c load, inverter

ampere

inverter During

powers

that

the fan bus.

re-entry,

at approximately the in-

the fan

system becomes

the primary

a-c load. inverter

Therefore, powers

are switched d-c bus

such that the higher input power input

capacity

the fan bus.

supplies

to the inverter power

feeding

the fan bus while the ASCS bus. output of

the secondary The output ..... ; .... the other supplied ' _ closes

d-c bus

supplies

to the inverter BUS RELAY Inverter

feeding while output bus. the

from

one inverter energizes

energizes

the ASCS

inverter through

the FAN BUS RELAY. bus relays

is then An A-C VOLT-

the energized with a spr_g

to the appropriate SWITCH

is provided

loaded

A-C VOLTMETER

which .norm-!ly to

the voltmeter bus voltage.

circuit

to the fan bus and must

be mA,,_.lly operated

read ASCS

P* E XO- O
REPORT MODEL i0-22. SEDR iO_ i_3 Standby

.MC'DONNELL LH
...... MIS_ST..LOUIS, _ ' Inverter 400 cycle INVERTER a-c power is supplied which

D TE 1OVem, er
REVISED REVISED

Standby, inverter. the standby power the ASCS the

115 voltj

by one 250 volt ampere d-c bus shall voltage either SWITCH supply shall bus in in the

The STANDBY inverter

switch

determines

.....

input

voltage

and whether

the a-c output power

the ASCS bus or the fan bus or shall of main inverter the failure.

automatically

event

With the STANDBY is energized output

INVERTER by

ONLY position, secondary

standby

inverter

24 volts

d-c from ASCS out'

d-c bus. The energized

The standby STANDBY

inverter

energizes

the STANDBY inverter

BUS RELAY.

ASCS

BUS RELAY

removes

the main

put fr_n the line and applies When the STANDBY verter output removes output. The AUTO verter fail. This position either is energized energizes the main INVERTER

the standby switch

inverter

output. position the standby in-

is in the FANS

by 2_ volts

d-c from the main d-c bus. The energized and applies

The standby STANDBY

inverter

the STANDBY inverter

FAN BUS RELAY.

FAN BUS RELAY inverter

output

from the llne

the standby

of the STANDBY a-c bus should

INVER_ the main

CONTROL inverter

SWITCH

_]1ows

the in-

to power Failure

feeding

one of them to de-energize. main

of a maizl inverter the standby inverter

causes input

the associated

bus relay

connects

to the d-c bus used a-c bus.

by the failed A-C AUTO

inverter light Should

and feeds

the output

to the proper inverter

The STANDBY while

llltmLinates during both main inverters

standby

operation

in the automatic the standby Signal

mode.

fail while will

in autamatic power

mode,

inverter, voltage
..:..

operating indicative tion system.

from the main of STANDBY

d-c' bus,

the fan a-c bus. is supplied

A-C AUTO light

operation

to the Instrumenta-

No _wrEency stead I 24 volts d-c

A-C Power is

switch

is directly

provided through

for

use the

in No.

Capsule 10.05g

No. relay

8.

Ininto the

connected

MAC

231C

(_v

14

Ock

55)

REVISED Re'VISED 150 VA Main ..... ..:.::.:..,_

ST. LOUIS S. MISSOURi _._ Inverter. Distribution

R_ORT Moola.

SEDR 104 1_3

10-23.

D-C Power

_;:::_:-

On Capsule namely busses follows. (a) the ms_n which

No.

8, d-c power standby

is taken battery sources

from three and isolated

separate battery. separation battery

battery

groups, sub

battery,

Various method usage.

operate

fro_ these 10-7 for

and the bus

are as

See Figure Secondary bus relay.

special

instrumentation

d-c bus

supplied by main d-c bus through

secondary

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Secondary Pre-impact Main

ASCS bus

supplied

by secondary impact

bus through relay.

ELEC PWR RELAY.

secondary

bus through SQUIB

2_ V squib bus through main bus through

ARM SW from main bus. relay from m_In bus. bus through AUDIO BUS SW

Pre-impact Audio bus

impact

frcm main bus or isolated center OFF).

(3 position, (g) (h) (i) Isolated Standby Isolated battery. (J) Standby battery. 10-24. D-C Power

d-c bus directly d-c bus directly

to isolated to standby

battery.

battery. to taps on isolated

6 and 18 volt busses directly

6, 12 aud 18 volt busses directly

to taps on standby

Loading for graphical s_,_,,,_ryf the Primary o d-c Power Loading

See Figure on Capsule

lO-13

No. 8.

_::_"

10-25.

TEST

CONFIGURATION Power

CAPSULE System

NO. 9 No. 9 is the as noted same as the Specificain the following

The Electrical tion ,ompliance

on Capsule

Capsule

except 10-6

for differences for major

paragraphs.

(See Figure

components

installed. )

q

REPORT MODEL

sEDR 104
133 _

,;_ rAP

, MISSOU_

REVISED REVISED

(wATTS)

. 700.8
01

PROGR.AMMER 50 MII..--SEC/30

bEC

,-:;-i;;;:,::;_

8
N N_ r.,_Sag.8 WATER $EP. 30 $EC/3OM{N

c_

T O-30

O_

T 0- 12

_

723.8

INSTRU. CAM. 6 PUL/aEC

"u

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A__?40'& Lt._-_ EAR_ & SKY CAM. I0 PULIMIN 7"2'4.9 PERISCOPE RETRACT -

'
{ ,_-"_-'$

PEa, CAM SCOPE 3PUL/S-'_C
?4P-J UNF TRANSMIT -r_A/R "P a_lTS S

g
:_ _ 0 o_O _ :_ •Og8
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CAR $ER

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CAR ADAPTE R BOLT5 F=OS. KT,& UM_. R PERISCOPE SER EXT.

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.

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)MPACT

(IMR-SOSSEC)

o B_ I 4-78.5 PROGRAMMER

.
:v::::,- •

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_

31f_.3 WATER SER

FIGU_qE 10-9 D-C WATT-HOUR

LOADING (CAPSULE

N0, 8)

PM45-

2.09f

REVISED,

M,DONNF LLL2f ,,o,
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI REPORT

_]_

104

RL-V,SL-O,
10-26. S_stem Descri_tlon power supply

_

MOO,-

133

The capsule i;;;,__;;; Specification 10-27.

for Capsule

No. 9 is s_m_lar

to that used

on the

Compliance Control

Capsule.

D-C Power

The d-c power Specification follow1_

control

on Capsule

No. 9 is slmllar

to that

used

on the for the

Compliance

Capsule

(Refer to Paragraph i0-7). bus control

10-4),

except

differences. No.

(See Figure

On Capsule the Secondary is connected with light used.

9 the Secondary No's.

relays

No's.

l, 2 and 3, and battery power

bus relays directly

1 and 2 are not used. in parn!!el

The standby

to the Main d-c bus, switch placed switching

with the main

batteries, d-c

the standby (AUTO),

battery

in the

"ON" position. bus

The standby

or automatic in the

of the standby of the standby

to the Main bus is not switch as well The Capsule the as

Operation

"ON" position

battery C_pliance

a1_ other hold relay

controls operation

is the

same as the Specification

Capsule. C_pliamce to control

is the

same as used on the Specification are used relay in the No. 2 hold from the umbilical relay

except power 10-28. 10-29.

additional

contacts

to the electrical A-C Power Main

power

disconnect.

and Control

Imverters

115 volt 400 cycle a-c power is supplied by two inverters of 150 volto amperes the ASCS and 250 volt-amperes. bus and the FANS bus. supplies through is also The a-c load is divided into two portions the ASCS namely

The 250 VA inverter

supplies

bus and

the 150 VA inverter (fans bus) inverter Inverter

the FANS bus. a filter powered circuit

The malta d-c bus powers and a 25 ampere fuse.

the 150 VA The 250 VA

(ASCS bus)

from the Main relay.

d-c bus through The Main

a llne is

fllter_

a 25 m_e. re fuse and the antenna " energized through the ELEC

separation

ASCS bus

PWR relay.

lo- 4
REPORT SEDR lO_ MODEL_

MiDONNELjL
_Yl, OUi$, _"M15501_1_i _ REVISED REVISED The outputs of the Main and the

133
(Other ASCS d-c loads

_
are fed from the ASCS bus. ) feed the solenoids relays feed the

150 VA and Main

250 VA

inverters

of the Fans Bus Relay inverter closed output

the ASCS Bus Relay. closed Standby contacts ASCS

These

energized

through of the 10-11). relay

of the relays

and through the fans

the normally

contacts

Bus Relay

to Power

and ASCS busses.

(See Figure

The 250 VAC Inverters during 10-30. descent.

are deactivated

by the antenna

fairing

separation

St_andby Inverter llSV _00 cycle INVERT a-c power switch is supplied by one 250 volt of operation ampere standby which

Standby inverter.

The STDBY be

determines

the mode

ana/or

a-c bus sh_11 The EMER frum the ASCS the Standby

supplied

by the standby of the switch inverter

inverter. manually energizes the standby the inverter of

A-C position bus. Standby

a-c power then

then

energizes

solenoid

ASCS Bus Relay. contacts

A-c power

flows

through

the energized

Standby

ASCS Bus Relay's The FANS standby the

to power

the ASCS

a-c bus. manually energizes the energi_ the

ONLY position from

of the STDBY d-c bus.

INV switch Standby

inverter

the main

inverter then

a-c power flows

them

solenoid

of the Standby

Fan BUs Relay. contacts

A-c power to power

through

energized

standby

fan bus relay's

the FANS bus.

(See Figure

lO-. )
i

The AUTO either a main the a-c bus

position should causes

of the STDBY the main

INVERT

switch

allows

the inverter fail.

to power of

inverter

feed___g one of them relay

Failure This

inverter

the Associated

bus

to de-energize.

connects and

standby

inverter

input

to the d'c bus used by the failed main a-c bus. while The STDBY A-C AUTO light

inverter

feeds

the output

to the proper

illuminates Should both from

dur_- g _andby maln Inverters

inverter

operation

in the autom-tic the standby

mode. inverter

fall while

in aurora-tic mode,

operat_-g

."

/

r_

Z

/ "
\\ \

m " \ ,, , ---5,_-- ',
', \__ _, \

"\

//

_:_

P_44g-I_OE

FIGURE

IO-IO ELECTrICaL

POWEP, SUPPLY 5YSTEMCCAPSULES 10_'13')

REVISED

ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

_E_

l_

_ _ ::"

the main d-c bus, will power the fan a-c bus.

Signal voltage indicative of

STDBY A-C AUTO light operation is supplied to the instrumentation system. 10-31. D-C Power Distribution

The d-c power distribution on Capsule No. 9 is the same as used on the Specification Compliance Capsule (Refer to Paragraph 10-8), except for differences as shown on Figure 10-7. 10-32. D-C Power Loading

See Figure lO-lO for graphical su=mary of the primary d-c power loadlng on Capsule No. 9.

10-33.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSUTR$ RO. lO, 13 AND 16

The electrical power system on Capsules No. lO, 13 and 16 are the same as the Specification Compliance Capsule. -_ _vy of the primary d-c power 1.oad'tng (See Figure 10-5 for graphical on Capsules No. i0 and 16, and Figure

No. lO-13 for Capsule No. 13.)

10-34. Im_RIOR LIG_I_G i0-35. SYSTEM_-_CRII_ION
Interior lightlng for the Specification Compliance Capsule consists of four fluorescent flood lights and a series of warml-g telelights. 10-1_ for location and arrang_-_nt of cabin ,,a system telelights. 10-36. Cabin Flood Lights See Figure

Two flourescent flood lights are mounted on brackets to the right and left and above the Astrn_-ut.
=v ::::v._

Power for the cabin lights is supplied from the

........

115 V a-c Capsule inverter Fans _AS and controlled by a three position switch located on the left console_ the switch positions are marked "BOTH" "L.H. trulyand "OFF". The cabin flood lights are of high actinic value, especially suit_ lights produce little heat and have a low wattage

able for ca._ra usage.

REPORT MODEl

SEDR104 133 ST.LOUIS, • ' MISSOURI " ,_ _ , REVISED REVISED

WATT5
o ioo 200 300 _oo 500 400 700 800 900 IOOO IlOO 12_)0

_

"_5",6 WATER 2Z6

_E,_. 305EC/30/V_/,M.

PPE

L

f

t

t

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_

PRO6RAMER'*A"5OMIL-SEC//_..S3EC ON cts

t

t

t

t

t

.......

TELEMETRY 7/. S70ell

BAND

BEACON

ON

P_/SCOP

_

C_I[/PU_/SEC

)

[ 60_.5 6

_ I ,

?'92./ 723.7 I 772.2

PER/SCOPE EARTH

RET CAMERA

¢ SKY

7-OWER 5E,,R BOLTS

CAP. S • CA,q 5ER'_SM/N. L_ ORBIT

7_3._" R Ii T5_6

ESCAPE CAPSUZE ,_K_ ADAPT BOLT5 PO51. ,,_K2*'S'U/v_81L.DISC. # CAM.

r -J_-''_ 7BB.8 PERISCOPE

_

_

6g_.? P/L02- CAM, 692. TW,'q-.S-_,D. 7 INS:I'.,qUMENT CAM. [ I 786./ P//.OT_ I/VSTRIJMENTCAMERA 688.5I 66/.3" 5CANNEA > S'LAVIN6 8.S'/30MIN.

66g.3 T_ -I0

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MO,c_7".,_R C_(/7"E

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i
IMPAC7"] 5zB_, / __j ¢S'B./

532:6

._ACr/ON

WHIP

ANTE/ViVA

231.0

F/GURE

I

O

l-

I

_

_'C

WAT;I_OU_

_O_/N

_

"-

(CAPSULE

NO. 9)

P_45- _55

10-29

REVISED REVISED _

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104

1 33
WAITS Goo t

I00 F
:=:.v.v..,v_

_00 I

300 I

400 I

Soo | p

700 I

Boo I _O%EC./5OM_N

900 I

1000 I

L_oO I

"

17.00 I

....

52.5.7 WATER 5EP

:;;_: PR_.-LAUNOB "_H_.B.

150-1-7

I
To-%O I I ....

1GO?..'/P_OqRAMME.R TELEkAETRY-ON _(b r_ _

",_J50 kAIL-_.(./|'I

5 _Er..

CI:_LOTINST.CAtv',.-ON, TRA_CEI\V_W. (, U%41: ¢% E_OO%TE_. %'1%'Y._%_,C ISA_D BEAC.C,_,I-O_4,

To-_t
UM5 01_2.

m_olZs' LT_PE_SCO_OER-O_,P_OTO LIG,_T%-O_
To-_,_ 5_,E BAND 5EA, Okl I_TERROG_A,T_Ok_ C _r._--17L-I.5 PER_%COPE RE'T_.%C-T

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CA9 %EP / 1755,Z '-_ M ORBIT

C._,_LULE ADAgT BOk._% 5,5,_ PEI_.,%CO{)E EXT t_puil%'GC.30%EC._OM_N

A'TT'Lz::=:::::;ZZ3_ "_15.'/ PILOT _ _%T LK_ i,,A/

70L_.g _iA0G,R_k_%AER_J% " TOTAL DR%Iv%kR'Y LOAD f,------ 7Og.5 _,E_,C_T (-ON'T_0L
_5cI.7 _&<. IBAki{3 _A¢_OI, i _%4TT.I_,ROC_AT%OI_I

--

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_

b_q.g WATER

%£P

T_-10 t6qO'° TR

175_.5 I_LOT _ _hi%TCA%4 t_pu_/%EC50_EC/_O_AIN T_+_I _q%.g RETRO RKTS(%_EA%<%_ T_'*qOI I-----------,\ RETP,0 A%%'f %El) 731.5 I ,_ P.ETRO _J_B Oi%C. 17_,]. i l-"k2B%5.5 PE_a%COPE _0RTA_ REX

RE-ENTRY .5 i-i_%

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I(]K' ZT.% _,k%T. L, _'AIR.-K_0RY,L_ %Akl.MtJ'_E % E C

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| "4BO,Q _VNI_ _,kVTENN_.

IMD_-%(

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?A% 74 . POET PERIOD I?. MRB

tl_ .'I

"Lll.-I

FIqUR_. %0-13D-C.WA'_T-UOU_, LOA, lk_&,(CKP%L_k_E b _3)

REPORT .q_DR 104 MODEL rating IO-$7. 133 of four Fnoto

PA E o-3o
watts

M,DONNELL= "
. each. (See Figure 10-15)

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI .... _ ....

REVISED REVISED

Flood T,_hts flood lights cabin Lights described flood are mounted on brackets in Paragraph IO-$5. to the left .nd right lights

Two flourescent of the cabin flood

The photo

flood

are identical

to the

lights

and are controlled

by a PHOTO LIGHTS

switch, which has an ON and OFF position. on the left console. 10-38. War_ng Teleli_hts

The PHOTO LIGHTS switch is mounted

Warning telelights are provided for various capsule systems and are mounted on the main instrument and left console panels as shown on Figure lO-14. The

telelights are connected to the various systems to notify the Astronaut of malfunction of a particular system or verification of an individual function.

Power for the telelights is supplied by the Capsule 12V d-c or 24V d-c bus through a five ampere fuse as shown on Figure lO-15. provided for daylight or dark operations. A Dim-Bright Switch is

10-39.

TEST CONFIC_ION

CAPSULES

The data contained in Paragraphs i0-34 through 10-38 applies to the Specification Capsule. Deviations from the data applicable to the Test Coni

Figuration Capsules are explained in the following paragraphs.

If data is not

presented for a particular item, then th_ item is the same as that used on the Specification Compliance Capsule.

lO- O.
lO-_l.

IGU

ZON

8

Cabin Flood Lights

The" cabin flood lights on Capsule No. 8 is the same as the Specification CoEpliance Capsule, except the control switch on Capsule No. 8 has "ON-OFF" positions only. (Refer to Paragraph 10-43. _ No photo flood lights are used on .....

MAC

231Ct.

(27

APR 5e|

I "

DATE ,_ov_,-,
RI'--VISED REVISED

Mc'DONNEL_LH,_ _d_

PA_E
REPORT MODEL

,o-_:,
SEDR 104 133

q

PAGE REPORT_

I0-_,2

MCIDONNE_

"

.________,__._

DATE i Nove_ber REVISED REVISED

1961

MODEL_ 1_3 Capsule i0-42. No. 8 .... Warning Telelight s telelight

_ .....

The warning Specification except for the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

inst_]lation Capsule

on Capsule

No. 8 is the same as the 10-38 and Figure i0-16),

.....

Compliance following

(Refer to Paragraph

differences. retract telelight is not used on Capsule No. 8. No. 8.

The Periscope The Landing A Drogue

Bag telelight telellght

is not used is used

on Capsule

Chute

on Capsule used

No, 8. No. 8. No. 8.

The Cabin Pressure The Fuel Mayday of the Quantity

telellght telelight

is not

on Capsule

is not used on Capsule arm used on Capsule

and Ready abort

telelights

No. 8 in place

lights. telelight is used on Capsule recorder. is used on Capsule No. 8. No. 8 to indicate

(g)

A recording operation

of the tape d-c Auto

(h)

A Standby

telelight

10-43.

_EST

CORFIGI/RATION light_n_

CAPSULES system

NO. 9_ i0_ 13 AND on these Capsules 10-35

16

interior tion Compliance

is the same as the Specificathrough i0-38) (See Figure

Capsule

(Refer to Paragraphs

anazo-zs).

.D*TE.,_o_,_,.
I_I!EVISED REVISED

M_,DONNELL_fi. ___.
ST_LOUIS, MISSOURI

p_
REPORT MODEL

,o-_
SEDR 104 133

--

T v_ e:

W,

11-

..... ,: _ -. ._,.. i_,-_._-_ _.::__b,waj _

r-_

SECTION

Xl

COMMUNICATION

SYSTEM

TABLE TITLE
i

OF CONTENTS PAGE 11-5 11-9 11-28

i-

..... i:_;%!!__ iiiiiiiilH_%iii_._:._:j_:_
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SYSTEMDESCRIPTION ......................... SYSTEM OPERATION ............ :.............. SYSTEM UNITS ....................................

TEST CO N FIG URA TIO N CA PSULES...... 11- 6 3

_ii_i_iiiiiiiiiiii_i_!i_!iiiii_i_i_

:ii_iii_ii_!iii E_'!!:.g-iiii:.i:.i'_i!!:.!.:iii'E !_'"EL'_:BL:P:!Y';

!i!i!i i i i i!i i i !i i i i i i i i i i
% i i i i!i _i!i i i i i !i i !i i i i!

....;-;;..

PAGESE0,104 'l-_ R_PORT

___M,SSOOR, 1NOVEM_ER, ST.'OU,S. . REV,SEO

REVISED REVISED

1 FEBRUARY 1962 I MAY 1962 _

ST.LOU IS, MISSOURI

REPORT MODEl

SEDR104 133

I

...........
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FIGURE I1-?_ V01CF_COMMUNICATION6

SYSTEM5

REPORT ___L]..___

ST. LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED -_,-_,I_Y

-1-_

MODE, 133

F_' _l_mliRIHi

!

REvise0

O H o H o

o

E-_

O

_

o'O

_<

=

=

I

.,=

oo

10

r-4

t-4

o01

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_1

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._

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• •

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0_

_
o

l:l o

o

REVISED

ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

RIDPORT

SED_

10_

_--: :.x:x:.

XI.

COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

::

ll-1.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

ll-2.

VOICE COMMUNICATION The Astronaut is provided with voice communications throughout the entire

mission

(See Table ll-I).

A dual headset and microphone contained with_, the

Astronaut's helmet, operate through the audio control circuits to the selected voice communications set (See Figure 12-2). available prior to _bilical A capsule-pad interphone system is

cable disconnect. set dur%ng

HF reception is available through the main KF voice co_anication launch and orbit.

EF voice tranmnission may be used only after capsule separaThe main It will

tion by Astronaut selection of the HF position of the Transmit Switch. _ set is disabled during re-entry as the antenna fair_ is Jettisoned.

be de-energized and replaced by the recovery HF set upon landing.

The recovery

HF voice co,_:,_anicatlons provides reception and transmission, during the post set landing phase of the mission. UHF reception is available throughout the entire mission by the C:,.m.UHF voice co_unications set and its UKF Booster Amplifier.
, i

Tran_._sslons over this

set may be m_de when the "UHF" position of the TRANSMIT switch is selected by the Astronaut. A backup (low power) UHF voice co_aunlcatlon set identical to the realm set, but without the UKF Booster Amplifier, may be placed in operation by the Astronaut at any point during the mission. ;...:.--::::: The selected transmitter may be energized by operation of a push-to-tA1_ switch, or by a voice operated relay when the V0X switch is in the "ON" position. By speaking into the microphone, the selected transmitter is autc_atlcally energized. Nor_-1]y the selected UHF transmitter will aut_-_tlcally be energized This automatic feature may be

upon land_,g to provide a direction finder signal.
............... ._._. --_

:l

RE.VISED REVISED

ST. L_OU|S

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

_]_

10_

MOD_,_-_ overridden by the Astronaut.

133

The Command Receivers provide an emergency ground station-to-capsule voice cccsmanications channel throughout the mission until capsule impact. Power for

the voice co_=_mlcations systems is supplied through fuses located in the C_!,,auications and COa_anications ASCS fuse holders (See Figure ll-2).

ll-3.

COMMAND

RECEIVERS

Two separate sets of receiver-decoder and auxiliary decoder units are used for reception and decoding of ground c_d purpose of activating various capsule signals. These signals are for the

control

circuits.

Power for the com_nd the Cn_unications

receivers is supplied through the fuses located in

and the Co-_1_ications ASCS Fuse Holders (See Figure ll-lO).

ll-4.

q_T _METRY Telemetry transmitters are provided for cn-mmicat_ capsule information

to ground stations.

Tnformatlon is picked up throughout the capsule in the form These voltages are modified by codinl "(Refer to the

of voltages from voltage divider circuits.

circuits to supply suitable Imputs to the telemetry tran-m_tters. Instrumentation Section XIII of this m,n,_,1 ).

Two transmitters are used for

tram_-_ssion of the telemetry information, each having a power output of 3.3 watts. Their frequencies are ,slightly separated. Tram-m_tters are operated The power outputs of

contim;ously from launch, until lO m_nutes after impact.

the telemetry tram_,Itters are fed to either the mai_aor the UKF Recovery Antenna. tion Fuse Power for the system is obtained frcu fuses located in the InstrumemtaHolders (see Figure 11-4 ana Figure 11-11).

11-5.

_CONB The beacons provided in the capsule to aid tracking by ground stations are

a C-Band and an S-Band beacon, a UHF

beacon, energized dur_n_ re-entry,

w

l,i

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133 _

ST,LOUIS.

MISSOURL

REVISED REVISED

1 FEBRUARY ]962
B

! MAY 1962

.....

8

_z

--

_

Z_ ux.l.

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z /

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FIGURE II-4 TELPJ'aETRY SYSTE.fYI

P**-_-'i_ e

m:EVlSED FI_IEVIS ED

1

February

1962

M'DONNELL .
1"' ......

,_. uoum ee, smaouR,

REPORT MODEL

11-9
SEDR _33

10_

_

an aux. _ .....
::,..:.::.= :

beacon

energized upon

at antenna These

fairing beacons

separation, provide crews.

and an KF recovery compatible with

beacon, _Irection cations

energized finding tran,mitter

landing.

signals

equipment

used by the recovery upon landing light

The UHF voice an _dltional

c_m_signal of the

may be keyed

to provide

for direction capsule after

finders. landing. power

A flashing

is Lusta]]ed

for vis_,A1 location

(See Section

IX of this manual.) is supplied through llfuses 5 and located ii-12).

Capsule

for the beacons and ASCS fuse

system

in the communications

holders.

(See Figures

ll-6. Arm AS
The voice 'with their '_Ith wide the entire portion al!ow c_m_unications, frequencies telemetry and types and beacon of outputs receivers require and tran-mltters, an antenna are used system

various

capabilities. mission

Therefore,

four types A main EF-UHF

of antennas antenna

to fulfill

requirements. During

is used

for the major to UH_

of the mission. parachute

re-entry

this antenna

must

be Jettisoned a compact

main

deployment. placed

To replace in operation.

the UHF function, Upon landing,

antenna !Autenna

is automatically is _xtended

an HF Recovery mission, C

to permit

EF operation. for
i

Throughout

the entire

and. S ban_l antennas
'

are provided

operation

of the radar by

beacons.

Antenna

swltchiu6

=_a multipleY1ng 11-6 and

arm performed Power

automatlcally

the RF circuitry. switching are panel.

i(See Figures supplied

ll-13).

requirements on the left

for antenna console

through

a switch-fuse

located

switch-fuse

(see

n-13).
SYSTEM VOICE A,_o OPERATION C0_4_ICATIONS Control an_ Ground outputs Inter_hone are routed S_stem to the control panel. This panel

L/
....... 11-7. LI-8. LI-9.

HF -_-_ UH_ receiver

REVISED

M ,DONNE
ST. LOUIS 3. MISSOURI

REPORT

_

lO_

RzvlsED

Moo ',

provides one volume control for KF audio and one volume control for UKF audio. Outputs from the two command receivers are connected to the Communication Contro" Panel for mixing. filter, Separation of co,,,_nand voice audio signals by a low pass and of resulting voice audio is done in the control panel.

and amplification

(See
Commanicatlon audio signals from the volume controls, the interphone audio from the pad-to-the-pilot and alarm tones from the satellite clock are supplied to the tape recorder relay and the two headset amplifiers in the audio center. The headset amplifiers individual earphones serve to amplify the audio signals and feed them to the helmet. The de-energized position of

in the Astronaut's

the tape recorder relay supplies a path for receiver audio to the main tape recorder. ...... Audio from the microphones is fed to two separate#microphone amplifiers

,t
in the audio center. These two amplifiers serve to _nplify microphone output to a level sufficient to supply modulation cir The microphone amplifer output is also fed to operated relay circuitry).

# .

of the voice transmitters.

input of the VOX (voice

The voice circuits are energized by use of the Push or by the VOX circuit when the VOX switch

to T_!w switch on the abort handle,

on the inst_--_nt panel is in the "ON" position. ll-lO. ll-ll. HF Voice C@k-,_amlcatlons Main HF C<-_,_nicatlons

The main HF voice co,_,-anlcationset is an AM receiver-trao_mltter unit s designed to operate 'on a frequency of approximately 15 MC. :_z_ Power from the main pre-lmpact 24 volt d-c bus is fed directly to the receiver section of the set. The transmitter is fed 24 volts through the HF

position of the Tram_._t Switch and the closed contacts of the tower separation relay, after tower separation. Audio input to the trem-m!tter portion of the

PAGE.

11-12

M_,DONNELL ____ _
_ST.LOUIS, _. MIssouRI, i

DATE

1 NOVEMBER 1 FEBRUARY

1961 1962

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

REVISED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

1
X, RE COVE.R.'( A.I_Tt _NA i

_\

f"

__

ACTIVE

2
2,
/ t,', _d _, _t CON\C. NL

C ANDS

_ _' ._-_

BAND ANTENNA

_ _ -" _

.....

(TyPICA,

I.

_

PLACeS_

"kl

:

___'/k

::i"i'":"i

HF P._.CO_/ERY WNIP ANT __i',_N/k

FIGUI_E ll-to

ANTENNA

SYSTEM

UTILIZATION

P_'q.5-lOTE

:

REVISED. RS.'VISED

b'n". LOUIS _ " _

a, MISSOURI '-" _

REPORT MODIZL

_ED_ l_

].0_

,

• .

unit

Is from the microphone either

amplifier through

in the audio

center.

The transmitter by the

is

energized Astronaut's

automatically

the VOX circuit

or msnu_lly ll-8). antenn_

use of the push to t_Ik connection to either from the

switch.

(See Figure the

The antenna the antenna

set is through

multiplexer

And

switch

the bicone

or the UHF Rescue Audio output

antenna.

HF r-4_atlon Includ-

from the descent Ing sldetone control ll-12. The

antenna

is negligible.

from the

receiver,

during

transmission

is i_outed to the HF volume

control

in the

panel. Recovery recovery HF Communications HF voice communications having set is basically a lower output. upon landing, through the same as the _in

HF unit but with The power the impact

the transmitter

input

to the recovery

EF unit

is supplied Audio set.

relay,

from the audio is in the connection Audio

2_ volt

d-c bus.

is supplied

and keying

of the tran_tter The EF Rescue routed center ll-13. ll-14. antenna

same m_uer is through

as the main the recovery

diplexer including panel

to the extemded sldetone, Is

antenna.

output

from the receiver, in the control

through

the EF volume

control

througli the audio

and to the headsets. UEF Voice Maln UHF
i

C._._u.._nications

The main designed output .....

UHF voice

communications

set is an AM receiver-transmitter 299 MC.

unlt

to operate is increased from the Selector Thls

on a frequency by a separate audio Switch power 24 volt

of approximately UHF booster d-c bus

The tran=m_tter

amplifier. the _T-PWR of the position set. (See

Power of the _

is fed through

directly Is also

to the receiver

section

z

Figure

11-9).

fed to the Transmit taken from

Switch.

Power

for the

tran_-_tter

section

of the set Is then

the UHF position

of the

R'E PORT_-_ MODEl 1._._ Switch.

Mc'DONNELL iT. LOUIS, MIS$OURh
__ At bicone antenna separation
m

REVISED REVISED

l owber
relay conthus

Transmit tacts

the bicone

separation

assume

the same function

as the UHF

contacts

of the Transmit Audio ampllfers or manually input

Switch

providing mitter

a continuous

UHF signal is from

for DF purposes. the microphone automatically

to the transcenter.

portion

of the unit is energized

in the audio

The transmitter When

either

by the Astronaut. it will be for direcof the UEF

the HI-POWER

set is selected at bicone

with the UHF Selector separation to provide

Switch,

energized tion

automatically equipment.

a UHF signal by operation

finding

This feature panel

may be overriden

DF Switch

on the control connection

to the OFF or the UHF position. the UHF booster to either switch amplifer coax

Antenna switch, or UEF voice

from the set is through and the antenna

antenna rescue

multiplexer,

switch

the main

blcone the to be by The

antenna. relay

Operation

of the microphone causes

or energizing amplifier

operated

while

in the UHF mode llne.

the booster output

inserted this

in series

with the coax

Transmitter is also

is then after

boosted

amplifier

to 2 watts.

The booster through Audio

available switch

landing.

multiplexer blcone

output

is connected

the antenna output

to either

the m_in

or the UHF rescue during

antenna.

from the receiver, control

including in the control

sidetone panel. ll-15.

trance! ssion,

is routed

to the UEF volume

B_ckup

UEF UEF voice communications set is identical by to the main set but of the receiver for the

The Lo power without

the booster Switch

amplifier. to the

It may be energized Power

Astronaut

operation

UHF Selector output, main

"LO PWR" position.

input,

audio input, as used

and the control

of the transmitter

is in the same m,nner

UHF set. Antenna connection is routed the through the _ coax switch, which has been thro_ _.

energized

by selecting

"LO POWER"

position

of the UEF Selector

Swltch_

_-_.t I .t ,,..L,,_,,,. !II....

III .

REPORT_

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI

REVISED

MOOa_

REVtSED

the UHF booster's coax switch, the antenna multiplexer and the antenna switch to either the main bicone or UHF rescue antenna. 11-16. Command Receivers

._:::_:_ ....

The recelver-decoder unit consists of an FM receiver operating in the frequency r_nge of 406 to 450 MC. The received signal may be modulated with a The receiver reduces

maximum of six of a possible twenty audio frequencies.

the input signal to the modulation frequencies which operate indivldu_! control relays. (See Figure ii-i0).

Each control relay provides contacts for a normally open or a normally closed control channel. Ten channels are provided in the "A" receiver-decoder These cb_-nels

with an additional ten available in the "A" auxiliary decoder. are paralleled units. by the output of the "B" receiver-decoder,

and auxiliary decoder

Command channel assignments are not disclosed for security reasons.

Emergency voice communications may be had from the ground station to the capsule through the command receivers. and amplifier Receiver outputs are supplied through a filter headset. Power

in the audio center circuits to the Astronaut's

for the Hi frequency command set is supplied from the isolated 18 volt d-c bus while power for the Lo frequency cor_-nd set is supplied from the standby 18 volt d-c bus. Both power circuits are routed through sections of the impact relays

in order to de-energize the set upon landing. Antenn- input is from the bicone or UEF rescue antenna through the antenna switch and antenna multiplexer to an impedance match which supplies both receivers. 11-17. ii-18. Telemetry Low Frequency Telemetry :./.._;:.

The low frequency telemetry set is an FM transmitter operating on a frequency of approxlm-tely 228 _E.
MAC 231CL (_l? APR _g,

PAGE REPORT MODEL

11-20 SEDRI,04 133

M_,DONNELL __ _
ST.LOUIS. _ MISSOURI

DATE REVISED REVISED

I NOVEMBER 1961 I FEBRUARY 1962 1 MAY 1962

REVISED _dr_._962 1 1

rr. )..ouls, 1$soum M

REPORT 8]_DR 10_

Rn,,sm.
Before _b_cal

MOPer
drop, the low frequency telemetry tr-_itter and its power

supply receive 24 volts d-c from the Main Pre-impact bus through the energized :_-:::.:w fl_ln_l Test Umbilical Relay, normally open contacts. This relay's solenoid is

energised through the _mb114cal until the _biiical

is dropped. (See Figure II-ii)

To silence the TM transmitter, the solenoid of the Instrument Mode a_i R-F Silence relay may be energized through the following three methods. Firlt

by position_r_ the GROUND TEST switch in the block house to the "TEST" position) the Instrument Mode and R-F Silence Relay will be energised. By a second method

the solenoid may be energized through the de-energized Orbit Attitude Relay) thus causing the silencing of the TM transmitters. The third method of energising the

_n_trument Mode and R-F Silence Relay is through the normally open contacts of the energised Retro Command Relay #2. After the umbilical is da'opI_) the ground

test _mbilioal relay is de-energized and power is directed through the closed contacts to the telemetry power supply. (See Figure ii-ii). A LO FREQ. TLM, ON-

OFF switch located on the left console.)when in the "OFF" position, will break the power source to the LO FREQ. TM. Coded instrumentation information is supplied from the i_-trmmentation package "D") and used to frequency modulate the transmitter. mentation Section XIII of this manual). RF power output is fed to the antenna multiplexer where it is rc_ted thigh the antenna switch to the main bicone or UHF recovery antenna. 11-19. High Frequency Tellers_try (See the Instru-

The hi frequency telemetry set operates on a fr%que_'y of apprcxlmatsly ....... 260 MC. The 2_ volts d-c to the hi frequency telemetry is supplied _ the same

meth__das described under the low frequency telemetry deecrip%ic_) with the exception that the ON-OFF switch provided in the capsule ie i_ the form of a _-switch-fuse (HI FREQ. ), located on the left hand switch-fuse panel. Input power

for the set is from a separate telemetry power supply operating from the second

PAGE

11-22

REPORT SEDR I0_ MODEl._ 133

Mc, DONNE
_[_J_i_r_l_l_L

DATE ], November 1961 REVISED i J'.by 1962 REVISED The B+ volt-

pre-i_pact 24 volt d-c bus and supplying filament and B+ voltage. age supply is routed through the key on the control panel.

This allows the

Astronaut to interrupt the circuit transmitting code, in the event the voice communications fail. (See Figure ll-ll).

Coded instrumentation information is supplied from the instrumentation package "D" to frequency modulate the transmitter. Section XIII of th_s manual). RF power output is fed to the antenna multiplexer where it is routed through the antenna switch to the main bicone or UHF recovery antenna. ll-20. ll-21. Beacons C-Band Beacon (See the Instrumentation

The C-Band beacon is a transponder unit consisting of a receiver and transmitter operating on a frequency of approximately 5400 to 5900 MC. The beacon is

double pulsed and is compatible with the FPS-16 radar when the ground units are modified for this type of operation. Upon ground co_and, through the command

receivers, or by Astronaut selection of the "CONTIN." position of the Beacon Switch, the beacon receiver is energized. Interrogation by ground radar will Input power is from

then result in a coded reply from the beacon transmitter.

the ma_n pro-impact 24 volt d-c bus through the beacon relay controlled by the cow, hand receivers, or, for continuous operation, through the Beacon Switch. (See Figure 11-12). The beacom anten_n_a connection is through the C-Band Power Divider to the three C-Band Antennas. A phase shifter is placed between one antenna and the :,_

power divider to aid in preventing dead spots when the C-Band is transmitting. (See Figure 11-12). The phase shifter may be turned off by utilising the phase

shifter switch fuse on the lefthandconsole ... . 11-22. S-Band Beacon ,m_ t consisting of a receiver and trams

The "S" Baud Beacon is a transponder

REPORT MODEL mitter.

SEDR IO4 133 _

REVISEDI February 1962 REVtSEOi May 1962 The ,m_t operates on a frequency of approximately _-_:
AV

(See Figure 11-12).

2700 to 2900 MC and is double pulsed to reduce possibilities of unauthorized interrogation. operates rejection Power This unit is compatible acceptance with ground based Verlort of + 0.5 micro-seconds Radars and and a positive

at a positive tolerance circuits,

tolerance

of + 1.8 micro-seconds. interrogation 11-21). connection antennas. is through the S-Band Power Divider to three "C" and reply are the same as the C-Band Beacon.

(Refer to paragraph Beacon antenn_ and "S" Band Beacon 11-23.

HF/UHF Recovery Beacon into one unit. One beacon operates on Both are equipment.

Two recovery beacons are combined high frequency) energi_ed

while the other operates on ultra high frequency. radio signals for recovery direction finder

to provide

(See Figure 11-12). The HF recovery beacon operates on a frequency of 8.364 MC with a tone modulated output. It is powered by the 12 volt standby bus through the impact upon landing. The RF power output is fed through the antenna.

relay and is energized rescue diplexer

to the elevated

HF recovery

The UHF recovery beacon operates on a frequency of 243 MC with pulse modulation. It is powered by the 6 Volt isolated bus through the antenna fairrelay. This circuit is energized during re-entry when the the antenna .... '_ ....

ing separation antenna fairing

is jettisoned.

The RF power

output is fed through

multiplexer and the antenna switch to the UHF recovery antenna. 11-24. Auxiliary Rescue Beacon The Aux. Rescue Beacon operates on a frequency of 243 MC with pulse modulation It is powered This relay by the 6 volt standby bus through the Aux. Recovery Beacon relay. at antenna fairing separation. The RF power is radiated

is energized

;REVISED

1 FEBRUARY

1962

ST.LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REPORT

SEDR

104

REVISED

1 MAY

1962

" _il/_l__

MODEL

133

C -

_

>

N _

¢,-,,u._

¢,u _-_z

n_

I

9

I_

_

-_

}__.>L_°--

II__ ':, :>- ... 9 I .
I ,,:{" _ C,

I_IK

'

_
LL_g z

a

_-_

--

O_

_ r_"-

Z

__1
..... : <, < i

_,_-

- e

-:.c ,_

,..;.

_

FIGURE ANTENNA SYSTEM I1-13 SCHEMATIC

.

P_E4:_:

105 I:

REPORT_u_ MODEL 133 the Aux. Rescue

Mc, DONNELL

_'__ Beacon Antenna.

R.mUlS, :,MISsoum

REVISED 1 February REVISED

l ovee

1962

from

(See Figure

ll-12).

II-25. ]I-26.

A_tenn_ Main Bicone (HF and UEF) is used for pre-launch, antenna launch 3 orbit part system serves and forms and initial re-

A biconical entry ph_es

antenna

of the mission. over

This

is an integral

of the antenna compartment the main KF of

fairing the and

ana is located capsule

the open

end of the recovery The biconical the command antenna

cylindrical UKF voice

afterbody.

recelver-transmitters, The active element

receivers, antenna

the telemetry the upper and the

transmitters. portion capsule ll-27.

of the biconical the lower

of the antenna body forms

fairing

while plane

portion

of the fairing (See Figure

the ground Antenna

for the antenna.

ll-13).

U_F Recovery

A UKF antenna It is a compact compartment. teen seconds and serves beacon,

is used for the final located

phase

of re-entry,

landing

and rescue. syst_s Six-

antenna

on the open when

surface

of the recovery fairing recovery

The antenna after the

is folded

the antenna the UKF

is installed. antenna

fairing

is Jettisoned

is errected

the UHF voice

receiver-transmitters, and the telemetry and operating

the UHF portion transmitter. but radiation

of the recovery The main from this HF voice antenna

the c_.maud

receivers,

recelver-transmitter is negligible. 11-28. Main

is connected ]-I-6).

(See Figure Bicone

and UHF Recovery systems

Antenna

Feed to the bicone (See Figure antenna antenna or the UHF

The various recovery (1) antenna

radio

are connected manner:

in the following

ll-13). is connected to the

-....

The main

HF voice

receiver-transmitter

lead

antenna (2)

multiplexer. Switch determines whether the hi-power or the lo-power

The UHF Selector

MAC

ZSIG

(Rev

14

OeL

55)

REVISED

S'T_ LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

.q'R,_R

]0_1.

R,SE=
URF recelver-transmltter connect ..... ,,,,!_!!!i (3) The the operating UHF is used. It also energizes

.oo.
the UHF coax

133
switch to

set to the antenna antenna leads

multiplexer. are connected to an impedance antenna match-

two cnmm_a This m_tch

receiver enables

ing network. the impedance (4)

both

receivers

to share

a single

lead frc_

to the antenna

multiplexer. tran_tters each feed directly to the

The Hi and Lo frequency multiplexer. Antenna The antenna Multiplexer multiplexer

telemetry

antenna l.l.- _.

enables

simultaneous this

or individual is a radio

operation frequency

of the Junction

radio box.

systems Final

using

one antenna.

Effectively

connection antenna,

to the antenna

is through

the antenna

switch

to either is shift Jettl-

the blconlcal .... '-_ operated from the son. ii-30_ An land/n_. extended the HF beacon, Antenna recovery :ii:iii:.:

or the UKF recovery fairlng separation

antenna. relay antenna

The antenna

switch

by the antenna main antenna

to cause upon

the aut_natic falrlng

to the UHF recovery

antenna

(See Figure Recovery antenna

II-13). Antenna

is provided

to permit

HF radio whip Once

transmission which the portion

and .reception after is automatically antenna is used for

The ante_n-

is a telescoping after impact.

antenna extended,

by gas pressure rescue voice

recelver-transmitter

and the EF

of the recovery

leads

from the EF recovery to the

voice

recelver-tranamltter diplexer.

and the HF allows

beacon

are connected

HF recovery over

This diplexer

slm-,_t_meous

or individual

operation

the single

lead to the antenna.

(See

II-SI.

C and S Band Antennas C and S band antenna units are installed in the capsule structure

Three

REPORTSEDR 104 MODEL_133

n- 8

MgONNELL .. _l_'i_'ll'_u*_
_

D TE ovember REVtSED_,.-_,,_-.9_;_
REVISED

for the C and S-band beacons. ference of the conical section.

These units are equally spaced about the circumEach antenna unit consists of one helix as a

C-band antenna and one helix as an S-band antenna. Antenna leads from the C-band and S-band beacons are routed through indi-

vidual power dividers to the three associated helix antennas. 11-32. 11-33. SYSTEM UNITS AUDIO CENTER center provides transistorized audio amplifiers,

(See Figure ll-13)

The audio

a "voice

operated

relay_i (VOX), an audio filter, tape recorder control circuitry and transmitter control circuitry. (See Figure ll-2). All components are contained in a light

weight, foam encapsulated unit. Two fixed gain headset amplifiers are used to bring audio signals up to Two fixed gain amplifiers are

headset level and feed the headsets separately.

provided to increase the dynamic microphone output to a level suitable to be used with the various transmitters. A low pass filter, with a cutoff for frequencies above 300 cps, filters the audio supplied from the command receivers. variable gain, command audio amplifier. amplifier with separate Outputs from the filter is fed to a

The "voice operated

relay" is a transistorized

adjustable threshold level and release tJ_mecontrols.

The amplifier operates a This unit parallel..

relay to provide a grounding circuit for transmitter control. the external microphone switch.

To actuate the VOX relay, a three position VOX (See Figure ii-7). control ground

switch must be placed in the Trans and Record position. The audio center furnishes a circuit to apply

the transmitter

.... :_ ....

potential to the various transmitters. by a crystal diode.

Each circuit is protected from the rest

A relay is installed in the audio center for supplying power and audio

REVISED1 May 1962 REVISED signals to the tape recorder. to the tape whenever recorder _

In".Lout '=.M,'=sousa

REPORT SEDR lob MODEL 133

In the de-energized input, thus audio

condition s the relay received by the capsule operation.

closes is

a circuit .,:.::, recorded _en

instrumentation switch

programs

tape recorder

the microphone

or VOX is o_rated, relay contacts

the tape recorder

relay

is energized. power circuit

One set of closed independent

now ccmpletes

the recorder a second set input.

of instrumentation

programming, amplifiers

while

of contacts The record without

routes position

signal from the microphone of the VOX switch it. center operate inables

to the recorder to record

the Astronaut

his voice

transmitting

The circuits volt

in the audio no further

directly

from the capsule increase.

2h

d-c inputs with CONTROL PANEL

regulation

or voltage

Ii-34. . -

The audio signals

control

panel

provides

controls

and circuits

for the audio

of the various

capsule

receivers.

(See Figure

11-7). T-pads to

The two HF and two UHF circuits volume is true controls. of the The two HF circuits two UHF audio circuits, circuit.

are routed share

t_hrough individual volume

a single

control,

the same

_hile Fixed

separate inputs

volume

control

is provided tone and

for the co_m_nd ground interphone

are used

for the alarm

circuits. contains a switch override for the impact keying feature

The panel used with

also

the UHF transmitters, telemetry

and keying during

batton on the panel to interrupt emergency keying=. (Refer to

the Hi-Frequency Figure ,.-_-,_.::.. 11-35. Ii-I0). MAN

B+ supply

HF VOICE HF voice

RECEIVER-TRANSMITTW_R set is an AM receiver-trs_smitter near 15 MC. designed as a small,

The main light weight

unit operating section

(See Figure Ii-8). circuit using a

The receiver crystal filter,

of the unit detector

is a transistorized and class B audio

crystal

diode

amplifier.

The ritual

REPORT MOOEL

SEDR ),33

lO b,

Mc, DONNELLLLr
is used for sidetone during transmissions. vacuum tube amplifier. speech

O TE o ember l REVISED
REWSEO

audio

amplifier

The transmitter crystal may controlled

section

of the uatt driver

utilizes and power

stages The

for power

the amplifier

.........

oscillator,

be modulated audio

up to 90% by a transistorized are also used d-c, for sidetone.

amplifier

and modulator. is 5 watts. regulator an

These

stages

Transmitter with

output voltage

Capsule provided external

power,

24 volts

is supplied

to the unit, Power

by a Zener switch and

diode, contacts power,

transistor of the relay

circuit. capsule

is routed relay

through

separation and

which

controls converter.

transmitter High voltage

filament

operation is used

a transistorized

power

from this

converter

for the transmitter state circuit removed

power which

amplifier. the

Antenna receiver RF

switching during

is accomplished

by a solid

blocks

transmission.

D-c voltage

is also

from the receiver

stages.

11-36.

RECOVERY

HF VOICE voice

RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER set is similar to the main section. amplifier set. This (See Figure section ll-8). of

The HF Recovery The main a crystal difference controlled

lies in the transmitter oscillator and power

consists

delivering

1 watt output.

11-37. _GH _
The main

(_)

_

now_w_ (m_cmm) um_voiCE m_CErv_m-___sEn_mm
(See Figure 11-9). They consist

and backup

sets are identical. designed

of an AM recelver-transmitter near 297 MC. Transmitter

as a sm_1],

lightweight

unit operating is

output

is .5 watt.

The main

recelver-traasm_tter

boosted in output by a final booster amplifier ............. The using receiver section controlled section of the local unit is a transistorized crystal also superheterodyne and crystal circuit diode amplifier, section of

a crystal

oscillator, receiver

filter

detector. modulator

The audio and provides

of the

serves

as the speech

sidetone

for the transmitter.

The tran_mltter

M,DONNELL¢
REVISED ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI REPORT _DR l(_

the unit The RF ized.

utilizes

a crystal vacuum

controlled tubes while

oscillator,

triplet

and power

amplifier.

section

uses

the modulation

circuits

are transistor-

Capsule applied switch

power_

2_ volts

d-c 3 is supplied circuits

to the

set.

This

voltage

is

to the receiver, to an internal

audio

and back This

through

an external converter

transmit supplies is

power

converter.

transistorized Tranamitter

B+ voltage

to the transmitter by the external separation. from receiver is applied antenna

RF sections. transmit switch

filament

voltage

also applied after blccne

or the bicone

separation

relay

Switching ground relay removes potential provides receiver

to transmitter to a switching converter

operation relay

is accomplished

when The

and a blocking

circuit.

and power

switching.

The blocking

circuit

voltage.

11-38.

UEF BOOSTER

AMPLIFTER Is used prior to landing to increase the .5 watt out-

A booster put of the Main able after Signal relay.

amplifier

U_F tranam_tter

to 2.0 watts.

The higher

power

is also avail-

land_n g. input to the booster is routed the through signal a double is routed pole_ double throw

When the relay

is de-energized, Energizing

through

the conthe

tacts to the output amplifier and t,Wes

Jack.

the relay

feeds

the signal Jack.

through

the amplifier

output

to the output

ll-39. CO_U_D RECEIVER-nECOnERS
The ccmlnand receiver-decoder
• /:.. _

is a transistorized in the frequency circuits.

unit consisting

of an

FM receiver decoder unit

designed

to operate control

r-nse of _<_ to 450 MC t and a ii-i0). superheterodyne

to operate

(See Figure

The receiver

section

of the unit

is a dual

conversion

REPORT MODEl circuit.

_EDR lO b, I_ The first local _ oscillator is crystal controlled

REVISED REVISED and uses two stages first
:..:..'_ -._

of frequency

multiplication. The second

Two stages local

of amplification is also second

are used

for the

IF, 78 IcE signal. Ing with the first

oscillator

crystal

controlled, MC. Output

mixfrom

:_:;_.

IF and giving a limiter

a resultant

IF of 10.75 Audio

the IF strip

is through output

to the discriminator. voice ch-nnel

amplifiers

boost

the discriminator The driver in turn

for the command

and the decoder

driver.

supplies decoder

the ten decoder chnnnels

chsnnels

in the set. for their double specific relay

The individusl cnmmand for each closed frequency channel.

each provide

filters pole,

and amplifiers The ten relays

to operate thus meke circuit

a double available

throw

normally

open and normally

contacts

for external 18 volts

control d-c,

operation. the set. A Zener diode

Capsule circuit,

power,

is used to power for voltage

within

the unit,

is used

regulation.

11-40.

AUXILIARY

DECODW_S decoder operates with each of the two receiver-decoder units,

An auxiliary allowing

an additional

ten channel

capability. decoder are identical to the decoder frequencies

The decoder eh-nnels at which

channels

in the auxiliary

of the recelver-decoder, they operate. decoder

with the exception

of the command

The auxiliary voltage regulation

operates

from capsule

18 volt

d-c power.

No further

or increase

is required.

li-41.

_,_gu_Y
The telemetry

POWE_ UPPL_ (Seenm_re LZ-ll) S
power supplies generate voltage used in the telemetry Capsule transpower, the ...

mltters. 24 volta pr_m-ry

The unit _-c,

is transistorized

and uses

crystal

diodes.

is applied

to a transistor

switching

circuit

operating

into

of a power

transformer.

J

LL.IL % ....

IL

DATE
REVISED

i November

1961

M ,DONNES
ST. LOUIS S, MISSOURI , __

P^SZ
Rm=,OR"I"

Ii-33
_'_,T)R I04

REVISED

MODEL

iB3

A full wave, age regulation,

crystal

diode

rectifier d-c.

is used

on one secondary,

with volt-

to provide

200 volts

_:

11-42.

T_T_HETRY

TRANSMITTERS transmitters are essentially of identical (See Figure ll-il)

The two telemetry They must be ground

adjusted

for an output the other using applied amplifier

B.3 watts.

One set is operated 260 HC.

at spproxlmAtely

228 MC while

is tuned

to approximately inputs

The transmitter circuits. stages tion Modulation

is an FM unit signals are

modulation to the stage.

from instrumentation which through four

oscillator

of doubling

feeds doubler

a power

All stages,

with

the excepFila-

of the final

and the power

amplifier, 200 volts

are transistorized. d-c, are obtained

ment voltage, separate mitter
f _

6.3 volts supply.

and B+ voltage, Capsule power,

from the

power

2_ volts d-c,

is applied

to the trans-

which

provides

voltage

regulation.

'

11-43.

C-BAND

BEACON transponder peak is a pressurized transmitter, 11-12). superheterodyne operating receiver and pulse range the

The C-Band modulated,

400 watt H_

output

in the frequency

of 5400 to 5900 unit

(See Figure

With the exception consists detector,

of the magnetron, local

is transistorized. hO MC IF amplifier cavities

The receiver ; strip, pulse

of a pre-selector, pulse amplifier

oscil-

lator, Resonant

and decoder.

are used

for the pre-selector accepts decoder

and local

oscillator. modulates the

The transmitter transmitter _--_::.:;;;;_. to The output: contains

section

outputs

and pulse

unit

a power

supply

for converting

capsule

24 volt

d-c input Antenna

filtered

24 volt d-c and regulated, an internal

ll5 and 150 volts

d-c outputs.

switching

is through

diplexer.

REPORT SE]_:_ 10_ MODEL_ 133 ii-_4. S-BAND BEACON

OA E

M'DONNE
_

.OA lovember E REVISED
REVISED

The S-Band modulated, 2700 I000 MC.

transponder watt peak

is a pressurized output transmitter

superheterodyne operating

receiver

and pulse range of is

in the frequency beacon, the unit

:;;;;_;;_

to 2900

(See Figure for the

ll-12). output

Like the C-Band tube.

transistorized Receiver beacon which with

except

and transmitter the exception

circuits

are the same as those , local

used

in the C-Band transmitter

of the pre-selector frequencies.

oscillator

and

are designed

for S-Band

ll-.5,

m/um='RECOVERY BEACON(See Figure -12)
The recovery beacon combines an HF, tone modulated, 8.364 MC transmitter and unit

a UHF, The UHF The HF power

pulse

modulated,

243 MC transmitter

into one s_Rs], with

foam encapsulated coding

section section

of the beacon of the beacon with

is a one tube circuit is a transistorized supplied

a pulse

network. stage .

crystal

oscillator converter. The UHF

and two

amplifier

tone modulation

f,o_ a power power system.

The beacon is A output

utilizes energized full which tion

6 and 12 volts by applying crystal

d-c frc_ the capsule

section

the 6 volt circuit

d-c to a transistorized is used to rectify

power

converter. converter

wave,

diode

the power

is applied

to the UHF stage. No power

Applying

12 volts

d-c energizes

the HF secinput. supply to

of the beacon. Nkxlulatiom

converter

is required

for the 12 volt

for the HF section stages through

is provided a secondary

by routln z the 12 volt windlng of the power

the power

amplifier

converter.

ii-_6. The power

A_JIARY Aux.

UHF RESCUE

_&CON consists in a of a pulse modulated case. transmitter (See Figure and ll-12). _..-=.

UHF Rescue which is

Beacon,

supply

enclosed

foam-encapsulated standby bus

The unit

Is connected

to the 6 volt

and has an output

of 91 watts.

._'vls_D .zvls_D
11-47. ANTENNA MULTIPLEXER multiplexer

sT.-ou=s a.Missou.l _

-._om" MOOre.

_]:)_ 104 Z33

The antenna .... ;_:_ capsule unit

allows

reception

and transmission or UHF recovery

of the many antenna. The

frequencies

over one line to the bicone of filters arr.nged

consists

of a number

so that single

all capsule feed llne.

frequencies Each input

between ch-n-el

15 8nd 450 MC can be multiplexed is provided 60 db of isolation.

on the

11-48.

RECOVERY

DIPLEXER dlplexer section unit is used for the HF recovery beacon. voice receiverand one high

The recovery traa_qm__tter and KF pass filter

of the recovery

One low pass

is used

to dlplex

8.36A and 15 _

on one feed line to the HF

recovery

antenna.

11-49. COAXIAL SWITCHES (A_ZNNA SWTrCH)
RF switching is accomplished d-c through with motor externs) driven SPUr switches. Application to the

of capsule appropriate

24 volts

circuits

drives Ithe switch

RF position

and opens

the power

circuit

for that pOsition.

11-50.

BICONE

ANTENNA is electrically structure divided in two sections. of these (See Figure ll-6). a

The capsule The antenna

fairing

at the Junction is center

sections cable

resembles from the

dlscone

antenna.

This

Junction

fed by

a coaxial

c_anicatlons acts llke .........
- I_:Z_:._

sets.

At frequencies A lower

between frequency Between

225 and 450 MC the antenna of 15 MC causes

fairing re-

discone

antenna.

the unit to

semble

an "off center

fed" dipole. as a composite antenna serves

the upper and lower i_m_ts, antenna. frequencies, ssion within

at 108

Me, the unit behaves Thus the bicone

dipole-discone ,II capsule and tran_

with the exception l_m_ts of the cap-

of C and S-bands, sule system.

allowing

reception

PAGE REPORT

ll-q6 $_ lOb.

M,DONNELL __
_ ISOLATOR

_t_4.

" DATE

_ N_v_'m_r IQgl

REVISED_ REVISED

MODEL_ 1_3 31-51. BICO_

An isolator is provided to shield electrical wires that pass through the bicone antenna fairing structure. The isolator is formed into a tube which is

.:_;=.:
':_:L:L

curved to allow mounting beneath the periphery of the antenna fairing.

1]-52.

_

DESCENT AND RECOVERY descent and recovery anten_ when the ante_T_es over the I._ functions of the (See Figure ll-6). _he

The _ bicone anten_

fairing is Jettisoned.

UEF descent and recovery anten_

is a fan shaped, vertically poIA_Ized monopole

located on the top of the recovery compartment.

1 ]-53.

HF RECOVERY

Upon landlng_ Impact circuits initiate a sequence for the EF recovery -nten_. (See Figure ll-6). _e elevated _tenma acts as a vertically polarized

monopole for EF frequencies.

11-54.

C AND S-BAND ANTENNAS _-','eentenna unlts serve the C and S band beacons. a (See Figure ii-6). Each

unit consists of a C and a S b_a helix antenna.

radiator.

_ch

radiator is a cavity mounted

II-55. _e

_T

CONFIGURATION

data contained in Paragral_hsii-i through ii-5_ a_plles to the specifiDeviations from this data as applicable to test Differences
L

marion compliance capsule.

configuration capsules are covered in the following tma'agraphs. mainly involve such th_s

as UHF Transmitter power output, pre-recorded tape

me_hed of voice mod,,1=tlng transmitters, sequencing _ifferences in tr-_-_Itter operation, ,-_illcal control of C and S band beacons.

gl

REVISED1 February_1962 REVtSEO1 May 1962

,-_ rr. Louts. Mtssoum "_

REPORT SEDR lOb MOOEt 133

11-56.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULFZ NO. 16 AND 18 on Capsules No. 16 and 18 are the same as the Specifi-

C_,n_cations

cation Compliance Capsule (Refer to Paragraphs ii-i thru 11-52),

J

::::......

J

RL_/'ISI_D

ST.

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

Rb'_pOR-i

_

104

R_,SEn.
telemetering output key, push to talk modes

"

.
umbilical

.

Moo_interphone,

133
amplifier see it

switch,

headset

and beacon

switch

of operation.

(For operation is made capsule.

of systems

Ccrm_unications

Table

ll-1).

If no reference compliance

to a particular

item,

is the same as the

specification

11-56.

TEST

CONFIGURATION systems except

CAPSULE

NO. 8 No. 8 are the same as the Specification for an unmanned programmed the Command 11-57 thru mission the

Communication Compliance therefore capsule Capsule

on Capsule that Capsule

No. 8 is intended control is either through

data pertaining or remotely

to Astronaut

within

controlled are

by ground explained

command

Receivers 11-67.

and De-coders. (See Figures 11-57. Voice

Differences ll-15 thru

in paragraphs

11-25).

Communications for Capsule Capsule No. 8 is similar to the Specification and is equipped to simulate with a

Voice Compliance playback voice

commauication Capsule,

except

No. 8 is un-m_nned tape

tape

recorder

containing= a pre-recorded

the Astronaut'2 (See with

which

will modulate ll-19

the KF and UHF transmitters This playback is staggered tape

in the capsule. recorder

Figures

ll-15,

and ll-R2).

is provided ll-14.

a dual track Starting

recording.

The output

as shown

on Figure

of the tape

recorder

,is controlled Switch

at the beginning

of the mission tape

by

the CAMERA record

AND TAPE RECORDER

in the blockhouse XIII).

or the additional tape

relay

(see Instrumentation prior to launch of tape

Section

The playback

recorder until 45

operation tape

begins

and continues recorder

thrca_hout

the mission

depletion. Single

Duration ended

i_,nn_ng time tape

Is approximately

minutes.

output

from the playback

recorder

is fed to the the relay the in

two separate voice turn

microphone relay

emrplifiers in the audio in the Audio

center

which energizes operated causing

operated completes

circuit

Center. recorder

The voice relay

a ground

circuit

to the tape

thus

REPORT MODEL

_ l_

].04

Mc, • ST. LO_J_It,SOU ,El.O TElOveber DONNE REVISED
_ REVISED tape recorder as w_ll as modulating to the main A push

modulation

signal to be routed

the HF and UHF tran._m_tters.

to talk

switch

is not utilized.

20 Sec. Audio _' _

i00 Sec. Silence _

20 Sac. I' Audio _

i00 Sec. Silence --_

----Sileoce 1(30 Sec.
FIGUEE
i,, i

Audio 20 Sec.
ll-14 FRE-RECORDED TAPE

Silence i00 Sec.
SE_JENUE

20 Sec.

Ii-58.

HF Voice

Communications Tape Recorder will transmit the playback recorder separation Audio since is outthe

The HF C_unication signal alternately

20 seconds tape

"on" and i00 is exhausted,

seconds

"off" until occurs

blcone first. only,

or until

the pre-recorded

whichever tape

put from the HF Receiver headsets conducted 11-59. and amplifiers through

is directed

into the main After

recorder

are not utilized.

impact

HF Cnm--Anications ll-15

the EF Recovery Communications

Tape Recorder.

(See Figures

and 11-20).

UHF Voice Operation

of the UKF

Main Tape Recorder ll-14) except

(T/R)

is similar

to the SpecificaAmplifier and the T/R the the UHF _-:_--is not

tion

Capsule

(refer to Paragraph The transmitter

the UHF Booster

installed. receiver except

is modulated

by the playback

recorder

output

is fed into the main channel

tape recorder

s_m_lar

to the EF Co_m.

that

an extra audio. Switch

in the main

tape recorder

is utilized

to record ,mless

receiver UHF Selector

The UH_ Voice

C_-mlcations in the

set is not utilized prior

should be placed

"U]_" position

to launch.

DATE,_o_._.,._,
REVISED
REVISED

MgONNELL_L_. _,o.,.._
S'I;.LOUIS,
_

P_E
REPORT
MODEL

.-'_.
SEDR 104 133

,

MISSOURI

o:_

_

f'"

..... r
.... _
.-J ._OZ

to_" z'-,

0

_,,

.,:

,

_.._

° S

<

2 g'l
[

_ 1 _ :_©i ! "
_

__"_ _

....
/

",
_:

. _8

.

,._ '!,,_

." / _ _

"X/_:-_X_'_ -_x,X.'

/__----_-.,_y

<,, _X-",.. ,

\

_

,"

_"

_,., v" _. .,: o. -'i;, :\ =o

S
_o_

"

,/_-'s\_c....

_ __.,,, .....

....

\

.*.
,

I

,_

X

.....

-:

--'_"

FI_ v x

_ ._

:..0.,.._,,3 ::_ ' _a,_ ,,¢z_:

_---_':"'

g_"_ ..,:-,,_,._,__,-,

Fr_uNE-,{I-I 5 V_'_E. COMM LINI-_,

"¢ST_.C.,A_"8, _. 9}.

REVISED REVISED _

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

E

_.2

1
/

/

...-,

\

<

/

_--

_

J

/

,,

--_.

_.

'z_,z._ 7 _

."'Q_/

_

\

//

" _,6_'_L_____?U_:_: =_=

.//(

W

\',
"'

_?< _<-<c<, \
; "'_-.-."_L

",_.-{-'<:_.,,.. :.
_ XX_-

r

/ ....... ----<-':,

.

_

-_.

/

I

I

%

,-

,

: '

......... '.
'x

_ X

..4z-/

--_ \

.,

o. Z° 7."_

-"--

%,X
/.. >,I. ..7"_,, , -,/-_.. . ..
/

-_ )._

., /
z "_
-I

.><" ",.,
-.. ,

/ _'____ ./G-7_, __-\X/7 ........... - _\ ._-,_-_._,,
:-=--_ -/ . .
,

: -- < ..... ,
',, I,
/ I

j
-= .:

,' .,.. ,
,

l

/,,_

l h
is

'

-.

u')

Z

/

- --. • .-2 ----

_ -

_ _-

FIGURE

11-17 TELEMETRY

SYSTEM

(CAPSULES 8 _ q)

,_:,_-i_£

DATE I November i%1
REVISED

M,DoN F,5
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI

_

PAGE
REPORT

11-43
.¢_,T}R 102

RV,sO

t R/BtJR

ITP

MOD
after impact

transmlsslon and reception is avallsble throughout the _sslon, ""

the receiver w/ll continue to feed its output to the main tape recorder; and the transmitter will emit voice signals until the pre-recorded tape is depleted after which a CW signal will be transmitted. direction finder signal. ll-60. HF Recover_ The CW signal also serves as a

(See Figure ll-15 and ll-21).

Tape Recorder (T/R) operation is s_m_lar to the Specification

HF Recovery Tape Recorder

Compliance Capsule (Refer to Paragraph ll-12), except that after impact the tran_m__tter will emit the pre-recorded tape voice signal until the tape is depleted, after which a CW signal will be emitted. The HF Recovery T/R is (See Figures 11-15

connected to an automatically raised whip type antenna.

ana ll-2o).
11-61. Command Receivers

The Ground Command Receiver operation is the same as the Specification Compliance Capsule (Refer to Paragraph ll-16), except the audio is routed into the main tape recorder instead of into the Astronaut's headset which is not used. The C and S Band Beacon operation is controlled through the C_-mAnd (See Figures 11-16 and 11-22).

receivers. 11-62.

Telemetr_
i

The:two telemetry tran_,Itters perform their functions in the same m-nner as in the Specification Compliance Capsules (Refer to Paragraphs 11-18 and 11-19) except that operation is continuous from launch to impact. ,..a Ii-23) • C .ha S'Band Beacons. |m Beacons is the same as the Specification (See Figures 11-17

11-63.

Operation of the C and S _,a

Compliance Capsule (refer to Paragraphs 11-21 and 11-22), except that both : beacons operate cantlnuously throughout the mission. The beacon switch must

i

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133 _

_¥_CO_U

I S :- M ISS O LI_II_ i

REVISED REVISED

F_EVISED REVISED _

ST_LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT MODEL

SI:DR 104 |33

UT_

--

_

_

z

I

oi

_u('_'" ,

]0

o
13

v a
C_ _ _n _ S

_= >- ! _ 8,,c= '
I I /

I
oJ o0. I

_I ez g

o a

z

I_
I.........

i

' J z o
0

_

< _
_..

_,_

.

,
O_

_es

FIGURE 11-20 HF VOICE CO_MMUNICATION£ DATA FLOW(CA_S. _ _ q)

_s-m?c

REPORT MODEL

SEDR104 133 _

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

=

=

,-,d Ez ,_ c,

==

,,-, _

,

z _

z

G

, z

_Lu-d:

_

_-c_ _

0

_o >OC)_>

_°_

0

cg

!

o

"=' _e" "_° ' )
_;_:_0:
I 1

o

o o

o. _._

;_

o

........

i

.

[_

I

r
I

_½7
_ :z
I _

[ _.
_

O__ I
]

i
I

_'_

l

:

_Oid J.. 03 N

.L.Ld

_.

_I--___o_ _

....Tt: : ....
I I_1o=, _s-_=_

1

FIGURE#I.I-_:I ,U [4F v0rcE _OMMUNICATION$ DATA FLOW(CAPSULES8 _, ) q

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133 _

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

2

(3

"_ .........

ov

uy

o

Jo_w

_

I _'__'

_ _'

_ 8

_i o-

,_@6_

.

_

_

_m

_1_---

,0 i_o ,gF-

4; " /qIz
FIGUQE [1.-23 TELEMF-TI:ZY _YSTEIV_ DAT,_ FLOW

'il
_
E8 _s-I_l_

..

n

I L-

I

I _x

:s;;,"

o
I

FIGURE

11-2SANTENNA

SYS"rEM SCHEMATIC .(CAPSULE5 8_q)

_,_-1840

REV|$ED.

M ,DONNES
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI

REPORT

"O_']_

lO_

R_VmED.

_

MOO_

133

be placed in the "Continuous" position prior to launch.

The S-Band Beacon is

double pulsed as on the Specification Compliance Capsule but the C-Band Beacon is single pulsed which requires different ground coding for interrogation. (See Figure ii-2_).

ll-6_.

Axixiliar_UEF Rescue Beacon and Antenna

Capsule No. 8 does not have the Aux. UEF Rescue Beacon installed, however it is equipped with an ultra Sarah Rescue Beacon which is a self-contalned unit, energized by blcone antenna separation and operation is automatic. (See Figure

11-24. )
11-65. Antennas

The antennas used on Capsule No. 8 are the same as the Specification Compliance Capsule 11-66. Main (Refer to Paragraphs 11-25 thru ll-31). Panel

Instrument

Capsule No. 8 does not use a tone generator. 11-67. S_>ecla Instrumentation I

Capsule No. 8 is equipped with special instrumentation and incorporates an extra capsule tape recorder. This tape recorder is located in the special channels f_

instrumentation p_llet and consists of a power supply and seven recording.

The extra tape recorder is controlled through the com-micatiQns

control panel (Refer to Section XIII Instrumentation. ).

1.1-68.TEST CONFIFAIKA2ION CAPSULE NO. 9 Capsule No. 9 is the same as the Specification-Compliance Capsule except for differences as noted in Paragraphs 11-69 through 11-71. (See Flgures 11-15

.......
11-69.

u-25).
Voice C_cations for Capsule No. 9 is similar to the Specification tape recorder is installed to simulate the

Voice ccm_Licatlons

CcRpliance CapaaAleexcept a p_ck

REPORT _DR MODEL_ 133 Astronaut's installed ll-70.

"IOb ,

MCDONNELL
_ as in Capsule playback No. 8. A Special

REVISED REVISED Instrumentation

ove ber
Relay is 11-57).

voice, to provide

tape

recorder

control.

(Refer to Paragraph

C and S Beacons of the C and S Band Beacons (Refer to Paragraphs The beacons is the same as the Specification that both "Continuous"

Operation Compliance beacons position ll-T1.

Capsule

ll-21 switch

and 1_I-22), except must be placed

are on c_atinuous. prior to launch. UHF Rescue 9 does

in the

_n_liary No.

Beacon

and Antenna Beacon installed, however, unit,

Capsule

not have

the Aux. UKF Rescue Rescue Beacon,

it is equipped energized by

with

an Ultra antenna

Sarah

which

is a self contained

blcone

separation

and operation

is automatic.

(See Figure

11-25).
I-1-72. TEST CO_FZGURATION CAPSULES NO. i0,

13 AND 16
same as the ll-Sb,).

Cr,_,....anications Capsules on Specification Compliance Capsule

No. i0, 13 and i_ are the (Refer to Paragraphs

ll-1 thru

i ......

12-1

---

SECTION

Xll

NAVIGATIONAL

AIDS

i_
E= _ _ _ __._--i : _:
_TT ] _

TABLE
TITLE

OF CONTENTS

PAGE
I } I ill ll _ I III I I I _1 t _titl I I I I I I I t t I ! I ll I I i I i

GENERAL PERISCOPE ...........................

...............

12-4 12-4

ii_]iiii_

SATELLITE CLOCK ................................
EARTH PATH INDICATOR .................... ALTIMETER . . .. .
i J J i t J I J J I i i ! J J I i It i I t J ill J J J i J i J J J i i

12-14
12-17 12-18

iiii!ii_i_ii_

LONGITUDINAL

ACCELEROMETER ...... .12-18

ATTITUDE RATE INDICATOR ................ 12-26 NAVIGATIONAL AID KIT ................... 12-27 TESTCONFIGURATION ....................... 12-27

.:._L_._.:.L._._

i !i!i_i

.......... ..-

!i !i !i i i i i !i

REVISED

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REPORT

SEDR

104

F1EVISED

_

MODEL

133

COVER

FtGUP, E 12-_ PERISCOPE ASSEMBLY

(5HF.ET ?_OF 2)

REPORT___ MODEl

1 -4

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS,. MISSOURI __

REVISED REVISED

l o ember
~ •

133

XII.

NAVIGATIONAL

AIDS

AND INSTRUMENTS

12-1.

GENERAL Normally the Astronaut will not find or landing. with it necessary to compute the need required any of the should arise;

'_::_ "

factors however,

relative

to his flight

In the event

the Astronaut course_

is provided

all the equipment data, and to attain

to compute the

altitude, proper

velocity

and landing phase of the

and maintain

attitude

for each

flight.

12-2.

PERISCOPE The periscope

DESCRIPTION is a compact navigational consists instrument of three designed to withstand The

loads

up to I00 G's. assembly,

The periscope housing

major

assemblies: housing

display

the upper

assembly 3 and the lower in the capsule

assembly.

(See Figure cartridge bottom

12-1. )

The periscope

is mounted

so that the objective door opening door is by in the

may be extended capsule.

and retracted

through

a periscope

of the

The opening

and closing

of the periscope of the objective during

synchronize d with the extension means begins of a mechanical with link.

and retraction

cartridge

Periscope

progrmmming_ the capsule

a normal

mission, on

the periscope capsule capsule during

extended

while

and booster

are still

the pad. retracted remains

UpOn until

umbilical

discoDluect, the periscope At this time seconds

retracts

and remains and

separation. orbit.

the periscope

extends

extended

Thirty

after

retro-packase feet

separationj the impact. sequence left sad MAN

the periscope periscope Follow_ng

is again

retracted.

At approximately and remains

I0,000

altitude,

is extended umbilical the

for the last time

extended

throughout "HOLD" on the

:.._;..:.

disconnect periscope

and just prior automatically

to launch, extend.

if the Located

is initiated, hand console

will

is the RETRACT

SCOPE telelight

and a switch

which has AUTO

REVISED REVISED

ST.LOUIS, _ " ,

MISSOURI "_

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 133

104

FIGUPEIZ-2. PEtE

DISPLAY (,SHEETiOF t 5NEETS)

.PM,_-,,ZA-,

REPORT. MODEL

SEDR 104: 133

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED

\

'-i- '

L/ )

5* LEFT

_OLL

CAPSULE

LEVE _-

EXAMPLE NO.l.

EXAMPLE

NO.2_.

'o'
_
I/l_

o'
_
--L

_
L

',;_
',2 ,':

"

'_L

L

!l:1 //Vi

CAPSULE 5MALLEND P_TC_4ED_o 5ELOW ORBIT ATTITUDE

CAPSULE. IN _ETP.O_NADE ATTITUDE

E:%AIVlPLF.. NO.3.

EXAMPLE NO. 4:.

FIGUI:2E 1'2.-?.. EE21SC..OIDE IS_L/_,',F CSWIEET '2 01::_') P D

p,._s-_,z-7.

REVISED

ST._'_""_*_'_'LOUIS 3,

MISSOURI

REPORT

_ L''_l_.

104

REVISED

_

MODE

t.

1,_3

positions. separation,
.w:,:=:::

If the periscope the RETRACT position

does

not retract

40 seconds The

after switch

retro-package is then placed

SCOPE telelight periscope

will go on. is retracted concerning pitch_

............ in the

MAN

and the

manually. the

The following position retro of the sun

navigational relative a_le, and

information

can be obtained Drift, altitude,

capsule's

to the earth: of view

roll,

true

vertical, bearings

field

of the earth-sky

camera

and relative

moon.

12-3.

DISPLAY

ASSEMBLY assembly (See Figure reticles, horizon 12-1 and 12-2) attitude image includes the following: controls light. for It pro-

The display Scales, their

indicators,

altitude earth

reticles

and the

manipulation,

image,

and the retract

pilot

is mounted vides

at the top of the upper with a visual

housing indication

assembly.

The display

assembly and

the Astronaut relative

of the capsule's h_m with

altitude

attitude cators

to the earth. for obtaining

It also provides bearings relative

the necessary end moon.

indiWhen the

and scales

to the sun of the

the earth is centered altitude reticles will

in the display, depict

the portion horizon.

image bordering

the earth's a vertical erection

The center

of the view spherical straight

(crossllne earth down 12-4.

reticle)

represents Image

line to the center is such that

of the

(see Figure views True

12-3).

the horizon

and

are true. Vertical and 0_tical Vertical (see Figure 12-3)j as compared capsule to the is perpendicular is optically down at l_

In the true vertical ::::_:_.,.......... optically vertical

attitude

attitude, the center

the longitudinal of the spherical when

axis of the earth.

to a llne through vertical degree with

The capsule is pitched

respect

to the earth

the capsule

nose

-ngle °

MODEL REPORT

133 SEDR 104

_

REVISED

_J A.

O>

FI&UP-.E IZ-S VEHICLE. ATTITUbES

PM,_5-z_

%._

• _1

,

i !_/

__ji

im

.--

DAT_
I::tEVISED. REVISED,

1November

1961

,M;DONNELL
ST. LOUIS _

3, MISSOURI

REPORT. MODEL

12-9 104
SEDR

104

........ _ .... _;;_:_

12-5.

Altitude When the capsule is in the optically by means vertical attitude, mechanism. the altitude of the

capsule includes display Turning

may be determined four pairs area, the the

of the altitude which

This mechanism within the circular 12-2). square

of altitude knob

reticles,

form a square indicator the

altitude

and the altitude the reticles

(see Figure size of the

altitude the

knob moves scale

to change

and also rotates

of the altitude

indicator.

To determine the earth's

altitude, image is

the knob is turned inscribed read below center within

to change the inner square

size of the square until formed by the reticles. The point

the

The altitude surface

is then

from the altitude the capsule is

indicator. indicated area°

on the earth's reticle

vertically at the

by the crossline crossline

which

appears

of the display

The

reticle

is illuminated knob.

by a lamp, indicais of lOO

the brightness tion r_nge

of which

is controlled

by the reticle miles.

The altitude mechanism the below rnnge

extends

from 50 to 250 nautical altitude within within

The altitude miles.within at altitudes above

calibrated

to indicate miles, +50

+5 nautical miles

to 140 nautical miles 12-6. and within Pitch

+lO nautical miles

lOO nautical miles.

nautical

at altitudes

140 nautical

andRoll and roll degree by of the capsule with respect to its optical vertical 12-5)

The pitch attitude

may be approx_=_ted between

use of the altitude curves which

mechanism

(see Paragraph

The distance reticle ::.
(.:_

the parallel

form each

side of the altitude of ll5 nautical the reticle relative image.

square

is equivalent

to a 5-degree

angle

at an altitude impossible curves

miles. square

If the vehicle so that both

is off pitch,

it will be

to adjust

the fore

and the aft reticle on the drift

(reticle

curves

to the 180 ° and O° positions z ..... If the vehicle and right

scale) are tangent

to the earth

is off in roll, it will curves tengent

similarly

be impossible

to make the left the approximate

reticle

to the earth

image.

-To determine

REPORT SEDR i0_ MODEL 33 1 pitch either _lej the reticle or aft the reticle by

_m_ _

"___m

REVISED REVISED so that the horizon of pitch) edge _m_ge lies across inner lies reticle inside curve the of ::_v;_;:;

square is adjusted (depending upon that

the fore

the direction the opposite 12-_

by approximately opposite pitch image outer pitch 12-7. inner

same amount curve

horizon

(see Figure

Sheets that

1 and 2).

The degree

is estimated extends curve. angle. Drift Vehicle drift

comparing the _nner

the distance curve with

the one

side of the horizon the inner same manner and as

across

the distance is determined

between in the

The approximate

roll

angle

is determined

by reference plate covering

to

five parallel circular by means

drift

reticles area (see knob. scale

etched Figure A clear covers

on the face of the drift 12-2, Sheet i).

the

display

The drift scale

plate

is rotated under

of the drift The drift To

plastic plus

drift

is mounted

the drift

plate.

and minus

5 degrees

of drift

in increments

of one degree.

determ//le naut then

drlft_ rotates

the periscope the drift view

is set for high

power magnification. track

The Astroin the of the

knob until

the ground

of the capsule The drift

central capsule to the 12-8. _e

high power is then drift

appears

to parallel

the drift

lines. drift

indicated

by the position

of the center

line with respect

scale. _le reticles provide ahtitude an indication prior of whether or not the capsule proper retroiiiiiii::;

Retrograde retrograde

is in the proper grade angle

retrograde from

to re-entry. attitude

To achieve

starting

the optically drift

verticle

at an altitude must

of 115

nautical down

miles

and with

zero image

-ngle,

the nose

of the capsule

be pitched

until

the horizon reticles L_-2,

at the bottom

of the display the lower

is tangent

to the three area

retrograde (see Figure

which

form an arc across

half

of the display

Sheet

2).

D,,TE 1 November
RI:,'V|SED. RE:.'VISED.

1961

_ M_DONN__
ST. LOUIS _,

__
3, MISSOURI

PAGE
REPORT MODEl.

12-11
_ED_ 10t

133

,

12-9.

Sun-t_on A ring

Index sun-moon index is mounted scale, used to indicate the circular relative display bearings area (see of Figure

shaped

sighted 12-2,

objects, Sheet I).

so as to

frame

The index ring is manually rotated by means of a finger-grip from zero to 360 degrees. A sun index is mounted at

control.

The index scale is calibrated

:indicator, which enables

sighting on the sun to obtain bear!_s,

the zero degree position of the sun-moon index scale.

A moon index indicator,

• which _n_bles sighting on the moon for bearings, is mounted at the 180 degree positlom of the sun-moon index scale. Bearings are read off the sun-moon index

scale at the sun-moon bear_ug index mark located on the display assembly directly in front of the Astronaut. 12-I0. Earth-Sky Camera View

Four camera reticles located at the right center of the display area give the approximate included 12-11. outline of the field-of-view equipment of the earth-sky camera which is

in the capsule Orbit Velocity

(see Figure 12-2, Sheet i).

The crossline reticle is used to aid in the computing of orbital velocity (see Figure 12-2, Sheet i). A stopwatch is started as the first check-point When the second checkpoint passes under With this elapsed time, the orbit

passes under the crossline reticle. the crossline

reticle, the watch is stopped.

velocity is computed by employing the satellite hand computer.

12-12. •........ :_:_=.

UPPER

HOUSING

ASSEMBLY assembly will incorporate the following functional comcb,_e

The upper hous_ ponents=

Two periscope mirrors, a filter installation, a m__ification

control mechanism,

a m_nual extenslon-retraction control, a housing exhaust the

valve, a desiccator assembly which includes the housing intake valve and housing imirging valve.

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL. l_

MiDONNELL
d_Ul$, __

MISSOURI

O ,El ovem er
REVISED REVISED ,assembly as to present the

12-i3. Periscope Mirrors The mirrors are so situated in the upper housing

earth's image at a convenient angle to the observer (see Figure 12-4). 12-14. Filters

:;_=:_'_

The upper housing assembly contains a clear_ a red, a yellow and a medium neutral density filter. The filters are mounted in a rack which can be rotated The filter rack is manually

to position the desired filter in the optical path. driven through a system of pulleys

and cables by means of the filter selector (see Figure 12-1,

which is located on the left side of the upper housing assembly Sheet 1 of 2). optical 12-15. path. Fm_nification ChanGe Control Detents

accurately position the filters with respect to the

The periscope optic system is capable of high and low magnification. change in magnification is brought about by manipulation

The

....

of the magnification

changer (see Figure 12-i, Sheet I of 2). 12-16. Manual Extension-Retraction extension-retraction Control mec_hanism enables the objective cartridge to

The manual

be extended and retracted manually consists of a manually drive assembly

(._eeFigure 12-1, Sheet 1 of 2).

The mechanism

driven gear sy, tem which s assembly

couples to the gear box and motor a manually operated clutch.

of the lower housing

through

The gear system is driven by the ratchet handle on the right side of the upper housing assembly. The ratchet handle is pulled up to place _t in operat_ For manual manipuThe ratchet pawl affixed to naviga-

position and pushed dow_ to place it.in the stowed position. lation, the manual engage lever will be in the down position. arm will determine the direction of motion (see instructions

:: ...

tional id a kit) .....

=.AVE 1 November _EVlSEO
FI!EV|SED

i_61 ST.-OUlS
_

PAGIZ 3, M,SSOURI

12-13 104

REPORT, SEDR
MOD l='I'

..... .

12-17.

Intake

and Exhaust and exhaust

Valve valve (see Figure the passage 12-1, Sheet 2 of 2) allows the

The intake upper upper intake exceeds housing housing housing. to

'horeathe" without The intake valve tube

of dirt to the inside valve body cabin

of the to which pressure the

is mounted

in an intake

end of a desiccant that inside

is attached. housing,

When the ambient valve admits

the upper

the intake

air to the upper removed

through

a desiccant

(silica

gel).

Moisture

and dirt

is thus

from the entering components. an attachment gas.

air to minimize valve

condensation

and dust

deposits

on optical an inlet and

A purging point

(see Figure

i_ Sheet housing

2 of 2) provides assembly

when purgin_

the upper

with dry nitrogen

12-18.

LOWER

HOUSING housing

ASSEMBLY assembly consists items of a structural are mounted limit shell housing the shell:

The lower objective

cartridge.

The following motor,

on the structural assembly

Extension-retraction illumination 12-19. assembly

gear box,

lower

switch

and a reticle

(see Figure

12-1,

Sheet

2 of 2).

Object ive Cartrldse cartridge houses the objective lens, power cbsnge lens and shell.

The objective the collective A connecting the door lens

(see Figure

12-_).

It is mounted cartridge

inside

the structural door

link between in u_ison

the objective with

and the periscope

allows

to move

the telescopic

motion

of the objective

cartridge

(see Figure ;:;::;_ " L;" 12-_.

12-i). and Collective objective by the lens Lens provides a wide field of view the (approximately lens, 180°).

0b_ective Wide-angle

Light

gathered image

objective

lens passes 12-_).

through

collective

where

the first

is formed

(see figure

REPORT MODEL_ 12-21.

__J)R .104 1,_ Power power

1 -14
Chan_e change

M ,DONNELjL . " _t LOUI
_ Lens lens (see Figure 12-4) linkage. 12-1).

_

DATE 1 November REVISED REVISED

1961

.-can be moved in and out of the iinkage is actuated operation

The

optical path by means of a mechanical by the magnification the power operation, change the lens changer is moved

The mechanical For low power path; while

(see Figure

periscope

out of the optical

for high power

lens

is moved

int0 the optical

path.

12122.

SATELLITE

CLOCK satellite clock is an electro-mechanical display TIME timing device

The specification located clock GRADE wound upper grade, drum above

and to the right time

of the periscope TII_E FROM

assembly.

The satellite

will TIME

indicate

of day,

LAUNCH,

TO RETROGRaDe. and RETROreflected watch by a manually in the

(see Figure

12-5).

The time watch.

of day will be wound

spring-drlven left-hand

movement of the Time

The manually •clock.

is located

corner

satellite

Time

From

Launch,

Time To RetroThe

and Retrograd@ will

will be displayed time in hours,

on drum counters and seconds.

(digldlal). The time digldial

counters

indicate

minutes

elements be

will move

in one step

increments. located

The Time

To Retrograde right-hand

will

supplemented clock,

by a telellght, which will

in the upper 5 minutes
i

corner of time; is

the in

satellite addition initiated matically button

illuminate an aural

prior

to retrograde headset clock

to the telelight, lO seconds started by prior

signal

to the Astronaut's The satellite this

to retrograde

time.

is autoa push

28V d-c power at above

liftoff.

Should

not occur,

switch

is provided

and adjacent

to the clock

to allow

the Astronaut iiii:i;

to energize the clock (a_d maximum altitude sensor)manually. The retrograde time is normally computed and set prior to flight, but the retrograde reset handle) time can or remotely the

be manually set through

ch-_ged

by the Astronaut receivers.

(retrograde Ten minutes

time prior

the command

to retrograde •time,

REVISED REVISED _{_':

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI , _ .

REPORT " MODEL

SEDR 104 133

• _

.e _

_

.....___,.

:v:::::::::

DRIFT LINE PLATE

UPPER HOUSING

ASSEMBLY

FIELD LENSES

MIRROR

__...._

MIRROR

-,

LOWER

HOUSING

ASSEMBLY

E P_CI"O R LENS OB JECTIV_ CARTRIDGE

OBJECTIVE LENS

/,F

\

FIGURE 12-4 i.

OPTICAL

SYSTEM

SATELLITE PERISCOPE

P_i.,_.z_

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133 _

ST.LOUIS,

MIssouRI

REVISED REVISED

;_.:;;::.:..

rEARTH PATH INDICATOR

_YP.)

?,E SET HANDLE

SATELLITECLOCK

FIGURE12-_5_ EARTH PATH INDICATOR AND SATELLITECLOCK

PM4S-H3B

FLEVISED

ST.

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

REPORT.

SEDR

104

_EVlSE=
.... _. :_: satellite clock transmits and assures retrograde retrograde outputs

_

MOO_L 1_
scanners operating

a signal to the ASCS to start horizon rate g"dro operation time_ in preparation points

continuously Upon reaching initiating digidials

for retro

sequence. close,

a set of contact Time

within

the clock

the

sequence.

From Launch

and Retrograde

Time

provide

for telemetering.

12-23.

EARTH PATH The earth path

INDICATOR indicator gimballed (see Figure 12-5) consists of a spherical to indicate powered which map.

(globe) of the earth position capable mately under the

and rotating The indicator

in a manner

ground and is is approxifeatures:

capsule. 20 hours

is spring motor The globe_

of running 3.85 inches

without will

re-winding. display

in diameterj

the following

geographical

(i) _ (2) (3) (4) (5)

All continents All bodies of water having major d_mensions of 300 statute miles

The sixteen largest All islands All known having

rivers of the world major dimensions clusters major of 500 stat'ute miles separated dimensions from continents 500

islands

or island

by 300 statute statute (6) (7) miles

miles

and having

less than

shall be

identified

by an

.020 diameter by

circle. .020 dots.

The fifty largest 15 ° latitude

cities

of the world are identified lines are presented indicator

and longitude

and numbered. to wind the spring motor

Controls and to adjust :_,,,_;:

are provided the

on the face of the adjust axis. orbit

orbit time,

inclination

and to slew the globe area is displayed the point orbital as a of impact. position is

about the earth rectangle

and the orbital

The touchdown of the rectangle ahead

and the luminous area is 3040

dot inside nautical

being

The landing
f

miles

of instantaneous

above

the earth

as indicated by cabin

by the four ring bullseye. floodlights.

The instrument

externally

lighted

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL_ 133 12-24. ALTIMETER

MCDONNEL L ._
.... "

REVISED I Hay 1962 REVISED

lovem,er 1961

The altimeter visually indicates external pressure above sea level. Section I for location.)

(See

It is a single revolution type, calibrated from 0 to Static connects to

lO0,O00 feet, with a marker at lO,O00 (MAIN) and 20,000 (SNORKEL). pressure is obtained from a centrally located plenum chamber which

four static ports section. 12-25.

spaced equally around the small end of the capsule conical is lighted externally by cabin floodlights.

The instrument LONGITUDINAL

ACCELEROMETER is a self-contained unit which is housed in a hermetically is designed

The accelerometer sealed enclosure.

(See Section

I for location.)

The accelerometer

to indicate acceleration in the range O to -9 and 0 to +21 g units (acceleration of 32.2_feet per second per second). Attached to the face of the accelerometer The

are three pointers. remaining positive _o

One pointer will ifidicateinstantaneous acceleration. are memory pointers. One memory pointer will record negative acceleration. The

pointers

acceleration will

and the other will record incorporate a ratchet

memory pointers

device which will maintain

a deflec-

tion until they are reset by means of a reset knob which left hand corner of the accelerometer.

is located in the lower

12-26.

ATTITUDE-RATE

INDICATOR indicator is a three axis angular at the top Center rate and attitude indi-

The Attitude-Rate cating panel. The unit system located

approximately

of the "main instrument

It is designed to indicate attitude and the rate of change of attitude. is a composite arrangement consisting of a rate indicator around Which

..,v.v:::;

are positioned a roll attitude indicator, a yaw attitude indicator and a pitch attitude indicator (See Section I, Figure 1-15). three pointers. The rate indicator will display --

The rate of roll pointer is the pointer which is parallel to the

REVISED i REVISED

_!_t._r I_:_ _

s-r. -ou,s. Mmsoum

REPORT SEDR

loll •

133
MODEL

pointer of the roll attitud2 indicator. ;..; _=

The rate of y_w anC rate of _iteh

pointers are pointed towards the yaw and pitch attitude Indicators respectively. %1_ c_onents are cc_91etely interchangeable. The fail_re of one component w111 The attitude-

not necessitate recalibration or replacement of allied components.

rate indicator is activated by pitch rate, roll rate and yaw rate tran=ducers. Each transducer consists of a gyroscope, an amplifier and a demodulator. components function together to produce a d-c output si_! input rate of ¢hanZe of attitude. These

proporti_--] to the

12-27.

NAVIGATIONAL AID KIT and. a

The navigational aid kit c nslsts of a neoprene coated nylon case, binder assembly. It is mountei to _he periscope d_ectly

below the circular

display area (see Figure 12-1, Sheet i of 2). a n,_,herof index cards. rate cards and navi_tion_1 partlc-!_ assembly: capsule mlsslon.

The binder assembly consists of

The index cards _111 be used to file check lists_ charts that SbA!1 be provided as re_ulred by the The following items are attached to the binder The

Pencil hold2r, mechanical pencil and nylon retention springs.

pencil holder is fabrlc_ted from neoprene coated nylc_ and i8 sewn to the case. The me_-_cal pencil is secured to the binder s_s_l_ by means of a nylon a_eembly tO

retention spring.

A nylo_ retention spr_n_ =1=o secures the b_-_r

the neoprene cc_ted nylon ca_e.

I_-28. 12-29. 12-30.

TEST CCRFIG_%ATI0_ CAPSUr,_: TEST CCRFI_ON General the same 8,8 the specification capsule. (See CAPS[_._ 16 AND 18

Capsules 16 and 18 are !_,.a_._lly . Some differences _I e_-t

in the location of the various instrunent_. Other _*ferences

Section I for i-=trume_t panel Illustration.)

are enu_ericated

_n the f_t_@_.g _gra_.

REPORTS_R MODEL_l_ L_-3I.

lO_ .,._

_ LOUIS, MlS$_ "_"_" __"_'_" $1'.

REVISED i _ REVISED,

1_2

Periscope .;::: ... .

Capsule 16 w_11 have provision_ for telemetering periscope door closure. Before ground operation of periscope, observe operation! to the navigation-s aid kit (see Figure 12-1). instructions attached

12-32.

Altimeter

The altimeter used in Capsule 16 have markings at the 20,000 and i0,000 foot levels to indicate when the snorkel valves and main parachute, respectively will actuate. 0 feet and advancing Along the outer edge of the instrument dlal starting at to 28,000 feet are psia indications which are as follows:

0 feet 15 psia3 i0,O00 feet i0 psia and 28,000 feet 5 psi_.

12-33.

Attltude-P_te Indicator NOTE

External appearance of attitude-rate indicator display is the same for all capsules except for color of pointers and as follow_: Om Capsule 16, the pitch dial of the display mates with the zero pitch rate index at -34 degrees.

1_-34.

Earth Path Indicator 16 au_ 18 w_11 mot have the Earth Path indicator inst-11 ca.

Capsules

REVISED.

l ovember

Mc'DONNELL
ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT.

12-21
_EDR

10_

REV,S_'O.
(b) Read orbital

"_
tangential on scale D. velocity in N.M./hr. velocity in nautical miles

MOO_

133

per minute

(N.M./min.) _ ;:_ (c) Read orbital

tangential

on scale

A opposite

altitude II. Sample Given :

on altitude

scale (at 3.6 on B scale).

Problem

Angular time

position

= = =

48 degrees 12 minutes 120 N.M. velocity in N.bl./min. and orbital

altitude Required: Orbital

tangential

t_.ugential velocity Operation _. _ (2) (3) (i) : 12 (1.2) min.

in N.M./hr.

Set the time 48 degrees Read Read orbital orbital

on scale A.

B opposite

angular

position

(4.8) on scale tangential t_ngential

velocity velocity

248.39

N.M./mln. N.M./hr.

on scale on scale

D. A

14,903.4

opposite C. To compute per minute as follows (a) : orbital

120 on the tangential

altitude velocity

scale when

(at 3.6 on scale B). ground speed in nautical miles

(N.M./min.)

and altitude

in nautical

miles

are known,

proceed

Set the altitude on the scale A.

zero (0) on the E scale opposite the ground

speed

(b) - .,=-ILl.

Read scale

orbital E.

t_-_ential

velocity

on scale

A opposite

altitude

on

Sample Given ground :

Problem

speed

=

239.6

N.M./min.

Mc, DONNELLL
v altitude Required: = 120 N.M. tangential velocity in N.M./min.

l ovember

Orbital

Operation : (1) Set altitude zero (0) on scale E opposite the ground speed 239.6 (2) Read (2.396) N.M./min. on scale A. 248.00 N.M./min. on scale A

....

the orbital altitude

tangential 120 N.M.

velocity

opposite

on scale E.

NOTE Conversion ground but of orbital tangential velocity to

speed

is the same

as the above on

procedure

in reverse. t_ngential

Set altitude velocity

scale E opposite A then read

orbit

on scale

ground speed on scale A opposite zero (0) altitude on scale E. 12-28. A. Orbital Angle orbital proceed angle when ground distance in nautical miles (N.M.)

....

To compute is known, (a)

as follows: B opposite the degree index mark (located at 1.67)

Set 1.O of scale of the A scale.

(b) I.

Read orbital Sample Given ground :

angle on the A scale opposite

the distance

on the B scale.

Problem

distance

_=

2880 N.M. orbital _gle

...:..

.::z.:..:::

Required: Operation: (1)

Corresponding

.....

Set 1.0 of B scale opposite degree of the A scale.

index mark

(located at 1.67)

_=ATE
|REVISED

i November

1961
ST. LOUIS 3, MISSOURI

pAGE
RE_ORT

12-2_
_R ] (_

_EVlSED. /..... (2) Read equivalent

_ orbital angle of 48 degrees

MO_e.

133 A

on scale

opposite

the distance

2880 NOTE

(2.88) N.M.

on the B scale.

The procedure ground known. index degree distance

is the when

same for find_n E the orbital angle is

Set 1.0 on B scale mark on A scale then

opposite opposite

degree to any ground

on the A scale

the equivalent

distance B. To Calculate proceed orbital

is read on the B scale. when latitude and orbital inclination are known,

angle

as follows: NOTE The G scale has two sets of numbers. clockwise, while The are

p

plain used in

numbers,

increasing drift

for computing

the numbers

parenthesis,

increasing

cotmterclockwlse, angle. on F scale. inclination on F scale.

are used (a) (b) II. Set zero Read

for computing opposite

orbital latitude

(0) of G scale angle

orbital Problem

on G scale opposite

orbital

Sample Given: ground orbital

latitude inclination Orbital :

=

12 degrees

29 minutes

-- 30 degrees _nzle

.-_j£-:

Required : Operation ,-_ (I) (2)

Set zero Read

(0) of G scale angle

opposite

latitude

14 ° 29' on F scale. orbital inclina-

orbital

(30°) on G scale opposite

_.T;S-

All-/_

",

REPORT .nR .q lok
MODEL 1,_

M ,DONNEL_ L
_ tion ° on F scale. 30

sT.LOUIS, MISSOUm

REWSEO
REVISED

l ovember

3.

To compute

latitude

when

orbital

angle

and orbital

inclination

are known,

proceed asfollows: (a) (b) D. Set orbital angle on G scale opposite orbital inclination on F scale.

Read latitude on F scale opposite _gle of inclination when

zero (0) on G scale. latitude _nd orbital Angle are known,

To compute .proceed (a) (b) as

follows:

Set zero (0) of G scale opposite latitude on F scale. Read Drift drift when orbital inclination, orbital _ngle proceed in degrees and orbital inclination on F scale opposite orbital angle on G scale.

12-29. A.

To compute orbital (a)

velocity

in degrees angle

per minute

are known, opposite

as follows: of inclina".....

Set the orbital

on the G scale

the angle

tion on the F scale. (b) Read the drift on the in the lower I scale. window opposite the orbital angular

velocity I.

Sample Problem Given: orbital inclination orbital angle orbital angular Drift velocity = , 32°

= 0O = 4°/rain.

Required : Operation: (1)

Set orbital inclination

angle on the

0° on the G scale F scale.

opposite

32° angle

of

(2)

Read drift 1.897° in lower window opposite 4° orbital angular velocity on the I scale.

--_

REVISED.

"

ST.'LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

SEDR

104

.EV,SED
f -

"__
Orbital Ground orbital S_ed ground speed, we must first

MODEL

133

12-30. A.

To compute

find the effective

component ground

of the earth's speed. must

tangential

velocity

and then

add it to the indicated component, and the the

To find the

earth's

tangen£ial

velocity

following tangential proceed

be known:

Orbital

inclination, When the

orbita.1 angle above information

earth's

velocity as

at the equator.

is available,

follows : NOTE In the following presentations, according the F and desig-

G scale is not used nation. (a) ....
7

to their

They are to be used as directed. on the G scale opposite 90 degrees (zero)

Set the orbital

inclination

degrees) on the F scale. (b) Read effective component of earth's tangential velocity on the A scale on the B scale.

opposite (c) Orbital component I. Sample Given: earth's orbital orbital indicated _:_

the earth's ground

tangential

velocity

at the" equator ground speed plus

speed will be

indicated

effective

of earth's

tRngential

velocity.

Problem

tangential inclination angle ground Orbital

velocity

at the equator

= = ,=

15 N.M./mln. 30 degrees 0 degree 240 N.M./min.

speed ground speed.

=

Required : 0pe r at ion : (1)

Set the orbital orbital angle

inclination

30 degrees (90 degrees)

on the G scale

opposite

zero degrees

on the F scale.

REPORT SE];)_ 104 MODEL_ i:_ _

ST. LOUI._. MlSSOURI__

REVISED REVISED

(2)

Read 12.99

effective (1.299)

component N.M./min.

of earth's

effective

tangential

velocity .. "

on the A scale 15

opposite

the earth's on the B

tangential scale. (3) Orbital plus or

velocity

at the equator

(1.5) N.M./min.

ground

speed

= indicated

ground

speed

(240 N.M./min.) velocity (12.99)

effective

component

of earth's

tangential

252.99

N.M./min. NOTE Effective orbital purposes earth velocity for is constant; all practical constant

ground

speed

can also

be considered

for any given

orbit.

12-31.

A_q_ITUDE-RAZ_

INDICATOR indicator is a three axis angular rate and attitude instrument of attitude. around which indi-

The Attitude-Rate cating panel, The unit system located

appro×_mately to indicate arrangement attitude

at the top attitude

center

of the main of change indicator indicator

It is designed is a composite a roll

and the rate of a rate

consisting

are positioned attitude three

indicator, I, Figure

a yaw attitude 1-15).

and a pitch will display to the

indicator

(see Section

The rate

indicator

pointers.

The rate

of roll pointer indicator. the

is the pointer

which

is parallel

pointer pointers

of the roll attitude are pointed towards

The rate of yaw and rate of pitch attitude indicators respectively. will

yaw and pitch

All components not necessitate rate indicator Each transducer

are completely recalibration is activated consists

interchangeable. or replacement by pitch

The failure of allied

of one component The

;,;_,_

components.

attitude-

rate 3 roll rate an amplifier

enA yaw rate transducers. and a demodulator. These

of a gyroscope,

--I-- --I ..... " : :. l

F{EVISED.

ST.

J-OUI$

3,

MISSOURI

REPORT.

SERE

10_

aEVlSCD. .-.
..:.-.'.':':._

,_

MODe.

133

components function together to produce a d-c output sigual proportional to the input rate of change of attitude.

12-32.

NAVIGATIONAL AID KIT aid kit consists of a neoprene It is mounted coated nylon case, a binder

The navigational assembly

and a computer board.

to the periscope directly below The binder assembly

the circular display area (see Figure 12-1, Sheet 1 of 2). consists of a number of index cards. lists, rate cards and navigational the particular assembly: capsule nission.

The index cards will be used to file check by

charts that shall be provided• as required

The following items are attached to the binder The

Pencil holder, mechanical pencil _nd nylon retention springs. is fabricated from neoprene

pencil holder .......

coated nylon and is sewn to the case.

The mechanical pencil is secured to the binder assembly by means of a nylon retention spr_ng. the neoprene hand computer A nylon retention spring also secures the binder assembly to case. A computer board, which is constructed from the

coated nylon

(see Figure 12-4), forms a part of the navigationalaid

kit.

12-33.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES

12-34. 12-35-

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES 8, 9, i0, 13 AND 16 J General

Capsules 8, 9, 10, 13 and '16 are fundamentally the same as the specification capsule. Some differences •will exist in the location of the various instruments. illustration. ) Other differences are

(See Section I for instrament panel

enumerated in the followlng paragraphs. 12-36. Periscope system will not incorporate a RETRACT SCOPE telelight

Capsule 8 periscope
/ ".

and the associated MAN-AUTO periscope retract switch. have provisions for telemetering periscope

Capsules 9, 13 and 16 will Before ground operation

door closure.

REPORT _I)R MODEL_ i_

PA E

104 ,

M ,DONNELLH. ST. LOUIS. MISSOURI
_ Equipment

REVISED REVISED

of periscope; observe operational instructions attached to the navigational aid kit (see Figure 12-1). Capsule 9 has been (see Figure 12-7). 12-37. Altimeter used in Capsule 8_ 9, i0, 13 and 16 have markings at the 20,gO( in the periscope upper housing installation assembly in camera

removed

to facillate

of an internal

The altimeter

and lO,O00 foot levels to indicate when the snorkel valves and main parachute, respectively will actuate. Along the outer edge of the instrument dial starting

at 0 feet and advancing

to 28,000 feet are psia indications which are as follows:

0 feet 15 psia, i0,000 feet I0 psia and 28,000 feet 5 psia. 12-38. ..I_ngltudinal Accelerometer The

Capsules 8 and 9 will not have memory pointer or a reset mechanism. location may vary with each capsule depending on planned mission. for instrument panel illustration. )

(See Section I

12-39.

Hand Computer capsules will be equipped Indicator NOTE with the hand computer.

Only manned 12-40.

Attitude-Rate

External

appearance

of attitude-rate

indicator

display

is the same for all

capsules except for color of pointers

and as follows:

On Capsule 9_ the pitch dial of the display mates with the zero pitch rate index at -43 degrees. On Capsules 8, lO, 13 and 16, the pitch dial of the display mates with the zero pitch rate index at -34 degrees. 12_41. Navigational Aid Kit +_

Capsules 8, 9 and 13 will not contain a navigational aid kit.

_ATE 1NOVEM,ERI_, M_DONNELLH_. ____
REVISED REVISED . _ "•'

p^_
MODEL REPORT

SEDR 104 133

,2-29

FIGURE 12-7

INTERNAL

PERISCOPE

CAMERA

(CAPSULE

9 ONLY)

PM4_272

13-I

_-_

i

:=

SECTION

XUl

INSTRUMENTATION
_:- Eri i i , '_"I ,'m !!,

i

SYSTEM

_A
¢/ .. _ £_ __. _ ...... " "_":-_:_':'-:_--_ ,..._iiiiiqJ_i_iiiiiii_ ii_iiiiii_i_ TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPIION SYSIEM OPERATION SYSTEM MONITORING PAGE 13-4 13-4 13-4 _ TABLE OF CONTENTS

........................... ............................. ...........................

SYSTEM INSTRUMENTATION

CONTROL ... 13-27

======================================

TESTCONFIGURATION ......................... 13-49 IN STRUMENTATION RECORDIN G ............ • 13-29

::: :::::,iiiiii!iiiiii!iiiiiii!iiiiiii!i

PAGE

]-3 -k

REPORT_LI_

M 'DONNELL
;.

_:::,.____../f__..,_. DATE 1 November

. T. s t_o__u,s, ,,_u M,S_

1961. " .REVISED. Msy1962 1 REVISED

MODEL_133

XIII.

INSTRUMENTATION

SYSTEM
_y

13-1.

SYS_M

EgSCRIPTION system consists coupled of the major with various components transducers condition as shown on and other pickof

The instrumentation Fi£ure 13-i. These

c_ponents a means

up devices

provide

of monitoring

the physical

and reactions The data to

the Astronaut so obtained ground

as well as capsule is coded for and applied _-m_dlate

conditions

and systems

performance.

to the telemetry

transmitters

and radiated recorded

stations

analysis

and evaluation; study and

it is also

on a

tape recorder is i_s talled Provisions ponents not

in the capsule and so positioned provided

for subsequent to record for automatic

interpretation. facial

A camera

the Astronaut's programmed

expressions. some com-

are also intended

control

over

for continuous

operation ....

13-2.

SYS_M

OPERATION system to is automatic and semi-automatic IO minutes after in operation landing from

The instrumentation the time however, either power

is applied components

the capsule

until

impact, by

certain

may be controlled co_d. _e

or interrogated instrumentation and recording. and 13-62.

during system These

flight

the Astronaut groups,

or ground namely,

is divided three groups

into three are treated

monitoring,

control 13-3,

ind/vidually

in paragraphs

13-58

13-3. MONITORD_
Instrumentation tures, conditions these monitoring and operations consists of sampling units signals values of pressures, throughout telrperathe

;_,iii

of various into

and functions composed being

capsule; tional tlonal

samples

are converted pressure

of vol_es

proporThe propor

to the temperature, voltages

and conditions c_on w_ximum

measured.

are Calibrated

within

and minimum

ranges

to

REVISEDi Febru_ry i_

rr.,_ou,s. M,ssou_i

REPORT. _

i0_

R ,SED 1
/

MODEL
These signals are then channeled into designated High

provide zero to f_ll scale readings. :_=

either or both of the t'_o commutators (electronic s_.rAtchea)

Frequency and Low Frequency, which are located in Instrumentation Pack_-e "A". The m_Jority of the signals are fed to both "EF" and "LF" Cc_autators for redundancy. Each commutator continuously samples its inl_utchannels, combining The pulse

the signal voltage pulses into a pulse train for each cc_tc_.

train from the HY Coemnatatorand the LF Commutator is applied to sel_Lratebut identical 10.5 Kc voltage controlled subcarrier osc_11ators, where the changin_ _ output of

voltage of the pulse train vary the frequency of the oscillators.

this and other voltage controlled oscillators driven by aero-medical information are mixed and used to modulate the telemetry transmitters. The HF C_tator

signals are telemetered through the high frequency transmitter while the LF Coanutator signals use the low frequency set. Both the HF and LF Ccm_Atator

signals are also converted to pulse duration signals and recorded on a tape recorder in the capsule. A low level c_utator is provided whose output is All of the low level inputs

fed directly to a channel of the tape recorder.

@onsist of temperature samplings from thermistors and thermocouples. Figure 13-2 is a block diagram showing the l_arametersof the instrumentation that is monitored as well as the Cn_utator Point ass___m*nts with a brief

explanation of each parameter given in paragraphs 13-4 through 13-58.

13-_.

Capsule Electrical Power Capsule electrical power system instrumentation consists of monitoring the

,_-;=
i _;:;:

circuit illus'tratedon Figure 13-2.

13-5.

400 cps Monitor

ASCS and fan bus 115 volt a-c is applied thru the 115/6,3 volt transformers in Instrumentation Package "A" and "F". The secondary outputs are rectified,

PAOE.
REPORT MODEL

,_.6
SEDR 104 133

M_,DONNEL_L__ ./_
ST.LOUIS, _ MISSOURI

DATE 1NOV_,_,_6,
REvIsED REVISED 1 MAY 1962

I

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_.,_.L Hv r,.oMMU'r _'_oR FIGURE I%-?. MONtTORIN_ INSTRUMENTATION BLOCK RM4S-_

REVISED REVISED

REPORT MODEL

SEDR

104

133

"D"

PKG.

]

TY

P

I

C

I_

L

----_

PAP.AMETEq

ASSIGNMENTS
_ 0 TEST

FULL ._CALE REFERE',CE (*[5 MV,) ZERO REFERENCE (- 5PIV) YAW' LEFT SOLENIO:,_.'-_TG)'B*NUT TEMPERATUR¢ PlTSH JP 50LEN,DC :AUTO)"B NUT "TEMPERATURE OXYGEN _RIM,_R '' 5GT-_E TEMPERATUR.E YELLO_W CONNEG-O_ -mE'-ERENCE TEMPErATUrE :.FCR CH. 7,5. fl ?!_3 IR',IS. 2'@,25 AND26) 5H!NGLE TE_PERAT.qE _ iOT, LX,YO (T/C _1_ SHINGLE TEMPERP'.T'._E E !O7, XO, BY (l'_C _2.) SHiNGlE TEMPEr'AT. :_E Z IO7,.RX, ",(O(T/C _3) SHINGLE TEMPERAT_RE DELTA TEMPERATUP-E SHINGLE TE_PE_.ATJ_.E 5WINGLE TEr'IPE_P,T_-E SHINGLE I'EMPE_.AT. _E ECW _4RUSTER."i_-'.J.4_) E!O7, "%0, TY(T!C"¢) _ I,_-8, LX, YO(T/C E)- ZI_, Ly,YO (T/C _(_)

X
i LOW LEVE.L COMMUTATOR i [ ',;

Z I5¢, RX, YO (TIC'B) ;zIS_I.O. TY (T/C'I) X Z _54, XO, BX (T/C_7)ZIIO,R_,YO(TIC'IS) TEMPERATUC_.E

>

F L

INPUT

CLTP_T { ;

YAW PITCH RIGHT SOLEN'GDf_'JTO)"SNUT NUT TEMPERATURE DOWN $OLEN CO(,AUTO)'B OXYGEN SECONDA'm./ BOTTLE TEMPERATURE RED CONNECTOR _E-_ERENCE TEMPERATURE (FOR CH. 20, 21,2Z ArqO 23) BERYLLIUM SHINGLE _E_tPERATUP_E. ;= 178, RX, _(O(T/C _12) BERYLLIU_.SB_NGL£ TEM_Eg-ATURE _178_ Y-O, 8Y('VC'II) BERYLLIU_ _HINGLE TEHPER.ATURE ;'I78, L',K, yO(T/C "IO) BE_.YLLIUI_ SNINGLE TE_PtRATURE. Z178, "_0,TY(T/C "13) SHINGLE TEMPERATURE (OVER. CCW THRUSTER MANUAL) Z HO, R'X,YO (T/C •16) gO CW THRUSTER(X-JTO) ZIIO, L"X, YO (T/( "17) SHINGLE TEI'_PER._.'T_ORE (O'VEK LO CW Tt_R.USTE_, AUTO) ZIIO, LX, YO(T/C "I_) NO _EASUREMENT TIED TO -SMV(EERO REFER.ENCE) NO p1EASUP.EI'IENT TIED TO -SMV(ZERO REFERENCE) SYNC. PULSE _YNC. PULSE

F
I TEST

F

r
HI- FREQ. COMMUTATOR SEGMENT .:..vv. _" CAPSULE TAPE RECORDER

1_

t I

1

I
FIGURE 13-3 LOW LEVELINSTRUMENTATION TEMPERATURE SURVEY

PAGE ]3-8 REPORT SEIIR104 MODEL_I_

MCDONNELL/
_

C_'#__'__ DATE i November 1961 REVtSEO1 February 1962 . REVISEDi _ 1962

"

filtered and attenuated prior to being applied to the commutators as a zero to three volt d-c signal. for each bus. 13-6. D-C Current D-c current amplitude is sensed by the shunt for the instrument panel ammeter. This shunt is in the negative lead to ground of all capsule batteries A three volt signal (full scale) represents 120 volts

....

and senses total battery current, and proportionately less for lesser currents. The voltage across the shunt is 50 milllvolts when 50 amperes are flowing. This

voltage is applied to two d-c amplifiers in package "C" which amplifies it to a zero to three volt level. battery current. A three volt level (full scale) represents 50 amperes

The output of one amplifier is applied to the HF commutator,

and the other amplifier output is applied to the IF commutator. 13-7. D-C Voltage Tae 24 volt d-c monitor circuit is made up of a voltage divider network in package A. this divider. Voltage from the main pre-lmpact 24 volt d-c bus is applied to A three volt signal (full scale) represents 30 volts bus voltage.

18 volt d-c isolated bus and the 18 volt d-c standby busses are similarly monitored through voltage divider networks located in the A package. 13-8. Standby Inverter The standby inerter ON signal is obtained thro-gh no_ally of the Standby inverter relay. inverters fails. open contacts

This relay energizes when either of the main

With the relay energized, 24 volts d-c is applied to an Attenuator output (2.2 volts

attenuator in the power and control relay box. d-c nmminal) is applied to the commutators. 13-9. Instx-_ntation Power Supplies

.....

Instrumentation power supplies instrumentation consists of the monitor circuits for the 3 volt d-c reference, zero reference, and 7 V _00 cps power

_.

13-9
&,,,

REVISED i February

1962

rr. Lou,s, Mmsoum

REPORT. SEIR IOA

"_"
•_iq_

supplies. 13-10.

(See Figure

13-2).

ThT.ee Volt

Reference power supply furnishes excitation for all potentlin package frcm "Aw. the

The 3 volt _ter type

d-c reference

instrumentation

pickups. supply

_he power

supl_ly is located

It is a zener diode regulated power full supply scale is applied

from the 24 volt bus.

_he output

directly

to the commutators

and serves

as a reference

signal.

13-11.

Zero Yolt Reference signal is signal output. ground and is also the rerun,, for the 3 is also applied to the

The zero reference volts d-c reference

po_er

supply

_nis signal

cc_mn_tators. 13-12. Seven Volt 7 volt circuits _ _OO cps cps power with supply furnishes element excitation amplifiers. for the input br_ Power supl_ly outl_rt _'-_s zero (full

utilized

the resist_nce and attentuated

is rectified, to three scale) volt

filtered si-_a!

to a zero to three volt A three supply,

level.

is applied

to the co,_utators. The power operates

volt signal located

represents

a 7 volt

output level. inverter

in packm_e

A, is & transistorized vide

power

which

on 2_ volts A.

d-c to pro_._ _

the 7 volt _O0 cps out put_ and is located Calibration ON
d

in l_Ckage

13-13.

Calibration sence of the full is present i!)!!i: when or

ON instrumentation scale and

consists

of a circuit e0enand

which

monitors Tb/s

presignal to

zero scale switch When

calibration

signals.

the CALIBRATION "_RO" position.

in the telemetry the full

trailer

is placed eonand _e

"FULL SCALE"

scale calibrate in package to the "C".

is preof the zero input

sent, 2k volts attenuator (2.8

d-e is applied volts ccBnand d-c,

to an attenuator is applied

output When the

nominal)

ccuutators.

scale calibrate

is present,

24 volts

d-e is applied

to a different

REPORT SE_ MODEL_ 133

P OE13-1o lO4
point d-c,

M,DONNELL ST. LOUIS. MISSOURI
_ network. The output

REVISED i May 1962 REVISED

D TE

1961

on the same attenuator nominal ) is applied presence presence relays

of the attenuator an upper scale

(1.5 volts
_r

to the c_utators. scale calibrate calibrate signals function while

Thus,

signal signal signals

_;_.;-.

indicates indicates energize cba_nels. station 13-14.

of the full of the

command co--n_nd.

and a half-scale These other command

zero scale calibrate

which

apply

to numerous

instrumentation from a ground

The "R" and through Static the

"Z" calibrate receivers

may be initiated in orbit.

c_nd

Pressure instrumentation by static consists of a potentiometer _he potentiometer supply and wiper volt type transwith is is

Static ducer which

pressure

is operated

pressure. power

is excited output

3 volts inversely

d-c from

the instrumentation to static

voltage

proportional

pressure.

A three

signal

(full

scale)

representative 13-15.

of 0 psia. Control System instrumentation supply consists of circuitry inlet which

Environmental

Environmental monitors primary

control

system

and secondary cabin pressure

oxygen

pressures,

cabin

air pressure

and temperature, 13-16. Suit

and temperature

and coolant

quantity.

02 Partial pressure

Pressure is sensed trans-,It, by a transducer ted tO a pressure in the Astronaut's ga@e on the suit, the panel,

02 l_tial signals are

amplified are also

and

instrument in Ynatru_ent

The signals Packa@e are

applied

to the "HF" and

"LF" co-_,,tators

A where

they are converted to ground and the

to PAM and PDM signals. PI_ signals are recorded

The PAM signals on the capsule tape :i':_iii_

telemetered

recorder. 13-17. Oxygen Supplied oxygen in the supply pressures are sensed area. by pressure "

Pr_-_y actuated d,_

and secondary potentiometers

environmental

One potenticmeter

13-ii _EVISED _y 1 REVISED F_ .... 1962 _ s'r,-oum. MISSOURI REPORT S_T_ ]O_ MOO_L 133

operates a pamel indicator while the other wiper picks off a val_e for instrumentation. Wiper voltage output is linerarly proportional to pressure. _ Excitazero to

tion is applied from the 3 volt d-e instrumentation power supply.

3.00 volt wiper ou_cpu_represents a pressure range of zero to 7,500 psi with 0 to i00_ meter indications. supply 13-18. pressure transducers
Temperature

Outputs from the pr_-_ry and secondLry oxy_n are. applied to both cammutators.

Suit Tnlet

Suit inlet air temperature is sensed by two resistance ele_nt in the suit Inlet air lime. temperature.

transducers

Tran,ducer resistance varies proportionally with

Each transducer is p_rt of a bridge input circuit to an amplifier _

in packa@e "A".

zero to three volt (full scale) output frca the amplifier o o is representative of a temperature range of 35 to 100 F. One amplifier output is applied to the HF Co-_utator; the other amplifier output is applied to the Ii _ Cc_nutator. 13-19. Suit Tnlet Press___e

Suit inlet air pressure instrumentation consists of a potentiow_ter ty_ transducer which is pressure actuated. The potenti_ter is excited with 3 output v_ries

volts d-c from the inst_r_en_ation power supply and viper volta_ linearly with pressure. _e

zero to three volt (full scale) output represents

a pressure range of zero to 15 psia and is applied to both commutators. 13-20. Cabin A_ Temperature

Cabin air temperature is sensed by two platinmn resistance wire transducers mounted in l_kage ...... temperature. amplifier emrplifier
// -.

"A". of the "A".

Transducer resistance varies proportionally with transducers The zero to is _ of a bridl_ volt range (f.11 of in_ s_ale) zero to c_utt output 200°F. to fraR the

Each in l_ckage is

three

representative applied to the

of a temperature

Autplifier

OUtputs

are

mr and LF Coumutators.

REPORT_ MODEL_i_

104 W_

REVISED1 _Y REVI$ED_

1962

13-21.

Coolant q_._tity _=:.:

Coolant quantity is measured by sensing the pressure of the oxygen bottle used to force water from the coolant tank. pounds pressure. This bottle supplies five hundred of the

As coolant q_mntity flecreases_the confined vol_

oxygen increases with a resulting decrease in oxygen pressure.

A pressure

l_otentiometer excited by three volts d-c from the instrumentation pover supply monitors oxygen pressure. Wi_er output is applied to the HF and I_ Commutators .

and through an attenuator in package "A" to the coolant quantity indicator. Zero to three volt (full scale) covers a range of zero to IOC_ coolant quantity. Oxygen pressure at i00_ coolant quantity is 480 psi, oxygen pressure at O_ coolant quantity is 230 psi.

iB-_2.

Reaction Control System

Reaction control system instrumentation consists of monitors for auto_tic and_nual reaction control supply pressure and Astronaut hand control

position.

13-23.

Horizon Scanner

Horizon scanner instrumentation monitors for the pitch and roll horizon scanner outputs and ignore signals for each of these outputs. The horizon scs_nner system utilized two identical infrared scanning ,,-_ts to provide pitch and roll reference signals. _ Horizon Scanners are on con-

tlnuously, from launch until re-entry at which time the Scanners are de-activated by the O.05g relay. The signals that are applied to the gyros are monitored -..;:.;:

by instr---_ntation. The pitch and roll signals range between 4 i0 volts d-c. _se signals are applied to a biased attenuator car_ to l_rovidea zero to 2.66

volt output which is coupled to separate channels of the HF Cn,,,utator. _he signals represent an output range of , 35° .

REVISED. Nay 1_. 1 REVISED. r _ ...... _:_:,
:: :::

s'r.-oum. Missouri _ a scanner s_eeping sweeps across the sun. Since

REPORT.S]_]l_ ZO'_. MODEL 135 the scanners are

Occasionally infrared devices,

of the sun introduces the scanner is monitored supplies

error volta@e. an "ignore"

To prevent to the by instru_

utilization ASCS.

of this

voltage, signal

signal

_hls "ignore" Pitch

as an on-off signals

type of signal

mentation. tator only.

ignore

and roll ignore signal

are applied

to the HF C_._uignore signal

A half scale level

represents

presence

of the pitch signal.

and full

scale

indicates

presence

of the roll ignore

13-24.

Attitude instrumentation consists of telemetry c_annels which monitor cap-

Attitude sule pitch, actuated control volt slope

roll and yaw attitudes. _he synchros

Each attitude are driven

is read out of a synchro stabilization

potentiometer. system.

by the automatic is furnished varies signals

Excitation

for the potentiometers supply.

by the three

_-c instrumentation function with

power

Signal voltage Pitch and roll

along a multiple cover a range of the After

capsule

attitude. cover

of * 130 ° to -190 ° . atti_ retrograde positioning removed

Yaw signals

a range

of ,70 to -250 ° •

Each

sisal s is applied assembly synchros Jettison become

to separate

channels

of HF and LF Co_._tators. relay,

and energizing inoperative. and attitude

of a 0.05g

the potenticmetersignals are

At this time, rate signals

attitude

from the co_utators c_utator

are applied

to the re-

linquished

channels.

13-25-

Attitude

Rate utilized sisals frou rate gyros. The gyros signal 40 °

Attitude i; :_:_ are-l:m..rt level

rate instruBentation

of the attitude a rate

rate indlcatl,5 level

system.

A zero to three volt

represents

of decreasing

40 ° per second

to increasing

per second.

Atti_,_e

rate

signals

are al_plied to the IF Coamutator.

Roll,

REPORT b-"I_DR • lOIJ MODE{13_

13-1

MC, DONNELL
__ISt LOUIS, MISSOU MI$SOUI_._ST. _

OATE_._ lC_2 l'ove=berlg'l REVISED l
REVISED

pitch and yaw rates are assigned to separate channels.

In add/tion, attitude

rates are applied to the channels nor-_1ly occupied by attitude data when attit;,_edata is no longer generated. (Refer to Paragraph 13-24).

13-26.

Reaction Control System Solenoids

_he reaction control system solenoids control the thrust Jets used for capsule stabilization in flight. automatically. These solenoids can be energized man,_!ly or

When a solenoid is energized, 24 volts d-c is applied through Each of the twelve This on-off signal in the

an attenuator in package "C" to the HF and 12 Commutators. solenoids is represented by a separate commutator channel.

is presented to instrumentation circuitry from the amplifier-calibrator ASCS system.

13-27.

Supply Pressures - H202

The monitor circuits for reaction control supply pressures are identical in operation. A helium source of 2050 psi is utilized to expel hydrogen per-

oxide from a blma_der. As hydrogen peroxide is expelled, the confined volume of the helium increases and helium pressure decreases. senses this change in pressure. A pressure potentiometer

The potentiometer is excited with three volts Wiper output voltage is applied to both to an indicator. Transducer range is

from the instrumentation power supply. c._,,_utators and through an attenuator

600 to 2200 psi. indicator. p_essure.

A pressure of 2050 psi provides a reading of I00_ on the

Hydrogen peroxide is exhausted at approximately 600 psi. helium
.'.'.'ZE ZZ

_IZII Indicator reading at this pressure is approximately 0%.

13-28.

Hand Control control position is monitored by three potentiometers. The

Astronaut _d

RSVISEDI _y REVISED

1962 _

s-r.-ou,s. MissouRI

REPORT. SE]_ lO_ 133 MODE[

_--_ :;-:.:_-;_

wipers volts

of these

potentiome_ers

are driven power

by linkage

to the hand control. to excite

_nree

from the instrumentation Zero to three volt planes

supply

is utilized

the potentiomovement outputs

meters.

signal

level represents

+ 13 ° hand

control

in the roll and pitch are applied to both

and z l0 ° movement

in the yaw plane.

Wiper

c_utators.

13-29.

Capsule

Acceleration instrumentation consists axes. of circuitry which monitors

Capsule acceleration stalled

acceleration along

the mutually "D" provide

perpendicular zero to three

_llree accelernme__ter Inproportional (Ny) axes to of

in package along

volt d-c outputs

acceleration the capsule. providing .... a range lateral

the longltudin_!

(Nz) lateral

(Nx) and normal with axis

The accelerometer d-c signal.

outputs

are linear

a zero acceleration accelero_eter _e covers normal au_

a 1.5 volt

The longitudinal volt

of • 30g to provide o axes accelerometers volt

zero to three operate

output

signals.

in two ramges. accelerations accelerations

During

launch + 4g.

and re-entry During _n_se orbit,

a zero to three

signal represents signal represents

between between

a zero to three volt zero to three volt

4 0.5g.

si_nal s are applied

to the c_,utators.

13-30.

Structural

Temperatures

(Hi Level) consists of monitor circuits for

Structural ablation shield,

temperature

instrumentation as well

skin temperatures vent outlets

as imverters,

telemetry

transmitters,

retro-rockets,

steam

and RCS compouen_s.

.::.i.:i_:_.:_ii:;,

13-31.

Structural

Temperature instrumentation system

(Low

Level) survey installation which utilizes tape to a

A low level a low level / " recorder. segment

temperature

cc_nutator Provision

is fed directly

to a cha-n_l

of the capsule output

is also made to feed the low level c_utator for ground

commutator

of the high frequency

test purposes.

REPORT MODEL_

SEER lO_ i_

13-16
Ablation Shield

Mc, DONNELL "
_ Temperatures temperatures in the _nner zero power to 2000

_st. tou_Ls = g gu k

O TEl'o em 1961 r REVISED 1 Febr_ry 1962
REVISED 1

_y

1962

13-32.

The ablation Transducers a temperature i00 ohms

shield

are monitored face

through

the telemetry The transducers resistance

system. have of

are embedded range from Input

of the shield. F. with

degrees

a nominal

at 70°F.

of 7 V d-c _00 cps applied upon into the transducer

to the transducers The output .

is attenuated from

to a value

dependent

resistance.

the transducers amplifier)

is directed in package signal

two identical the voltage

amplifiers is converted

(two transducers and amplified The

to each

"A" where

to a zero to 3 V d-c amplifiers a_e

and applied

to the telemetry from

commutators. ground command.

"R" and "Z" calibrated

at intervals

13-33.

Outer

Skin

Temperature is sensed by two resistance skin shingles with element transducers and aft locaEach of

Outer welded tions. these "C".

skin temperature surface

to the inside Transducer transducers The zero

of the outer varies

in forward

resistance is part

proportionally input circuit

temperature.

of a bridge

to an amplifier

in package is reprethe ampliThe

to three

volt

(full scale)

output

from the amplifier The output from

sentatlve fier

of a temperature with

range

of .65° to 2200°F. is applied

associated

the aft transducer output

to the HF Ccamutator.

forward

transducer

sumpllfier

is applied

to the LF C_utator.

13-34.

Inverter

Temperatures the main A _ro The of 400 cycles a 250 VA to inverter temperatures are monitored is attached of to is 133 300 ohms degrees. to through exterto 240 Input a value :::.-_:: ....

The 150 VA and the telemetry nally ohms power on each is of

system. inverter.

300 degrees F. transducer
resistance change to the from change zero

transducer temperature applied

representative 7 volts

transducers

attenuated

M DONNE, .
RFVISEO May 1962 i
_EVISED __

13-17
REPOET SEDR 104 133
MODEt

's-r.Lou,s,MmSOUR=

.... _:.::_

dependent temperature,

upon the transducer of the inverter.

resistance, The output,

which from

in the

turn

is

controlled is

by the into

transducer

directed

an amplifier in package "A" J where the voltage is converted and amplified to a zero to 3 volt d-c si_ual and applied to the telemetry co_atators. fier is "R" and "Z" calibrated at intervals from ground co_z_and. The ampli-

13-35.

Telemetry Trar_mitter Temperatures

Both HF and LF telemetry transmitter temperatures are zonitored through the telemetry systen. _ne transducers are the same as used on the inverters

(refer to paragraph 1._-3_)and are attached externally on each telemetry transmitter. The processing of the temperature is located signal is the same as for the in "F" package.

inverters except

that the amplifier

13-36.

Retro-Rocket

-e_erature

The retro-rocket

t_mperature

is monitored

through

the telemetry, system.

The transducer is the same as used on the inverters (refer to paragraph 13-34) and is cemented to the surface of the lower retro-rocket case. The processing

of the temperature amplifier

signal is the same as for the inverters except that the Ln "F" package.

is located

13-37.
,,,:,:,

Aeromedical

Aeromedical ir_tr_amentationconsists of monitor circuits for electrocardiograph, respiration signals, body temperature and blood pressure.

REPORT_ILO_

13- 8

Mc, DONNELL r
_SLLOU_S, -MISSOU_ .

REVISED I Februar_r 1962

l"ove 1961

MODEL_

REV,SED 1962 l May

13-38.

Astronaut

Blood

Pressllre

,:.,,::;

The blood sensor, system. arm.

pressure

system

consists

of

(1)

an occluding source,

c%lff,

(2)

a pulse

(3) differential
(See Figure

transducer,

(4) pressure

and (5) a control to the Astronaut's between the

13-4.)

The occluding measures pressure.

cuff is attached

An external

transducer cabin

the differential The pulse arm. sensor

pressure

cuff and the capsule (microphone) oxygen bottle attached

is a small source

transducer is a separate aeromedical blood which is by the

to the astronaut's sufficient

The pressure

containing

oxygen

to provide measures

the desired

information pressure,

during converts to the

the mission. the pressure

The system

the Astronaut's signal

to a corresponding controlled

electrical

then applied

2.3 Kc voltage transmitters.

oscillators

and transmitted

Hi and Lo telemetry

The blood actuating seconds

pressure

system

m_y be put into operation panel. to

b3, the Astronaut of five pres-

a "start"

switch

on the instrument

A 24 VDC pulse

duration,

causes

the system

to pressurize pressurizing,

4.4 psi differential
the system bleeds

sure from a linear from mixed

the pressure rate of 0.75 sensor

source.

After

off at

psi in approximately is routed through

22 seconds.

The output

signal and This

the pulse with

the pressure

suit disconnect manner.

the differential is routed

pressure through

signal

in a superimposing contacts

combined KC VCO's

signal located

a relay and then

and relay

to the two 2.3
:::: u:

in "D" package,

to the Hi and Lo telemetry

transmitters

.:_;:.

REVISED February 1962 I

_r Lou,s._,sso_,

May962 '

REPORT SEDR 104 133

MOOEt

'...-:.-

Directing the signal through the relay is necessary in order to share the 2.3 Kc VCO's with the EKG signals.

The first appearance minimum peak amplitude

of the signal

indicates

systolic

pressure with a

of 150 mvwhile

the last occurrence of the pulse signal The

indicates distolic pressure with a minimum peak amplitude of 150 my. max_mumpulse pressure is ! volt peak.

Upon completion of the cycle the system will remain at rest (below 3/4 psi pressure), w_ll continue h_en the system is manually for one cycle unless panel. manually (Astronaut) _n_tiated, operation interrupted by the STOP switch

on the instrument

13-39.

Astronaut

EKG

Electrocardiograph

signals

are obtained

from four transducers

attached The

to the Astronaut's right and left side, and on the upper and lower chest. outputs from the transducers are applied to two amplifiers

in the "D" package

(left and right side paired to one amplifier and upper and lower chest paired to the other). Signals from the amplifiers are then directed to the 2.3 Kc controlled oscilators, which inturn apply their outputs

and 1.7 Kc voltage
• :a,

to the Hi and Lo Telemetry transmitters. divided between the Astronaut's EKG

The 2.3 Kc VCO's

input signals are

and blood pressure

outputs.

i
l

REPORT

SEDR 104

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED

1 FEBRUARY

1962

MODEL

133

i____i_

.>,,- .r-,_ _

.

REVISED

1 MAY

1962

_ '_ '3 "c"

E" "_= '; " ATO D: G

.11

M ILO0

;iLL-

L__l-VALVE

....;;..

O;< YSEN _orr t.E

OP. IFICE

:P.:- LI':: VALVE

....... )UMP _,OQM VALVE (]PEN)

_. F_%T P. i CT MALV E --] i_

--J F_NV I P.O_ i-A ENTA L

o

I

CONTROL SYSTEM

L

_

I[

I Nr E P_I_:_L

i

i

INIT.AhID ESET 1 D,

,

,

I

T

Z._'V O-C

i

T

,-,"

Ii

il
INIT.

iT
.__5

_:IGUI:.E

I]-

,t-

BLO00

P_,E$SU_F..

ME.ASUP.EMENT

5YSTEM(SEMI-AUTOMATIC)

_45-;'-/8

OATE 1 November 1962 REVISED1 February 1962 REVISEDI May 1962

M DONNE
_ uou,, MmSOUR, __ ....

PAGE I_-21 REPORT- EDR IOh S MOOEt 133

13-hO.

Respiration

.Rate

The Astronaut's metry system.

breathing

rate and depth inside

is monitored

through

the teleadjais which The

A thermistor

is mounted

the Astronaut's

helmet,

cent to the microphone. attenuated in turn proportionally

Input p_er

of 3 vdc applied resistance

to the thermistor of the thermistor, respiration.

to the changing to the magnitude

is proportional rate

of the Astronautts

respiration The changing

is determined

by the frequency

of the Astronaut's the bias

breathing.

output voltage amplifier,

of _dnethermistor output

varies signal

of a transistor through in

in an in-line a calibrate
/

the transistor

is then applied controlled

card

in "F" package, The output

to two 1.3 Kc voltage

oscillators

the "D" package. frequenCy

of the VCO's is then applied to the Hi and Lo The calibrate card provides a means of

telemetry the

transmitters.

interrupting electronic

signal for "R" and "Z" calibrate. provides an adjustment for

A potentiometer

in the

assembly

sensitivit_z.

13-hl.

Astronaut

Body

Temperature

Body

temperature

is sensed

by a rectal

temperature is utilized

probe.

The probe

is a 1490 + IO - hO ohm thermistor bridge circuit, which forms

element which the inputs

as one leg of a The output to 3 vdc are of

to two d-c amplifiers. commutators.

each amplifier : _::: output "R" and

is applied

to the telemetry range

The zero

represents

a temperature by ground

of 95 ° to 108°F.

Both amplifiers

"Z" calibrated

command.

PAGE REPORT MODEL_

13-22 _DR 104 133

MCDONNE "
_

Oe/,_,r),_

"

DATE 1 November 1961 REVISED February, 1962 i REVISED May 1 1962

13-42. Sequence .System Normal Launch

...

Normal tower

launch sequence capsule

_nst_amentation retrograde

consists

of monitor com_mnd,

circuits

for

release,

separation, jettison.

attitude

and retro-

grade rocket assembly

These signals

are all on-off type functions

and each is applied to the HF and LFCommutators.

]3-43.

Satellite

Clock

The satellite representative ometers

clock utilizes time from

potentiometers

to provide

electrical

signals

of elapsed

launch and retrograde

time.

These potentisupply. of 0

are excited with

three volts from the instrumentation

power

The outputs for each type of time are divided

in signals representative

to lO seconds, 0 to 1 minute, 0 to lO minutes, O to 1 hour, 0 to lO hours and 0 to 30 hours. Wiper output is linearly proportional from zero to three Wiper outputs are applied to the HF and LF Commonitors ELAPSED TIME from LAL_CH and also EVENT TIME

volts for each time span. mutators. Instrumentation Elapsed

of retrograde. in motion. recording

time from launch is the length of time capsule has been be zero. Instrumentation for elapsed so will :;;"@

Prior to liftoff, elapsed time will devices also will indicate zero time.

Output signals

time therefore

are directly proportional

to time.

As time increases

output voltage, for example, elapsed time recorded by clock is I0 hours, 5

REVISED REVISED

I

May

1962
__

sT. Lou,s. Mlssoum!

REPORT

SEDR

10h

_"_

104 MODEt

minutes

and

10 second.

Output

signals

w_1l

then

be as shown

below:

SATELLITE CLOCK OUTPUTS FOR IO HOURS, 5 M_UTES, I0 SECONDS, AFTER LAUNCH

TIME POTENTIOMETERS

POTENTIOMETERS WIPER TRAVELIN %

SIGNAL VOLTAGE

O - IO Hours

100%

3 Volts

O - I Hour

100%

3 Volts

O - IO }_Luutes

50%

1.5Volts

O - I Minute

100%

3 Volts

O - I0Seconds

100%

3 Volts

Event time of retrograde is preset prior to liftoff.

After retrograde

time has been set, instrumentation will receive this time signal continuously throughout the mission. Event time of retrograde can be changed at any time _^quen retro-

during the mission by either the Astronaut or by grour_ command.

grade time is changed during the mission, instrumentation will receive this change also. • i;;;_ Signal output voltage is proportional"to retrograde time. For

example, if r_trograde is set to commence at 20 hours, 5 minutes and 5 seconds, instrumentation will be receiving the signal voltage outputs as shown in the follca_-g.

PAGE_ 13-24 REPORTb-'E]_ 104 MODEL 133

M'DONNEL L
" ..... "

______f__Z DATE 'November 196Z _1 REVISED_ REVISED,

"

SATET.LI_]_ CLOCK OUTPUTS FOR RETROFIRE AT 20 HOL_S, 5 _S AND 5 SECONDS TIME POTENTIOME_S 0 - i0 Hours 0 - i Hour 0 - I0 Minutes 0 - i Minute 0 - iO Seconds PO_MTIOME_RS WIPER TRAVEL IN % 100% 100% 50% 100% 50% SIGNAL VOLTAGE 3 Volts 3 Volts 1.5 Volts 3 Volts 1.5 Volts

,:.:;;;..;

13-_.

Tower Separation When the tower separates from the capsule_ the No. 3 tower separate sensor

relay ds-energizes and applies three volts d-c to the co-.-utators. This signal is present for the remainder of the mission.

13-45.

Capsule Separation

When the capsule separates from the booster# a limit switch closes and causes the No. I capsule separation sensor relay to energize. While _hls relay is energized a three volt d-c slg_A! iS applied to both co_-.utators. This relay remains energized for the remainder of the mission.

13-46.

Retrograde Attltu_

The retrograde attltv_e cc=_and signal normally occurs when the retrograde clock runs out. Xt may also be caused by ground com-_nd or by operation This signal remains present until Signal ..........

of a bypass switch on the instrument panel.

:::::::::

the retrograde rocket assembly is Jettisoned (approximately 90 seconds). level is approximately three volts.

Normally open contacts of the retrograde

attitude c..-_---_ud relay in retrograde relay box No. 2 closes to route the signal to the HF and LF C_utator.

DAT_ 1 November

1961

McDONNE__ TT _

_o_ /O

PAGE

13-25

REVISED1 N_y 1962 REVISED _-_ 13-47. Retrograde Rocket _ Assembly

s'r. LOUlS.UMISSOUR,

REPORT- SEEIR 104 133 MODEL

Jettison at five second of retrograde interva&s. The first fire

The retrograde occurs thirty

rocket fire after

occurs

seconds

reception

clock runout

if the retro-

grade interlock

is closed

in the ASCS. Jettison sign_!. signal occurs 60 seconds is routed separation by limit after

The retrograde the initiation nor_a]ly

rocket assembly

of the retrograde

fire

The signal

through sensor relay which

open contacts

of the retrograde

rocket assembly is energized

in retrograde close when remains

relay box No. 1.

This relay

switches

the retrograde until

assembly the O.O5g

is blasted relay drops

away from the capsule. out. (_ae O.O5g relay

The relay de-energizes nor-

energized ft. )

at iO,O00

A d-c signal

of approximately

3 volts

is applied

through

really open contacts 13-48. Emergency

of this relay Sequence

to the HF and LF Commutators.

Escape

Emergency escape rocket

escape

sequence

inst_z_=ntation

consists

of Mayday

abort

and tower

fire sigmal monitors.

13-49.

_yaay
slgm_l is produced signal. by the Mayday alarm relay. three This relay volts d-c is

The _yday emerglzed (nominal) is present and orbit 13-50.

by any abort is applied

With

the relay energized,

to the HF and IF C,_atators. of the mission.

Once initiated, alarm relay

this signal is in launch

for the remainder relay box No. 4.

_he M_yday

Astronaut 's Abort

Switch to monitor an abort signal originating commutators. from the

Instrumentation .._u_:. astronaut's Abort

is provided this

Handle;

signal

is applied

to both

13-51.

Tower Escape Rocket
escape rocket signal is obtained relay box No. 2... from _is the emergency relay remains escape rocket

_he tower fire relay

in launch

and orbit

energized

REPORT MODEL.

SE]_ 133

104 _

REVISED 1 _y REVISED

19_2

for

less

than

one

second

but

a capacitor

is

connected level

across

the

input

to

the _;

HF and IF Commutators approximately 13-52. Landing 30

to maintain

a signal

of more

than 0.3 volt

for

seconds. System Sequence consists of monitor fairing. circuits These for chute are M_in

Landing deploy

system

instrumentation and release

and Jettison

of the antenna

signals

approxlmately and reserve compartment. deploy, the chute antenna

three volts chute deploy

and are applied signals

to the SF and IF Co_utators. fr_ toggle switches when

are obtained operate

in the chute the chutes switch the in

Lanyards chute

from the chutes Jettison signal

these

switches through signal

The _in

is obtained release

a limit comes box.

compartment.

The antenna relay

fairing

from

fairing

separation

in the co,_unications All landing

relay

This relay remain on until

is energized impact. 13-53. O.O_G

through

a limit

switch.

system

signals

Relay of O.05g relay operation consists of an on-off type signal may

Instrumentation which indicates

whether

the relay

is energized sensor

or de-energized. or by the eo_nd

The relay receiver.

be energized When 13-_.

by operation is energized Chute

of the 0.05g

the relay Drogue Drogue

a d-c signals

is applied

to the HF and LF Co_,_.uta_ors

chute chute

deployment sensor,

is monitored

by a three

volt

signal

controlled sel_ration

by

the drogue relay and

through

a set of contacts

on the antenna

is applied Bag

to both

c.:..... . _tators.

• .....

13-55. Landing
The landing

bag operation through

is monitored two

by a voltage signal

signal limit

applied

to the

BY and I_ Co_.utators

sets of unlock

switches.

""

II

f./

REVISED }/_l.y "1_62 1 REVISED _

ST. LOUTS, MISSOURI

REPORT MODEl

SR]0_ "10_ 1_

-_ "-

13-56. _e

Periscope periscope While

Retract retract

and Door Closure signal monitors is retracting, the voltage 2_ volts applied to the retract through an

• ::.:.

relay.

the periscope

d-c is applied level

attenuator

in package three

"C" tO both commutators. volts. CONT_0L SYS'_M

Input

to the c_mautators

is approximately 13-57.

INS_UM_TION

13-58. CocU
_he signals 0.80 seconds. applied to the HF and LF Commutators outputs pulses are sq_are are sampled with once every between

Cc_mutator These

wave pulses to voltage

amplitude

-1 and • 3 volts. and pulse a. between quency duration

are applied

controlled

oscillators

modulation

converters. controlled pulse 12. oscillators amplit,_e are varied This freof

Tee frequencies lO. 5 Kc + 6-3/4% band corresponds

of the voltage by the c_utated to IRIG _Cba_l

si=nals. modulated

The frequency are applied signals reshape

outputs

the lO. 5 Kc voltage b. duration _utator modulation

controlled pulse

oscillators

to two mixers. are also applied to pulse

amplitude

modulation

converters. pulse

The converters wave

the pulse amplit-de trains are then

wave-shapes applied c.

to obtain

duration

tralms.

These wave

to the tape recorder., Amplified aeromedical controlled frequency signals are coupled to pairs of 1.3 Kc, 1.7 Kc signal causes a

and 2.3 Kc voltage deviation correspond
27-

oscillators. of + 6-3/4 %.

A zero to full scale The frequency bands

in center

of the oscillator, are applied to

to IEIG Channels

5, 6 and 7.

The oscillator

outputs

mixers. d. combined. In the m__xers, the commutated Mixer A also accepts outputs and the aeromedical the compensating signals are which

a slgnal from

oscillator

REPORT MODEL.

PA ESEEIR 104
133
as a reference The composite test serves speed. the

MCDONNELL
ST._LOU!S, MISSOURI

OA El,o em r 19'l REVISED 1 May 1962
REVISED, fluctuations in tape

_
during data evaluation to indicate

signal from each mixer is applied to the tape recorder, and a telemetry transmitter.

.... _

ground

umbilical

13-59.

Transmission testing and control of the instrumentation checks system is provided to evaluate telemetry link. through

Ground the umbilical system Refer 13-60. The systems a. grammed b. low speed

receptacle. Radiating XI for

Nonradlatlng checks

can be performed through the

operation. to Section

are performed

further Control system

information

regarding

telemetry.

Instrumentation instrumentation equipment The water at regular

controls

and

programs

power

to its own and

other

by means extractor

of mode relays and progr_r. in the environmental during the mission. at a high speed of 6 frames per second and a is as follows: control system is also pro-

intervals

The pilot camera of 5 frames 1 2 3 Prior

operates

per minute. to umbilical Ejection separation

Programming ejection

- Low separation plus 60 sec. -High

Umbilical Capsule

to Capsule

plus 60 seconds

to Tr - Low except high 30 sees every 30 mln.

4 5 6 7 8 c.

Tr to retro Retro

Jettison

- High - Low

Jettison

to .05g.

.05g to heat Heat _yday shield

shield deploy - High deploy - High R-calibrate for maximum readings and Z-calibrate instrumentation intervals duronward - Low "'_"

onward voltages,

Calibration readings, _hls

for minimum circuits. ing orbit.

are supplied

periodically and by

to the monitoring ground c_d at

is done prior

to launch

-,"
P.EVISEO May 1962 i ST.LOU,S. _Issoum

13-29 REPORT SEDR 104

R_,SED
J-_" ........ d,

__

MODE__ I

The X and Y axes accelerometer ranges are + 4 g from launch until orbit These ranges are changed to + 0.5 g while

and from retro command until laming. the capsule is in orbit. mission.

The Z axis accelerometer range is m + 3Og throughout the

13-61.

INSTRUMENTATION

RECORDING

(See Figure 13-5 and 13-6) of a tape recorder and a pilot observer

Recording camera.

instrtumentation consists

13-62.

Tape Recorder lightweight tape recorder provides seven channels for data LF Commutator, signals are pulse

A low power, recording duration

as follows. modulation

Mixer A output, voice cc_munlcations, pulse duration

and HF Commutator

modulation

applied to channels 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, respectively CHANNEL 2 3 4

as follows. INFUT

HFVCO s ' LowLevel Commutator LF VCO's

5
6
7

FOM- m_
FOM - LF
Voice- Communications Tape

The tape recorder operates continuously at I 7/8 inches per seconds.

capacity is 3,600 feet of i rail, ½ inch mylar tape and will provide a recording time of 6.4 hours.
_il biL_

13-63.

Astronaut

Camera camera mounted behind the lower left corner of the main This camera is also supplied 24 volt The Astronaut camera operates at a high

A 16 millimeter ..... .

instrument panel views the Astronaut. d-c power and trigger pulse voltage.

-

71 -z:_ ! '"[

DATE 'MAY,962
REVISED REVISED

M_DONNELLH_ __
ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI E_

PAOE
REPORT MODEL

,3.3,
SEDR 104 133

GAPE

RECORDER

RECORDER

--

!
i i 24vDc I

oN

----'1

LA

o

J.

_ (

f

INSTR UMENTATtOIN CONTROL RELAy BOX

24"V

OC

IMPACT BUS PRE-

A
l" CAMERA RECORD / TAPE RELAY RECORDER SWITCH ON-OFF

A ,

;

TA .F_E RECORDER. "ON" L_GHT

GND. TEST _3 RELAY

U_.

l

'

UMBILICAL GNO. TEST

GROUND TEST UHBIU CAL CON_ECTOR

FIGURE

13-g

TAPE

RECORDER

CONTROL

CIRCUIT
PM_-$-300

REPORT

S_DR 105

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI :.;C_., L ,_C_.. _., ..... ;. ..... .

REVISEO

I May l_2

MODEL_ ,133

REV,SEO
. ..

speed of 6 frames per second and a low speed of 5 frames per minute. The camera normally contains 2%0 feet of 16 millimeterfilm. Internalclock, time correlation is included within the camera. For camera programming see paragraph 13-60.

13-65.

SYSTEM

UNITS

13-65.

TRANSDUCERS type transducers is activated to the action. are connected by the action across instrumentation Wiper 3 volt voltage -

Potentiometer d-c power.

The wiper

to be measured.

is then proportional

13-66.

Control

Stick

Motion

Potentiometers into rotar7 potentiometer movement. One

Control potentiometer

stick

notion

is translated for each

is provided

axis of motion.

13-67.

Satellite

Clock clock

Potentiometers (refer launch to Section and XII) utilized potentlometers outputs for to in-

The satellite dicate elapsed

time from

time to retrograde and O-lO hours.

0-I0 seconds,

O-1 minute_

O-lO minutes,

0-1 hour,

13-_.8.

Manual

and Automatic pressure,

Supply 2250

Helium

Pressure

Potentiometers the wiper of each

Helium potentiometer

supply

pslg maximum,

actuates

transducer

to a resistance

position

proportional

to the pressure.

13-69.

Attitude

Potentiometers (refer to Section IV) provides svnchro actuation of .... ill _

The ASCS potentiometers to the capsule

calibrator for pitch, attitude

roll and yaw. that axis.

Each wiper

output

is then proportional

for

13-70. Main and Reserve OxT_en Pressure
Each oxygen bottle pressure
--

Potentiometers a dual potentlometer
j k

actuates

transducer.

A

REVISED i M_y REVISED.

],(/)62 __

s-r. Louts, Missoum

REPORT, SEDR I04 MODE[ 133

" _"

low resistance resistance

linear element is used to operate a panel indicator while a higher element is used for instrumentation. oxygen pressure. Wiper voltage outputs

linear

are proportional

to applied

13-71.

Static Pres_are, Potentiometers pressure

Suit

Pressure

and Coolant

Quantit Z Pressure

E_ch

transducer

is used ranges

to provide

a linear

output proportional pressure, 0-15

to

the applied psia for

pressure.

Pressure

are 0-15 psia for coolant

for static

sult pressure

and 0-503 psia

quantity

pressure,

13-72.

Respiration breathing depth

,_ste and Depth actuates

Thermistor mounted in the helmet microphone is area.

Pilot Respiration actuated
f_

a thermistor

is determined

by the extremes

to which

the thermistor

while

breathing

rate determines

the frequency

of actuation.

13-73.

Resistance

Element

Transducers are used to measure temperatures. The resistance of

F_asistance elements the element depends varies

proportionally

to its temperature. surface

Mounting

of the elemen% are small, of the capsule temperature

on the application. units. Other

Stlck-on elements

temperature

elements part

lightweight structure. and

are mounted

as an integral

The following ranges for

list ,indicates the purpose each transducer. -65 ° to 2200°F -550 to lO00°F

and approximate

resistance (a) (b) (c) (d)

Outer Skin Temperature: Ablation Temperature:

,

Suit Inle_ Temperature: Cabim Air Temperature. Body Temperature

35° to lO0°F - 249 to 300 ohms 0° to 20OOF - 216 to 316 ohms.

13-74. The

Transducer transducer is a rectal temperature pickup which con-

body temperature

sists of a thermistor pigtail,

imbedded

in sealing

compound

at the end of a flexible

PAGE
REPORT

13-3_
SEDR 10_

MDONNELL
_$T_._I.OUIS, MISSOURI

_,7_r_z

"

DATE 1 November lq6_ REVISED1 May 1962

MODEL_
13-75. D-C Current Shunt

O NFI D

REWSED

The shunt resistance used for the instrument panel ammeter also supplies voltage for instrumentation. this manual. For a description of the shunt see Section XI of

13-76.

Electrocardiograph

Pickups

Cardiac activity is sensed by four, one half inch squares stainless steel wire screens. the astronaut's disconnect, These electrodes are attached with body. Small connecting the complete silver metallzed adhesive to -

wires leading

to the astronaut's

suit

complete

the circuit.

13-77.

Oxygen

Partial

Pressure

Transducer are used to convert 02 partial pressures

The 02 Partial

Pressure

transducers

to a signal compatible with high level telemetry. d-c output is representative

The voltage range of 0-3 V pressure.

of 0-6 psi oxygen partial

13-78.

TAPE RECORDER tape recorder is used in the capsule Tape speed is 1-7/8 ips. to make avail-

A low power, lightweight

able 7 channels of recorded data.

Tape capacity is

3600 feet of ½ inch wide mylar base tape.

The tape transport consists of a capA d-c motor is used, through

stan drive, supply reel and take-up reel mechanism. reduction gearing, for capstan drive. recorder power should the tape break.

A limit switch is provided to interrupt Record amplifiers are incorporated in the

unit for Channels l, 2, 4 and 7.

Channels 3, 5 and 6 utilize amplifiers in_:-:':

corporated in the co_aatators located in instrumentation package "A" and in the low level coi.uautator.

13-79.INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE "C" The C package _ncorporates
i

units

of various

functions

into one compact

13-35
U

REVISED 1 _¢,SED J'-. ._;; ....
:.vv

}_ay 1962

ST. Lou,s, M,ssou_

REPORT SEDR iOh MODEt 132

_

panel allowing convenience of mounting and of mskiug electrical connections. These various sub-units are discussed the the following paragraphs.

13-80.

Cabin

Pressure

Transducer the wiper of a lO, O00 ohm potentiometer located in

Cabin pressure the C package. meter.

actuates

Three volts d-c from the A package

is applied across the potentio-

Wiper output voltage is then proportional to the cabin pressure.

13-81.

Topic Cards

The _n_trumentation package utilized a unique method of construction and mounting of the transistorized amplifiers, power supplies, attenuators and monitors. Each unit consists of the necessary component parts mounted on a

printed circuit, dielectric card with printed connector contacts at the bottom ....... for plug-in insertion. The card is then covered, with the exception of base

connector contacts and side mounting edges, with a thin layer of epoxy resin. This coating is used to provide moisture protection, to insure operation in a 100% oxygen atmosphere and to improve mechanical rigidity of components. These

"Topic Cards" are packaKe mounted in boxes providing side rails, base contact receptacles and printed circuit inter-connections.

13-82.

D-C Current A_lifidr

Cards

Two amplifiers are used to bring the d-c current shunt voltage up to a maximum of 3 volts d-c. One amplifier is used for the HF Co_.atator while the The ampllfiers'are translstorized and

other is used for the LF Co_tator. card mounted.
.... _?_:_

13-83.

Respiration

Rate and Depth Calibration

and Attenuator

Card

Relays mounted on this card allow R and Z calibration of the signal '_ supplied from the respiration rate and depth transducer. for R calibration and one for Z calibration. One relay is supplied

Energizing the desired relay

REPORT SEDR 104

P* E -36
breaks

Mc, DONNELL
circuit and applies

REVISED I May 1962

l ove ber

the normal

the calibration

voltage

to the commutators.

Resistors are also mounted on the card for attenuation of 24 volt d-c voltages to proportional voltages compatible with the co.u,_atators.

.;;-..;_;.

13-84.

Voltase

Monitor

Cards and circuit solenoid isolating crystal diodes are used to standby battery

Resistors, attenuate voltage

capacitors control

reaction

valve energizing

voltages,

and periscope

retract

voltage

prior to application

to the commutators. to both

Each attenuator circuit output, a maximum commutators.

of 3 volts d-c, is applied

13-85.

Horizon Scanner scanner

Card amplifier card provides circuitry for processing the

The horizon

scanner ro]] and pitch signals, roll and pitch ignore signals and Z calibrate prior to being applied scanners are operating to HF and LF Co_aatators. continuously; however, During launch and orbit the orbit the signals applied

during

to the ASCS and the co._atators In addition, the horizon scanner

are timed by the programmer slaving signal is applied

located in C package. to the HF co_,u.Lctator.

13-86.

PR0GRA_ER contains switch contacts which is mounted operate control circuits for

The programmer specific scope intervals.

The programmer

on the forward side of the peri-

housing.

13-87. -Section A The programmer power is applied used for orbital missions consists of two sections. timers When

,:::

-

to the progran_mer, electronic

controlled

continuously ....

operate the water extractor circuit.

J

MAC

281C

{REV

14 DEC

60)

REVISED i May REVISED.

1962

s':r. Lou,s. M,s.e, ou_

REPORT SEDR .MODEt

104

133

13-88.

INSTRD2-_NTAT!ONPACKA_

A

The A package also incorporates units of various functions into one panel. _l__eseub-units are s discussed in the following paragraphs.

13-89.

Cabin Air Temperature

ibansducers

Amplifier Temp-

A platinum resistance wire is used to measure cabin air temperature.

erature changes from O° to 2OCOF cause the element to change resistance from 200 to 300 ohms. The resistance element forms a part of an amplifier circuit. Two

transducers are used in conjunction with two amplifiers to supply signal to both commutators.

13-90.

Filament Transformer

A filament transformer is used to step down ll5 volts 400 cps capsule power to 6.3 volts for use in packages A and C.

13-91.

Topic Cards package A also utilized the Topic Card Principle for

The instrumentation amplifiers and power

supplies.

13-92.

Resistance

Element

Amplifier

Cards

The same type amplifier is used for heat shield outer skin, suit inlet air and cabin air temperature transducer signals. Each amplifier is of dual channel

design in order to acco_uodate'the two transducers used to measure each type of temperature. supply. ....:: ;.:., Seven volts, 400 cps is supplied from the resistance element power The

This voltage is applied across a bridge circuit in each amplifier.

transducer associated with each bridge circuit causes the voltage in the circuit to vary proportionally to the transducer temperature. This voltage change appears

across a transformer and is rectified, using crystal diodes, to a maximum output < of 3 volts d-c. tors. The two outputs from each amplifier are supplied to the ccmumuta-

Two relays on each card amplifier allow full scale and zero calibration of

PAGE

!3_-3_8

(r_7_

OATE 1 November

1961

REPORTSEDR1Oh MODEL_ 133 each channel. Calibration _ potentlometers

REVISED May 1962 i REVISEO are also provided for each channel. "

13-93.

Resistance

Element

A-C Power

Supply

Card require 7 volts, power 400 cps a-c. Capsule

:i _':'

Resistance power, using plies 24 volts zener

element

amplifier

circuits

d-c, is applied

to a transistorized regulation

inverter.

The inverter supcircuit.

dlode-transistor a-c output

voltage

and transistor

switching, rectifier

a 7 volt

which

is monitored d-c,

by an attenuator, is applied

The monitor

output,

a maximum

3 volts

to the commutators.

13-9h.

Bod 7 Temperature

Amplifier

Cards are used to increase prior the output of the to

Two transistorized temperature transducer

d-c amplifiers to a maximum

3 volt

d-c level

to application

the co_utators. mentation package

These amplifiers C for the

are of the same type as those used signal amplification.

in instru-

d-c current

13-95.

Signal Topic

Condition

and D-C Supply

Card in the instrumentation circuit. system.

This Filament attenuates former

Card provides output

four functions is applied

transformer

to a monitor 3 volt

This circuit indicating transcir-

and rectifies

to provide power,

a maximum

d-c signal

operation. provides

Capsule

24 volts

d-c, is applied

to an attenuator circuit.

cuit which output

a 3 volt d-c output to the ccmmutators condition limit

for the monitoring as a monitor supply

This 3 volt 24 volt provides d-c meter

is then applied

of the main card also

bus voltage. attenuator These

The signal resistors

and d-c power current flow

which

in the panel oxygen

indicator

circuits. and the

circuits

involve

the primary Supply

and secondary pressures

supply

pressures

...... :_

automatic

and manual

fuel

and the

coolant

quantity

circuit.

13-96. HF and LF Co_._utator-Keyer-Record Amplifiers Two units are provided in the A package for co,_mtating transducer data

REVISED May 1962 I

_r. LOU,S. Mlsso),,.)_

REPORT SEDR 104

REVISED
._ ....... and supplying PDM and PAM outputs.

MOO 133 l
The commutator portion of each I,,4tis a

90 x 1¼ solid state device which samples sequentially, 88 channels of signal input information. wave train. The output produced is a pulse amplitude modulated signal

Each 0 to 3 volts d-c Inp,t to the commutator is sampled 1¼ times u standards. The PAM wave train output is fed through a The FDM output is then applied to a record driving the recorder head

per second per EIG

buffer stage to a PAM/PDM converter. amplifier which produces a signal

capable of directly

in the capsule tape recorder. which introduces a master equipment

The PAM output is fed through a gating circuit pedestal pulses to operate automatic

pulse and negative

deco_utation

in the ground station.

A power supply is incorporated in the cir-

in the unit to provide cuits.

the positive and negative voltages required

13-97.
f

INSTRUP_NTATION

PACKAGE D

The primary function of the D package is to convert capsule information to signals capable of modulating the telemetry transmitters. Transducers and

amplifiers are also contained in the package to complete capsule information circuits.

13-98.

Accelerometers are mounted late%al in the D package and used to determine of the capsule. Each

Three accelerometers the static longitudinal,

and normal accelerations

unit gives a d-c output which

is applied to 3 channels of each commutator.

13-99.

Electrocardiq_ram

Amplifier

Cards inputs. Each amplifier

Four amplifiers

are used for the EKG transducer

increases the transducer ._ -. 13-100. Oscillators

output to a 3 volt peak to peak signal.

The D package

supplies

sub-carrier

oscillators

to allow two channels

of

REPORT SEDI_ h I0

....13-ao

M,DONNELL

REVISED I May1962

l ovember 1961
.....•
." .....

MOOEL 133
instrumentation data. frequency

REWSEO
The A channel is associated with the HF commutator, high and tape recorder. The B channel is associated

telemetry

transmitter

with the low frequency telemetry transmitter. the sub-carrier oscillators.

The following paragraphs describe

13-101.

Compensating

Oscillator

Card is

During playback monitored to detect

of a tape_ the recorded signal from this oscillator changes in tape recorder speed. A frequency

shift indicates and operates

a change in speed. at 3125 cps.

The oscillator

is of Topic Card construction

Output level

is adjustable.

13-102.

Voltage

Controlled

Oscillator

(V.C.0.) Cards to the sub-carrier oscillators The "

Instrumentation

data voltages

are applied

causing oscillator frequency shift proportional to the input amplitude.

transistorized oscillator consists of a free running multivibrator and filter. The oscillator functions and frequencies are given below: TM RECORD X X X X X X X X -

(i) High Frequency System(Channel A)

0.40 Kc Roll Rate and Low Roll Thrusters (Mixed) g 0.56 Kc Vernier Clock and Sequence of Events (Mixed) X 0.73 Kc DCVolts 1.3 Kc Respiration Rate and Depth X 1.7 Kc Electrocardiogram (Chest) X 2.3 Kc Electrocartiogram (Side) and Blood Pressure X 3.0 Kc TapeSpeedReference 3.9 Kc StickPosition, oll R 10.5 Kc High FrequencyCommutator(PA_M) X (2) Low Frequency System (Channel B) 0.40 Kc 0.56 Kc 0.73 Kc 1.3 Kc 1.7 Kc 2.3 Kc 3.9 Kc 5._ Kc 10.5 Kc Pitch Rate and Low Fitch Thrusters (Mixed) X Yaw Rate and Low Yaw Thrusters (Mixed) X DC Current Respiration Rate and Depth X Electrocardlo_ram (Chest) X Electrocardiogram (Side) and Blood Pressure X StickPosition, Pitch Stick Position,aw Y Low FrequencyCo_y_utator (PAM) X

X X X X X X X X _ _:_:

REVISED May 1962 I REVtSm 13-103. " _

_rr. ou,s.MJssoum L

REPORTS_R MODEt 133

10_

Mixer Ampl_1'lerCard Power Supply

Capsule power, 24 volts d-c, is converted to 6 volt d-c for use by the subcarrier oscillators. A mixer circuit combines the sub-carrier oscillator outputs.

Solid state components

for these circuits

are combined

on one topic card.

13-104.

CAMERA

13-105.

Pilot Observer

Camera

A standard camera is modified by the application of a special drive motor, self contained slow and fast programmer and a special housing. Slow operating camera

of the motor shutter mechanism

and film transport

begins when the capsule

and tape record relay is de-energized by the block-house. feet of 16 millimeter film.

F_11 capacity is 450

PAGE REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL_ 133 Table 13-1. ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI _ REVISED1 February, 1962 REVISED May 1962 I ....

Instrumentation Co_,_tator Point Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt. ) 16 HF LF 18 HF LF 19 HF LF

...

ELECTRICAL

POWER

SYSTEM 75 75 75

18V Isol Bus

18v

Bus

75
33 33 77 77 34 34 62 62 26 26

75
33 33 77 77 34 34 62 62 26 26 33 33 77 77 34 34

"/5

FansA-CBus ASCS A-CBus D-CCurrent St_-dby Inverter ON 24 Volts D-C (MAIN)

62 62 26 26

INSTRUMENTATION POWER SUPPLIES 3VD-CReference 1 1 1 1 I 37 37 2 2 2 I

--_

OV (Zero) Reference

2

2

54 54 58 58
67 67

2

7V, 400 CPS Calibrate Sig (R CalZ Cal)

3 3

3 3

3 3

64 64

64 64

64 64

STATIC PRESSURE

22

22

22

22

22

22

.,;,,,,:_:
-.:..

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Suit Inlet Pressure 8 8 8 -8 8 8

._

U

REVISED

1 February
M&y _Lg62

1962
__

wr.LOUIS_ M,SSOUPJ

REPORTSEDR 104
MODEl_ 133

REVISED 1

_.

Table 13-Io

Instrumentation C_utator Point Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.) 16 HF IF 18 HF LF i 19 HF LF

,

,,,,,,

ENVIRONMENTAL

CONTROL

SYSTEM(Cont'd.)

02 supply
Pressure
Ca_zln Temp.( Top ) Cabin Temp. (Bottom) Suit Tn]et Air Temp.

9
I0

9
I0

9
IO

9
i0

9
I0

9
i0

#I
Suit Tnlet Air Temp.

II

11

11

Secor,_7"y _essure ...... Cabin

02 Supply 12 82 12 82 12 82 8_ 12 82 84 12 82 12 82

Pressure

Coolant Quantity

Cablu 02 Partial
Pressure Slave) ( 6

(_st_a,)
Suit 02 Partial

6
6 6 6

_esure

(Slave) (Master)

02 Emmt Rate Mode. EEACTON CONTROL SYSTEM

Reactiom Cont. Supply Pressure (Auto.)

... ;;_:;" ....
• :::::

Reaction Hand 9.o_dL Pitch Yaw

Cont. Supply

m_ssure (Man.!
Control

Pos
6
68 68 68 68 68 68 39 39 39 39 39 39

4o ko"

ho ho

1_ob,o

23

23

23

23

23

23

24 25

24 25

24 25

24 25

24 25

24 25

t

/..

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL- 133

PA E

Mc, _T_.J_-__;_ DONNELL
_ .

REVISED I February 1962 I May 1962 REVISED

961

Table 13-1.

Instrumentation Commutator Point Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.) 16 HF IF 18 HF LF HF 19 LF

ACCELERATION

Y Axis (yaw) X Axis (Pitch) Z Axis (Roll)

8O

80

8O 80 81 81 16 38 61 83 16 38 61 83

8O 80 81 81 83 83 16 16 38 38 61 61

81 81 16 16 38 38 83 83 61 61

STRUCTURAL TEMPERATURE

Heat Shield Temp. #I Heat Shield Temp. #2 Heat Shield Temp. #3 Heat Shield Temp. #4 Outer Skin Temp. Aft Outer Skin Temp. Fwd 25OVA Inverter Temp. 15OVA Inverter T_. Retr_ Rkt Temp. RH Retro Rkt Temp. Bottom

19 19 20 20 76 76 21 35 74 74 21 35

19 19

19 19 20 20

76 76 21 35 74 74 21 35

76 76 21 35 74 74 21 35

.....

.....

MAC

2_I,ICI*

(27 APR

5S'}

v

REVISED February.1962 1 REWSED i May1962 f_ Table 13-1. _

_ uou,s, M,SSOUR,

REPORT SEDR I0_ _ODEt 133

Instrumentation Cc_mmtator Point Assignment (Rich Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.) 16 HF LF 18 19 HF LF HF

LF

STRUCTURAL (Cont'd.)

TEMPERATURE

Tm Xmtr Ta_ (Lo Freq) Tm Xmtr Temp (Hi Freq) Roll CCW Man "B" Nut Temp Low Roll CCW Auto "B" Nut Temp AEROMEDICAL DATA EKG Bt_

27 27 20 27 20 27 27

27

. . . 1.7 & 1.7 & 2.3 Kc 2.3 Kc VCO,s VCO,s . 1.3 Kc VCO's 4 . 1.3 Kc VCO's 4

1.7 & 2.3 Kc VCO,s . 1.3 Kc VCO's 4

" Respiration

Body Temperature (_-ter)

(s"._.zve) o.05a Re1_
HORIZON SCANNER

4 87 87

_ 87 87

4 87 87

Fitch output RollOutput
Pitch Ignore

88 88 86 86
59 59

88 88 86 _
59 59

88 88 86 86
59 59

_on Ignore
G_s ATTITUDE Switch Position

85 85
63 63

85 85
63 63

85
63 63

Roll Yaw

17 18

17 18

17 18

17 18

17 18

17 18

REPORT SEDRIO_ MOOEL_ 133

13- 6

M DONNELL f
$ _

oAT I February l"o 1961 REVISED 1962
REVlSEO May 1962 I

CONFIDENTTA'T_,
Table 13-1.

Instrumentation Commutator Point Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.) 16 HF LF 18 HF LF 19 HF LF

......

RDS CONTROL

SOL_OIDS

_t, ch Hi_ tr-p
PitchHighDown
Roll HighCW Roll High CCW YawHighLeft Yaw HighRight

65 65
66 66
69 69 70 70

65 65
66 66
69 69 70 70

65 65
66 66
69 69 70 78 78 79 79 70

78 78 79 79

78 78 79 79

SATELLITE CLOCK (Elapsed

_me)
IO Seconds I Minute iO Minutes I Hour i0 Hours SATELLITE CLOCK (Retrograde 28 29 30 31 32 28 29 30 31 32 28 29 30 31 32 28 29 30 31 32 28 29 30 31 32 28 29 30 31 32

Time)
IO Seconds 1 Minute IO Minutes 41 42 43 41 42 43 41 42 43 41 42 43 1,1 41 42 43 42 43 ,_,, .....

10 Hours

45

45

45

45

45

45

0 - i0 Seconds

14 14

" MAC

;t3,1Ct.

IZ7

APR

_91

MC'DONNEL L
REVISED February. 1962 1 REV,SED M.._r 1962 1 -./_. Table 13-I. __ sT.LOUIS. MmSOUP-J

POE l>-av
REPORT SEDR 10_ MOOS 133

Instrumentation Co._.utatorPoint Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.) ,

i:,;,
-"'

,

i

, ,,

16 HF LF

18 HF LF

'19 HF LF

SATELLITE

CLOCK

(Retrograde Time) (Cont'd.) 13 13 50 58 8_ 50 58 84

Retre Referemce I Minute Since Retro. lO _utes Since Retro.

I Hour Sim_e Retro.

NO_AL

LAUNCH SEQUENCE Tower Release 46 47 46 47 46 47 46 47 46 47 46 47

Capsule Separation RetroAttitude Cored. Retro Rkt. As,y. Jett. Retro Rkt.No.I Fire Retro Rkt. No. 2 Fire No, 3 Fire Ti_ln_

48 48 53 53

48 48 53 53

48 48 53 53

37 37 52 67 50 52 67 50 50 50

37 37 52 67 50 52 67 50

Reta..o mt't,

Retro Rkt. Fire EMERGENCY ESCAPE

SEQUENCE 71 60 61 71 60 61 71 60 49 71 60 49 71 60 49 71 60 49

Pilot Abort May Day Tower Exca_e Rocket :;_": ..... .:: ... LANDING SYSTEM SEQUENCE

Drome Chute DeploT. _t.,,,_ _eZease

54 54 55 55 56 56 55 55 56 56

%4 54 55 55 56 56

Mainetmte D_lor

REPORT SEDR 104

__o

_

MOOEL.
Table 13-1.

REVISED I February 1962 1962

REWSED 1
Instrumentation Co_-,_:tator Point Assignment (High Level 0-3 Volt.) (Cont'd.)

16 HF LF

18 HF LF

19 HF LF

LANDING SYSTEM (Cont'd.)

SEQUENCE

Main Chute Jettison. Reserve Chute Deploy

57 73

57 73

57 73

57 73

57 73

57 73

_t_

_g

5151 51 51 5151
72 72 72 72 72 72

PERISCOPE RETRACT

INTEGRATING

ACCET_ROMETER

52

52

COMMAND RECEIVER ALL CHANNEL IO. S

5 5

5

5

5 5

COMMAND RECR. A SIG. STRENGTH

7 7

7 7

7 7

COMMAND RECR.B SIG. STRENGTH

36

36

36

36

36

36

MAC

Z31C?.

427

APR

59;

REVISED, 1 May l_ REVISED .,..__

ST.Lou=s. MISSOURI

REPORT SJgDR11_ ,"AODEE 133

,_
=;;; .....

13-1o6.
13-107.

TJ_T CONFI_TION C_U_
TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 16 on capsule No. 16 is the same as the specification

The _%x'umentatlon

capsule with the ex_eptlon of differences in parameters monitored on the low level ¢¢umutator. _-_%ead of suit _ Cabin 02 partial pressure is sensed in capsule No. 16 partial pressure as in the specification capsule.

13-108.

_ST

CONFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 18

_he instrumentation on capsule No. 18 i_cludes in addition %o the specification compliance, the follow_n_: A balloon experiment which will employ a 30

inch m_lar _n_latable sphere folded and packaged with its gas expansion bottle into a two pound ,,,_tto be installed within the antenna cannister. It will be

deployed on a I00 foot nylon cable to the spacecraft near the perigee following the first orbital pass. It will remain with the capsule for one orbit. The

major objectives are to study the effects of a space e_ivlronmenton the reflection characteristics of 5 colored surfaces thru visual and photographic observation and to conduct aerodynamic drag measurements using a strain gage, The strain

gage signal is fed to the capsule tape recorder channel No. I.

13-109.

Velocity Sensor

The velocity sensor is designed to measure separation velocity increase during posigrade rocket firing and velocity decrease during retrograde rocket fir__. During poeigrade flr_,_ the integrating accelerometer w i_, with. appli-

cation of 24 volt d-c

signal, integrate for 1.5 + _ seconds after a velocity of At this time the maximm= velocity This sigmAl is applied

i0 ft/sec. -+1.5 ft/sec, has been reached.

signal w411 be held for approxlmatel7 six (6) minutes. %0 the HF an_ LF Commutators as a zero

to three volt value and is used to deterDuring

mine the separation velocity of the capsule from the precedl,',_ stage.

REPORT S]E)R 10_ MODEl-. 13:}

_

,.4.,_._,,

,.._._..

REVISED REVISED

1 M, y a

1962

retrograde signal of 240

firlng_

integration

w_]]

be started for

by application 22 -+ 2 seconds will be held

of a after

24 volt d-c
a velocity

--,,

and will

integrate h_

maximum been

velocity

.....

+ 40 ft/sec, impact.

reached.

The signal

for 30 minutes the 240 ft/sec. sensor relay

or until relay

The integrating 24 volts minute

accelerometer d-c power timer;

will

also

actuate

which

w_'l 1 direct and eight various

to the Telemetry in turn a signal These

velocity

through power ferent

a four through values

the timer

directs composed

the 24 volt of three together difwith

size resistors

to produce each.

of four _Inutes signals

duration

timed signals

the velocity mine

are applied impact

to the HF and LF Co_nutators

to be used

to deter.

the approximate

area of the capsule.

H

13-51
REVISED I

Febr,/J,_',Cy 1962

,,T. '_'MmSOUm uou,s.

RE_ORT

SEDR

_._

R_'SED _:'1962 I

__

_OO_1 133

Table 13-2.

Low Level Commutator Point Assignment, Capsules 16 & 18

CH. NO. I 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9

PARAMETER (C._psule16) _11 Scale Reference (5 VDC) (+15 my Tr_u%) Zero Reference (-5 my Input) +Shingle #7 Tmmperature ZIO7 LX YO T/C #I +shingle #I Temperature ZIO7 RX YO T/C #3 Yellow Plug Reference Red Plug Reference +Shingle #4 Temperature ZIO7 XO HY T/C #2 +Shingle #10 Temperature ZIO7 XO TY T/C #4 +Shale #_ Temperature (Under 6"x6" white paint)

z_8 LXYo T/C#5
Shlngle #34 T_erature (Oifravent±al with T/C #5) ZlSh LXYo T/c#6
IO 13. 12 13 14 15 16 17 +Shingle #31 Temperature Z154 XO BY T/C #7 +Shingle #37 Temperature Z154 XO TY T/C #9 °Shingle #9 Temperature Z178 RX YO T/C #iO "Shingle #3 Temperature Z178 LX YO T/C #12 °Shingle #4 Temperature Z124 LX3 BY T/C #11 °Sb_n-le #20 Temperature Z132 LX BY2.5 T/C #13 Shorted Shorted

18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Shorted
Antenna Cannister Disconnect Reference +Sh_ng_le#28 Temperature zl5h KX YO T/C #8 +Te-perature CCW Manual Thruster ZIIO RX YO T/C #15 +Sb4_sle #I Temperature ZIIO RX YO T/C #16 +Temperature CW Auto Thruster ZIIO LX YO T/C #17 +Shingle #7 T_erature ZIIO LX YO T/C #18 *Amtenma Cannister Z202 XO TY T/C #14 *Antenna Cannister Z2O_ XO BY T/C #23 +Shingle #15 Temperature Z132 RX BY2.5 T/C #24 +Shingle #IO Temperature ZI20 LX3 T_ T/C #25 Sync, Fn1_e

30

Sync.Pulse

+

Junction

Temperature

referenced

from Ch. 5

o

Junction Temperature referenced from Ch. 6

*

JuDction Temperature referenced from Ch. 19

REPORT SEDR 104 MODEL_ 133

, 13-52

M 'DONNE
_

.

"

REVISED i February 1962 REVISEDMayi_62 i

961

:..ZI_.

Table 13-2.

Low Level Co,m_atatorPoint Assignment Capsules 16 and 18

CH. NO. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO Ii 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ,

PARAMETER (Capsule 18) _!I! Scale Reference (+15 my) Zero Reference (-5 my) • Yaw Left Solenoid (Auto) _B" Nut Temperature Pitch Up Solenoid (Auto) "B" Nut Temperature Oxygen Primary Bottle Temperature Yellow Connector Reference Temperature (for Ch. 7, 8, 9, I0, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24, 25 and 26) Shingle Temperature Z 107, LX, YO (T/C #I) S_Ingle Temperature Z 107, XO, BY (T/C #2) Shingle Temperature Z 107, RX, YO (T/C #3) Shingle Temperature Z 107, XO, TY (T/C #4) Delta Temperature Z 148, LX, YO (T/C #5) - Z 154, LX, YO

(T/C #6)
Shingle Temperature Z 154, XO,.BY (T/C #7) Shingle Temperature Z 154, RX, YO (T/C #8) Shingle Temperature Z 154, XO, YT (T/C #9) CCW Thruster (Manual) Temp. - Z IIO, RX, YO (T/C Yaw Right Solenoid (Auto) "B" Nut Temperature Pitch Down So!enoi4 (Auto) "B" Nut Temperature Oxygen Secondary Bottle Temperature Red Connector Reference Temperature (for Ch. 20, 21s 22, 23) Beryllium Shlngle Temperature Z 178, RX, YO (T/C Beryllit_ Shingle Temperature Z 178, XO, BY (T/C Beryllium Shingle Temperature Z 178, LX, YO (T/C Beryllium Shingle Temperature Z 178, XO, TY (T/C Shingle Temperature (_ver CCW Thruster Man. )

#15)

#12) #II) #IO) #13)

•z

Rx,Yo (T/C #16)

Lo CW Thruster (Auto) ZII0, LX, YO (T/C #17) Shingle Temperature (over Lo CW Thruster Auto. ) Z 110, LX, YO (T/C #18) No measurement tied to -5 _'. (ZeroReference) No measurement tied to -5 my (Zero Reference) Sync.Pulse Sync._ Pulse
_: :

231C_.

(27

APR

5g]

_.-

_

'

MAC

231C

(Rev

14

Oct

55)

REVISED.

ST,

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

R_ORT

SEDR

104

REVISED.

_

MODEL

133

Table /--

13-3.

Special Instrumentation Parameters Com,_,_tator Point (Low Level - 3MV to 13MV Ref. ) (Cont'd.)

Assignments

T.......... Nomenclature

Capsule

9 Chart. 49 50 Chart. 49 50

13 Chan. 49 50 _9 50 Chart.

Inbd Surfaceof Glass Inbd Surfaceof Glass Hat Sect. (Bottom) #12 Str. HatSect. (Bottom) #12 Str. R.H. Console Z126.5

51

51

51

51

52

52

52

52

Hat Sect.

(Side)

#12 Str.
T/M Xmitter Supply Pwr

53

53
53 53

Hat Sect. (Top) #12 Str. Between Beacons C&S Band

54

54

54

54

Hat Sect. #24 Sir.

(Bottom) 55 55 55 55

Ha¢ Sect. (Bottom) #24 Sir. Transmitter Hat Sect. #24 Str. Hear Equipment (Side)

56

56

56

56

57

57

Calibrator 57 57

H20 T_
:; =:::

.............. ...... '

Hat

Sect.

(_op)
58 58 58 58

#24 Str.
Near Left Inverters Side Window

(Bolt)

59

59

59 59

REPORT SEDR 104

13-5
13-3.

Mc, DONNELL

"

REVISED

MOOa. 133
Table Special Instrumentation Parm_eters Commutator (Low Level - 3MV to 13MV Ref.) (Cont'd.)

REWSEO
Point Assignments ._.

Capsule Pole Nomenclature Left Side Window (Inner Pane) Reaction Control Thrust Chamber Auto 24# Auto i# Man 24# L/O Auto System Roll Catalyst BedL.H. L/O Auto System Roll Catalyst Bed L.H. Heat Shield Attaching Bolts Horizon Scanner (Pitch)

9 #i #2 _i Chan. Chan.

13 _2 Chart. Chart°

60

60

60

60

61 62 63

61 62 63

61 62 63 63

61 62

64

6_

64

64

65

65

65

65

66

66

66

66

......

HorizonScanner (Roll) Ant. Cc_p. (Outer Skin) Ant. Comp. (InnerSkin) Ant. Comp. (Outer ,Skin)

67

67

70

70

67
68 68

67

7o
71 Drogue Chute Can Parachute Comp. (OuterSkin)L_ Ant. Camp. Ant. Camp. (Tnner Skin) (Outer Surface) , 72

70
71 , 69 68 71 69 68 71

72

72

72

.

Retro Rocket Package

Z88 ByXO z88 ByXR z88 ByXL
RetroRocket(Right) Retro Rocket (Bottom)

73 74 75
76 77

73 74 75
76 77

73 73 74 74 75 75
76 76 77 77

...

MAC

231C

(Ray 14 OcL

55)

REVISED.

l ove,ber

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS _

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

13-55
SERE 10_ 13'_

REVISED.

MODEl.

Table 13-3o /--

Special Instrumentation Parameters Comm_utatorPoint Assignments (Low Level - 3 MV to 13MV Ref. ) (Cont'd.)

,:.:_: Nomenclature

Capsule

9 Chan. Chan.

i_ Chnn. Chin.

Pole #I
RetroRocket (Exp.Bolt)
Adapter Sides Outer Skin Z79.5 LX Z79.5 By Z79.5 Ty Cap. to Adapter Retaininging R Adapter Retaining Ring Cover Cap. to Adapter Explosiveolt B Escape Tower Z257 Escape Tower (Left Leg) Pylon Explosive Bolt Stabilityedge W 13-111. Astronaut Observer 79 80 81 79 80 81 79 80 81 79 80 81

78

78

78

78

82

82

82

82

83

83

83

83

84 85 86

84 85 86

84 85 86

84 85 86

87
88 Camera

87
88 88

87
88

87

The mecbenism of the Astronaut observer camera is the same as that of the instrument panel observer camera,

13-112.

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULES

13-113. :_-.:.:_.;• z;

TEST CONFIGURATION CAPSULE NO. 8

13-114,. System Description Instrumentation on Capsule No. 8 is s_m_lar to the Specification Compliance Capsule (Refer to Paragraph 13-1) except that Capsule No. 8 is intended for an to the Astronaut does

.......

,mm-nned (orbital) mission and therefore data perts-ln-lng not apply.

Major components installed are shown on Figure 13-5.

REPORT _EDR lO b, MODEL_ _'_ 13-115 • System O_eration on Capsule _

"

REVISED REVISED ._

Instrumentation Capsule 13-116. except

No. 8 is s_milar

to the Specification automatic or ground

Compliance controlled.

.....

is ,lum_nned and operation Instrumentation is the

is either

Monitoring

Monitoring Capsule 13-117 Table

instrumentation

same

as the

Specification as noted

Compliance in Paragraph monitored while

(Refer to Paragraphs through 13-136.

13-3 through 13-6

13-58)

except

Figure

shows the

various

parameters

13-2 lists Standby standby

the commutator Battery batteries, if the ON,

point

assignments

for each parameter.

13-117. The

signal

comes

from the

secondary

bus

relay

No. 2.

This relay energizes bus voltage is applied nominal) 13-118. is below

STANDBY With

BAbY

switch is in AUTO position energized, 2b, volts d-c

and main (nominal) d-c

18 volts.

the relay C.

to an attenuator is applied

in package

Attenuator

output

(2.8 volts

to the commutators. Control System instrumentation
i

Environmental

_nvironmental the Specification that

Control Compliance

System

on Capsule

No. 8 is the same as through 13-22)

Capsule

(Refer

to Paragraphs

13-16

except 13-119.

the emergency Control

oxygen System

suppiy

and 02 partial

pressure

is not monitored.

Reaction

Reaction SpecificatiOn

Control

System

instrumentation J

on Capsule

No. 8 is the except

same as the the baud

Compliance

Capsule

(Refer to Paragraph

13-23)

that

control positions are not monitored. 13-120. Acceleration
.::,..::

Capsule acceleration signal r-nge

acceleration along three

instrumentation

consists

of circuitry The

which and

monitors re-entry 13-30. ) -

....

mut_,_11y perpendlcuSar throughout the flight.

axes.

launch

is utilized

(Refer to Paragraph

' OVEM ER' ,, M ,DONNELL fi
I,REVISED IREVISED ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI "- " REPORT, MODE_ SEDR 104 133

AMPLIFIERS ..... t

_

-'-'

F-CAPSULE ELE:TRICAL POWER SYSTEM

-_ "A"

O-3V O-C INPUTS CO MMUTAT O_I

RECTIFIER ATTENUATOR AND j

J

ROM CONVERTER

POWER SUPPLIES L INSTRUMENTATION AND _ PULSE AMPLITUDE

SOUND LEVEL L

RECT,E,ER ___
ATTENUATOR PRESSURE

_J]J-d-Lrd-L
f_ _ODU LATION CONTROLLED

_

VIBRATION I ANALYZER OSCILLATOR OSCILLATOR _ _ _ } I COMPENSATING 10.SKC VOLTAGE 1

I

CALIBRATION ON

DATA STATIC

"

CONTROL ENVIRONMENTAL

ATTENUATOR

I

"

I

MIXER _-"A"

-_

_

TELEMETRyHI FREQ TR.ANSMITT ER

l

amPLIFIERS ACCELERATION

'

CONTROLLED

AMPUFI ERE STRUCTURAL TEMPERATURE I CONTROl ATTITUDE RATE AMPUFIERS 0.050 I _ SYSTEM _I '

_

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLED

" '

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLED

ANTENNA glCOfE

PULSE DURATION -MODU LATION "--_ OSCILLATOR

DESCENT ANTENNA SWITCH

l

.SCANNER, HORIZON

A.'TUOE
_[ AMPLIFIERS ATTENUATORS _

CONTROL

SYS.

CONTROLLE0 ,.3 CVOtTAOE
TARE 2.7KC VOLTAGE CONTROLLED O_3CI LLATOR ' J _

I

MULT'P'XE,
J

SOL£NO_DS

RELAY SATELLITE CLOCK

_

TRANSMITTED J _ AND RECEIVED VOICE SIGNALS

ATTENUATOR ALL CHANNEL I COMMAND RECEIVER S|GNAL EMERGENCY ESCAPE

_

_ !

CONTROLLED f OSCILLATOR -MIXER "8" _ J _ L._ " _ L_ _REQ. TELEMETRY TRANSMITTE_

NORMAL LAUNCH SEQUENCE.

SYSTEM

--

CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR

C OMRARTMEN1 TELEMETRy INTERROGATION MONITOR I _ _ INPUT_ ! ' / _ [ PRESSURE _ HEAT SHIELD CAVITY PRESSURE PARACHUTE I ¢ "B" COMM. 0-3V O--C MODULATION INPUTS COOING .... EDM CONVERTER

AN{) CONTROLi

_f

X

T_NSMIS$1ON

/

FIGURE13.6, MONITORING - _; -- ............

INSTRUMENTATION BLOCK T---1:2 ...............

DIAGRAM-CAPSULE = .............

8

P_5-_ m

REPORT 8EDR 10_4 MODEl 133 Structural Temperature instrumentation _ __J_j_,_

"

REVISED. REVISED ....

13-121.

Structural Compliance 13-122.

temperature

is similar 13-32 through

to the 13-38.)

Specification

Capsule. Attitude rate to the Rate

(Refer to Paragraph

Attitude are applied

signals voltage

are not

commutated

in Capsule

No. 8. that

These

signals

controlled in the attitude

subcarrier

oscillators compliance

are utilized A 0 volt a an

for electrocardiograph signal level represents

signals a zero

specification rate.

capsule.

A -1.5 volt

signal signal

represents represents

decreasing increasing oscillators. applled

rate rate

of 6 degrees of 6 degrees rate

per per

second second.

and a plus 1.5 volt Pitch rate

is applied

to the 2.3 Kc. Yaw rate is through ::

Roll

is applied

to the 1.7 Kc. oscillators. Pitch and roll signals

to the 1.3

Kc. oscillators.

are routed

a biasingcircuitto set up the propercenterfrequencysignallevel. 13-123. The Capsule 13-124. Parachute parachute Compartment compartment and Heat pressure Shield Cavity shield cavity pressure on

and the heat

No. 8 is instrumented Landing System

and monitored

on the HF and LF Co-.-atators.

Sequence instrumentation on Capsule No. 8 is the same as that 13-54) except This are Abort cir-

Landing for the cuitry signal

system

sequence

specification is added

compliance

capsvlei (refer to Paragraph

to monitor from

the Retro Rocket in Retrograde

Gone Relay #l, #2, and #3. Relay Box #2. These

is obtained on the

relays

signals

monitored Systems 13-125.

HF and LF Commutators.

The i_naing

Bag and Astronaut's

are not monitored lustrwmentation

on 'Capsule No. 8. Control system _ controls and programs (See Table 13-1) power to

The instrumentation its own a. and other The earth system

equipment. viewing from capsule window operates at l0

and sky camera

REVISED

ST. LOUIS.

MISSOURI

REPORT

SEOR104

_,_v,_o

___;_

_OOE_

133

REPORT MODEL.

,_DR lO4 -6o
133

Mc, _k_I_J_IS£C_UR!" Lr DONNELL " '"
_

REVISED REVISED

l ovember
-f

framesper minutethroughout the mission. b. c. mission. d. Calibration for zero is dropped, Recording voltages; readings, R-calibrate are supplied to launch. for percent full scale house readings before the and The periscope The instrument camera panel operates camera at 180 frames per minute throughout mission the

operates

at 360 frames

per minute

during

Z-calibrate umbilical 13-126.

from the block

just prior

Instrumentation consists of a tape Capsule recorder and three cameras. camera The is

Recording Astronaut installed. 13-127.

instrumentation camera

observer

is omitted

from

No. 8 and a periscope

(See Figure Tape Recorder recorder

13-7. )

The tape the

used on Capsule No. 8 is the Capsule

same as the recorder 13-64), to except

used

on

Specification

Compliance P/S.

(Refer to Paragraph Tape Recorder

the tape

speed voice

is 151 inches (See Section Cameras

Also

a Playback 13-1)

simulate

the Astronaut'

XI stud Table

is installed.

13-128.

Capsule camera.

No. 8, being

an unmanned Panel

vehicle,

does

not use an Astronaut as well

observer and

The usual

Instrument

Camera

is installed_ 13-5).

as an Earth

Sky Camera from the

and a Periscope programmer.

Camera.

(See Figure

Progr_,mlmg

is received

capsule

13-129. S_ecialInstrumentation A special sists a nine instrumentation special package is used in Capsule relays, power

* No. 8. The package tape recorder measure-A conand

...........
:.:...:

of fuse blocks, cbAn-el

instrumentation associated

five track supply.

amplifier

case with

Vibration

ments are taken from various points on the capsule, amplified and applied to separate tracks on the package tape recorder or to the capsule tape recorder.

MAC

231C (Ray 14 Oct 55)

1No-ember
REVISED

Mc, DONNELL
ST. LOUIS

3, MISSOURI

REPORT

3.3-61
_)R 10_

Z33 total of nine tracks are recorded as follows: Pallet Tape Recorder Track 2 Z123 Ring Longitudinal Track 3 Web at LX12 Track 4 Instrument Panel Track 6 Z123 Ring T_ngential Track 13-130. 7 Parachute Compartment Capsule Ta_e Recorder Track 2 Package "B" Noise Level Track 4 Z123 Ring Radial Track 6 Shingle Strain Gage Track 7 Escape Tower

System Units

The system units used on Capsule No. 8 are the same as the Specification Compliance Capsule except as noted in the following paragraphs. (Refer to

Paragraphs 13-68 and 13-69.) a. b. c. d. e. f. Main and Reserve Oxygen Pressure Potentiometers are not instrumented Respiration rate and Depth Potentiometers are not monitored Control Stick Potentiometers are not monitored Body Temperature Transducers are not used Electrocardiogram Pickups are not used Tape Recorder is the same as specification compliance capsule. (Refer to Paragraph 13-82.) 13-131. Sound Level and Vibration Transducers

A microphone and amplifier are located in the B package for sound level pickup. A plezo-electric/diaphra6m type microphone is used to pick up a pressure The variable

level of lO0 to 140 db with a frequency range of 37 to 9600 cps.

gain, transistorized amplifier consists of an impedance matching sta_e, filter ...... network, buffer stage and final amplifier. used with a data analyzer. _ pickup, _asuring in Amplifier output, 3 volts R_, is

A piezo-electrle crystal is used as a vibration The transducer is used

a frequency range of i0 to 2000 cps.

conjunction with vibratlon a_plifier.

i

REPORT _xEDR 104 MODEL... lqq 13-132. Vibration

MCDONNELL " S¥_ LOUIS. MII$_UllUk
_ Amplifier and Data Analyzer the and output

REVISED REVISED

1November l;1
.... ..

A transistorized transducer 13-133. to a level Programmer

amplifier compatible

is used to increase with an accoustical

of the

vibration

vibration

analyzer.

The programmer specific of wafer trolled intervals contacts. timers

contains of time. When

switch

contacts

which

operate No.

control

circuits

for

The unit

for Capsule

8 consists

of one section con-

power

is applied the

to the programmer following wafer

the electronic

continuously Duration 30 Seconds

operate

contacts. Function

Wafer Section 1 2 3 4 13-134.

Rate 1 Per 30 Min.

Water

Extractor

iiO Milliseconds 90 Milliseconds llO Milliseconds Instrumentation scanner the Package output

6 Per Second I0 Per Minute 3 Per Second "C '_

Instr. Panel Camera Earth & Sky Camera

Periscope Camera

The horizon voltage with Roll to keep

amplifier pitch

card

in package signals

"C" provides within

a bias compatible

horizon

scanner

and roll control

llm_ts

other ignore

system

components. ignore

Calibrate signals from

relays

are

installed

on the' card. The Horizon

and pitch

are jumpered launch
J

through, the card.

Sc-nners 13-135. The Capsule 13-136.

operate

continuously

to re-entry.

Instrumentation instrumentation except for the

Package package removal

"A"

"A" is the

same as the Specification temperature ampliBier card.

Compliance

of the body "B"

Imatrumentation

_ Package

The components package "D"

used in package

"B" of Capsule capsule

No. 8 are the same as in the for the following units.

in specification 13-102. ) Ch_ge Rate

compliance

except

(Refer to Paragraph a. Attitude

Filter

and Calibrate

Cards

MAC 231C (P.ev 14 Oct. 55)

RE:VISED. RE'VISED.

ST. LOUIS _

3. MISSOURI

REPORT MODI_.

_

104

133

m-

Attitude
::;.

ch_e

rate filter and calibrate cards

replace the electrocardiograph They are for

amplifier cards.

Three attitude change rate cards are used.

pitch, roll and yaw parameters. provide for application

The cards associated with pitch and roll rate signals to these channels. The yaw rate

of calibrate

card provides frequency per

this function

and also contains a bias battery to set up center oscillator when yaw rate eq_l_s zero degrees

on the voltage controlled

second. b. Voltage Controlled Oscillator Cards

The oscillator specification rate signals

cards used in Capsule No. 8 are s_m_lar to those used in the compliance capsule. (Refer to Paragraph instead 13-107. ) However, attitude

are applied to the oscillators

of aeromedical

signals.

Oscillator functions and frequencies are indicated in the follow4ng list. HF COmmutator HF Commentator output is applied to the 10.5 Kc oscillator.

Yaw Rate is applied to the 1.3 Kc oscillator. Roll Rate is applied to the 1.7 Kc oscillator. Pitch Rate is applied to the 2.3 Kc oscillator. Compensating LF Commutator LF Commutator output is applied to the 10.5 Kc oscillator. Oscillator frequency is 3.125 Kc.

Yaw Rate is applied to the 1.3 Kc oscillator. Roll Rate is applied to the 1.7 Kc oscillator. Pitch Rate is applied to the 2.3 Kc oscillator.

13-137. 13-138.

TEST CONFIGURATION S_stem Description

CAPSULE NO. 9

The instrumentation Compliance Capsule

system on Capsule

No. 9 is s_m41ar to the Specification

(Refer to Paragraph 13-1) except that the capsule will be
+ . , - - -

REVISED

¢:T I i'll I1.¢ M I,¢._O{ I1_t

REPORT

SEDR 104

REVISED

_"

""

"

MODEL

133

REPORT ,_ED_ 1o4 MODEL. 133 _

" ST.LOUIS. MISSOURI

REVISED REVISED ....

unm_nrled and a special instrumentation pallet and primate couch replaces the Astronaut's 13-139. couch. Major components Instrumentation installed are shown on Figure 13-8.

Monitoring

Monitoring Instrumentation differs from the Specification Compliance Capsule in that Capsule No. 9 is instrumented the parameters in block diagram for primate occupancy. Figure 13-9 shows

form while Table

13-2 lists the commutator point Deviations from the Specifica13-140 through 13-157. )

asslgnments for all telemetered instrumentation. tion Compliance 13-140. Standby Capsule Battery are explained

in Paragraphs

In Capsule No. 9 the standby battery power is connected directly to the main d-c bus s in parallel or automatic 13-141. _[th the main batteries. The standby d-c auto light

switching of the

standby to the main bus is not used.

Special Instrumentation Pallet Instrumentation Pallet is installed in place of the Astronaut's the various

The Special Couch.

The pallet

contains an array of circuits for instrumenting

parameters

as listed on Table 13-3.

Location of the sensors are indicated on for each parameter are listed on Tabl_

Figure 13-11 and the point assi_ments 13-3.

The values measured by each sensor is encoded by the multlcoder and Power for the pallet is obtained from the 150 voltby a multicoder J "ON" - "OFF" switch.

recorded on a tape recorder. ampere inverter 13-142. and controlled

Blood Pressure Oscillograph recorder, which records the venous and arterial blood

The oscillograph-tape

pressure of the chimpanzee is mounted beside the Special Instrumentation Pallet. The oscillograph is powered by its own, self contained, wet-cell battery. ON-OFF switch. The

power is controlled by an _ernal

A transducer is attached to ._-

the Solar-Plexis the c_p., which convertsblood pressurevaluesto electrical of signals. These signals are routed through an amplifier in Instrument Package "A"j

REPORT

SEDR 104

ST.LOUIS,

MISSOURI

REVISED

MODEL

133

_

REVISED

A

T_,_E

,ll
CAMERA A_D TAP_.

_.ECORbEP.

IMPACT

MAU'40:C._U5 L

TAPE RECOROE_, PRE-


t

I iA

_

c_

zav

D-C _U5

I•

C
I t I

'S ,A
J:_ECOP.D _ _:kELAY _= CAMERA AN_ T_,Pm . CAMK_,A CONT'P..OL. &XTEND. _ • S',NITCH

_

_-P_,OC._.AMI_ER

P_..P,I gCOPE

CAMERA

_-V '_,iAIi,,iI_US D- C

CA_,,IEI_,A A,_E)TA_. R_.CORDEI_, SW_TCH TAPE. _,ECo _:_,_ _ _

i

l
E_T_ _._O 5_Y C.AMEPJ_ L_G_T

PE._ SCOPE CAME, P.A, F_LM WLT_D_AYVAI-

5E,_. TABLE PROQ_Ah4_R

_3-71. "T'IMIk_._.

[ J ; f_L

eTHE EQUIPMENT O_ FIC._,URE 13-3,_N0 THIS _H_.ET,_VHEN COME_INEE).. _I'VE_ THE

......

._ PER_,SCOI:_. CAMEP.A

#

CONFIC3U_F.TION OF CAPSULE g _

.... :_: ; ........

EA_,TH A_ID 5_qf* cAMr._A

FIGURE

_3-10CA'MERAS

AND TAPE

P, ECOP, D@._

COkW@.OL

C_RCb_T

CCAPSULE

"9)

_4S-Z4S.B

_" __

--

_i"

REPORT MODEL

SEDR 104 133

\

I /
// /
/

/ / / /

/

I I

/

PM45-232A

....

Ill

M_'DONNEL_L __ H_
ST.LOU S J_S:_OURI _

}
I Z79.5 I Z88.0

L'

ATION

i Z104.5 ZlOG.0 Z107.0 7-79.5

Z127.0 ZI26.5 7127.0 Zl27.0 Zl27.0 ZI07.0

Z114.0 ZI26.5

)

J Z178.0

/ \

Z178.0 Z$84.6 / Z208.7 Z191 ZI79.0 II //

zj_,6 • 6
7 ZI_.6 Z178.0 Zl 77.0 Zl T.7.0

z168.s zi:s4.o
Zl45.5 Z127.0 Z127.0 Z127.0 Z127.0 Z126 t I tl

/ /

•,o,.o
Z104.5 Z104.5 3M_

,
// / . /" /
/

t L I

@
/

;
// /

zee.o Z_'.5
Z79.5

7257.0
ZI09.5 OM 124)| Z171_. 0 Zt04.5, Z126.5

)PI Z126.5
Zl_.5 Z107,.5 Z 124..?J Z|47.2J l L.

ZI23.o z146,_

(':
IRMOCOUPLE LOCATIONS (CAPSULE 9)

®

DATE

,.OVEM.ER,96,
.,

Mc, DONNE:
ST.LOU!c

flEVISED

ITEM

i

1

RETROROC_T(RETRO _IG_, PACK_GER_.TADAPTER SIDES o OUTER SKIN RETRO ROCKET EXPLOSIVE BOLT RETRO R_KET PACKAGE ABLATION SHIELD - BETWEEN .06 AND RETRO ROCKET PACKAGE HEAT SHIELD ATTACH POINT CAPSULE TO ADAPTER EXPLOSIVE BOLT H202 TANK - AUTOMATIC CONICAL SECTION SIDES - OUTER SKIN ADAPTER SIDES - OUTER SKIN ABLATION SHIELD - BETWEEN .06 & .2 FIBERGLASS CABIN AIR TEMPERATURE HAT SECTION -/24 CONICAL SECTION STRINGER, BOTTOM SLOES- OUTER SKIN TOP SIDE BOTTOM Z79.5 Z81.6 Z88.0 .2 F[_RGLASS

DESCRIPTION

LOCATION

RX

TY
TY YO BY

2 4 3 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 4 15 ]6 17 18

XO RX

Z79.5 LXI TY2

HAT SECTION - R24 STRINGER, HAT SECTION -/24 STRINGER, HAT SECTION - 124 STRINGER, CONICAL SECTION WINOOW - BOLT WINDOW - iNSIDE WINDOW - INNER b/O AUTO SYSTEM I_O AUTO SYSTEM l/O ;_UTO SYSTEM H202 LINE CONICAL CONICAL SECTION CONICAL SECTION

(7 I/2")

Z127.0 Z107.0

SLOES - OUTER SKIN OF OUTER PANE PANE ROLL - H2C2 LINE ROLL - SOLENOID VALVE ROLL-CATALYST BED (L.H.) SECTION - AUTOW-ATIC SLOES- OUTER SKIN SIDES - OUTER SKIN

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Bo 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

ZII4.O

SOLENOID VALVE TOP 24 LB. REACTION CONTROL THRUST CFLA_EER - TOE [AUTO #24) PARACHUTE COMPARTMENT - OUTE_ SKiN REACTION CONTROL THRUST CHAMBER - TOP {AUTO _I) TOWERTOCAPSULERETAINING RING _TOP) PARACHUTE COMPARTMENT - OUTER SKIN RECOVERY COMPARTMENT ANTENNA COMPARTMENT HORIZON ANTENNA INTERNAL STRUCTURE INNER SKiN

Z170.5 Z178.0 Z179.0 Zl7B.0

XO XO / LX /,.__---'_ \ ? /

SCANNER (BOLL) LID COMPARTMENT OUTER SK!N (BOTTGM_ INNER SK!N Z184.6 ZI84.6 RXB5

/

',

ANTENNA COMPARTMENT RECOVERY COMPARTMENT

PYLON EXPLOSIVE BOLT PYLON EXPLOSIVE BOLT COVER TOWER TO CAPSULE RETAINING RING (BOTTCM) TOWER TO CAPSULE RETAINING RING - BOTT_ PARACHUTE COMPARTMENT SIDE INNER SKiN BENEATH JET SUPPORT RECOVERY COMPARTMENT INNEB SKiN H202 LINE - I'OP 24 LB. CONICAL SECTION SIDES - OUTER SKIN CABIN AIR TEMPERATURE HAT SECTION BOTTOM - 7 1//2 °/I 2 STRINGER HAT SECTION BOTTOM#12 STRING;R HAT SECTION SIDE - #12 STRINGER HAT SECTION TOP - #12 STRINGER CONICAL SECTION SLOES- OUTER SKIN HEAT EXCHANGE (OUTLET) HEAT EXCHANGER (INLET) CONICAL SECTION SLOES- OUTER SKIN ADAPTER RETAINING RING ADAPTER RETAINING RING COVER ABLATION SHIELD - SHIELD INBOARD SUPJ:ACE ABLATION SHIELD BETWEEN.2FIBEROLABS AND HONEYCOM{ RETRO ROCI_T PACKAGE RETRO ROCKET PACKAGE (RETRO ROE KET - BOTTC_) ADAPTER SIDES - OUTER S KIN. ABLATION SHIELD - SHIELD INBOARD HEAT SHIELD - BULKHEAD CAP ESCAPE TOWER ESCAPE TOWER ABLATION REACTION HBO-2 TANK EMERGENCY EMERGENCY EMERGENCY SHIELDBETWEEN.2 FIBERGLASSANDHONEYCOME CONTROL THRUST CHAMBER-TOP CV.ANUAL/24 - MANUAL SBCTIOIN - MANUAL EGRESS HATCH - OUTER EDGE EGRESS HATCH - OUTER BDGE EGRESS HATCH - PERCUSSION IGNITER, TOP SURFACE

Z178.0

Z127.0 Z127.0

BY

Z107.0

Z88.O "Z;'_.5 Z79.5

LX XO

BY

RX33 7.257.0 ZI09.5 Z17_.0 ZlO,4.5, ZI26.5 Z123.O Z14,_(_ Z126.5 Z106.5 Z107,;5 Z124.25 Z 147.?.5 XO XO LX" RX33

BY TY2 TYI BY 1Y3

"

E_ZO2 LINE CONICAL

UHF pOWER TRANSMITTER " S BAND BEACON _ EGRESS HATCH EGRESS HATCH TM TRANSMITTER TM TRANSMITTER INVERTER INVERTER

FIGURE 13- 11 THERMOCOUPLE LOCATIONS

(CAPSULE 9)

REPORT__

M,DONNELL
sT. .ouls, w MIssou

REVISED

l ovember

Mooa. 33 z
where the signal strength is sufficiently These oscillograph. 13-143. signals are not telemetered

REWSED
increased to be recorded on the to the ground.

Parachute Compartment and Heat Shield Cavity compartment and heat shield cavity pressure is monitored on

The parachute

the EF and LF Commutators.

The pressures

are measured by transducers,

the out-

puts of which are linear from 0 to 3 volts for a pressure range of 0-15 psia. 13-144. The a. b. c. 13-i_5. Inactive following Parameters circuits are not monitored on Capsule No. 9:

Control Stick Position Abort Switch Landing Bag Yaw Data Converter The function of the slaving, output signals

A Yaw Data Converter is installed on Capsule No. 9. converter is to provide input calibrated conversion

of the ASCS Commutators.

to compatible produced Gain". which

signals for the Telemetry

Two d-c signals are and "Roll to Yaw-Hi

are proportional

Co the "Roll to Yaw-Low Gain"

Also a third d-c signal is produced w_ich is proportional to the '_/aw a-c signal of the ASCS calibrator_ signal. and is designated as the "Yaw for the

Torquing" Torquer" low-galn

Zero yaw attitude is represented

by 1.75 volts output

signal and 1.5 volts for the hi-gain

s_gnal.

Meter ranges for all three

signals is 0-3 volts d-c and represents yaw commands of -45 to 45 degrees for lo-gain, -lO to lO degrees for hi-gain and -6.5 to 6.5 degree/minute slaving rate, for the yaw torquer and LF Commatators. signal. These signals are telemetered on both the KF

The Yaw Data Converter is powered by II5V 400 cps a-c, 3.0

@

volts d-c and 23.5 volts d-c supplied from the capsule power circuits. _13-146. Horizon ScAnners

I

The ihorizon scanners are instrumented on both HF and LF Commutators.

DATE REVISED ST._"_" _'_'LOLIIS MISSOURI 3, REPORT _.l'_]_ ] ()_

R_VIaEO
13-147. Retro Rocket Firing

._
- Velocity Sensor instead,

MODe- l_

The velocity

sensor is not instrumented,

each of the three Retro-

Rocket firing signals are applied to the HF and LF Co_utatora. 13-148. Body Temperature

The ch_mp body temperature is monitored and applied to the EF and LF Commutators. 13-149. C_and Receiver

The command receivers all choonel signal is instrumented on Capsule NO. 9. 13-150. Aeromedical instrumentation Capsule on Capsule No. 9 is the same as that for the (Refer to Paragraphs 13-39 through 13-43), except data

Aeromedical Specification

Compliance

that since a primate

is being used the scale factors for EEB and respiration

are different and only three EEG transducers are used on the primate. 13-151. Primate Instrumentation couch is mounted on the special instrumentation reactions the primate and response, instrumentation pallet and is No.

The primate instrumented 9 is assigned differently

to monitor

the primate's

since Capsule is programmed

to a specific mission,

than other pr_m_te

test capsules.

The primate

Progr_er

consists panel con-

of an electronic

panel assembly_ and a liquid feeder. units, the left-hand

The instrument

tains three display

unit consists of six symbols and a cyan

blue disc display, the center unit has six symbols, a yellow disc and a white disc display and the right-hand unit has six symb01s, a red disc and green disc display. for primate actuation, with each switch closure A pellet

Three switch _;;-;

levers are provided

recorded on a" four digit counter mounted near the left switch lever. dispenser is mounted on the panel and will dispense, on com_nd

of a 28 volt pulse_ A

ireward pellets through a hole in the lower right-hand corner of the panel. liquid dispenser is mounted in the vicinity of the right-hand

side of the animal's

REPORT MODEL_ head.

- 3o7 _nR 104
],_,

M ,DONNELL
_

REVISED REVISED

1November

It will dispense a drink of liquid when actuated by a 28 volt pulse and by the animal's instrumentation The animal's lips. fuse Power block during 13-2. is supplied through the for the primate's special program couch from record-

.....

triggered the

.....

special

instrumentation sequences

er relay.

response

the various The

is recorded presents the

and telemetered sequence of test

as listed functions

on Table

progr_mme.d psychomotor

the animal must

perform

and are as follows: TIME

TEST 1. RS-CS - Regular and classified shock avoidance

15 min. 2 min. 5 mln. 2 rain. 5 min. 5 min.

2. TO - TimeOut 3. DRL - Differential reinforcement of low rates

4. TO - TimeOut 5. FR - Fixed rationreward 6. TO - TimeOut 7. PRPM/NEPM Position Perceptual and Negative monitoring reinforcement

(a) 18 Combinations of symbols (b) 8. 18 Combinations (Note: of l, -, X symbols If the last 36 combinations completed elapsed before the the are has

5 rain.

TO - Time Out

5 minutes time

remaining progr_ they

is out over). telemetered

and the entire A description data a. of the tests in the

starts occur

sequence

and required

is as follows: RS-CS (1) (time 15 rain.). Program The telemetered through outputs are as follows: of shock.

identification

indication

(2) Cumulative response of leftlever .... (3) Cyan blue light on and duration.

REVISED

ST.

LOUIS

3,

MISSOURI

REPORT

_DR

104

133
REVISED _ MODEl.

(4) _-_ ._:,,_:-.. (!) (2) (5) (4) c. DRL b.

Cumulative

response

of right

lever.

TO (Time 2 min.)

No displays. Telemetered outputs: to TM)

Identification Cure. response Cure. response Ct_. response (Time 5 rain.) light in right right

(zero input of left lever of center

lever

of right lever

Green before feeder

display hand

unit

is activated. light

If animal appears

waits

20 seconds

pulling

lever s a green

beside

the liquid 20

and a drink time span,

may

be obtained. must

If R/H lever wait

is pulled

before

seconds 82other
f

the animal

an additional

20 seconds

for

opportunity

for a drink. outputs :

Telemetered (]-) Program (2) (3) (4) d. TO identification

Cum. response Liquid feeder

left and center actuation right lever

levers

Cure. response

(T_me 2 min. )

NO display.
i

e.

_

(T_,_e 5 re.in.)
Yellow center pellet light in center display unit is activated. If animal presses a

lever 50 times, as a reward.

the pellet dispenser

is actuated

and he gets

_::::_;, (i) (2) f_ (3) Program _. Cum.

Telemeteredoutputs : identification

response of left lever response of center lever

REPORT _DR ],O_

13-74Cum. response

MCDONNELL
_
of right lever

REVISED

1Nove ' er

MOO_t_ 133
(4) f.

REV,SED

TO (Time 2 rain.)

g.

(i)
(time 5 rain.)

(2)
NRPM mode of operation lights - If correct The lights lever then is pulled, 15 seconds of time-out and there

results, is 20

are out.

come on with new display Correct lever

seconds

allowed

for another or wrong

decision.

sets beneath

odd display. five seconds

If no lever after

lever is pulled, time, until

shocks occur every correct answer is made. a pellet

20 second

decision

PRPM mode reward.

of operation Depression

- The lever beneath

the odd display

provides

of either

of the other two levers after : which same

results

in no reward

and provides

15 second

time-out

display

appears.

Telemetered (1) (2) (3) (4) h. Program identifier

outputs

Cure. response Cum.

of left lever

response of center lever of right lever the nipple on the liquid feeder to obtain a drink. is armed and the

Cure. response

Ten minutes green light

after impact appears

allowing Control

the chi_p

13-152.

Instrumentation

Instrumentation fication power Compliance

Control Capsule

Circuitry except

for Capsule

No.

9 is similar which

to the

Speci-

for the programmer circuits. water

provides

controlled

(See Table ,13-1) for the following (a) The environmental pulse The every control system

extractor

is supplied

a 30

; .....

second (b) Capsule.

30 minutes. Camera is the same as in the Specification Compliance

Instrument

D,VrE

i November

l_l

RIS'VISED

M DONNE
I

_

PAG_
REPORT

13-75
[_"_]')P_ 104 '

R,_,sEo
(c) :'_ ._.::_ .... tlon ten times (d) The Earth

_
and Sky Observer during Camera is provided

MO_

1_3
pulse,

a 90 millisecond

per minute, The Primate

the entire Camera

flight. the same as in the Specifica-

Observer

is progrsmmed

Compliance (e)

Capsule. Camera is provided a ii0 millisecond pulse, 30 times is per

The Periscope re-entry

second

during

and 1800 times

per hour while

in orbit.

The camera

operable (f) 13-158.

only when

the periscope

is extended. same as the Specification Compliance Capsule.

"R" & "Z" calibrate Recording

is the

Instrumentation Instrumentation the tape recorder_ (See Figure Instrument 13-11) Camera consists of and Astronaut (See Parato view the a tape

Capsule recorder Camera graphs
._ f

No. 9 Recording cameras_

and four

are the same as used 13-65 and 13-66)_

in the Specification that the Astronaut and Sky observer to record

Compliance Camera camera a field

Capsule is adjusted

except Earth

p r_m_te. ration window. camera system. film

A 70 millimeter This

is mounted of view

at the obserthe The

window.

camera

is slgh_ed

through

The imege is supplied Each pulse

of a timer

is superimposed and pulsing shutter_

on one corner voltage

of each

frame. power

2_ volt power operates the

from the capsule _a

exposing

one frame

transportlng

the

for the next

exposure.

Trigger

pulses

are applied

to the camera camera to view

at the rate is used on

of i0 per minute Capsule it would No. be 9-

by the progra_-_er. The camera is momnted

In addition, inside

a periscope

the periscope,

the earth

as

seen through to the camera,

the periscope, only when

by an observer

inside

the capsule.

Power

is applied

the periscope

is e_e_ded.

(See Figl/re 13-10. )

_!i:i. i_":

_/ises 13-15_.

for the camera System Units

are supplied

frcm the capsule

progr_,mer.

(See Table

13-1.)

System Compliance

Um.lts in Capsule Capsule,

No. 9 are the

same as used 13-68 through

on the Specification 13-81), except the units

(Refer to Paragraphs

--

II ..... If:

REPORT .q_,n_R 104 MODEl._ i_3 added in Paragraphs Yaw 13-155 thru _

"

REVISED REVISED

13-157.

13-155.

Data Converter Data Converter and is a small compact unit consisting is mounted 13-8.) of transformers, in the lower

The Yaw demodulators, section 13-156.

relays

s11mming circuitry.

The unit

of the capsule Periscope

near the periscope.

(See Figure

Camera Camera used oa Capsule camera No. 9 is the same as the Instrument I (Refer

The Periscope Camera except

that the 13-110.) Pressure pressure also

periscope

is mounted

inside

the periscope.

to Paragraph 13-157.

Blood

Oscillograph oscillograph consists of a motor timer with and tape the recorder.

The blood The oscillograph

has a self-contained

battery

mounted

recorder. The ,

The battery is vented in the same m_nner as the capsule's main batteries. oscillograph from the time operates at a speed of 8 inches power switch per minute

and is on continuous to launch, until

the recorder's off, after

is turned

on, prior

it is turned

landing.

13-158. 13-159.

TEST

CONFIGURATION

CAPSUI_S

NO. lO, 13 AND 16.

General on Capsules No. lO, 13 and 16 is the 13-1 thru same as the Speci(See Table

The Instrumentation fication 13-2 Compliance

Capsule point

(Refer to Paragraphs

13-110.)

for commutator

assignments.)

i MAC 2_1CI. (27 APR S@_

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