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You are on page 1of 36

07/05/04

also establish some of the claims we stated there without proof.

A. Extending Theorem 10 to other seminorms in W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ).

In view of Theorem 10, it is natural to introduce the following quantity

1 n o

ρ(P, N ) = Inf [g]W 1,1 ; g ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ), T (g) = 2π(δP − δN ) .

2π

require from [ ]W 1,1 some structural properties :

(P1) [αg]W 1,1 = [g]W 1,1 , ∀ g ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; R2 ), ∀ α ∈ S 1 ;

(P2) [ḡ]W 1,1 = [g]W 1,1 , ∀ g ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; R2 ) ;

(P3) [gh]W 1,1 ≤ kgkL∞ [h]W 1,1 + khkL∞ [g]W 1,1 , ∀ g, h ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; R2 ) ∩ L∞ .

It follows from (P3) that ρ is a distance.

[We refer the reader to [Mi] for the solution of the exercise given at the end of

Section 3.]

Lemma A1. We have

( ¯ )

1 ¯ g ∈ C ∞ (Ω \ {P, N }; S 1 ) ∩ W 1,1 ,

¯

ρ(P, N ) = Inf [g]W 1,1 ¯ .

2π ¯ deg (g, P ) = +1, deg (g, N ) = −1

Proof. It suffices to prove that, for g ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ) such that T (g) = 2π(δP − δN ),

we may find a sequence (gn ) ⊂ R such that T (gn ) = 2π(δP − δN ) and gn → g

Typeset by AMS-TEX

1

2 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

in W 1,1 . Note that the desired conclusion is invariant with respect to orientation-

preserving diffeomorphisms of Ω. Therefore, we may assume that Ω = S 2 and that

(x, y)

P, N are respectively the North and the South pole of S 2 . Let h(x, y, z) = .

|(x, y)|

Then h ∈ R, T (h) = 2π(δP − δN ). It follows that k = g h̄ ∈ Y . Thus, we may

find a sequence (kn ) ⊂ C ∞ (Ω; S 1 ) such that kn → k in W 1,1 . Set gn = hkn . Then

gn ∈ R, T (gn ) = 2π(δP − δN ) and gn → g in W 1,1 .

| |W 1,1 and [ ]W 1,1 .

Part of Theorem 10 holds in this more general setting :

Theorem A1. Let Pi , Ni ∈ Ω be such that

X X

ρ(Pi , Ni ) < ∞ (or, equivalently, d(Pi , Ni ) < ∞).

Set nX X X o

e = Inf

L ρ(Pej , N

ej ) ; (δPej − δNej ) = (δPi − δNi ) .

Then

1 n X o

1,1 1

Inf [g]W ; g ∈ W (Ω; S ), T (g) = 2π

1,1 e

(δPi − δNi ) ≤ L.

2π

ej be such that

X X X

(δPej − δNej ) = (δPi − δNi ) and ρ(Pej , N

ej ) ≤ L

e + ε.

By definition, for each j we may find some gj ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ) such that

and

ej ) + ε .

[gj ]W 1,1 ≤ 2πρ(Pej , N

2j

n

We claim that there is a sequence kn → ∞ such that Πkj=1 n

gj → g in W 1,1 for some

g ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ). By Lemma 1, this implies that

X X

T (g) = 2π (δPej − δNej ) = 2π (δPi − δNi ).

j i

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 3

Using (P3), we will also have [g]W 1,1 ≤ 2π Le + ε. Therefore, the conclusion of

Theorem A1 follows if we prove the existence

P of the sequence (kn ). We adapt below

an argument used in [BBM2]. Set H = j≥1 |∇gj | ∈ L1 (this uses the equivalence

¡ ¢¯

of | |W 1,1 and [ ]W 1,1 ). Since |∇ Πkj=1 gj ¯ ≤ H, ∀k, we may find a sequence

kn → ∞ and a map g ∈ BV (Ω; S 1 ) such that hn = Πkj=1 n

gj → g a.e. Then, for

m > n, we have

≤ |hm h̄n |W 1,1 + k(1 − hm h̄n )∇hn kL1

km

X

≤ k∇gj kL1 + k(1 − hm h̄n )HkL1 = Am,n + Bm,n .

j=kn +1

Let 0 < δ < 1. Then, clearly, Am,n < δ provided m, n are sufficiently large. On the

other hand, Z

Bm,n ≤ δkHkL1 + 2 |H|.

{x:|1−hm (x)h̄n (x)|≥δ}

Note that

© ª n δo n δo

x; |1 − hm (x)h̄n (x)| ≥ δ ⊂ x; |g(x) − hm (x)| ≥ ∪ x; |g(x) − hn (x)| ≥ .

3 3

Since hn → g a.e., we find that Bm,n ≤ δ(kHkL1 + 1), provided m, n are sufficiently

large. Therefore, (hn ) is a Cauchy sequence in W 1,1 and converges to the above g

in W 1,1 .

P

Open Problem 8. Let Pi , Ni ∈ Ω be such that T (g) = 2π i (δPi − δNi ). Is it

true that

e?

[g]W 1,1 ≥ 2π L

Note that, by definition, the answer is yes if T (g) = 2π(δP − δN ).

B. Proof of Theorems 10 , 30 , and 50 .

Proof of Theorem 3 0 . Let us first assume that g ∈ C ∞ (Ω\{a1 , . . . , ak }; S 1 ) ∩ W 1,1 .

It is then easy to see that

k

X Z

hT (g), ζi = 2π dj ζ(aj ) + (g ∧ gτ )ζ, ∀ζ ∈ Lip (Ω; R),

j=1 ∂Ω

4 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

where dj denotes the topological degree of g with respect to any small circle centered

at aj . In particular,

k

X

(B1) hT (g), ζi = 2π dj ζ(aj ), ∀ζ ∈ W01,∞ (Ω).

j=1

P

Note that, in general, j dj 6= 0. This means that we do not have necessarily the

same number of positive and negative points as before. In order to compensate this,

we insert points from ∂Ω into (B1). Since ζ = 0 on ∂Ω, equality in (B1) remains

true. We can then relabel the points aj as P1 , . . . , P` , N1 , . . . , N` , according to

their multiplicity dj , so that (B1) becomes

X̀

T (g) = 2π (δPj − δNj ) in W01,∞ (Ω).

j=1

that X £ ¤∗

T (g) = 2π (δPi − δNi ) in W01,∞ (Ω) .

Note that dΩ induces a metric on the space Ω/∂Ω, where ∂Ω is identified with

a single point. Moreover, Lipschitz functions ζ on Ω/∂Ω with |ζ|Lip ≤ 1 and

ζ(∂Ω) = 0 correspond to elements in W01,∞ (Ω) such that k∇ζkL∞ ≤ 1. Applying

Lemma 120 in [BBM2] to Ω/∂Ω, we obtain

X

L(g) = Inf dΩ (Pi , Ni ).

i

Remark B1. The main new feature when Ω is a bounded domain in R2 is that

a minimal connection is made of segments from a positive singularity Pi to some

negative Nj , but we can also have line segments joining the singularities Pi , Ni to

the boundary ∂Ω. This is the analog of Example 3 in [BCL].

Proof of Theorem 1 0 . The proof of E(g) = Erel (g) is exactly the same as in Propo-

sition 2 and we shall omit it.

We are left to show that

Z

(B2) E(g) = |∇g| + 2πL(g).

Ω

Let ϕ ∈ BV (Ω; R) be such that g = eiϕ . Using Vol’pert’s chain rule as in the

proof of Lemma 5, we have

(B3) |Dϕ|M(Ω) = |g|W 1,1 + |g ∧ ∇g − Dϕ|M(Ω) .

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 5

We claim that

Z Z

⊥

|g ∧ ∇g − Dϕ|M(Ω) ≥ (g ∧ ∇g) · ∇ ζ − Dϕ · ∇⊥ ζ = hT (g), ζi.

Ω Ω

Inequality ≥ in (B2) follows immediately from (B3) and (B4).

We now establish ≤ in (B2). Let us assume for the moment that g is smooth

outside finitely many points a1 , . . . , ak , and that g has topological degree ±1 at

each one of those points. Let C be a minimal connection between those points with

respect to the distance dΩ .

Note that on any closed curve contained in Ω\C, g has zero topological degree.

We conclude that g has a smooth lifting ϕ on Ω\C. Moreover, as we cross any one

of the line segments of C, ϕ jumps by 2π. Thus, ϕ ∈ BV (Ω; R) and

Z Z Z

|Dϕ| = |∇g| + 2π|C| = |∇g| + 2πL(g).

Ω Ω Ω

We can now argue by density, using Lemma 2, to conclude that for any g ∈

W 1,1 (Ω; S 1 ) there exists ϕ ∈ BV (Ω; R) such that g = eiϕ a.e. in Ω and

Z Z

(B5) |Dϕ| ≤ |∇g| + 2πL(g).

Ω Ω

Proof of Theorem 5 0 . Using exactly the same argument as in the proof of Proposi-

tion 3, we have

Thus, if T V (g) < ∞, then Det (∇g) ∈ M(Ω). We now apply Proposition 3.2 in [S]

(see also [P]) to the quotient space Ω/∂Ω. We conclude that there exist distinct

points a1 , . . . , ak ∈ Ω and nonzero integers d1 , . . . , dk such that

k

X

(B7) Det (∇g) = π d j δ aj .

j=1

6 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

We now define

µ ¶−d1 µ ¶−dk

x − a1 x − ak

h(x) := ··· g(x) for a.e. x ∈ Ω.

|x − a1 | |x − ak |

Clearly, Det (∇h) = 0 in D0 (Ω). It follows from the analog of Theorem 7 for

domains in R2 (see also [D]) that h has a lifting in W 1,1 . In other words, we can

find ϕ ∈ W 1,1 (Ω; R) such that h = eiϕ a.e. in Ω. We then conclude that

µ ¶d1 µ ¶dk

x − a1 x − ak

g(x) = ··· eiϕ(x) for a.e. x ∈ Ω.

|x − a1 | |x − ak |

k

X

(B8) T V (g) ≤ π |dj |.

j=1

The reverse inequality already follows from (B6). We then conclude that (6.8)

holds.

Conversely, if Det(∇g) ∈ M(Ω), then (B7) holds. The above argument then

shows that T V (g) < ∞ and

k

X

T V (g) = | Det (∇g)|M = π |di |.

i=1

Theorem 30000 follows immediately from Theorem 3 and the next

Lemma C1. Given g ∈ W 1,1 (S 2 ; Γ), we define

g − aj

gj := ∈ W 1,1 (S 2 ; S 1 ).

|g − aj |

Then,

1X

(C1) Det (∇g) = |Aj | Det (∇gj ) in D0 (S 2 ).

π j

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 7

Z X

1 u − aj

(C2) u ∧ uτ = |Aj | deg .

2 S1 j

|u − aj |

Step 1. Γ is a simple curve.

It is well-known that (C2) holds if u ∈ C 1 (S 1 ; Γ) (see, e.g., [N]). By approximation,

we conclude that (C2) is also true for any u ∈ W 1,1 (S 1 ; Γ).

Step 2. Assume Γ has finitely many self-intersections, say q1 , . . . , qk .

Since u is continuous, the set

S 1 \u−1 ({q1 , . . . , qk })

such an arc. It is easy to see that we can select disjoint arcs α2 , . . . , αj (oriented

anticlockwise) such that u at the positive endpoint of αi coincides with the value

of u at the negative endpoint of αi+1 for i = 1, . . . , j, with the convention that

αj+1 = α1 . By removing arcs from this list if necessary, we can assume that each

point qi appears only twice in the list

© ª

u(∂α1 ), . . . , u(∂αj ) .

(a) ũ = u on α1 ∪ · · · ∪ αj ;

(b) ũ is locally constant on S 1 \α1 ∪ · · · ∪ αj .

By construction, ũ(S 1 ) is a subset of a Jordan curve Γ̃ contained in Γ. Let

At1 , . . . , At` be the components of R2 \Γ enclosed by Γ̃. By our first step, we have

Z

1 ¯ ¯ ũ − a

(C3) ũ ∧ ũτ = ¯At1 ∪ · · · ∪ At` ¯ deg .

2 S1 |ũ − a|

ũ − a ũ − ats

deg = deg , ∀s = 1, . . . , ` ;

|ũ − a| |ũ − ats |

moreover,

ũ − aj

deg = 0, if j 6∈ {t1 , . . . , t` }.

|ũ − aj |

8 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

Z X̀ X

1 ũ − ats ũ − aj

(C4) ũ ∧ ũτ = |Ats | deg = |Aj | deg .

2 S1 s=1

|ũ − ats | j

|ũ − aj |

ũ1 , ũ2 , . . . so that

(a) ũi ∈ W 1,1 (S 1 ; Γ) and ũi (S 1 ) is contained in some Jordan curve for every i ;

(b) uτ = ũ1τ + ũ2τ + · · · in S 1 ;

(c) ũi coincides with u on finitely many arcs in S 1 \u−1 ({q1 , . . . , qk }) and ũi is

locally constant outside those arcs.

By (C4), we have

Z X

1 ũi − aj

ũi ∧ ũiτ = |Aj | deg , ∀i.

2 S1 j

|ũi − aj |

Z XZ

u ∧ uτ = ũi ∧ ũiτ .

S1 i S1

u − aj X ũi − aj

deg = deg , ∀j.

|u − aj | i

|ũi − aj |

Proof of Lemma C1. Let g ∈ W 1,1 (S 2 ; Γ). By the coarea formula (see [BBM2]), we

have

Z µZ ¶

(C5) hDet (∇g), ζi = g ∧ gτ dλ,

R Σλ

© ª

where ζ ∈ C ∞ (S 2 ), and Σλ = x ∈ S 2 ; ζ(x) = λ is equipped with the appropriate

orientation, whenever λ is a regular value of ζ.

Recall that, for a.e. λ ∈ R, g|Σλ belongs to W 1,1 . Applying Lemma C2 to g|Σλ

for such λs we get

Z X Z

1X

g ∧ gτ = 2 |Aj | deg gj = |Aj | gj ∧ gjτ .

Σλ j

π j Σλ

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 9

Integrate both sides of the identity above with respect to λ. Using (C5), we conclude

that

1X

hDet (∇g), ζi = |Aj |hDet (∇gj ), ζi, ∀ζ ∈ C ∞ (S 2 ).

π j

We also call the attention of the reader to the following analog of Lemma 120 in

[BBM2] :

Proposition C1. Let X be a metric space.

P Given two sequences (Pi ), (Ni ) in X

and nonnegative numbers αi such that i αi d(Pi , Ni ) < ∞, let

X £ ¤∗

(C6) T = αi (δPi − δNi ) in Lip(X) .

i

Define

L= Sup hT, ζi.

ζ∈Lip(X)

|ζ|Lip ≤1

Then,

X

(C7) L = Inf αi d(Pi , Ni ),

i

where the infimum is taken over all sequences (Pi ), (Ni ) in X and numbers αi ≥ 0

such that (C6) holds.

Proof. Let us denote by L̃ the infimum in (C7). Clearly, L ≤ L̃. We now establish

the reverse inequality.

Let ε > 0. We take k ≥ 1 sufficiently large so that

X

αi d(Pi , Ni ) < ε.

i>k

We then choose an integer J ≥ 1 sufficiently large so that Jαi is an integer for every

i = 1, . . . , k. Write the points Pi , Ni as p1 , p2 , . . . and n1 , n2 , . . . , with multiplicity

Jαi . It follows from Lemma 4.2 in [BCL] that we can find ζ0 ∈ Lip(X), with

|ζ0 |Lip ≤ 1, such that, after relabeling the points nj if necessary, we have :

k

X £ ¤ X£ ¤ X

Jαi ζ0 (Pi ) − ζ0 (Ni ) = ζ0 (pj ) − ζ0 (nj ) = d(pj , nj ).

i=1 j j

10 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

Thus,

∞

X £ ¤

L≥ αi ζ0 (Pi ) − ζ0 (Ni )

i=1

k

X £ ¤

≥ αi ζ0 (Pi ) − ζ0 (Ni ) − ε

i=1

1X X1 X

= d(pj , nj ) − ε ≥ d(pj , nj ) + αi d(Pi , Ni ) − 2ε.

J j j

J

i>k

Note that X1 X

T = (δpj − δnj ) + αi (δPi − δNi ).

j

J

i>k

We conclude that L ≥ L̃ − 2ε. Since ε > 0 was arbitrary, this implies L ≥ L̃. Thus,

L = L̃ as claimed.

We begin with a few preliminary results

Lemma D1. Given ε > 0, let Φε : B̄ N → B̄ N be defined as

0 if |x| ≤ ε,

Φε (x) = |x| − ε x

if ε < |x| ≤ 1.

1 − ε |x|

f ◦ Φε → f in W 1,N (B N ).

r−ε

Proof. Given x ∈ B N , |x| ≥ ε, let r = |x| and ψε (r) = (1−ε)r . Using this notation,

we have ³x x ´

i j 0

Φ0ε (x) = ψε (r) Id + ψε (r) .

r

ε

Since ψε0 (r) = (1−ε)r 2 ,

¯x x ¯

¯ i j 0 ¯ Cε

¯ ψε (r)¯ ≤ .

r r

Moreover,

Cε

|Φε (x) − x| ≤ Cε and |ψε (r) − 1| ≤ .

r

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 11

We then have

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

¯∇fε (x) − ∇f (x)¯ = ¯ t Φ0ε (x) ∇f (Φε (x)) − ∇f (x)¯

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯

≤ ¯∇f (Φε (x)) − ∇f (x)¯ + ¯∇f (Φε (x))¯ ¯ Id −t Φ0ε (x)¯

Cε Cε

≤ C|Φε (x) − x| + C|ψε (r) − 1| + ≤

r r

Z Z Z

N N dx

|∇fε − ∇f | ≤ Cε + |∇f | → 0 as ε → 0.

BN |x|N

ε≤|x|≤1 |x|<ε

Lemma D2. Given f ∈ C ∞ (B̄ N × [0, 1]; RM ), let

Then

fε → f in W 1,N (B N × [0, 1]).

∂f ∂f

∂fε ∂f (0, t) − (x, t) if |x| < ε,

(x, t) − (x, t) = ∂t ∂t

∂t ∂t ∂f (Φ (x), t) − ∂f (x, t)

if |x| ≥ ε.

ε

∂t ∂t

¯ ∂f ∂f ¯¯

¯ ε

¯ − ¯ ≤ Cε.

∂t ∂t

As a consequence of Lemma D2 above, any map f ∈ C ∞ (B̄ N × [0, 1]; S k ) can be

approximated in W 1,N by maps fε such that

12 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

and

fε → f in W 1,N (B N × [0, 1]).

|x|

log ε if ε ≤ |x| ≤ 1,

ζε (x) = log 1ε

0 if |x| < ε.

Z Z

N

|∇ζε | →0 and |ζε − 1|N → 0.

BN BN

denote the stereographic projection. Set F = Ψ◦f . Clearly, in order to establish the

lemma, it suffices to approximate F in W 1,N by a sequence Fε such that |Fε | ≤ C,

ZZ Z Z

N N

|∇x Fε − ∇F | dx dt = |∇ζε | |G|N → 0

and ZZ Z Z

N N

|∂t Fε − ∂t F | dx dt = |1 − ζε | |G0 |N → 0.

We conclude from Lemma D3 that, given any u ∈ W 1,N −1 (S N ; S N −1 ), N ≥ 3,

there exists a sequence (un ) such that un → u in W 1,N , where each un satisfies the

following properties :

(i) un has a finite number of point singularities Pi , Ni ;

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 13

(iii) un ≡ Q in some conic neighborhood of a geodesic joining Pi and Ni .

In fact, (ii) holds since every topological singularity may be approximated by

homogeneous singularities (see Lemma E.5 below). We then apply Lemmas D.2

and D.3 to obtain property (iii).

We shall say that a map is good if it satisfies properties (i)–(iii).

Proof of Theorem 2 00 . Our goal is to show that, for every u ∈ W 1,N −1 (S N ; S N −1 ),

Z

(D1) Inf |D(u) − D(v)| = σN L(u).

v∈C ∞ (S N ;S N −1 ) S N

Z Z Z

£ ¤

|D(u) − D(v)| ≥ D(u) − D(v) · ∇ζ = D(u) · ∇ζ = hT (u), ζi.

SN SN SN

Z

|D(u) − D(v)| ≥ σN L(u) ∀v ∈ C ∞ (S N ; S N −1 ).

SN

Proof of “≤”. Assume u is a good map. We shall assume for simplicity that u has

a single dipole P, N . Given ε > 0, let Uε : S N −1 → S N −1 be such that

Z

ε N −1

Uε ≡ Q if |x − P | ≥ and |∇T Uε |N −1 ≤ σN (N − 1) 2 + ε.

2 S N −1

Let W denote the ε-conic neighborhood of the geodesic segment joining P and

N . We decompose W as W = W1 ∪ W2 , where W1 is the cylindric part of W , and

W2 is the union of the two conic caps. We then define uε as

Z Z

|D(u) − D(uε )| = |D(Uε )| + o(1).

SN W1

1

|D(Uε )| = |∇T Uε | ≤ N −1 |∇T Uε |N −1 .

(N − 1) 2

14 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

We conclude that

Z

(D2) lim |D(u) − D(uε )| ≤ σN L(u).

ε→0 SN

On the other hand, since uε has only singularities of degree 0, Hopf’s theorem

W 1,N −1

implies that uε ∈ C ∞ (S N ; S N −1 ) . It then follows from (D2) that inequality

“≤” in (D1) holds, at least when u is a good map.

We now establish ≤ in (D1) for any map u ∈ W 1,N −1 (S N ; S N −1 ). Let (un ) be

a sequence of good maps such that un → u in W 1,N −1 . For each n ≥ 1, we have

just shown that there exists vn : S N → S N −1 smooth such that

Z

1

|D(un ) − D(vn )| ≤ σN L(un ) + .

SN n

Thus

Z Z

1

|D(u) − D(vn )| ≤ |D(u) − D(un )| + σN L(un ) + = σN L(u) + o(1),

SN SN n

Proof of Theorem 1 00 . We want to show that

Z

N −1

(D3) Erel (u) = |∇u|N −1 + (N − 1) 2 σN L(u).

SN

Proof of “≤”. It suffices to establish the result for good maps. In fact, if un → u

in W 1,N −1 , then

Erel (u) ≤ lim inf Erel (un ),

n→∞

while the right-hand side of (D3) is continuous with respect to the strong topology

in W 1,N −1 . Thus, we may assume that u is good and we can proceed exactly as in

the proof of Theorem 200 . We shall leave the details to the reader.

Proof of “≥”. As in [BCL, Section VIII], we have

³P ´ N2−1

2

¯ ¯ |w| j |vj |

(D4) ¯(w · v2 ∧ · · · ∧ vN , w · v1 ∧ v3 ∧ · · · ∧ vN , . . . )¯ ≤ N −1

(N − 1) 2

for every w, v1 , . . . , vN ∈ RN .

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 15

bounded in W 1,N −1 and un → u a.e., we have

Z Z Z

N −1 N −1

(D5) |∇un | = |∇u| + |∇un − ∇u|N −1 + o(1).

SN SN SN

v = ∇un − ∇u, we get

Z

|∇un − ∇u|N −1 X Z

SN

N −1 ≥ εσ un · (unxσ2 − uxσ2 ) ∧ · · · ∧ (unxσN − uxσN ) ζxσ1 ,

(N − 1) 2 σ S N

where the sum is taken with respect to all permutations σ of N elements, and

εσ = ±1 denotes the sign of σ. Thus,

Z Z

N −1

N −1

(D6) |∇un − ∇u| ≥ −(N − 1) 2 D(u) · ∇ζ + Rn (ζ).

SN SN

Assume for the moment that Rn (ζ) → 0. It follows from (D5) and (D6) that

Z Z

N −1

N −1

lim inf |∇un | ≥ |∇u|N −1 + (N − 1) 2 hT (u), ζi.

n→∞ SN SN

Thus, in order to conclude the proof of Theorem 100 , we need to show that

Rn (ζ) → 0. Since each un is smooth,

Z

D(un ) · ∇ζ = 0.

SN

Rn (ζ) = Sn (ζ) + o(1),

where Sn (ζ) is a sum of integrals of the form

Z

In = ± un · vnxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ vnxik ∧ uxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ uxjl ζxt ,

SN

l ≥ 1. Since

N −1

(un − u) uxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ uxjl → 0 strongly in L l ,

16 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

we may replace In by

Z

± u · vnxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ vnxik ∧ uxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ uxjl ζxt .

SN

We can now formally integrate by parts to write Sn (ζ) as a sum of integrals of the

form Z

± uxi1 · vn ∧ vnxi2 ∧ · · · ∧ vnxik ∧ uxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ uxjl ζxt .

SN

Such integration by parts can be easily justified by approximation ; note that all

the second derivatives are cancelled by symmetry.

Since

N −1

vn uxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ uxjl → 0 strongly in L l+1 ,

we conclude that

Rn (ζ) = Sn (ζ) + o(1) = o(1).

Throughout this section, we assume that Ω = ∂G, where G is a domain in RN ;

more generally, Ω could be any smooth domain (with boundary) in ∂G. We start

with

Lemma E1. Let 0 < σ < ∞, 1 ≤ q < ∞. Then

W σ,q W σ,q

C ∞ (Ω; S N −1 ) ∩ W σ,q = ∞

C (Ω; S N −1 ) .

In other words, for each map u ∈ C ∞ (Ω; S N −1 ) ∩ W σ,q , there is a sequence (un ) ⊂

C ∞ (Ω; S N −1 ) such that un → u in W σ,q .

© ª

Proof. Let, for t > 0 sufficiently small, Ωt = x ∈ Ω ; d(x, ∂Ω) > t . Consider, for

any such t, a diffeomorphism Φt : Ω → Ωt such that

kDk Φ − Dk IdkL∞ ≤ Ck t, k = 0, 1, 2 . . .

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 17

W 1,N

L(u) = 0 ⇐⇒ u∈ C ∞ (Ω; S N −1 ) ∩ W 1,N .

Here, Z

hT (u), ζi = − D(u) · ∇ζ,

Ω

is computed accordingly. When N = 3, this result is due to Bethuel [B1] ; the same

proof yields Lemma E2.

µ ¶

1,p N −1 N −1 x

Lemma E3. Let 1 ≤ p < N . For g ∈ W (S ;S ), set g̃(x) = g for

|x|

x ∈ B N . Then g̃ ∈ W 1,p and the map

Proof. Trivial computation.

Lemma E4. In the definition of T V , we may replace C ∞ (Ω; RN )-maps by maps

in Lip (Ω; RN ).

Proof. Clear, by approximation.

Lemma E5. Let N ≥ 2, N − 1 ≤ p < N , and let u ∈ W 1,p (Ω; S N −1 ). Fix

a1 , . . . , ak ∈ Ω and define, for ρ > 0 sufficiently small,

u(x), if d(x, {a1 , . . . , ak }) ≥ ρ

u(y), if, for some j, d(x, a ) < ρ and

j

uρ (x) =

x lies on the geodesic segment from

aj to y, where d(aj , y) = ρ

Then uρn → u for some sequence ρn → 0.

Proof. For simplicity, we may assume Ω is flat near each aj . Then the definition of

uρ becomes

u(x)

µ ¶

if d(x, {a1 , . . . , ak }) ≥ ρ,

uρ (x) = x − aj

u ρ if |x − aj | < ρ.

|x − aj |

18 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

µ ¶

x − aj

uρ (x) = uρj if |x − aj | < ρ.

|x − aj |

1 1

Let, for n ≥ 1, ρn be such that ≤ ρn ≤ and

2n n

Z Z 1 µZ ¶ Z

1 p

n

p

|∇u| ≤ |∇u| dρ = |∇u|p .

2n Sρ n 1

2n |x|=ρ 1 1

2n ≤|x|≤ n

Then

Z Z Z

p p n→∞

|∇uρn | ≤ CN,p ρn |∇u| ≤ C |∇u|p −→ 0.

1 1

Bρn Sρ n 2n ≤|x|≤ n

Thus

Z Z

p

|∇uρn − ∇u| = |∇uρn − ∇u|p

Ω Bρn

µZ Z ¶

p p n→∞

≤C |∇uρn | + |∇u| −→ 0.

Bρn Bρn

σN X

Det (∇u) = (δPi − δNi ).

N

finite

½ ¾

n 1

Ω = x ∈ Ω ; d(x, {a1 , . . . , ak }) >

n

and ½ ¾

n 1 2

A = x∈Ω; ≤ d(x, {a1 , . . . , ak }) ≤ .

n n

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 19

n ) ⊂ C (Ω ; S

N −1

) such that m

µ un ¶→ u in W

1,N −1

as

1 2

m → ∞ (clearly, L(u|Ωn ) = 0). There is some ρn ∈ , such that, up to a

n n

subsequence in m,

(i) umn |Σρn → u|Σρn in W

1,N −1

(Σρn ) as m → ∞,

Z Z

(ii) |∇u|N −1 ≤ Cn |∇u|N −1 .

Σ ρn An

© ª

Here, Σρ = x ; d(x, {a1 , . . . , ak }) = ρ .

Extend umn to Ω as in Lemma 5 (by homogeneity of degree 0) ; let (un )ρn = ũn

m m

1,N −1

(Ω) as

1,N −1

m → ∞. By (ii) and Lemma E3, we have uρn → u in W (Ω). Thus we may

find a sequence (vn ) ⊂ Liploc (Ω \ {a1 , . . . , ak }; S N −1 ) such that

(a) vn is homogeneous of degree 0 near each aj ;

(b) vn → u in W 1,N −1 (Ω) ;

(c) near each aj , the degree of vn is dj .

Assertion (c) follows from (i), the continuity of degree of maps from S N −1 into

N −1

S for W 1,N −1 convergence and the following clear fact

X X

T (vn ) = σN deg (vn , aj )δaj * T (u) = σN dj δaj .

j j

For the remaining part of the proof, assume for simplicity that there is only one

singularity a = 0 of degree d > 0 and that Ω is flat near a. Let ρn be such that vn

is homogenous of degree 0 in Bρn (0). Here, Bρ (0) is a ball in Ω centered at a = 0.

Fix d distinct points p1 , . . . , pd in B1 .

Let ε > 0 be sufficiently small. For S w ∈ Lip (∂BN1 ;−1 S N −1 ) (B1 is the unit ball

N

in R ), with deg w = d, let w̃ : B1 \ j Bε (pj ) → S be such that w̃|∂B1 = w,

x − pj

w̃(x) = if |x − pj | = ε, j = 1, . . . , d and w̃ is a Lipschitz function. (Such a

|x − pj |

x−p

map exists, since deg w = d.) We then extend w̃ to B1 by setting w̃(x) = ε j , if

|x − pj | ≤ ε. Thus w̃ is still Lipschitz.

Define, for 0 < ρ < ρn ,

vn (x),

µ ¶

if d(x, 0) > ρ

vn,ρ (x) = x ;

w̃n , if d(x, 0) ≤ ρ

ρ

20 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

vn,ρ → vn in W 1,N −1 as ρ → 0.

Z

| Jac vn,ρ | = ωN d.

Ω

a sequence (wn ) ⊂ Lip (Ω; RN ) such that

Z X

1,N −1

wn → u in W and | Jac wn | = ωN |dj |.

Ω j

We start with the following well-known

Lemma F1. Let 1/p < s < 1 and 1 < p < ∞. Given u ∈ W01,p (RN

+ ), let

½

u(x) if xN > 0,

ũ(x) =

0 if xN ≤ 0.

+ ) into W

1,p

(RN ).

Proof. By density, it suffices to deal with u ∈ C0∞ (RN + ). Using the Besov seminorm,

we have

Z ∞Z Z

p p p |ũ(x0 , t + τ ) − ũ(x0 , t)|p 0

(F1) |ũ|W s,p ∼ |u|W s,p + kukLp + dx dt dτ.

0 R RN −1 τ 1+sp

Denote by I the last term in the right-hand side of (F1). Clearly, it suffices to

estimate I :

(F2) Z Z ∞Z ∞ Z Z ∞

|u(x0 , t) − u(x0 , σ)|p 0 |u(x0 , t)|p

I∼ 1+sp

dσ dt dx + sp

dt dx0 .

R N −1 0 0 |t − σ| R N −1 0 t

It then suffices to estimate the last term in (F2). By Fubini, it suffices to consider

the 1-dimensional integral

Z ∞

|u(t)|p

sp

dt, u ∈ C0∞ (0, ∞).

0 t

This is a trivial consequence of the following

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 21

Lemma F2. Let 1/p < s < 1 and 1 < p < ∞. Given u ∈ C0∞ (0, ∞), we have

Z ∞ Z ∞Z ∞

|u(t)|p |u(x) − u(y)|p

(F3) dt ≤ C dx dy.

0 tsp 0 0 |x − y|1+sp

Proof. We first point out that both integrals are finite. Given 0 < α < β < 1, we

have

|u(t)| ≤ |u(x)| + |u(t) − u(x)| ∀x ∈ [αt, βt] =: It .

Thus,

|u(t)|p ≤ 2|u(x)|p + C|u(t) − u(x)|p ∀x ∈ It .

Integrating over x ∈ It , we get

Z ∞ Z

p 2 p C

(F4) |u(t)| ≤ |u(x)| dx + |u(t) − u(x)|p dx.

(β − α)t 0 (β − α)t It

to t we then have

Z ∞ Z ∞Z Z ∞Z ∞

|u(t)|p 2 |u(x)|p C |u(t) − u(x)|p

dt ≤ dx dt + dx dt

0 tsp β − α 0 It tsp β−α 0 0 |t − x|1+sp

Z Z ∞Z ∞

2(β sp − αsp ) ∞ |u(x)|p C |u(t) − u(x)|p

(F5) = dx + dx dt.

sp(β − α) 0 xsp β−α 0 0 |t − x|1+sp

sp sp

Note that βsp(β−α)

−α

= γ sp−1 for some γ ∈ [α, β]. Thus, by taking β ¿ 1/2 sufficiently

small, we have

2(β sp − αsp ) 1

≤ .

sp(β − α) 2

With such choice, (F3) trivially follows from (F5).

Lemma F3. Let ω1 , Ω be two smooth domains, ω1 ⊂⊂ Ω. Set ω2 = Ω\ω 1 . Assume

that un → u in W s,p (ω1 ) and vn → v in W s,p (ω2 ), with tr un = tr vn on ∂ω1 . Let

½ ½

un in ω1 u in ω1

wn = and w = .

vn in ω2 v in ω2

Then

wn → w in W s,p (Ω).

¡ ¢

kwkW s,p (Ω) ≤ C kukW s,p (ω1 ) + kvkW s,p (ω2 ) .

22 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

(i) kηkW s−1/p,p ≤ CkukW s,p (ω1 ) ;

(ii) kηkW s−1/p,p ≤ CkvkW s,p (ω2 ) ;

(iii) there exists an extension g ∈ W s,p (Ω) of η to ω1 and ω2 such that

Let ½

u−g in ω1 ,

w̃ =

v−g in ω2 .

By Lemma F1, w̃ ∈ W s,p (Ω) and

¡ ¢

kw̃kW s,p (Ω) ≤ C kukW s,p (ω1 ) + kvkW s,p (ω2 ) .

In the sequel, we shall denote by C the cube (−1, 1)N . Let kxk∞ = Maxi {|xi |}.

Lemma F4 (Brezis-Mironescu [BM1]).¡ Let 0 <¢ s < 1 and 1 < p < ∞, with

sp < N . Given f ∈ W s,p (∂C), set f˜(x) = f x/kxk∞ , x ∈ C. Then, f˜ ∈ W s,p (C)

and the mapping

f 7→ f˜

We refer the reader to [BM1, Lemma D.1] for a proof of Lemma F4.

We denote by Cε = (−ε, ε)N . The following lemma is a variant of the approxi-

mation procedure in [BM2]:

Lemma F5. Let 0 < s < 1 and 1 < p < ∞, with sp < N . Let f ∈ W s,p (RN ).

Given ε > 0 and Q ∈ Cε , set

½

f (x) if x 6∈ Cε (Q),

fε,Q (x) =

f (πε,Q (x)) if x ∈ Cε (Q),

x−Q

where πε,Q (x) = Q + ε kx−Qk ∞

is the projection of x to ∂Cε (Q), with respect to Q.

Then, there exist εn → 0 and Qn ∈ Cεn /2 such that

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 23

Z Z

|fε,Q (x) − f (x)|p

|gε,Q |pW s,p =2 dy dx+

RN \Cε (Q) Cε (Q) |x − y|N +sp

Z Z

|gε,Q (x) − gε,Q (y)|p

+ dx dy

Cε (Q) Cε (Q) |x − y|N +sp

Z

|fε,Q (x) − f (x)|p

∼ dx+

Cε (Q) d(x, ∂Cε (Q))sp

Z Z

|fε,Q (x) − fε,Q (y)|p

+ dx dy + o(1)

Cε (Q) Cε (Q) |x − y|N +sp

=: Iε,Q + Jε,Q + o(1).

Z 1 ½Z ¾

dε

(Iε,Q + Jε,Q ) dQ < ∞.

0 ε Cε

The proof of Z Z

1

dε

Jε,Q dQ < ∞

0 ε Cε

may be found in [BM2, Appendix A]. Next,

Z 1 Z Z 1 Z Z

dε dε |fε,Q (x) − f (x)|p

Iε,Q dQ ≤ dx sp

dQ.

0 ε Cε 0 ε C2ε Cε (x) d(x, ∂Cε (Q))

Z 1 Z Z 1 Z Z |f (x) − f (x − y + ε y )|p

dε dε kyk

Iε,Q dQ ≤ dx y sp dy.

0 ε Cε 0 ε C2ε Cε |y − ε kyk |

y

Let z = −y + ε kyk , whose Jacobian is O(( kzkεN −1 )) (see [BM2]). We then have

Z 1 Z Z 1 Z Z

dε dε |f (x) − f (x + z)|p N −1

Iε,Q dQ ≤ C dx ε dz

0 ε Cε 0 ε C2ε Cε |z|N +sp−1

Z Z Z 1

|f (x) − f (x + z)|p dε

≤C dx N +sp−1

dz 2

C2 C1 |z| |z| ε

ZZ

|f (x) − f (x + z)|p

≤ dx dz < ∞.

|z|N +sp

24 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

Given N − 1 < p ≤ N , any map u ∈ W (N −1)/p,p (S N ; S N −1 ) has a harmonic

extension U ∈ W N/p,p (B N +1 ; RN ) ⊂ W 1,N . We then define T (u) as

N Z

X

hT (u), ζi = − det (Ux1 , . . . , Uxj , u, Uxj+1 , . . . , UxN +1 ) ξxj ,

j=1 B N +1

where ζ ∈ Lip (S N ) and ξ is any extension of ζ to B N +1 . One can see that this

definition is independent of the extension ξ. Let

1

L(u) = Max hT (u), ζi.

σN k∇ζkL∞ ≤1

We have the following

Lemma F6. Assume N ≥ 2. Let 1 < p < ∞ and u ∈ W (N −1)/p,p (S N ; S N −1 ). If

W (N −1)/p,p

T (u) = 0, then u ∈ C ∞ (S N ; S N −1 ) .

Proof.

Case 1. Proof of the lemma if N ≥ 3.

Note that good maps are dense in W 1,N −1 (S N ; S N −1 ) and, by interpolation, in

W (N −1)/p,p (S N ; S N −1 ). Thus, it suffices to show that if u is a good map, then

there exists v ∈ C ∞ (S N ; S N +1 ) such that

Case 2. Proof of the lemma if N = 2.

The interpolation argument does not work in this case. However, for any map

u ∈ R, the dipole construction in [BBM2] gives a sequence (vn ) such that

W 1/p,p

Clearly, uv̄n ∈ C ∞ and

ZZ

|u(x) − u(y)|p

|u − uv̄n |pW 1/p,p ≤ 2|1 − v̄n |pW 1/p,p +K |1 − v̄n (x)|p dx dy

|x − y|2

≤ 2CL(u) + o(1).

We also point out the following extension of Lemma F6 whose proof is left to

the reader :

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 25

For any u ∈ W (N −1)/p,p (S N ; S N −1 ), T (u|Ω ) is well-defined when computed against

Lipschitz functions which are constant on each connected component of ∂Ω. If

W (N −1)/p,p

T (u|Ω ) = 0, then u|Ω ∈ ∞

C (Ω; S N −1 ) .

A key ingredient in the proof of Theorem 5000 is the following

Proposition F1. Assume N − 1 < p ≤ N . Let u ∈ W (N −1)/p,p (S N ; S N −1 ) be

such that X

T (u) = σN d i δM i .

finite

S

(i) un ∈ C ∞ (S N \ i Cεn (Min ); S N −1 ) ;

(ii) un is homogeneous of degree 0 on each cube Cεn (Min ) ;

X

(iii) T (un ) = σN di δMin ;

finite

(iv) un → u in W (N −1)/p,p .

Proof. We first observe that the set of good pairs (ε, Q), in the sense of Lemma F5,

is “fat”. More precisely, there exists a sequence εn → 0 such that

¯©

¯ ª¯¯

¯ Q ∈ C εn /4 ; |f εn ,Q − f | W (N −1)/p,p < 1/n ¯ 1

≥ .

|Cεn /4 | 2

© ª

In particular, Q ∈ Cεn /4 ; |fεn ,Q − f |W (N −1)/p,p < 1/n intersects the complement

of any null set of Cεn /4 . For n ≥ 1 fixed, consider

¡ [ ¢

vnk ∈ C ∞ S N \ Cεn /4 (Mi ); S N −1 ∀k ≥ 1,

i

such that

¡ [ ¢

vnk → vn in W (N −1)/p,p S N \ Cεn /4 (Mi ) as k → ∞.

i

26 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

where ṽnk (resp., ũn ) is vnk (resp., u) extended by homogeneity of degree 0 on each

cube Cεn (Q + Mi ). By Lemma F5, we can choose Q = Qn such that ũn → u in

W (N −1)/p,p . Applying a diagonalization argument, un may be taken among (ũkn ).

We only need to show that (iii) holds. S

Note that ṽnk is locally Lipschitz on S N \ i Min , where Min = Qn + Mi . Thus,

X

T (ṽnk ) = σN d˜i δMin .

finite

Since T (un ) * T (u), for n large enough we have (iii). This concludes the proof of

Proposition F1.

We may now present the

Proof of Theorem 5 000 .

Step 1. If T V (u) < ∞, then Det (∇u) is a measure and

(

un if |un | ≤ 1,

ũn = un

|un | if |un | > 1.

have

hT (un ), ζi → hT (u), ζi

for every ζ ∈ Lip (S N ; S N −1 ). In addition,

Z

hT (un ), ζi = N Jac un ζ ≤ T V (u)kζkL∞ + o(1).

S N −1

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 27

1

(F7) T V (u) = number of topological singularities of u.

ωn

finitely many (disjoint) cubes and u is homogeneous of degree 0 inside each one of

these cubes. By (F6), we have “≥” in (F7). It then suffices to show the reverse

inequality.

Note that u ∈ W 1,q (S N ; S N −1 ) for every q < N . As in the proof of the case

W 1,N −1 (S N ; S N −1 ), we can find (un ) ⊂ C ∞ , un → u in W 1,q , with

Z

1

| Jac un | = number of topological singularities of u.

ωN S N −1

W (N −1)/p,p . We conclude that (F7) holds.

We start by establishing the precise value of E(g) :

Lemma G1. Let g ∈ BV (I; S 1 ) and let A be the set of jump points of g. Then

X

(G1) E(g) = |ġd | + dS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)).

a∈A

Set ν = ġd and µ = |ν|. Then there is some k ∈ L∞ ((I, dµ); S 1 ) such that ν = kµ.

Since ν is diffuse and −iḡ ∈ BV , we have −ig ∈ L∞ ((I, dµ); S 1 ), and thus ϕ̇d = `µ,

where ` = −iḡk ∈ L∞ ((I, dµ); S 1 ). It follows that

|ϕ̇d |M(I) = Sup hϕ̇d , ζi = Sup hµ, `ζi = hµ, |`|i = |µ|M(I) = |ġd |M(I) .

ζ∈C0 (I;C) ζ∈C0 (I;C)

|ζ|≤1 |ζ|≤1

28 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

Let now B denote the set of the jump points of ϕ; clearly, B ⊃ A. For each

a ∈ A, we have (

g(a+) = eiϕ(a+) ,

g(a−) = eiϕ(a−) ,

so that

|ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)| ≥ dS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)).

If a ∈ B \ A, then eiϕ(a+) = eiϕ(a−) ; thus

Consequently,

X X

|ϕ̇|M(I) = |ϕ̇d |M(I) + |ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)| + |ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)|

a∈A a∈B\A

X

(G3) ≥ |ġd | + dS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)) + 2π card (B \ A)

a∈A

X

≥ |ġd | + dS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)).

a∈A

In order to prove “≤”, we split A as A = A1 ∪ A2 , where

© ª © ª

A1 = a ∈ A; |g(a+) − g(a−)| = 2 and A2 = a ∈ A; |g(a+) − g(a−)| < 2 .

µ ¶

g(a+)

δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)) = arg .

g(a−)

X X

(G4) µ = −iḡ ġd + π δa + δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)) δa .

a∈A1 a∈A2

hand,

Sup |g(a+) − g(a−)| = d < 2

a∈A2

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 29

¯ ¯

¯δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−))¯ ≤ C|g(a+) − g(a−)|.

It follows that

X ¯ ¯ X

¯δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−))¯ ≤ C |g(a+) − g(a−)| < ∞.

a∈A2 a∈A2

Assume that I = (0, α) for some α > 0 and set ϕ0 (x) = µ((0, x)), x ∈ I. We claim

that, up to a constant, ϕ0 is a lifting of g and that |ϕ̇0 |M(I) = E(g).

Indeed, using the chain rule for a product we have

˙ X¡ ¢

(G5) ge−iϕ0 = e−iϕ0 ġd − ig e−iϕ0 (ϕ̇0 )d + ge−iϕ (a+) − ge−iϕ0 (a−) δa .

a∈A

Here, we have used the fact that ϕ is continuous outside A. For a ∈ A, we have

so that

g(a−)

e−iϕ0 (a+) = e−iϕ0 (a−) ,

g(a+)

by our definition of µ. Thus the sum in (G5) vanishes. On the other hand,

so that

e−iϕ0 ġd − ige−iϕ0 (ϕ̇0 )d = e−iϕ0 (ġd − ġd ) = 0.

Thus, there is some C ∈ C such that ϕ = ϕ0 + C is a lifting of g.

On the other hand,

X ¯ ¯

|ϕ̇|M(I) = |ϕ̇0 |M(I) = | − iḡ ġd |M(I) + π card (A1 ) + ¯δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−))¯

a∈A2

X

= |ġd |M(I) + dS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)).

a∈A

Proof of Theorem 14. We shall prove a slightly stronger assertion, which implies

all the properties stated in the theorem. Namely, a lifting ϕ ∈ BV (I; R) of g is a

canonical lifting if and only if

30 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

(ii) for a ∈ A1 , we have ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−) = ±π ;

(iii) for a ∈ A2 , we have ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−) = δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)).

Property (i) was seen to be necessary for optimality in the proof of Lemma G1.

Recall that, in addition to (i), equality in (G3) amounts to

If a ∈ A1 , then

|ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)| = π,

so that (ii) holds. Assume a ∈ A2 . Since eiϕ(a+) = g(a+) and eiϕ(a−) = g(a−),

then by (G6) we have

µ ¶

g(a+)

ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−) = arg ,

g(a−)

which gives (iii). Conversely, it is easy to see that, if (i)–(iii) are fullfilled, then

equality holds in (G3).

Proof of Theorem 15. We identify S 1 \ {z} with an interval I. Let A, A1 , A2 be

defined as in the proof of Lemma G1. We claim that, for each choice of integers

εa ∈ {−1, 1}, a ∈ A1 , there is a canonical lifting ϕ of g on I such that

ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−) = εa π ∀a ∈ A1 .

simply has to modify the definition of µ by taking

X X

µ = −iḡ ġd + εa πδa + δS 1 (g(a+), g(a−)) δa .

a∈A1 a∈A2

Moreover, the proof of Theorem 14 shows that, by this procedure, we obtain all

canonical liftings. We claim that if ϕ is the canonical lifting corresponding to the

choice εa , a ∈ A1 , and ϕ̃ the one corresponding to ε̃a , a ∈ A1 , then

ϕ̃(z−) − ϕ̃(z+) ϕ(z−) − ϕ(z+) 1 X

= + (ε̃a − εa ) ∈ Z.

2π 2π 2

a∈A1

If we identify S 1 \ {z} with I = (0, α), α > 0, this amounts to proving that

= + (ε̃a − εa ).

2π 2π 2

a∈A1

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 31

assertion holds for ϕ. Thus

− = = (ε̃a − εa ).

2π 2π 2π 2

a∈A1

it is clear that, with d = ϕ(z−)−ϕ(z+)

2π and k = card A1 , we have

We next prove that d is an integer. This follows easily from the fact that eiϕ(z−) =

iϕ(z+)

e , so that ϕ(z−) − ϕ(z+) ∈ 2πZ.

It remains to establish that Deg1 g does not depend on the choice of z. Let w

be any other continuity point of g. Let ψ be a canonical lifting of g on S 1 \ {w}.

Since g is continuous at w, there is some k ∈ Z such that ψ(w−) = ψ(w+) + 2kπ.

We set ½

ψ(ξ) if ξ ∈ (w+, z−),

ϕ(ξ) =

ψ(ξ) − 2kπ if ξ ∈ (z+, w−).

Clearly, ϕ ∈ BV and ϕ is continuous at w. It is obvious that

have

E(g|S 1 \{z} ) = E(g|S 1 \{w} ) = |g|BV S 1

if z, w are continuity points of g. Since

= ψ(w−) − ψ(w+),

we find that the degrees obtained by cutting at z are among the ones obtained by

cutting at w. By reversing the roles, we obtained that Deg1 g is independent of z.

Proof of Theorem 16. Let z be a continuity point of g and let ϕ be a canonical

lifting of g in S 1 \ {z}. Assume, e.g., that z = 1; we identify S 1 \ {1} with (0, 2π).

Consider a sequence (ϕn ) ⊂ C ∞ ([0, 2π]) such that

Z 2π

|ϕ̇n | → |ϕ̇|M((0,2π)) and ϕn → ϕ a.e.

0

32 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

(This is the case, e.g., if the functions ϕn are obtained from ϕ by mollification).

By replacing ϕn with ϕn + αn x + βn , for some appropriate αn → 0 and βn → 0,

we may further assume that

ϕ(1−) − ϕ(1+)

gn ∈ C ∞ (S 1 \ {z}) ∩ C 0 (S 1 ) and deg gn = .

2π

ϕ(1−) − ϕ(1+)

hn → g a.e., deg hn = ∀n ≥ 1,

2π

and Z Z

|ḣn | → |ϕ̇| = E(g|S 1 \{z} ).

S1 S 1 \{z}

It follows that

Deg2 g ⊃ Deg1 g.

Conversely, let d ∈ Deg2 g and let (gn ) ⊂ C ∞ (S 1 ; S 1 ) be such that

Z

gn → g a.e., |ġn | → |g|BV S 1 and deg gn = d ∀n ≥ 1.

S1

Z

|ϕ̇n | → |g|BV S 1 .

S1

assume that ϕn → ϕ a.e., where ϕ ∈ BV is a lifting of g. Since |ϕ̇|M(S 1 \{z}) ≤

|g|BV S 1 , we find that ϕ has to be a canonical lifting of g. Let ε > 0. There is

some δ > 0 such that, if I is the interval of size δ centered at z, then we have

|g|BV S 1 (I) < ε. We may further assume that g is continuous at the endpoints of I.

Then

|g|BV S 1 (S 1 ) = |g|BV S 1 (I) + |g|BV S 1 (S 1 \I) .

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 33

Z Z

|ϕ̇n | → |g|BV S 1 (S 1 \I) and |ϕ̇n | → |g|BV S 1 (I) .

S 1 \I I\{z}

¯ ¯

¯(ϕn (z − t) − ϕn (z + t)) − (ϕn (z−) − ϕn (z+))¯ < 2ε ∀t ∈ (0, δ).

We then find ¯ ¯

¯ϕ(z − t) − ϕ(z + t) − 2πd¯ ≤ 2ε.

i.e., d ∈ Deg1 g.

We complete the proof of Theorem 16 by proving that g 7→ Deg g is continuous

in the multivalued sense. Since Deg is Z-valued, this amounts to proving that, for

each d ∈ Z, the set © ª

g ∈ BV (S 1 ; S 1 ) ; d ∈ Deg g

is open.

To this purpose, we start with the following

Lemma G2. Let g ∈ BV (I; S 1 ). Let ϕ ∈ BV (I; R) be a lifting of g. If ϕ is not a

canonical lifting of g, then

|ϕ̇|M(I) ≥ E(g) + π.

X X

|ϕ̇|M(I) ≥ |ġd |M(I) + |ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)| + [ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)|

a∈A a∈B\A

X

≥ E(g) + |ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)|.

a∈B\A

If B 6= A, then

|ϕ(a+) − ϕ(a−)| ≥ 2π ∀a ∈ B \ A,

34 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

Proof of Theorem 16 completed. If g, h ∈ BV (S 1 ; S 1 ), then

Let g ∈ BV (S 1 ; S 1 ) and let d ∈ Deg g. In view of (G7), there is some ε > 0 such

that if

h ∈ BV (S 1 ; S 1 ) and kg − hkBV < ε,

then

1

|g h̄|BV <.

10

We claim that d ∈ Deg h for any such h. Indeed, let z be a continuity point for

both g and h, and let ϕ be a canonical lifting of g in S 1 \ {z}. Set k = ḡh and let

1

ψ be a canonical lifting of k. Since |k|BV < 10 , each jump point a of k is such that

1

|k(a+) − k(a−)| < 10 . Thus

X 1

|ψ|BV = |k̇d |M(I) + |ψ(a+) − ψ(a−)| ≤ 2|k|BV < .

5

jump points

of k

¯ ¯

¯(φ(z−) − φ(z+)) − (ϕ(z−) − ϕ(z+))¯ < 2 ,

5

COMPLEMENTS TO THE PAPER “W 1,1 -MAPS WITH VALUES INTO S 1 ” 07/05/04 35

so that

φ(z−) − φ(z+) = ϕ(z−) − ϕ(z+)

(since both quantities are multiple of 2π). In order to complete the proof of Theo-

rem 16, it suffices to prove that φ is a canonical lifting of h.

Indeed, on the one hand we have

1

E(h) ≤ |φ̇|M(S 1 \{z}) ≤ |ϕ̇|M(S 1 \{z}) + ,

5

so that E(h) ≤ E(g) + 15 . By reversing the roles, we obtain on the other hand that

E(g) ≤ E(h) + 51 ; thus

2

E(h) ≤ |φ̇|M(S 1 \{z}) ≤ E(h) + .

5

Lemma G2 implies that φ is a canonical lifting of h.

Proof of Theorem 17. With the notation we already used, we have

© ª

g ; Deg g is single-valued = {g ; A1 (g) = φ} =: U1 .

Let g ∈ BV (S 1 ; S 1 ); then A1 (g) is finite. If A1 (g) = φ, then g ∈ U1 . Otherwise,

we may assume, for simplicity, that A1 consists of a single point, say A1 = {1}; the

general case can be treated along the same lines. We have |g(1−) − g(1+)| = 2.

Without loss of generality, we may assume that g(1−) = −1 and g(1+) = 1.

Given ε > 0, let hε : S 1 → S 1 be given by

iθ

e

if 1 ≤ θ ≤ 2π − 1,

iθ i(ε+(1−ε)θ)

hε (e ) = e if 0 ≤ θ ≤ 1,

i((2π−1)(2π+ε)−(2π−1+ε)θ)

e if 2π − 1 ≤ θ < 2π.

Thus,

ghε → g in BV as ε → 0.

On the other hand, since hε ∈ C 0 (S 1 \{1}), we have A1 (ghε )\{1} = A1 (g)\{1}. In

particular, A1 (ghε ) ⊂ {1}. Since, by construction, 1 ∈

/ A1 (ghε ), we have ghε ∈ U1 .

The proof of Theorem 17 is complete.

36 HAÏM BREZIS(1),(2) , PETRU MIRONESCU(3) AND AUGUSTO C. PONCE(1),(2)

UNIVERSITÉ P. ET M. CURIE, B.C. 187

4 PL. JUSSIEU

75252 PARIS CEDEX 05

E-mail address: brezis@ccr.jussieu.fr, ponce@ann.jussieu.fr

(2)RUTGERS UNIVERSITY

DEPT. OF MATH., HILL CENTER, BUSCH CAMPUS

110 FRELINGHUYSEN RD, PISCATAWAY, NJ 08854

E-mail address: brezis@math.rutgers.edu, augponce@math.rutgers.edu

UNIVERSITÉ PARIS-SUD

91405 ORSAY

E-mail address: Petru.Mironescu@math.u-psud.fr

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