Buffers are used throughout Theory of Constraints. They often result as part of the EXPLOIT and SUBORDINATE steps of the five focusing steps. Buffers are placed before the governing constraint, thus ensuring that the constraint is never starved. Buffers are also placed behind the constraint to prevent downstream failure to block the constraint's output. Buffers used in this way protect the constraint from variations in the rest of the system and should allow for normal variation of processing time and the occasional upset (Murphy) before and behind the constraint. Buffers can be a bank of physical objects before a work center, waiting to be processed by that work center. Buffers ultimately buy you time, as in the time before work reaches the constraint and are often verbalized as time buffers. There should always be enough (but not excessive) work in the time queue before the constraint and adequate offloading space behind the constraint. Buffers are not the small queue of work that sits before every work center in a Kanban system although it is similar if you regard the assembly line as the governing constraint. A prerequisite in Theory of Constraints is that with one constraint in the system, all other parts of the system must have sufficient capacity to keep up with the work at the constraint and to catch up if time was lost. In a balanced line, as espoused by Kanban, when one work center goes down for a period longer than the buffer allows, then the entire system must wait until that work center is restored. In a TOC system, the only situation where work is in danger, is if the constraint is unable to process (either due to malfunction, sickness or a "hole" in the buffer - if something goes wrong that the time buffer can not protect). Buffer management therefore represents a crucial attribute of the Theory of Constraints. There are many ways to do it, but the most often used is a visual system of designating the buffer in three colours: Green (OK), Yellow (Caution) and Red (Action required). Creating this kind of visibility enables the system as a whole to align and thus subordinate to the need of the constraint in a holistic manner. This can also be done daily in a central operations room that is accessible to everybody. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_Constraints#Buffers - A buffer is a data area shared by hardware devices or program processes that operate at different speeds or with different sets of priorities. The buffer allows each device or process to operate without being held up by the other. In order for a buffer to be effective, the size of the buffer and the algorithms for moving data into and out of the buffer need to be considered by the buffer designer. Like a cache, a buffer is a "midpoint holding place" but exists not so much to accelerate the speed of an activity as to support the coordination of separate activities. This term is used both in programming and in hardware. In programming, buffering sometimes implies the need to screen data from its final intended place so that it can be edited or otherwise processed before being moved to a regular file or database. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid183_gci211713,00.html
Â Â BufferH+<=>Â H+ + BufferÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 1) Â Unfortunately. [Buffer] = [BufferH+]. defined in Eqn 2.Â Since a buffer is most effective when about half is in the acid form (Buffer H+) and half in the base form (Buffer).Â A compound will act as a proton concentration buffer if it limits changes in proton concentration by binding protons when the proton concentration of the solution increases and releasing bound protons when the proton concentration decreases (Eqn 1).
ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 2) If the proton concentration and the acid dissociation constant are both expressed as their negative log.
ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 4)
. when half of its proton binding sites are filled.e. of the environment is an important parameter. a buffer should be chosen that will be about half filled at the proton concentration desired. Eqn 2 becomes. the value of the acid dissociation constant is equivalent to the proton concentration of a solution at which the compound will have half of its proton binding sites filled.Buffer Theory
Most biological systems will function only within a quite narrow range of conditions. any one compound will be effective as a buffer only for a limited range of proton concentrations. and so the first step in preparing a buffer is deciding which buffer to use.e. The acidity.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 3) Â and if.Â To prevent the proton concentration of a solution from changing. compounds can be added to a solution that "buffer" or minimize such changes. the expression becomes. for reasons largely historical. or free proton concentration. i. i.. as can be seen from Eqn 2. and their activity can vary widely within that range. the negative log operator is called "p". The affinity of a compounds for protons is often expressed as its acid dissociation constant (Ka).Â This is convenient because.
To make a buffer you
How to prepare a buffer
A compound can buffer the pH of a solution only when its concentration is sufficient and when the pH of the solution is close (within about one pH unit) to its pKa.Â The buffer concentration must be sufficient to maintain the pH within acceptable limits with the changes in proton concentration expected to occur. and choosing [Buffer]total . by finding a buffer whose pKa is within around one pH unit of that pH.The ratio of [Buffer] /[BufferH +] can be obtained by rearranging Eqn 4 and inserting the values for the pH and pKa.
ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ Â (Eqn 6) After choosing a buffer.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 9) Â So for any pH we choose. we see. we can use Eqns 7 and 9 to solve for the concentrations of [Buffer] and [BufferH+]Â at that pH.Â For biological systems.Â More importantly. ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ (Eqn 8) Â and by rearranging.Â Knowing that the total buffer concentration is equal to the sum of the concentrations of its forms. this generally means that the total buffer concentration ([Buffer]total) is within a range from 1 mM to 200 mM. the next step is to decide its concentration. we can prepare a solution with that pH by adding the right amounts of the acid (BufferH+ ) and base (Buffer) forms of the buffer to give the concentrations of [Buffer] and [BufferH+] we calculated.
ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ (Eqn 7) by substituting for the [Buffer] term in Eqn 7 with its equivalent from Eqn 6.
ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (Eqn 5) Further rearranging of Eqn 5 gives Eqn 6.
it is easy to overshoot the volume. depending on the desired ionic strength and the buffering capacity required. select a buffer with a pKa slightly above the working pH.e. Then calculate the amounts (in moles) of each form that will be present in the final solution. TrisHCl). Decide what the total concentration of buffer will be in the solution.. If the protonated form is uncharged.. Four practical ways to make a buffer are described below: (1) The Slow and Stupid Method . or weak bases and their salts. calculate the amounts (in moles) of acid/salt or base/salt present in the buffer at the desired pH. such as NaOH. Adding a strong acid or base can result in temperature changes. Advantages: Fast. Additional pH adjustment is rarely necessary. it is easy to overshoot the pH. if the unprotonated form is uncharged it is a base (like Tris base). If both forms (i. Having decided on the total buffer concentration. Ionic strength easily calculated. start with the base form and adjust the pH with strong acid. Advantages: Easy to understand. dilute to just under the final solution volume. Adjust the pH using a strong base. using the molecular weight of that component. you can prepare the buffer by adding all of the buffer as one form. it is an acid (like acetic acid). After the pH is correct. and its protonated form is a salt (e. buffers are composed of weak acids and their salts. and its unprotonated form is a salt (e. prepare a buffer composed of an acid and its salt by dissolving the acid form of the buffer in about ~60% of the water required for the final solution volume. If the pH is expected to decrease during the experiment. using the molecular weight of the buffer form available. Disadvantages: Requires the buffer pKa and solving two equations (see Theory ). Conversely. May require lots of base (or acid). which will make pH readings inaccurate (due to its dependence to temperature) unless the solution is brought back to its initial temperature. buffer concentrations are between 1 mM and 200 mM. When preparing a buffer composed of a base and its salt. Check the pH and correct if necessary. and then to grams.must first pick a compound whose pKa is close to the pH you want for the solution. Conversely. the adjustment is small. If the base (or acid) is dilute. and then decide what the buffer concentration should be. and when necessary. using the buffer pKa and the desired pH. (2) The Mentally Taxing Method .g. Add water to the final volume. and then adding acid or base to convert some of the added buffer to the other form. choose a buffer with a pKa slightly below the working pH. the acid and the salt) are available. you must adjust the ratio of the protonated and unprotonated forms of the buffer in your solution so as to give the desired pH.
. Then calculate how much strong acid or base must be added to convert enough of the buffer form added to the other form. and the weigh out the correct amounts of both forms. and convert the concentration to amount (in moles) using the volume of solution. If the base (or acid) is concentrated. Ionic strength will be unknown.Using the buffer pKa . Typically.To avoid adding extra salt to a solution. If only one form is available. to give the correct amounts of each form at the pH of the final solution. such as HCl. sodium acetate).. if the pH is expected to increase during the experiment. Easy to prepare. then add water to the final volume. Check the pH and correct if necessary. convert the amount required from moles to grams. Dissolve the buffer and strong acid or base in slightly less water than is required for the final solution volume. Typically.g. Disadvantages: Slow.
http://www. (4) The Completely Mindless Method . Check that the pH and correct if necessary. Disadvantages: May be impossible to find table. so making equal amounts of each form may waste a lot of one solution. Advantages: Easy to do. and dissolve the components in slightly less water than is required for the final solution volume.(3) The Two Solution Method . Table may be incorrect. To obtain the desired pH. add one solution to the other while monitoring the pH with a pH meter.Make separate solutions of the acid form and base form of the buffer.html
. Ionic strength is unknown. Component amounts from table will need to be adjusted to give the buffer concentration and volume in your solution. Add water to the final volume. if required) as the concentration of total buffer in the final solution. Disadvantages: Requires both forms of buffer. The required solution volumes are proportional to the ratio of buffer components in the final solution at the desired final pH. both solutions having the same buffer concentration (and ionic strength.edu/departments/Biochem/Biochem_353/Common_Buffers. Requires both forms of buffer.science.smith. Convenient for frequently prepared buffers. Advantages: Easy to do (with appropriate table).Find a table of the correct amounts of acid/salt or base/salt required for different pH's.