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ef/tnfO{ r] t fjgL lbPsf] 5 . ePsf] hgfpFb} pgn] sfnfkfgLaf6
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sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6
kf6L{ n ] ef/tLo cltqmd0fla?4
lj/f]w k|bz{g ug]{ atfPsf] 5 .
o;}u/L, sflQs @^ ut] ef/tLo
Ps/fh e08f/Ln] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{
;f] r]tfjgL lbPsf x'g\ . ef/tn] xfn}
k|sflzt u/L ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] cfˆgf]
r]tfjgL lbPsf x'g\ . e08f/Lsf]
lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …sfnfkfgL If]q
g]kfnsf] cfˆgf] e"efu xf] . sfnL
;+3if{sf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf k|wfgdGqLsf] k'Tnf bxg ug]{ / @& gofF /fhgLlts gS;fdf g]kfnL e"ld gbLsf] pb\ud :yn lnlDkofw'/f xf] .
dxf;lrj ljKnjn] a'waf/ lj1lKt ut] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] g]kfnl:yt sfnfkfgL, lnlDkofw'/f / lnk'n]s -af“ s L & k] h df_
hf/L u/L ef/tn] cfˆgf] b]zsf] sfof{nodf lj/f]w kq lbg] sfo{qmd
gS;fdf g]kfnsf] sfnfkfgL, lnk'ns
/ lnlDkofw'/f;lxtsf] e"–efunfO{
] /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
o; laifodf g]kfn sDo'lg:6
ljZje/ /x]sf g]kfnLåf/f ef/tLo cltqmd0fsf] lj/f]w
ef/tdf ufe]sf] ljifok|lt uDeL/ kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ljKnjåf/f hf/L sf7df8f}F . ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbn] ;fw]/ a;]sfn] cfdGofok|d ] L hgtfn]
cfklQ hgfpFb} ef/tsf] ;f] sbd lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …of] ef/tsf] cfˆgf] b]zsf] /fhgLlts gS;fdf o;sf] 3f]/ lj/f]w ug{k' g]{ pNn]v 5 .
g]kfndflysf] cltqmd0fsf/L /j}of / ;fd|fHojfbL, cltqmd0fsf/L /j}of g] k fnsf sfnfkfgL, lnk' n ] s / df] r f{ n ] hf/L u/] s f] lj1lKtdf
xdnf eGb} PsxKt] a[xt\ ;+3if{sf g]kfndflysf] xdnf xf] . g]kfnsf] lnlDkofw'/f;xLtsf] e"efunfO{{ ufe]sf] ;/sf/sf] kmfl;jfbL /
sfo{qmd 3f]if0ff u/]sf x'g\ . ;+3if{sf :jflwgtf, g] k fnsf] :jtGqtf, ljifok| l t g] k fndf dfq geP/ cfTd;dk{0fjfbL rl/qsf] eT;{gf ub}{
sfo{ q mddf ef/tLo b" t fjf;df ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] 7f8f] / gfËf] x:tIf]k ljZje/ 5l/Psf g]kfnLn] lj/f]w ef/tn] k|sflzt u/]sf] gS;f t'?Gt
1fkgkq a' e mfpg] b ] l v ef/tLo xf] . of] ef/tsf] cGt/f{ l i6« o u/]sf 5g\ . vf/]h ug{ dfu ul/Psf] 5 .
k| w fgdGqL g/] G b| df] b Lsf] k' T nf k~rzLnsf] l;4fGtsf] ckx/0f klg o;}qmddf g]kfnL hgk|ultzLn o;}u/L, g]kfnL hgk|ultzLn
hnfpg];Ddsf sfo{qmd 3f]if0ff xf] . xfd|f] kf6L{ ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbL df]rf{ o'/f]kn] ef/tn] u/]sf] cGofok"0f{ df]rf{ s]Gb|Lo ;ldlt ;fpbLn] ef/tLo
ul/Psf] 5 . cltqmd0fsf] cfklQ, lj/f]w / eT;{gf cltqmd0fsf] lj/f]wdf lj1lKt hf/L ;fd|fHojfbn] cfˆgf] gS;fdf g]kfnsf
;+3if{sf sfo{qmdcg';f/ g]kfn ub{5 .Ú u/]sf] 5 . a]lNhod, hd{gL, :k]g, sfnfkfgL, lnk'ns ] nufot e"ld kf/]/
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] sflQs @! ut] dxf;lrj ljKnjn] ef/tnfO{ kf]tu'{ n, kf]NofG8 / a]nfotdf ;Ël7t x:tIf]k u/]sf] eGb} lgGbf Pjd\ eT;{gf
d;fn h'n'z, @@ ut] sf]0f;ef, @# tTsfn pQm ;fd|fHojfbL gS;f vf/]h df]rf{x¿sf] ;+oQ' m lj1lKtdf s]kL jnL u/]sf] 5 . df]rf{sf cWoIf o'j/fh
ut] ef/tLo b"tfjf;df 1fkgkq ug{ r] t fjgL;d] t lbPsf 5g\ . ;/sf/ b]zeQm tyf k|ultzLn sfsL{ …z]v/Ú n] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{
a'emfpg] sfo{ ;DkGg ul/;s]sf] 5 cGoyf kf6L{n] /fli6«o :jflwgtfsf] zlQmx¿nfO{ { k| l taGw nufpg] , ef/tn] g]kfnL e"lddfly x:tIf]k
eg] cfh sflQs @$ ut] cltqmldt cfGbf]ng ;~rfng ug]{ r]tfjgL lbFb} kmfl;jfbL bdg ug]{ t/ ef/tLo u/]sfn] ;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm g]kfnLx?n]
ef/tLo gS;f hnfpg] / @% ut] -af“ s L & k] h df_ ;fd|fHojfbsf] gfËf] x:tIf]kdf df}gtf -af“ s L & k] h df_

;Qf¿9 g]skfsf] ;fj{hlgs hUuf x8Kg] k|of; c;kmn lnk'ns] d'2fdf g]skf cl3cl3, ;/sf/ kl5kl5
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ sdf{rfo{, Zofdaxfb'/ cjfn -d[ts_ g]tT[ jsf] g]skf -dfn]_ n] @) l6k sf7df8f} F . ut cui6df zf;s ju{lj?4 rsf{ gf/f nufPsf k|bz{g rls{bF } uO/x]sf] a]nf lalxaf/
/ :yfgLo hgtfsf] ;+o'Qm kxnn] nufotn] sAhf ul/;s]sf 5g\ . 9'Ëf ;xof]u u¥of] . d}gfnLn] e|d0f slZd/dfly sAhf hdfPkl5 ef/t 5g\ . o'jfo'jtLx?n] ;8sd} pq]/ …uf] ef/tLo ljb]z dGqfnosf k|jQmf
;Qf¿9 g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -g]skf_ dx]Gb| /fhdfu{sf] pQ/ / blIf0fdf klg u/] . @)&$ df g} /Tggu/ ;/sf/n] cfˆgf] ;Dk|e" If]q ePsf] Aofs Ol08ofÚ gf/f p/fln/x]sf 5g\ . /la; s'df/n] ef/tsf] ;fj{hlgs
sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf # g+= k|bz ] sf /x]sf] la3f}F hUuf bnfnx¿n] sAhf pBf]u jfl0fHo ;‹n] pBfgdf ;xof]u bfaL;lxt ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] u/]sf] gS;fdf cfˆgf] ;Dk|e"
;f+;b s[i0fk|;fb vgfn / /gkf ul/;s]sf 5g\ . a'9Lvf]nf ;'Sb} ug{ rfx]sf] k|:tfj /fVof] . :yfgLon] gofF gS;fdf g]kfnL e"ld If]q dfq ;d]l6Psf] / gS;f
lrtjgsf d]o/ gf/fo0f jgåf/f gkf– uPkl5 To;f] ul/Psf] xf] . @)^$ ;sf/fTds ¿kdf lnP . t/, d]o/ bfr{n' f lhNnfsf] lnlDkofw'/f, ;xL ePsf] atfP/ c8fgaf6
!, lgs'~hdfu{df /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs ;fndf …;lxb :d[lt afnpBfgÚ gf/fo0f jg / g]tf vgfnn] leqleq} lnk'ns ] / sfnfkfgL If]qnfO{ kl5 gx6\g] k|i6 kf/]sf 5g\ .
hUuf x8Kg] k| o f;nfO{ { c;kmn agfpg :yfgLon] 6Í /]UdL -uf]vf{nL_, pQm hUuf sAhf u/L pBf] u ;d]l6Psf] kfOPkl5 g]kfndf o;af6 klg g]kfnn] cfkm\gf]
kfl/lbPsf 5g\ . lrtjg /gkf–!, ;dLIff cfrfo{, ;fljqL g]kfn, xl/ jfl0fHonfO{{ k|bfg ug]{ if8\oGq u/]sf] Jofks ?kdf lj/f]w k|bz{g e" l d sfod u/fpg lgs}
lgs' ~ hdfu{ , elQmgL au} F r fdf kf} 8 ] n -;b:o;lrj_, 1fg' v'nf;f To;a]nf eof] ha pBf]u eO/x] s f 5g\ . lj/f] w df d]xgt ug'k{ g]{ ;+st] lbPsf]
a'9Lvf]nfsf] lsgf/df /x]sf] ^ s7\7f lj>'jfn;xLtsf] ( ;b:oLo lgdf{0f jfl0fHosf] sfof{no agfpg] / o;sf] dw];jfbL bnafx]s ;Dk"0f{ 5 . t/, g]kfndf b]zsf] e"ld
!@ w'/ hUuf bnfnx¿n] sAhf ug{ ;ldlt agfPsf lyP . tTsfnLg xsef]u x'gu] /L gS;fÍg / k|:tfj /fhgLlts, ltgsf eft[ ef/tn] ldr]/ x:tIf]k u/]sf]
vf] H bf @)^# ;fndf tTsfnLg ;f+;b /fdaxfb'/ yfkf …jfbnÚ åf/f ul/of] . ah]6 lgsf;f %) nfv, ;+ u 7g d' V ou/L ljBfyL{ eGb} ;j{q lj/f]w dlRrFb} hfFbf
dfcf] j fbLn] /f] s ] / …;lxb :d[ l t ;f+;b ljsf; sf]ifaf6 # nfv, Ps gS;fÍg, af]nkq cfXjfg eof] . ;+u7gx? cfGbf]lnt ePsf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] eg] 7f]; egfO{
afnpBfgÚ lgdf{0f ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] Snaaf6 ! nfv / gkfn] ;d]t :yfgLosf] Jofks lj/f]wkl5 /gkfsf 5g\ . ljBfyL{x?n] lalxaf/ cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . kmut,
lyof] . a'9Lvf]nfsf] kl/lwdf /x]sf] cfly{s ;xof]u u/] . kvf{n p7fpg], OlGhlgo/ kÍh lu/L, /gkf– ! sf / z'qmaf/ sf7df8f}Fl:yt k|bLk 1jfnLn] ;Dxfln/x]sf
To;}k|sf/sf] cGo hUuf :yfgLo ;Dofpg], j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ sfdx¿ klg cWoIf z+s/l;+x tfdfª, j8f % sf ef/tLo /fhb" t fjf;sf] k//fi6« dGqfnon] Pp6f
Jofkf/Lx¿ /fh] G b| >] i 7, bLks eP . @)&$ df ;LkL d} g fnL cWoIf s[i0f rf}w/L, /fhf/fd, bLks sfof{no nf}grf}/d} k'u/] gofF a]gfd] k|]; lj1lKt lgsfNof] .
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ gS;f hnfpg] / ef/tLo -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
ef/tLo cltqmd0fla?4 b"tfjf; /
/fi6«;3+ sf] sfof{nodf 1fkgkq
sf7df8f} F . g] k fn sDo' l g:6
kf6L{lgs6 clvn -qmflGtsf/L_n]
3f]if0ff u/]sf] ;+3if{sf] sfo{qmdcg';f/
1fkgkq a'emfPsf] ;+u7gsf cWoIf
;fd|fHojfblj?4 cfTd;dk{0fjfb
!= ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfb u08sL ;Demf} t fx?n] g] k fnsf] ePsf] cfwf/x? b]lvPs} x'g\ . g]kfnleq k"j{ d]rLb]vL klZrd dxfsfnL;Dd g}
ef/tLo ;Qfsf] ;fd|fHojfbL gLlt cl:dtfnfO{ hah{:tL n'6\g] sfd ef/tLo ;]gf / k|x/Lsf] gfËf] x:tIf]k / xfd|f] e"uf]n ef/t;Fu hf]l8Psf] 5 .
k"/} blIf0f Plzofsf nflu vt/fsf] ljifo ul//x]sf] 5 . ef/tåf/f ul/Psf k6s– bfbflu/LnfO{ k6sf}F k6s cg'e"lt p;n] rf/}lt/af6 ;Ldf ldRg] ;Ldf
jg]sf] 5 . l5d]sL ;fgf / sdhf]/ k6ssf gfsfaGbLsf] ;fdgf xfdLn] ul//x]s} 5f}F . ctM ef/tLo ;Qfn] :tDex? ;fg]{ sfd lg/Gt/ ul//x]sf]
/fi6«sf cufl8 ef/tsf] bfbflu/L / Joxf]l/;s]sf 5f}F . xfd|f] /fi6«jfbL g]tfx? ;fd|fHojfbL gLlt gTofUbf;Dd p c;n 5 . ha ef/tn] gofF /fhgLlts gS;f
x]kfxf k|jl[ t vt/gfs 9+un] cufl8 h:t}– dbg e08f/L / hLj/fh l5d]sL jf c;n ldq x'g ;Sb}g . p k|sflzt u/L lnk'ns ] , sfnfkfgL /
j9]sf] 5 . dxfg\ ef/tsf gfddf ;fgf cfl>tsf] xTof, /fhf jL/]Gb|sf] j+zgfz xfdLnfO{ l;lSsd agfpg rfxG5 eGg] lnlDkofw'/fnfO{ ef/tleq} ;dfj]z u¥of]
b]zsf e"uf]nx? dfly cltqmd0f ug]{ x'gu] /L ePsf] b/jf/ xTofsf08df s'/f 3fd h:t} 5n{Ë 5 . ta g]kfn leq To;sf] lj/f]w ePkl5
p;sf] cleofg lg/Gt/ rln/x]sf] 5 . ef/tLo u'Ktr/ ;+:yfx?sf] ;+nUgtf @= ef/tsf] gof" gS;fdf lnk'ns ] , cfPsf] ef/tsf] k|ltlqmofn] hgtfnfO{
g]kfn ;a}eGbf a9L kL8fdf 5 . jL/ sfnfkfgL / lnlDkofw' / f emg} cfqmf]lzt agfPsf] 5 . ef/tn]
uf]vf{nLx?n] ef/tsf] /Iffsf] nflu clg ef/tn] xfn} k|sfzg u/]sf] gofF cfkm\gf] uNtL :jLsf/]sf] 5}g / cfkm\gf]
p;sf] :jtGqtfsf] nflu nl8lbPsf] /fhgLlts gS;fdf g]kfnL e"ld lnk'ns ] , gS;faf6 g]kfnsf] ;Ldf gldlrPsf]
u'gsf] abnfdf p k6s–k6s xfd|f sfnfkfgL / lnlDkofw'/fnfO{ ef/t leq} eg]sf] 5 . of] lglZrt 5 ls d}n] ltd|f]
;Ldf:tDex? eTsfpg] / Psnf}6L ?kdf uflePsf] 5 . jf:tjdf ef/tsf] of] ;Ldf ldr]sf] x'F eg]/ ef/tn] eGg]jfnf
gofF :tDe agfpg] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 . sbd g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d ;Qfdflysf] gfËf] klg 5}g .
ef/tLo x:tIf]ksf lzsf/ x'g xfdL x:tIf]k / cltqmd0fsf] k/fsf:7f xf] . #= ;fd| f Hojfblj?4
ljjz 5f}F . Psftkm{ ljleGg ;lGw ef/tsf] of] kl5Nnf] sbdn] km]l/ Ps cfTd;d{ k 0fjfb
;Demf} t fsf] dfWodjf6 xfd| f k6s g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ cfqmf]lzt xfd|f] la8Djgf s]xf] eg] xfd|f]
ef/tåf/f g] k fnL e" l ddflysf] lr/~hLlj 9sfnn] atfP . 1fkgkq gbLgfnfx?dfly Psnf}6L lgoGq0f ug{ agfPsf] 5 . cfdg]kfnL dgnfO{ på]lnt ef}uf]lns cjl:yltn] xfd|f] :jfwLgtfsf
cltqmd0fsf] lj?4 z' q mjf/ a'emfPkl5 cWoIf 9sfnn] kqsf/;Fu vf]hL /x]sf] 5 eg] csf]t{ km{ /fhgLlts agfPsf] 5 . x'g t xfd|f y'k}| ufpFx? nflu ;fd|fHojfb jf lj:tf/jfb;Fu
g]kfnl:yt ef/tLo b"tfjf; / ;+oQ
' m s'/f ub}{ g]kfnL bnfn zf;sx¿sf] x:tIf] k sf] dfWodaf6 k" / } ;Qf /ftL ;'Tbf g]kfnL 5g\ laxfg p7\bf n8\gk' 5{ . ef/tLo ;Qfsf] ;fd|fHojfbL
/fi6« ;+3sf] sfof{nonfO{ 5'§f5'§} nfrf/Lkg / bl/b| dfgl;stfsf] ;+/rgfdfly lgoGq0f ul//x]sf] 5 . ef/tLo agfOPsf 5g\ . xfd|f ufpFx?nfO{ gLlt;Fu n8]/ jf ;+3if{ u/]/ dfq xfd|f]
1fkgkq a'emfPsf] 5 . ;f] ;+u7gn] -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ dxfsfnL ;lGw, 6gsk'/, sf]zL, lji0f' kGt g} /ftf/ft lglnPsf Oltxf; ;fIfL 5g\ . -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
2 @)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/

pklgjf{ r
ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}
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- ;DkfbsLo
;lqmo alx:sf/ ug{ clkn
sf7df8f}F . g]skf -qmflGtsf/L dhb'/ ju{ / pTkLl8t hg;d'bfo hftLo klxrfg lagfsf] ;‹Lotfsf] s'g} bfh'efO{x?,
dfcf]jfbL_ n] d+l;/ !$ df x'g] ;+;bLo Ps xf]cf}+ Û, ^= ;a}vfn] ;+zf]wgjfb cy{ 5}g . To:t} ;+ljwfgdf n]lvPsf xfn x' g uO/x] s f] ;+ ; bLo
b]zsf] cl:tTj hf]ufpg Ps h'6 xf]cf}+ pklgjf{rgsf] ;lqmo ?kdf alxisf/
ug{ cfXjfg u/]sf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf]
d"bf{jfb Û, &= dxfg\ ;lxbx? cd/
/x" g \ Û, *= g] s kf -qmflGtsf/L
lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L, vfB;+ke
cfjf; h:tf ljifo xfQLsf] b]vfpg]
| t' f, pklgjf{rgsf] alxisf/ lsg < lsgeg]
-!_ bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'h F Ljfb
:yfoL ;ldltn] hg;d'bfosf] gfddf dfcf]jfbL_ lhGbfjfb ÛÚ gf/fx? ;d]t bfFt ag]sf 5g\ . ;a}eGbf nf]stflGqs Pjd\ ;fdGtjfbsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{
ef/tn] ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #&) vf/]h u/]/ hDd'–sZdL/ Ps clkn hf/L ub}{ o:tf] cfJxfg clkndf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . elgPsf] ;+;bLo u0ftGqdf klg g]skf jt{dfg /fHo;Qf, Aoj:yf / ;/sf/sf]
/ n2fvnfO{ s]Gb|zfl;t k|bz ] agfPkl5 cl3Nnf] zlgaf/ u/]sf] xf] . ;f]daf/ hf/L u/]sf] o; laifodf g]skf -qmflGtsf/L ljKnj ;d"xdfly k|ltaGw nufO{ la/f] w tyf e08fkmf] / ug{ , -@_
clkndf …-!_ bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL dfcf]jfbL_n] hg;d'bfosf] gfddf hf/L nf]stGqsf] pkxf; ul/Psf] 5 . em08} bzjif{ s f] hgo' 4 / laleGg
gofF /fhgLlts ;+/rgfcg';f/sf] gS;f ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] k' F h Ljfb Pjd\ ;fdGtjfbsf] u/]sf] clknsf] k"0f{kf7 o; k|sf/ /x]sf] s/f]8sf] ;+Vofdf b]zsf] o'jfzlQm hgcfGbf]ngx?df cleJoQm ;lxb,
k|ltlglwTj ug]{ jt{dfg /fHo;Qf, 5– æ@)&^ dlª\;/ !$ ut] x'g] ;+;bLo ljb]lzPsf] 5 . ;'sD' jf;L, sd}of, xnL, a]kQf tyf 3fOt]–ckfË of]4f ;xLt
5 . ef/tsf] ;j]{If0f ljefun] hf/L u/]sf] ;f] gS;fn] Aoj:yf / ;/sf/sf] la/f]w tyf pklgjf{rgsf] ;lqmo alxisf/ u/f}+ Û uf]7fnfx?sf] cj:yf bogLo 5 . cfd hg;d'bfosf cfd"n kl/jt{gsf
g]kfn–ef/taLr /x]sf] ;Ldf ljjfbnfO{ km]l/ ;txdf e08fkmf]/ ug{, -@_ bzjif{sf] hgo'4 cfb/0fLo hg;d'bfo, e|i6frf/, anfTsf/, xTof, dxËL, cfzf, ck]Iff, efjgf tyf ;kgfdfly
/ laleGg hgcfGbf] n gx?df sDo'lg:6 gfdwf/L ;/sf/ ag]sf] t:s/L, sldzgtGqn] hgtf cfqmfGt u+eL/ cf3ft k'¥ofOPsf]df To;sf
NofPsf] 5 . nfdf] ;dob]lv ef/tn] cltqmd0f ub}{ cleJoQm ;lxb, a]kQf tyf 3fOt]– b'O{ jif{ k'Ub}5 . of] a]nf /fli6«otf, aGb} uPsf 5g\ . hgtf gjpbf/jfbL lj?4 ;zQm cfjfh p7fpg, -#_
ckfË of]4f ;xLt cfd hg;d'bfosf hgtGq / hghLljsfsf ;d:of cem} cy{tGqsf] c;Xo df/df k/]sf 5g\ . Jofks ?kdf lg/Gt/ a9\b} uPsf
cfPsf] bfr{'nf lhNnfsf] lnk'n]s, sfnfkfgL / cfd"n kl/jt{gsf cfzf, ck]Iff, ljs/fn aGb} uPsf 5g\ . b]zsf ckf/ hn;Dkbf;xLt k|fs[lts tyf e|i6frf/, anfTsf/, xTof, dxËL,
lnlDkofw'/f If]qnfO{ cfˆgf] gS;fdf ;d]6]/ gofF gS;f efjgf tyf ;kgfdfly u+eL/ cf3ft ljleGg 7fpFdf Jofks ?kdf ;Ldf dfgjLo ;|ft] ;fwg ljb]znfO{{ ;'Dk]/, t:s/L, sldzgtGq, bnfn tyf
k'¥ofOPsf]df To;sf lj?4 ;zQm cltqmd0f eO/x]sf] 5 . jt{dfg b]zsf] cy{tGqnfO{{ bnfn k'hF Lklt tyf larf}lnof ju{sf] ;+/Ifssf ?kdf
;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . ef/tn] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] gS;fcg';f/ cfjfh p7fpg, -#_ Jofks ?kdf ;/sf/n] sfnfkfgL If]qsf] em08} #&@ ljrf}lnof tTjx?sf] lhDdf nufP/, k|:t't ;/sf/sf] la/f]w ug{ / -$_
lg/Gt/ a9\ b } uPsf e| i 6frf/, ju{ lsnf]ld6/ g]kfnL e"efu ef/tdf ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfnfO{{ bf]xf]/f]–t]xf]/f] o; k|sf/sf] ;Qf tyf Joj:yfsf]
g]kfnsf] em08} # ;o &) ju{ lsnf]ld6/eGbf w]/} hldg anfTsf/, xTof, dxËL, t:s/L, ufeL ef/tåf/f agfOPsf] gSsnL s/sf] df/df lyr]/, cfTdlge{/ s[lif ljsNkdf gofF hgjfbL /fHo;Qfsf]
cltqmd0f ePsf] 5ie: . lnlDkofw' / fb] l v sldzgtGq, bnfn tyf larf}lnof g]kfnL gS;fsf] k|of]u ul//x]sf] 5 . cy{ t GqnfO{ { Wj:tkf/L d' V otM :yfkgf u/L j}1flgs ;dfhjfb x'bF }
ju{ s f] ;+ / Ifssf ?kdf k| : t' t ;g\ !(%) nufotsf c;dfg ;lGw ef/taf6 c/jf}+ ?lkofsf] vfBfGg ;xLt ;fDojfbsf] nIotkm{ cufl8 a9\g]
lnk'n]s;Ddsf] cltqmldt g]kfnL e"ld ;d]l6Psf] ;/sf/sf] la/f]w ug{ / -$_ o; ;Demf}tfx? sfod} 5g\ . k|a4' JolQm ljiffbLo'Qm t/sf/L, kmnkm'nsf] cf]O/f] qmflGtsf] tof/Lsf nflu hgdt lgdf{0f
k| s f/sf] ;Qf tyf Joj:yfsf] ;d"xsf] k|ltj]bgdf s] n]lvPsf] 5, nufO{ 7'nf] Jofkf/ 3f6fsf ;fy} ug{ of] a]nf alxisf/ cfGbf]ng g}
gS;fnfO{ dfglrqdflysf] cfqmd0f -Sof:6f]u|flkms ljsNkdf gofF hgjfbL /fHo;Qfsf] hgtfnfO{ { yfxf 5} g . Psflt/ hg:jf:Yodf nfk/jfxL u/]/ jt{dfg pko'Qm, ;xL / ckl/xfo{ aGg uPsf]
Pu|];g_ eGg yflnPsf] 5 . /, To;af/] /fhgLlts :yfkgf u/L j}1flgs ;dfhjfb x'bF } ef/tLoåf/f gful/stf cltqmd0f ul/g] :j]R5frf/L ;/sf/ b]z ljsf;sf] 8Dkm' 5 . t;y{, xfd|f] kf6L{ cfb/0fLo
;fDojfbsf] nIotkm{ cufl8 a9\g] / csf] { l t/ jf:tljs g] k fnLx? ahfO/x]sf] 5 . of] a]nf g]kfnL hg;d' b fol;t b] z eQm tyf
g]t[Tjb]lv ;dfhsf ljleGg If]qn] ef/tsf] cfnf]rgf qmflGtsf] tof/Lsf nflu hgdt gful/stfaf6 al~rt x'g] ;d:of /fhgLltdf kZrufdL tyf hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{åf/f ljleGg ?kdf
lgdf{0f ug{ of] a]nf alxisf/ cfGbf]ng u+eL/ aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] oyfl:yltjfbL ljsNksf nflu ljleGg ;~rflnt alxisf/ cfGbf]ngdf ;xefuL
ub}{ To:tf] uNtL tTsfn ;Rofpg dfu ul//x]sf 5g\ . g} pko'Qm, ;xL / ckl/xfo{ aGg cd]l/sfsf] Plzof k|zfGt /0fgLltdf s;/tx? klg eO/x]sf 5g\ . k/Gt', x'g / o; pk lgjf{rgsf] ;lqmo ?kdf
uPsf]Ú ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 / elgPsf] cfwfl/t ;}Go ;fem]bf/LcGtu{tsf] xfdLn] ;Qf / Joj:yfs} lj?4df alxisf/ ug{sf nflu xflb{s cfXjfg
o;}qmddf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / p;sf eft[ 5 . …t;y{, xfd|f] kf6L{ cfb/0fLo ldn]lgod Rofn]~h skf]/{ z] gsf] cfly{s cu|ufdL ljsNksf nflu ;zQm ub{5 .
;+u7gx?n] cf}krfl/s ?kd} la1lKt hf/L u/]/ ef/tLo hg;d' b fol;t b] z eQm tyf ;xof]u :jLsf/ u/L c;+nUg k//fi6« cfGbf]ngsf] tof/L ug{ h?/L 5 . 7Ls != dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–dfcf]jfb
hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{åf/f ljleGg gLltsf] dfGotfnfO{{ tf]8]/ / xfn} o;} l:yltdf @)&^ dlª\;/ !$ ut] lhGbfjfb Û
cltqmd0fsf] la/f]wdf ;+3if{ rsf{pg yfn]sf 5g . h'g ?kdf ;~rflnt alxisf/ cfGbf]ngdf ch/a}hfgdf cfof]lht c;+nUg ;+;bdf l/Qm x'g cfPsf k|ltlglw ;ef– @= gofF hgjfbL qmflGt lhGbfjfb Û
;xefuL x'g / o; pklgjf{rgsf] /fi6«x?sf] c7f/f}F lzv/ ;Dd]ngdf ! sf:sL, k|bz ] ;ef–#, bfª\, jfUn'ª\ #= ;fdGtjfb, ;fd| f Hojfb
;fx|} ;x|flgo sfo{ xf] . ;+;bjfbL bnx?jf6 /f:6«, /fli6«otf ;lqmo ?kdf alxisf/ ug{sf nflu c;+nUgtfk|lt k|lta4tf hfx]/ u/]/ tyf eQmk'/ / cGo ljleGg gu/ tyf lj:tf/jfb d"bf{jfb Û $= slyt
/ hg;/f]sf/sf] laifo ;Daf]wg x'g\ ;Sb}g eGb} zflGtk"0f{ xflb{s cfXjfg ub{5 .Ú å}w rl/q k|bz{g ug{ k'u]sf] 5 . ufpF kflnsfsf ;DalGwt ;b:ox?sf] pklgjf{rgsf] alxisf/ u/f}+ Û
qmflGtsf/L dfcf] j fbLn] …!= ;+ljwfgdf :jtGqtf / ;dfgtfsf] /fu kbk"lt{sf nflu slyt pklgjf{rg x'g %= dhb' / ju{ / pTkLl8t
;+3if{df xf]ldPsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] o; dxfg dfS;{ j fb–n] l ggjfb–dfcf] j fb cnflkP klg dhb'/, ls;fg, dlxnf, uO/x]sf] 5 . o; l:yltdf x'g uO/x]sf] hg;d'bfo Ps xf]cf}+ Û ^= ;a}vfn]
lhGbfjfb Û, @= gofF hgjfbL qmflGt blnt, dw]zL, cflbjf;L hghflt, o; k|sf/sf] pklgjf{rgsf] s'g} cy{ ;+zf]wgjfb d"bf{jfb Û
sfo{df cfd;r]t gful/sn] ;fy / ;xof]u ug{'k5{ . lhGbfjfb Û, #= ;fdGtjfb, ;fd|fHojfb d'l:ndnufotsf pTkLl8t ju{ tyf / cf}lrTo b]lv+b}g . To;}n] o; &= dxfg ;lxbx? cd/ /x"g\ Û *=
lsgls b]zdf b'O{ ltxfO ax'dt k|fKt sDo'lg:6 gfdwf/L lj:tf/jfb d"bf{jfb Û, $= slyt hg;d'bfo cem} clwsf/ljxLg 5g\ . pklgjf{rgsf] alxisf/ ug{' kb{5 . g]skf -qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_
pklgjf{rgsf] alxisf/ u/f}+ Û, %= ;+ljwfgdf ;‹Lotf pNn]v ul/P klg kl/jt{gsfdL lbbLalxgL tyf lhGbfjfb Ûæ
;/sf/ eP klg b]z / hgtfn] s'g} /fxt dx;'; ug{
kfPsf 5}gg\ . /fi6«3ft / hg3ft lbgk|ltlbg a9L /x]sf
5g\ . b]zL lab]zL bnfnx? emg\emg\ ;lqmo eO/x]sf 5g\ .
hg;f:+ s[lts dxf;3+ åf/f ef/tLo ;fdf| HojfbL cltqmd0fsf] ;zQm lj/fw] ug{ cfJxfg
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ /fli6« o tf, /fli6« o :jfwLgtf, cv08tf / ;fj{ef}ldstf ljk/Lt km]l/ ljifo ePsf] s'/f :d/0f u/fPsf lyof}F .
o:tf] cj:yfaf6 b]z / hgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg g]kfn lgs6 clvn g]kfn hg;f+:s[lts ;fj{ef}ldstf / /fli6«o cv08tfdfly ;f]xL e"ld cltqmd0f x'g' k~rzLnsf] kl5 g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}ldstfleq kg]{
dxf;+ 3 n] ef/tLo ;fd| f HojfbL ul/Psf] gfËf] , e2f / lgs[ i 6 l;4fGt ljk/Lt sfo{ klg xf] . ef/tLo sfnfkfgL, lnk' / lnlDkofw'/f If]qsf]
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] h'g tTk/tf b]vfPsf] 5, To;nfO{ ;a}n] cltqmd0fsf] ;zQm lj/f]w ug{ cfJxfg cltqmd0fsf] tLj| lj/f]w Pjd\ eT;{gf ;fd| f Hojfbåf/f g] k fnL e" l dsf] ;fj{ef}ldstf rLgn] :jLsf/ u/]sf]
e/y]u ug{' h?/L 5 . To;}n] ef/tLo cltqmd0fnfO{ lg:t]h u/]sf] 5 . dxf;+3n] ef/tåf/f ev{/} u/]sf] 5 .Au: dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj cltqmd0fsf] ;Gbe{ d f oyfzL3| ;Gbe{df ;f]xL ljifodf ef/t;Fu ljjfb
;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] gofF gS;fdf v]d yklnofn] a'waf/ jQmJo hf/L jf:tljstfnfO{{ hg;dIf Nofpg sfod /x]sf] cj:yfdf g]kfnsf] /fli6«o
kfb}{ :jtGq / :jfwLg /f:6« agfpg / ;fa{ef}d gful/s g] k fnsf] lnlDkofw' / fb] l v ub}{ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}ldstfleq kg]{ ;DalGwt kIfl;t hf]8bf/ dfu ub}{ cv08tf / ;fj{ef}ldstf ljk/Lt km]l/
lnk'ns] ;Ddsf] ;du| sfnfkfgL If]qnfO{{ sfnfkfgL, lnk' / lnlDkofw'/f If]qsf] o;k|sf/sf] ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbL ;f]xL e"ld cltqmd0f x'g' k~rzLnsf]
aGg ca g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] Ph]G8fnfO{ ;kmn ef/tLo e"ldsf] ¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] ;fj{ef}ldstf rLgn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] cltqmd0f tyf x:tIf]ksf] ;zQm l;4fGt ljk/Lt sfo{ klg xf] .Ú
agfpg'sf] lasNk 5}g . cGoyf b]z / hgtfsf] cl:tTj b'isfo{kl| t uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] ;Gbe{df ;f]xL ljifodf ef/t;Fu ljjfb lj/f]w ug{ ;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm, qmflGtsf/L dxf;lrj yklnofn] jQmJodf
/ ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbåf/f g]kfnsf] sfod /x]sf] cj:yfdf g]kfnsf] /fli6«o / af}l4s–k|fl1s If]qsf ;a} ;d'bfol;t cufl8 eg]sf 5g\, …g]kfn cfh 3/]n'
;+s6df kg]{ lglZrt 5, r]tgf eof . xflb{s ckLn;d]t u/]sf 5g\ . /fhgLltsf ;fy} afXo /fhgLltsf] klg
clvn g] k fn hg;f+ : s[ l ts uDeL/ rk]6fdf kl//x]sf] 5 . g]kfn

kz' anL k|yf Go"gLs/0f, lg?T;fx / dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj v]d yklnofnn]


jQmJodf eg]sf 5g\, …blIf0fL l5d]s
ef/tåf/f ev{/} ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf]
p;sf] gofF gS;fdf g] k fnsf]
zf;sx¿ b] z eQm tyf
qmflGtsf/Lx¿nfO{{ h]n–lx/f;tdf sf]Rg
Jo:t 5g\ . Pp6f …sDo'lg:6Ú kf6L{n]
csf]{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw

cGTo ug{ ;a} gful/sx? lnlDkofw'/fb]lv lnk'ns ] ;Ddsf] ;du|


sfnfkfgL If]qnfO{{ ef/tLo e"ldsf]
¿kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] b'isfo{kl| t xfd|f]
uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5 . of]
nufpg]h:tf] cgf}7f] / cg}lts sfo{
klg g]kfnd} eO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf]
kmfl;jfbL tyf bnfn ;+;bLo /fhgLlt
c;kmntfsf] l8ndf k'Ug} nfu]sf]
ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbåf/f g]kfnsf] olta] n f, g] k fnL …d" n wf/Ú sf

;lqmotfk"js{ nfuf}+ . /fli6« o tf, /fli6« o :jfwLgtf,


;fj{ef}ldstf / /fli6«o cv08tfdfly
ul/Psf] gfËf], e2f / lgs[i6 cltqmd0f
xf] . xfd|f] ;Ë7g clvn g]kfn
/fhgLlt1x¿sf] c;kmntf /
cljZjf; pTsif{lt/ k'Ug} nfu]sf]
olta]nf ef/tLo kIfaf6 g]kfnL
e"lddflysf] cltqmd0fn] Ps}k6s w]/}
hg;f+ : s[ l ts dxf;‹ ef/tLo k|Zg pAhfOlbPsf] 5 . cd]l/sL /
;fd|fHojfbåf/f lnk'ns ] nufotsf e"– ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbåf/f ev{/} ;DkGg
efudf ul/Psf] cltqmd0fsf] tLj| lrlgofF /fi6«klt ;L lhglkªsf] g]kfn
lj/f]w Pjd\ eT;{gf ub{5 .Ú e| d 0fsf] ;Gbe{ d f cg] s av] 8 f
dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj yklnofn] lgsfNg'n] of] If]qsf] efjL /fhgLlts
jQmJodf cufl8 eg]sf 5g\, …ef/tLo ;DefjgfnfO{{ g} OlËt ub{5 .Ú
k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bLsf] rLg e|d0fsf dxf;lrj yklnofn] jQmJosf]
a]nf ef/t / rLglar ePsf] $! a'bF ] cGTodf eg]sf 5g\, …t;y{, ef/tLo
;Demf}tfsf] @* cf}F a'bF fdf …ef/t / ;fd| f Hojfbåf/f g] k fnL e" l dsf]
rLg lnk'ns ] gfsfaf6 ;Ldf Jofkf/ cltqmd0fsf] ;Gbe{ d f oyfzL3|
g] k fn ;/sf/ a9f]Q/Lsf nflu sfd s'/f] ug{ d~h'/ jf:tljstfnfO{{ hg;dIf Nofpg klg

;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno ePsf 5g\Ú elgPsf] ;Gbe{df klg
xfdLn] Tolta]nf g} g]kfnL e"lddf ef/tLo
cw{;}lgs b:tf /x]sf] sfnfkfgL–
xfdL ;DalGwt kIfl;t hf]8bf/ dfu
ub{5f}F . ;fy}, xfd|f] ;Ë7g o;k|sf/sf]
ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbL cltqmd0f tyf

;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu lnlDkofw'/fsf] lqb]zLo If]qdf kg]{ ef/t–


g] k fnlar ljjflbt lnk' n ] s nfO{ {
Jofkfl/s gfsfsf] ¿kdf ljsf; ug]{
eGg] s'/f g]kfnsf] nflu lgs} ;+jb] gzLn
x:tIf]ksf] ;zQm lj/f]w ug{ ;Dk"0f{
b]zeQm, qmflGtsf/L / af}l4s–k|fl1s
If]qsf ;a} ;d'bfol;t xflb{s ckLn
klg ub{5 .Ú
@)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

ef/tåf/f hf/L gof“ gS;f M g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}ldstf lj/f]wL


ef/t ;/sf/n] xfn} g]kfnsf]
klZrdf]Q/ ;Ldf lnlDkofw'/faf6
nflu s'g} klg xfntdf :jLsfo{ 5}g .
sfnfkfgLdf ef/tLo kmf} h
;s]sf 5}gg\, ;Sb}gg\ . g]kfnn] eg]
ef/tnfO{{ sfnfkfgLdf ;}Go SofDk /fVg
cfrfo{sf] sfnfkfgL;DaGwL n]v
5flkPsf] lyof] . Tolta]nf b]zdf
xf] . ;'uf}nL ;lGwsf] wf/f % cg';f/
g]kfnn] dxfsfnL gbL klZrdsf] e"efu
kqx¿n] sfnL k"js { f s'6L, gfjL, u'~hL,
5fFu?, ltÍ/ ufpFx¿ g]kfn ;/xbleq
sfnfkfgL x'bF } lnk'ns] ;Ddsf] e"efu sfnfkfgL If]qdf ef/tn] slxn]bl] v s'g} cg'dlt glbOPsf] atfpFb} cfPsf] k|ltudglj/f]wL cfGbf]ng rln/x]sf 5f]8s] f] xf] . ;'uf}nL ;lGwåf/f lgwfl{t| /x]sf] tYo lglj{jfb 5 .
cfk"mlt/ kg]{ u/L unt gS;f k|sflzt ;}Go lzlj/ /fVof] eGg] 7f]; k|df0f 5. sf/0f of] d'2f bx«f] u/L p7\g ;s]g . ;Ldf/]vf km]/abn x'g] u/L –gofF d'ns ' lt/f] – lt/fg
u/]sf] 5 . sfnfkfgL elgg] ltN;L e] l 6b} g . t/, bfr{ ' n f lhNnfsf lnk'n]s k|s/0f /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf aLr lnk'ns ] / zf/bf–6gsk'/ afFw lgdf{0fdf ;§f– dfnkf]t sfof{no, a}t8Ldf 5fFu?,
glhssf] ;fgf] kfgLsf] d'xfgnfO{{ sfnLsf] tTsfnLg k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L ;g\ !((( df ef/tLo ljb]zdGqL k|s/0f cf]em]ndf kg{ uof] . k§f ePsf] hdLgafx]s_ g]kfn, la|l6z– ltÍ/, u'~hLsf afl;Gbfn] lj;+= !(^@
d'xfg eg]/ b]vfpFb} cfPsf] ef/tn] l8NnL/fh hf]zLn] lj;+ @)$% ;fndf h;jGt l;+xsf] rLg e|d0f ePsf] lnk'ns] af/] ef/tdf eg] rrf{ hf/L Ol08of / :jtGq ef/taLr c¿ s'g} c;f/ !* tyf !((# r}t @) ;Dd
kl5Nnf] k6s hf/L gS;fdf eg] u[ x dGqfnoeg:nfO{ { k7fPsf] lyof] . ljb]zdGqL l;+xsf] e|d0fdf lyof] . ef/tLo ;+;ßf @))& dfr{ ! ;lGw– ;Demf}tf ePsf 5}gg\ . t/, lt/f]–lt/fg u/]sf b'ne{ clen]vx¿
lnlDkofw'/flt/af6 cfpg] gbLnfO{{ g} k|ltj]bgcg';f/ ;g\ !(%@ b]lv ef/tn] lnk'ns] nfO{{ Jofkfl/s gfsf agfpg] u/L sf lbg ;f+;b ca' cl;d cfhdLn] dxfsfnLsf] pßu:yn lnlDkofw'/fb]lv e]l6Psf 5g\ . lj;+= !((& d+l;/ @&
sfnL eg]/ n]vs ] f] 5 . ef/tn] gofF sfnfkfgLdf cltqmd0f yfn]sf] b]lvG5 . ef/t / rLgaLr ;Demf}tf ePsf] ef/t–rLg ;Ldf Jofkf/af/] k|Zg u/]sf lnk'ns ] ;Ddsf] # zo *% ju{ ls=dL= ut] v8\u lgzfgf ePsf] lt/f]–
gS;fdf lnlDkofw'/faf6 cfpg] gbLnfO{{ ToxLa]nfb]lv ef/tLo ;'/IffsdL{ ;dfrf/ !((( h'g !* sf] 6fOD; ckm lyP . ;f+;b cfhdLsf] k|Zgsf] hjfkm g]kfnL e"ld ef/tLo cltqmd0fsf] lt/fg;DaGwL df]7 a}t8L dfndf cem}
;'/lIft 5 . ;'uf}nL ;lGwn] sfnLnfO{{
;Ldf gbL lgwf{/0f u/]kl5 sfnLk"js { f]
Aof; If]qsf oL ufpFx¿af6 lj;+= !((&
;Dd klg g]kfndf lt/f]–lt/fg x'bF c} fPsf]
/ g]kfnL k|zf;gcGtu{t /x]sf] s'/f
k'li6 x'G5 .
nfndf] x /–Ol:txf/–;gb
sDklg ;/sf/ / g]kfnaLr ;g\
!(@) df zf/bf Aof/]h lgdf{0fsf nflu
;Demf}tf x'bF f tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL
rGb|zdz]/n] dxfsfnLsf] pb\ud
lnlDkofw'/faf/] s'/f p7fPsf lyP .
/f0ffsfndf a}t8LcGtu{tsf] tTsfnLg
Aof; uvf{sf afl;Gbfsf gfddf hf/L
nfndf]x/–Ol:txf/–;gbx¿ u'~hL,
gfjL, ltÍ/ / 5fFu?jf;Lx¿;Fu cem}
;'/lIft 5g\ .
hgu0fgf
g]kfn ;/sf/n] lj;+= @))( df
k"jf{~rn / @)!! df klZrdf~rndf
hgu0fgf u/]sf] lyof] . xfnsf] bfr{n ' f
tTsfnLg a}t8L lhNnfcGtu{t lyof] .
a}t8LcGtu{tsf] tTsfnLg Aof; uvf{
-b/f_df ^ cf]6f ufpFx¿ lyP . @)!!
sf] hgu0fgfn] Aof; uvf{sf ^ cf]6f
ufpFsf] 3/w'/L ;+Vof $ zo #$ tyf
sfnL eg]/ :jLsfg{' /fd|f] s'/f xf] . t/, sfnfkfgLdf k|jz ] u/]sf] 36gfqmdaf6 Ol08ofn] 5fk]sf] lyof] . ;dfrf/ lbFb} ljb]zdGqL k|0fj d'vhL{n] ef/t / rk]6fdf k/]sf] 5 . P]ltxfl;s tYo– s"n hg;+Vof !,*!^ b]vfPsf] 5 .
ef/tåf/f hf/L gofF gS;fdf k'li6 x'G5 . k|wfgdGqL dft[sfk|;fb ;fj{hlgs ePkl5 g]kfndf To;sf] rLgaLr lnk'ns ] , l;lSknf / gfy'nfaf6 k|df0f, gfk–gS;f, hnlj1fgsf cfwf/df @)!* ;fndf Aof; If]qsf u'~hL, gfjL,
lnlDkofw'/faf6 cfpg] gbLnfO{{ sfnL sf]O/fnfsf] kfnfdf g]kfndf ef/tLo lj/f]w ePsf] lyof] . To;kl5 o; ljifodf ;Ldf Jofkf/ ;~rfngdf /x]sf] / yk dxfsfnLsf] pb\ud:yn lnlDkofw'/f s'6L, ltÍ/ / 5fFu? ufpFx¿sf]
eg]/ :jLsf/] klg sfnLk"js { f s'6L, gfeL, ldln6/L ldzg lelqPsf] lyof] . pgn] !((( ;]K6]Da/ @ -@)%^ ebf} !&_ sf gfsf lj:tf/sf nflu ef/tn] k|:tfj k"js
{ f] ;Dk"0f{ e"efu g]kfnsf] xf] . hgu0fgf jl/i7 kqsf/ e}/j l/;fnsf]
u'GhL, sfnfkfgL / lnk'ns ] nfO{{ eg] ;Ldf ef/tnfO{{ g]kfnsf] pQ/L ;Ldfdf !& lbg l/kf]6{;{ Snan] sf7df8f}Fdf cl3 ;f/]sf] atfPsf lyP . To;kl5 lnlDkofw'/f dxfsfnLsf] pb\ud b]vfpg] dftxt ePsf] lyof] .
/]vf tfg]/ cfk"mlt/ kfg]{ b':k|of; u/]sf] cf]6f ;}Go r]skf]i6 /fVg cg'dlt cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] ;g\ @)!$ ;]K6]Da/df lrlgofF /fi6«klt gfk–gS;f, tYo–k|df0f, kqfrf/, lt/f]– hnlj1fgsf cfwf/df sfnLsf]
5, h'g ef/tLo sbd g]kfnsf] lbPsf lyP . tLdWo] Pp6f r]skf]i6 sfo{qmddf g]kfnsf nflu lrlgofF zL lhglkªsf] ef/t e|d0f eof] . lt/fg, nfndf]x/, Ol:txf/ / ;gb d' x fg\
;fj{ef}ldstf / If]qLo cv08tf lj/f]wL bfr{n ' fsf] ltÍ/df lyof] . tL ;}Go /fhb"t h]ª h'aªn] lnk'ns ] af/] ef/t– /fi6«klt lhglkªsf] ef/t e|d0fsf a]nf lgDgfg';f/ 5g\– s'g gbL d"n / s'g ;xfos eGg]
5 . lnlDkofw'/faf6 sfnfkfgL;Ddsf] r]skf]i6 kl5 k|wfgdGqL sLlt{lglw rLgaLr s'g} ;Demf}tf gePsf] / 6fOD; ef/t / rLgaLr s}nfz– dfg;/f]j/ kqfrf/ s'/fsf] 6'Ëf] gbLsf] nDafO{, gbLn]
#*% ju{ lsdL -tLgj6f eQmk'/ lji6n] ;g\ !(&) cui6 ! sf lbg cKm Ol08ofÚsf] ;dfrf/ e"m6f] Pj+ e|dk"0f{ ofqLsf nflu lnk'ns ] / gfy'nf gfsf ;g\ !*!& km]ac '| /L $ sf lbg cf]u6]sf] hnfwf/ If]q, gbLdf /x]sf]
lhNnfsf] If]qkmneGbf a9L_ e"efu x6fPsf lyP . Tolta]nf c¿ ;}Go ePsf] atfPsf lyP . ;g\ @))% vf]Ng] ;xdlt eof] . t/, Tolta]nf klg Oi6–Ol08of sDklgsf sfo{jfxs d'Vo kfgLsf] dfqf, gbLsf] ulx/fO{ / gbLsf]
cfk" m lt/ kfg] { ef/t ;/sf/sf] r]skf]i6 lkmtf{ uP klg ltÍ/sf] clk|ndf lrlgofF k|wfgdGqL j]g of] d'2f vf;} p7]g . ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL ;lrj h]= cfbdn] sf7df8f}Fl:yt qmdfÍsf cfwf/df nufOG5 . ;a}eGbf
cltqmd0fsf/L gLlt eg] gofF xf]Og . r]skf]i6 sfnfkfgLdf uP/ a;]sf] lhofafcf]sf] ef/t e|d0f eof] . g/]Gb| df]bLsf] rLg e|d0fsf qmddf ef/t cfjf;Lo k|ltlglw P8j8{ uf8{g/nfO{{ 7"nf] hnfwf/ cf]u6]sf], c¿ ;xfos
ha ls g]kfn–cFuh ]| o'4kl5 g]kfn / k"jk{ w| fgdGqL lji6 atfpF5g\ . 5fFu? k|wfgdGqL lhofafcf]sf] e|d0fsf a]nf / rLgaLr g]kfnsf] lnk'ns ] / lnk';uF } ueg{/ hg/nsf tkm{af6 kq n]vs ] f gbLeGbf nfdf] b"/Laf6 au]/ cfpg],
Oi6–Ol08of sDklgaLr ePsf] ;'uf}nL lgjf;L g]kfnL ;]gfsf k"j; { xfos/yL ef/t–rLgaLr !@ cf]6f ;Demf}tfdf hf]l8Psf] Rofª\nf/lnk'ns ] nfO{{ ;Ldf 5g\ . ;'uf}nL ;lGw ePsf] Ps jif{kl5 ;xfos gbLx¿eGbf kfgLsf] dfqf a9L
;lGwsf] wf/f % n] g]kfnsf] klZrdL uf]kfnl;+x af]x/fn] sfnfkfgLdf ;g\ x:tfIf/ eof] . @))% clk|n !! df Jofkf/ gfsf agfpg] ;Demf}tf eof] . n]lvPsf] o; kqdf cfbdn] uf8{g/nfO{{ ePsf] / ulx/f] gbLnfO{{ hnlj1fgsf
;Ldf dxfsfnL gbL lgwf{/0f u/]sf] xf] . !(%( d] b]lv g} pQ/k|bz ] …cfD8{ ef/t / rLgaLr x:tfIfl/t @)!% d] !% -@)&@ h]7 !_ hf/L …sfnL gbLsf] k"jd{ f kg]{ Aof; k|uGgf cfwf/df d"n gbL dflgG5 . lnlDkofw'/f
;'uf}nL ;lGwsf] wf/f % cg';f/ sG:6]a'n/LÚsf hjfg t}gfy /x]sf] ;Demf}tfdWo] ‘Protocol between the $! a'bF ] ;+oQ' m lj1lKtsf] a'bF f @* df rf}tl/of ad zfxsf] bfaLcg';f/ pb\uldt sfnL gbLsf] kfgLsf] cfotg
g]kfnsf] klZrdL ;Ldf dxfsfnL gbL atfPsf 5g\ . g]kfn–rLg ;LdfÍgsf Government of the Republic of …;Ldf Jofkf/, b'j} b]zsf afl;Gbfsf] g]kfnsf] 7xl/G5, t;y{ Tof] 7fpF g]kfn a9L ePsf], hnfwf/ If]q klg 7"nf] ePsf],
xf], h'g gbLsf] jf:tljs pb\ud bfr{n ' f a]nf g]kfn–rLg ;+oQ' m ;Ldf ;ldltsf India and the Government of the tLyf{6g / cGo cfbfg–k|bfgsf ;/sf/sf clwsf/LnfO{{ a'emfpg'Ú egL cGo ;xfos gbLx¿eGbf 6f9faf6
lhNnfsf] Aof; uvf{cGtu{t kg]{ ;b:o bdg/fh t'nfw/n] sfnfkfgLdf PeopleÚs Republic of China on dfWodaf6 cfk;L ljZjf;nfO{ { lgb]z{ g lbPsf 5g\ . sDklg ;/sf/sf] au]/ cfpg] / ulx/f] ePsf]n] sfnL
lnlDkofw'/f xf] . ;'uf}nL ;lGw kl5 ef/tLo ;}Go SofDk /x]sf] hfgsf/L Modalities for the k|efjsf/L¿kdf k|j4{g ug{ ;lsg]df pQm cflwsfl/s kqn] ;' u f} n L gbLsf ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 .
tTsfnLg Oi6 OlG8of sDklg ;/sf/åf/f k//fi6« dGqfnonfO{{ u/fPsf lyP . Implementation of Confidence b'O{ kIf ;xdt ePsf], ;LdfnfO{{ ;lGwcg';f/ sfnLsf] d'xfg lnlDkofw'/f cGtdf
k|sflzt ;a} gS;fx¿df dxfsfnLsf] g]kfnL ;]gfsf k"jh
{ g/n e/ts]z/L Building Measures in the ;xsfl/tf / ljlgdo k'nsf ¿kdf / lnlDkofw'/f k"js { f s'6L, gfjL, u'~hL, lnk' n ] s , sfnfkfgLaf6
d'xfg lnlDkofw'/f g} b]vfOPsf] 5 . l;+xn] g]kfn–rLg ;LdfÍgsf a]nf gf/f Military Field Along the Line of lj:tf/ ub}{ ;DaGwnfO{{ cem lj:tf/ ltÍ/ / 5fFu? ufpFnfO{{ g]kfnsf] e"ld lnlDkofw'/f ;Ddsf] g]kfnL ;fj{ef}d
;g\ !*%^ kl5 eg] la|l6z Ol08ofn] Onfsfdf /xFbf sfnfkfgL cltqd0faf/] Actual Control in the India-China ug]{ tyf Jofkf/ j:t'sf] ;"rL j[l4sf eg]/ :jLsf/]sf] 5 . e"efu cfk"mlt/ kfg]{ u/L ef/t
g]kfnsf] klZrdL ;Ldfdfly gS;fdfkm{t ;/sf/nfO{{ l/kf]l{ 6ª u/]sf lyP . g]kfnL Border Areas’ Ps lyof] . nflu jftf{ ug{ / gfy'nf, Rofª\nf/lnk'ns] s'dfp“sf k|zf;snfO{{ lgb]{zg ;/sf/åf/f hf/L ul/Psf] kl5Nnf]
cltqmd0fdf yfn]sf] lyof] . sDklg ;]gfsf k"jd{ xf;]gfgL zDe'zDz]/ ha/fn] ef/tLo ljb]z ;lrj Zofdz/0f / / l;lKsnfdf ;Ldf Jofkf/ a9fpg b'j} Oi6–Ol08of sDklgsf sfo{jfxs gS;fk|lt g]kfn ;/sf/n] cf}krfl/s
;/sf/n] ;g\ !*%^ kl5 k|sflzt ;Ldf lg/LIf0fsf qmddf sfnfkfgLdf lrlgofF pkljb]zdGqL j' bfj]Oåf/f kIf /fhL /x]sf]Ú s'/fdf b'j} b]zn] ;xdlt d'Vo ;lrj h]= cfbdn] ueg{/ ?kdf s8f lj/f]w hgfpFg' kb{5 .
gS;fx¿df lnlDkofw'/faf6 cfpg] sfnL ef/tLo k|x/L b]vs ] f lyP . kqsf/ x:tfIfl/t pQm ;Demf}tfsf] bkmf % - hgfP . oBlk ef/t–rLgaLr ;g\ hg/nsf] tkm{af6 s'dfpFsf sfo{jfxs ef/tn] laut Psbzs otf g]kfn–
gbLnfO{{ s'6L of+lQm / lnk'ns ] klZrd gf/fo0f jfUn]sf cg';f/ ;g\ !(^@ lt/ @_ df dWo ;]S6/sf] lnk'ns ] /Rofª\nf !(%$ clk|n @( sf lbg Jofkf/L / sldZg/ hL=8ANo"= 6«n ] nfO{{ ;g\ !*!& ef/taLr ;+o'Qm ?kdf agfOPsf]
lu/k"maf6 cfpg] vfF o+lQmnfO{{ sfnL n]Vg ef/tLo ;]gfn] lxdfnL gfsfnfO{{ b[li6ut e~Hofª / k"jL{ ;]S6/sf] lsljy'– tLy{ofqL lnk'ns ] e~Hofªaf6 cfjt– dfr{ @@ df csf]{ kq n]vs ] f 5g\ . elgPsf ;Ldf gS;f -:6«Lk Dofk_ dWo]
z' ? u/] s f] xf] . kl5 a] n fotL ub}{ l5ofn]s, u'~hL / sfnfkfgLdf ;}Go bfdfO{nfO{{ …;Ldf a}7s laGb'Ú lj:tf/ hfjt ug{ ;Demf}tf ePsf] / ef/tLo sfnLk"j{ Aof; k|uGgf / ToxfFsf ef]l6of ;':tf / sfnfkfgLsf] gS;fafx]s
pklgj]zifaf6 :jtGq ePkl5 ef/tn] lzlj/ v8f u/]sf] lyof] . k"jk{ z | f;s, ug]{ ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . ef/t / k|wfgdGqL /fhLj ufGwLsf] rLg e|0fsf -Aof;L–;f} s f_ hldgbf/x¿sf] c?df x:tfIf/sf nflu g] k fn
;g\ !(%) sf] pQ/f4{lt/ sfnfkfgL - ;}lgs clwsf/L, ;Ldfljb, Oltxf;sf/, rLgaLr lnk'ns ] nfO{{ ;Ldf laGb' la:tf/ a]nf -!(** l8;]Da/ !(–@#_ yk lgj]bg;Fu ;DalGwt o; kqdf h]= ;/sf/nfO{ { af/Daf/ bafa lbF b }
ltN;L_df ;'/Iff rf}sL :yfkgf u/]sf] n]vs, a'l4hLljx¿sf] egfO{sf cfwf/df ug]{ ;xdltkl5 @)^@ j}zfv @% sf] ;Demf}tf ePsf] elgPsf] 5 . t/, olb cfbdn] s' d fpF s f sldZg/nfO{ { cfPsf] 5 . :6«Lk Dofkdf g]kfnsf]
lyof] . ef/t olta]nf sfnfkfgLl:yt ef/tn] ;g\ %) / ^) sf] aLrdf g]kfn ;fKtflxsdf o;af/] kqsf/ ;'wL/ ef/t–rLgaLr ljutdf g]kfnsf] sfnLk"js { f] Aof; k|uGgf;xLtsf] e"efu c;xdlts} sf/0f x:tfIf/ x'g ;s]sf]
;fgf] kfgLsf] d"nnfO{{ sfnLsf] d'xfg eg]/ sfnfkfgLdf ;}Go lzlj/ v8f u/]sf] zdf{sf] n]v k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] . ;xdlt ljgf lnk'n]s;DaGwL s'g} ;'uf}nL ;lGwcg';f/ g]kfnsf] ePsfn] 5}g . t;y{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ef/tåf/f
e|d l;h{gf ub}{cfPsf] 5 . xfn b]lvG5 . xfn ef/tn] sfnfkfgL If]qdf g]kfn ;fKtflxsdf lnk'ns ] ;Demf}tfaf/] ;Demf}tf ePsf] eP To;sf] s'g} cy{ / tL ufpFx¿ g]kfnnfO{{ ;'Dkg eg]/ xfn} hf/L gS;fk|lt cf}krfl/s lj/f]w
lnlDkofw'/fb]lv lnk'ns ] ;Ddsf] # zo O08f]– l6a]l6og af]8/{ k'ln; kmf];{ - zdf{ s f] n] v 5flkPkl5 k//fi6« cf} l rTo /xGg . g] k fnsf] n]vs ] f 5g\ . kqdf Aof; k|uGgfsf hgfpF b } ef/t rLgaLr ePsf]
*% ju{ ls=ld= e"efu ef/tLo cfO{6LaLkL_ t}gfy u/]sf] 5 . dGqfnon] @)^@ j}zfv @& -@))% ;fj{ef}ldstfljk/Lt ePsf To:tf s'g} ef] l 6of hdLgbf/x¿n] la| l 6z lnk'ns ] ;Demf}tf vf/]hL, sfnfkfgL–
cltqmd0fdf k/]sf] 5 . kl5Nnf] k6s cf}krfl/s ;Demf}tf ljgf c¿ d] !)_ut] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ ef/t / klg ;lGw–;Demf}tf g]kfnsf xsdf dfGg] zf;gcGtu{t /xg kfpF egL lgj]bg lnk'ns ] If]qdf t}gfy ef/tLo kmf}hsf]
ef/t / rLgaLr g]kfnsf] ;/xbleq d'ns ' df ;]gf /fVg kfOFbg} . t/, ef/tn] rLgaLr …sfnfkfgLÚaf/] s'g} ;Demf}tf / :jLsfo{ x'Gg . g]kfnL e"ldaf/] g]kfnsf] lbP klg ;'uf}nL ;lGwcg';f/ Aof; lkmtL{ / lnlDkofw'/fnfO{{ g]kfn–ef/t
kg]{ lnk'ns ] af6 Jofkf/sf nflu dfu{ ljgfcg'dlt g]kfnL e"lddf ;'/Iff kmf}h gePsf] hgfPsf] lyof] . lj1lKtdf ;xdlt, :jLs[lt ljgf ljutdf s'g} k|uGgf, ToxfFsf ufpF / hdLg g]kfnsf] / rLgaLrsf] lqb]zLo ljGb" sfod
v'nf ug]{ cfk"mv';L ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . t}gfy u/]sf] 5 . oBlk ef/tLo lnk'ns] sf] gfd eg] pNn]v lyPg . /fi6«n] cfk"mv'zL u/]sf u}/sfg"gL ;lGw– ePsfn] la|l6z ;/sf/ ToxfFsf u/fpg s"6gLlts txaf6 cfjZos
g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}ldstf / If]qLo clwsf/Lx¿n] sfnfkfgLdf g]kfnn] ;]gf @)^@ h]7 * -@))% d] @!_sf] g]kfn ;Demf}tfx¿sf] s'g} j}wtf x'bF g} . hdLgbf/ / afl;GbfnfO{{ cfk"m dftxt sbd rfNg' h?/L 5 .
cv08tflj/f]wL lnk'ns ] ;Demf}tf / /fVg cg'dlt lbPsf] cgf}krfl/s bfaL ;fKtflxsn] …oxL ljifodf ;DkfbsLo dxfsfnLsf] d' x fg lnlDkofw' / f kfg{ hlt;'s} OR5's eP klg g;Sg] -n]vs e08f/Lsf] …cltqmd0fsf]
sfnfkfgL tyf lnk'ns ] ef/t leq kfg]{ ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . t/, g]kfnn] ;]gf /fVg n]vs] f] lyof] . g]kfn ;fKtflxssf] ;f]xL g]kfn–ef/taLrsf] klZrdL ;Ldf a]xf]/f pNn]v 5 . sDklg ;/sf/sf] rk]6fdf lnlDkofw'/f–lnk'ns ] Ú k':ts
ef/t ;/sf/sf] gofF gS;f g]kfnsf cg'dlt lbPsf] s'g} k|df0f k]z ug{ cÍdf rLgsf nflu k"j/{ fhb"t /fh]Zj/ lgwf{/0f ug]{ d"n cfwf/ ;'uf}nL ;lGw o; cflwsfl/s lgb]{zg;xLtsf @)&# ;fndf k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] ._
4 @)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/

lzIff gLlt–@)&^ :jLs[t


sf7df8f}F . ;/sf/n] lzIff gLlt– Joj:yfkg ug]{ / lj1fg tyf k|ljlw b/aGbL l;h{gf ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5' . ;fljt x'g] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . nflu ;fj{hlgs ljBfno ;jnLs/0f
@)&^ :jLs[t ePsf] hgfPsf] 5 . lzIffsf] cj;/ lj:tf/ ug{ ldnfO{g] gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . lzIff, lj1fg tyf k| l jlw – ljifout cWofkg cg'dltkqsf] bzs 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs
lzIff dGqL lul//fhdl0f kf]v/]nn] ;'ljwf;DkGg /fli6«o lj1fg ljBfno – glthfdf pTs[i6tf xfl;n u/]sf dGqfnosf] pknlAw k/LIffcfwf/df lnO{ ljifout cWofkg ljBfno ;jnLs/0fsf nflu gLlt
laxLaf/ dGqfnodf kqsf/ ;Dd]ng ;~rfng ug]{ gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . lzIfsnfO{{ ljBfno, :yfgLo tx, k|bz ] – g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df klxnf] k6s cg'dltkq lbg] lbg] Joj:yf z'?cft sfo{qmd th{d' f, /fli6«o / k|fb]lzs
ub}{ lzIff gLlt :jLs[t ePsf] hfgsf/L – ;a}nfO{{ k|fljlws lzIff M k|fljlws / ;+3Lo ;/sf/n] k|zz + f, k'/:sf/ tyf /fli6«o lzIff gLlt, @)&^ hf/L ePsf] ul/Psf] 5 . :t/df z}lIfs ;Dd]ng cfof]hgf u/L
lbPsf 5g\ . ut sflt{s !* ut] a;]sf] tyf Jofj;flos lzIff / tflndsf] ;Ddfg lbg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 eg] 5 . v08Ls[t gLltx? xf]Og ca – ljBfyL{x?sf] pQ/k'l:tsf k'gM o;nfO{{ hg:t/df k'¥ofpg] sfo{
dlGqkl/ifb a}7sn] @! a'bF ] lzIff gLlt If]qdf ;+:yfut lj:tf/ u/L ;Lk lzIf0f Ps]8d] Ldfkm{t lg/Gt/ ¿kdf xfdL;Fu lzIff If]qsf ;du| ljifox? k/LIf0f sfo{ljlw, @)&% lgdf{0f eO{ ul/Psf] 5 .
:jLs[t u/]sf] xf] . of] gLlt :jLs[t ljsf;df hf]8 lbFb} ?lr /fVg] ;a}sf lzIfssf] k];fut ;Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ ;d]l6Psf] gLlt th{d' f ePsf] 5 . sfof{Gjogdf 5 . ljBfyL{ d"NofÍgnfO{{ – lbuf] ljsf; nIo–$ sf] g]kfn
eP;Fu} :yfgLo txx?n] ;d]t cj nflu k|fljlws tyf Jofj;flos lzIff gLltdf pNn]v 5 . – lj1fg k|ljlw tyf gjk|jt{g a:t'lgi7 / ljZj;gLo agfpg / pQ/ /fli6« o k| f ?k (SDG-4;\ Nepal
cfjZostfcg';f/ lzIfs lgo'Qm tyf ;Lk ljsf; cj;/ pknAw – g] t [ T j ;jnLs/0f tyf gLlt,@)&^ th{d' f ul/Psf] 5 . k'l:tsf k/LIfs, ;Dk/LIfs / k/LIff National Framework) tof/ eO{
ug{;Sg] af6f] v'ns ] f] 5 . u/fpg], k|fljlws tyf Jofj;flos lzIff cleefjssf] ckgTj l;h{gf ub}{ – g]kfn ;/sf/ -dlGqkl/ifb\_ af6 Joj:yfksx?nfO{{ yk lhDd]jf/ Pjd\ :jLs[ltsf] qmddf /x]sf] 5 .
k|:t't 5, lzIff dGqL lul//fhdl0f / tflndnfO{{ pTkfbg;Fu hf]8\g ;fj{hlgs lzIff k|0ffnLsf] ?kfGt/0fsf ul7t pRr:t/Lo /fli6«o lzIff cfof]u ;+jb] glzn agfpg o;n] dxTjk"0f{ – /fli6«o of]Uotf k|f?k (National
kf]v/]nn] lzIff gLlt ;fj{hlgs ug]{ Pk|l] G6l:;k sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{ / nflu ;/f] s f/jfnfx¿sf] ;lqmo u7g eO{ pQm cfof]un] lzIff;DaGwL e"ldsf v]ns ] f] oxfFx?nfO{{ hfgsf/L Qualification Framework) tof/
qmddf hf/L u/]sf] lj1lKtsf] k"0f{ kf7M xfnsf] l;l6Ole6Lsf] k'gM;+/rgf ug]{ ;xeflutfdf cNkssflng tyf cWoog tyf cg';Gwfgsf cfwf/df u/fpF5' . eO{ :jLs[ltsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/
æcfdg]kfnL gful/s, lzIff If]qsf ljifo gLltn] ;d]6s ] f] 5 . bL3{sflng nIo ls6fg u/L ;fj{hlgs cfˆgf] k|ltj]bg ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqL – xl/t ljBfno sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog dGqLkl/ifßf k]z ul/Psf] 5 .
ljifodf rf;f] /fVg] ;a}sf] ;jf{lws – pRr lzIffsf] k| e fjsf/L lzIff k|0ffnL ;jnLs/0f cleofg ;dIf k]z ul/;s]sf] 5 . lgb] { l zsf, @)&% :jLs[ t u/L – ckfËtf ePsf afnaflnsfsf
rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] /fli6«o lzIff gLlt, lgodg tyf Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;~rfng ug]{ pNn]v 5 . – clgjfo{ tyf lgMz'Ns lzIff P]g, sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] 5 . Ps ljBfno lzIffsf nflu ;ft} k|bz ] df Ps Ps
@)&^ hf/L ePsf] 5 . lzIff If]qsf k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf pRr lzIff – /fli6«o of]Uotf k|f?k lgdf{0f u/L @)&% lgdf{0f u/L sfof{Gjogdf Ps au}rf / Ps ljBfyL{ Ps lj?jf cf]6f gd"gf ljz]if ljBfno :yfkgfsf
sltko pkIf]q;Fu ;DalGwt gLltx? kl/ifb\ u7gsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s tyf ;fwf/0f NofOPsf] 5 . eGg] gf/fsf ;fy jftfj/0fd}qL agfpg] nflu sfof{/De ul/Psf] 5 .
t xfdL;Fu lyof] . t/, ;a} pkIf]qx? ljZjljBno cGtu{ t sf / k|fljlws Pj+ Jofj;flos lzIffsf] – /fli6«o lrlsT;f lzIff P]g, cleofg sfof{Gjogdf 5 . – g]kfnsf] cfˆg} Gofgf] :of6]nfO{6\
;d]l6Psf] /fli6«o lzIff gLlt clxn];Dd ;+/rgfx¿sf] k'g/fjnf]sg;xLt of]UotfaLr ;dsIftf / kf/uDotfsf] @)&% hf/L eO{ sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] – k|fljlws tyf Jofj;flos cGtl/Ifdf k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
klg aGg ;s]sf] lyPg . d'ns ' ;+3Lo ltgLx¿sf] Ifdtf ;'b[l9s/0f ug]{ k|0ffnL :yflkt ul/g] gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . 5 . pQm P]gdf Joj:yf eP adf]lhd lzIffsf] Jofks lj:tf/ ug]{ gLlt – lj1fg ;+ux| fnosf] cf}krfl/s
nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds k|0ffnLdf gLltut Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s dfWodaf6 lrlsT;f lzIff cfof] u u7g cg' ? k k| f ljlws lzIffno tyf pb\3f6g u/L ;~rfngdf NofOPsf] 5 .
uO;s] k l5 lzIff If] q df cfd" n – k|fl1s tyf k];fut l8u|Lsf] k|fKt 1fg, ;Lk / bIftfnfO{{ /fli6«o eO;s]sf] 5 . sfo{qmdx?sf] lj:tf/ ul/Psf] 5 . – rfln; b]zsf lzIff dGqL;xLtsf]
kl/jt{gsf] gful/s ck]Iffsf aLraf6 Plss/0f ul/Psf] xfnsf] lzIffzf:qsf Jofj;flos of]Uotf k|f¿ksf cfwf/df – dbg e08f/L lj1fg tyf k|ljlw xfn;Dd %(! :yfgLo txdf k|fljlws pkl:yltdf Asia Pacific Region
;du| lzIff If]qnfO{{ lbzflgb]z { ug]{ sfo{qmdx¿sf] k'g/fjnf]sg u/L k|fl1s k/LIf0f tyf d"NofÍg ug]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf ljZjljBfno ljw]os, @)&^ ;+3Lo lzIffsf sfo{qmd k'¥ofO;lsPsf] / Chlid Development Network
/fli6«o lzIff gLlt, @)&^ g]kfn ;/sf/ l8u|L k"/f u/]kl5 dfq k];fut l8u|L u/L sf]zs { f] qm]l86 Aoflͪ / qm]l86 ;+;bsf] ;fdflhs ;ldltdf 5nkmnsf] afFsLdf rfn" cfly{s aif{df g} k'¥ofpg] (ARNEC) sf] cGt/f{li6«o ;Dd]ng
dGqLkl/ifb\af6 oxL @)&^ ;fn sflt{s k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf nfu" ug]{ gLlt 6«fG;km/ k4lt nfu" ul/g] pNn]v 5 . qmddf /x]sf] 5 . u/L sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . ;ft} k|bz ] df g]kfndf ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 .
!* ut] :jLs[t ePsf] 5 . pRr:t/Lo lnOPsf] 5 . o;af6 ;dsIftf / pRr cWoog – of]udfof cfo'jb{] ljZjljBfno gd"gf ax'kf| ljlws lzIffno 3f]if0ff u/L – ;fs{ lzIff dGqLx?sf] dflNbE;df
/fli6«o lzIff cfof]usf] l;kmfl/; – g]kfnnfO{{ lglZrt ljifox¿df ;Da4 ljBdfg ;d:ofx? xn x'g] ljw]os, @)&^ ;+3Lo ;+;bdf btf{ ug{ lgdf{0f sfo{ lta| ultdf cl3 a9fOPsf] ePsf] t];|f] ;Dd]ngaf6 cfufdL
;d]tsf cfwf/df d]/f] g]tT[ jdf k"j{ ljZj:t/sf] lzIff k|bfg ug]{ pTs[i6 ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 . ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqLkl/ifb\af6 lg0f{o e};s]sf] 5 . 5 . ! ;o %) cf]6f ljBfnox?df ;Dd]ng g]kfndf cfof]hgf ug]{ u/L
lzIffdGqLx? 8f= u+ufnfn t'nfw/ / z}lIfs s]Gb| (Educational Hub) k|ljlwnfO{{ lzIff k|0ffnLsf] cleGg c+usf] – kf/df0fljs tyf /]l8of]wdL{ sIff (–!@ sf] k|fljlws wf/sf to ul/Psf] 5 .
:j= wgL/fd kf}8n ] , cfof]usf ;b:ox? sf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{ gLltn] hf]8 ?kdf Plss[t ub}{ ljBfno tyf lzIf0f kbfy{sf] zflGtk"0f{ k|of]u ;DaGwL ljw]os sfo{qmd yk u/L s'n $#$ ljBfnodf – g]kfndf k|yd k6s o'jf j}1flgs
k|f=8f= dLg axfb'/ lji6, /d]z l;njfn lbPsf] 5 . ;+:yf k|ljlwsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ug]{ / ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] lzIff tyf :jf:Yo of] sfo{qmd k'us ] f] 5 . ;Dd]ng ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 .
/ nId0f zdf{ /x]sf] ^ ;b:oLo – pRr lzIff xfl;n ul/;s]kl5 lzIf0f l;sfO k|lqmofnfO{{ ;"rgf ;ldltdf 5nkmnsf] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . – sl/a @& xhf/ lzIfssf] 5gf]6 – /fli6«o of]u cEof; k|f]6f]sn
sfo{6f]nLn] gLltsf] k|f/lDes d:of}bf sfdsf] ;+;f/df k|jz ] ug{ cfjZos k|ljlwd}qL agfpg gLltut Joj:yf – dbg e08f/L lj1fg tyf k|ljlw u/L kb:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ ;DkGg x'g] lgdf{ 0 f ul/Psf] 5 . k| f ljlws
tof/ u/]sf] lyof] . pQm d:of}bf pk/ kg]{ 1fg, ;Lk / clej[lQsf] Jofjxfl/s ePsf] 5 . ljZjljBfno k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;ldlt qmddf 5 . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df of] Hofb} lzIfftkm{ of]u, cfo'j]{b, k|fs[lts
dGqfnodf 5nkmn u/L dGqL kl/ifßf cg'ej xfl;n ug{ / pRr lzIffsf] – u'0f:t/ k|Tofog / k|df0fLs/0f u7g cfb]z hf/L eO{ k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] 7"nf] pknlAw xf] h;af6 ljBfnodf lrlsT;f / hl8a' 6 L ljifosf]
k|:tfj k7fOof] . pQm k|:tfj pk/ nfe k|ToIf ¿kdf hgtf;dIf k'¥ofpg k|0ffnL (Quality Assurance and sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . :yfoL lzIfssf] cfk"lt{ u/L k7gkf7gdf kf7\oqmd ul/Psf] 5 .
u[xdGqL g]tT[ jsf] dGqLkl/ifb\ ;fdflhs clgjfo{ :jo+;j] sLo ;fdflhs ;]jfsf Accreditation (QAa\) nfu" u/L – kf/df0fljs lj1fg tyf k|ljlw ;xhtf Nofpg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . – a'6jn / alb{af; d]l8sn
;ldltdf $) lbg 5nkmn ePkl5 ¿kdf …/fli6«o ljsf; ;]jfÚ ;~rfng pRr lzIff ;+:yfx¿sf] u'0f:t/ ;DaGwL cg';Gwfg, ljsf; / tflndsf – lzIfs ;]jf cfof]usf] cfGtl/s sn]hsf] u'?of]hgf tof/ ePsf] 5 .
k'gM dGqLkl/ifßf g} ;'wf/ ;xLt k]z ug{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . clea[ l 4 ug{ gLltut Joj:yf nflu If]qLo ;xof]u ;Demf}tf, @)!& k|ltof]lutfdf c;kmn ePsf / k/LIff – :jf:Yo lzIfftkm{ &% k|ltzt
eof] . tTkZrft\ klg s]lx ljifodf ;'wf/ – ;fIf/ g]kfn 3f]if0ff u/L lzlIft ul/Psf] 5 . (RCA-2017) ;+3Lo ;+;baf6 cg'df]bg cfj]bg g} gu/]sf sl/a ( xhf/ (%& 5fqj[lQsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] / ;f]sf]
ug{k' g]{ cj:yf /x]sf]n] dGqLkl/ifb\n] df= g]kfn agfpgdf s]lGb|t cfhLjg – pko'Qm gLlt, nufgL, hgzlQm ePsf] 5 . hgf c:yfoL lzIfsnfO{{ ;'ljwf ;xLt sfof{Gjogsf nflu dGqfnoaf6 b|t'
pkk|wfgdGqL OZj/ kf]v/]nsf] g]tT[ jdf l;sfOsf sfo{ q mdx¿ ;~rfng ljsf;, kf7\oqmd ;dfof]hg / lzIf0f – /fli6«o lzIff ljw]os, pRr lzIff cjsfz lbOPsf] 5 . ultdf sfd eO/x]sf] 5 .
^ hgf dGqLx?sf] 6f]nL agfO{ o;nfO{{ ul/g]5 . k4ltsf] cfw'lgsLs/0f u/L la1fg, ljw]os / k|fljlws tyf Jofj;flos – xfn;Dd %! lhNnfx? ;fIf/ – /fli6«o k':ts gLlt, @)&^ tof/
clGtd ?k lbg] lhDd]jf/L ;'lDkof] . – ckfËtf ePsf afnaflnsfx¿sf] k|lalw, Ol~hlgol/ª\ tyf ul0ft lzIff lzIff / tflnd ljw]ossf] k|f/lDes lhNnf 3f]if0ff eO;s]sf 5g\ . rfn" u/L :jLs[ltsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ -
oxL 6f]nLn] clGtd ?k k|bfg u/]sf] l;sfO cfjZostf k"/f ug{ ;dfj]zL (Qm\EM Education) nfO{{ ;du| lzIff d:of}bf tof/ ePsf] 5 . gLltsf] cfly{s aif{leq sDtLdf &) cf]6f dGqLkl/ifb\_ df k]z ePsf] 5 .
cfwf/df dGqLkl/ifb\n] /fli6«o lzIff lzIff / ljz]if lzIffsf cj;/ k|bfg k|0ffnLsf] cleGg c+usf] ¿kdf ljsf; cfwf/df logLx?nfO{{ clGtd ?k lbg] lhNnfnfO{{ ;fIf/ 3f]if0ff ug]{ u/L sfo{qmd – g]kfn /fli6«o k':tsfnosf] nflu
gLlt, @)&^ :jLs[t u/]sf] 5 . ug]{ / hLjgf]kof]uL tyf Jofj;flos tyf lj:tf/ ug{ hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . sfo{ lta| ultdf cl3 a9fOg]5 . ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\ . hUuf Joj:yfkg u/L lj:t[t kl/of]hgf
of] gLltn] cfufdL lbgsf nflu lzIff ;Lk ljsf;sf nflu kf7\oqmd tyf – gLlt sfof{Gjogsf nflu tLg} – g]kfn ;/sf/ -dGqLkl/ifb\_ af6 – lj=;+= @)&^ b]lv *% ;Ddsf k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 .Æ
If]qdf ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/ tyf kl/jt{gsf kf7\o;fdu|Ldf cg's'ng ul/g] / txsf ;/sf/sf] lhDd]jf/L ls6fg u7g ePsf] hgzlQm k|If]k0f tyf
If]qx?df :ki6 dfu{lgb]{z u/]sf]
oxfFx?nfO{{ hfgsf/L u/fpg rfxG5' .
cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts
sf/0fn] kl5 k/]sf JolQmx¿nfO{{ lzIffsf]
ul/Psf] 5 . of] gLlt hf/L eP;Fu} tLg
txsf ;/sf/sf] lhDd]jf/L :ki6 ePsf]
dfgj;|ft] ljsf; of]hgf th{d' f lgb]z
;ldlt / sfo{bnn] Jofks cWoog u/L
{ s lzIfs ;+u7gåf/f ef/tLo cltqmd0fsf] lj/f]w
sf7df8f} F . g] k fn sDo' l g:6 / cfˆgf] b] z sf] /Iff ug{ '
clxn] d of] lzIff gLltdf ePsf s]xL cj;/ ;' l glZrt ug{ cf/If0f, 5 . ljutsf] cGof]ntf cGTo x'g] lbzfdf g]kfnnfO{{ cfjZos ljleGg ljwfut kf6L{lgs6 clvn g]kfn lzIfs cfdg]kfnLx¿sf] st{Jo xf] .Ú
k|dv ' ljifox? k|:t't ug{ rfxG5'– ;sf/fTds lje]b, k|fyldstf, k|fT] ;fxg o;n] e"ldsf v]Vg]5 eGg] d}n] ljZjf; hgzlQm k|If]k0f ;xLtsf] k|ltj]bg ;Ë7gn] ef/tn] g]kfnL e"lddfly lj1lKtdf cufl8 elgPsf] 5,
–lzIffsf] b"/b[li6 to ul/Psf] 5 . nufotsf pkofx¿ cjnDag ug]{ ljifo lnPsf] 5' . o;n] /fli6«o lzIff ljw]os ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqL ;dIf k]z x:tIf]k u/]sf]df 3f]/ lgGbf Pjd\ …!(^@ b]lv g} sfnfkfgLdf :yfoL ;}Go
h; cg';f/ g]kfnsf] lzIffsf] b"/b[li6 gLltn] ;d]6s ] f] 5 . th{ ' d f ug{ s f nflu klg o;n] ul/;s]sf] 5 . eT;{gf u/]sf] 5 . ;Ë7gsf] s]Gb|Lo lzlj/ v8f u/L ef/tn] lj:tf/jfbL
…lzlIft, ;Eo, :j:y / ;Ifd hgzlQm – ;a} ljBfnodf of]Uo tyf ;Ifd dfu{lgb]z { g u/]sf] 5 . – g]kfn ;/sf/ -dlGqkl/ifb\_ af6 ;ldltsf tkm{af6 dxf;lrj /d]z lu2]gh/ nufpFb} cfPsf]df ef/tn]
M ;fdflhs Gofo, ?kfGt/0f / ;d[l4Ú ljifout lzIfssf] Joj:yfkg ub}{ cGtdf, u7g ePsf] lzIfs b/aGbL ldnfg tyf ¿kfv]tLn] hf/L u/]sf] lj1lKtdf xfn} k|sflzt gS;fdf g]kfnsf] cleGg
x'g5 ] . …;a} txsf] lzIffnfO{{ k|lt:kwL{, pgLx¿sf] pTk|/] 0ff, k];fut g}ltstf of] /fli6«o lzIff gLlt th{d' fsf k'glj{t/0f sfo{bnsf] ;'emfj ;d]tsf g]kfnL e"ld sfnfkfgL, lnk'n]s / cËsf ¿kdf /x]sf] g]kfnL e"ld
k| l jlwd} q L, /f] h uf/d" n s / / ;Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{'sf ;fy} qmddf k|ToIf / ck|ToIf ?kdf of]ubfg cfwf/df lzIfs b/aGbL k'glj{t/0fsf lnlDkofw'/fdflysf] x:tIf]k ef/tsf] sfnfkfgL, lnk'ns ] / lnlDkofw'/fdfly
pTkfbgd'vL agfO{ b]zsf] cfjZostf lzIfssf] sfo{;DkfbgnfO{{ ljBfyL{sf] ug{x' g' ] ;a}df xflb{s wGojfb 1fkg nflu cfwf/x? dGqLkl/ifb\af6 lg0f{o lj:tf/jfbL gLlt /x]sfn] cltqmldt cfˆgf] egL u/]sf] k|rf/ / x:tIf]ksf]
cg'?ksf] dfgj ;+zfwg ljsf; ug]Ú{ l;sfO pknlAw;Fu hf]8g\ ] Joj:yf ub{5' . gLlt th{d' f 6f]nLsf ;b:o k"j{ eO;s]sf] / ;f]sf] cfwf/df b/aGbL e"efuaf6 t'?Gt lkmtf{ hfg / :jtGq, xfd|f] ;Ë7g clvn g]kfn lzIfs
nIo lnOPsf] 5 . ldnfpg] gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] lzIff dGqL wgL/fd kf}8n ] k|lt xflb{s k'glj{t/0fsf] sfo{ s]xL lbgleq} z'? ;fj{ef}d tyf :jfwLg /fi6«sf] ;Ddfg ;Ë7g lj/f]w / eT;{gf ub{5 .Ú
–k| f /lDes afnsIff tyf l;h{gf u/]sf :yfoL b/aGbLdf lzIfs >4f;'dg ck{0f ub{5' . gLlt :jLs[t ug{ nfluPsf] 5 . ug{ ef/tnfO{ cfXjfg ul/Psf] 5 . lj1lKtsf] cGTodf elgPsf] 5,
afnljsf; s]Gb|x?df cWofkg ug]{ ;]jf cfof]usf] l;kmfl/;df dfq :yfoL ug{df e"ldsf v]Ng'ePsf]df ;DdfggLo – ljBfno lzIffsf] /fli6«o kf7\oqmd lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …ef/tn] …g]kfnL e"ld sfnfkfgL, lnk'n]s /
lzIfs x'gsf nflu dfWolds lzIff lzIfs lgo'lQm ug]{ Joj:yf gLltdf k|wfgdGqL Ho" / dGqLkl/ifb\sf ;b:o k|f?k, @)&^ :jLs[t eO{ sfof{Gjogdf xfn} k|sflzt u/]sf] gS;fk|lt xfd|f] lnlDkofw'/fdflysf] x:tIf]k p;sf]
k/LIff -sIff !)_ jf ;f] ;/xsf] of]Uotf pNn]v 5 . Ho"x?k|lt cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . cfufdL NofOPsf] 5 . o;sf cfwf/df ljBfno ;Ë7g clvn g]kfn lzIfs ;Ë7gsf] lj:tf/jfbL gLlt xf] . cltqmldt
x'gk' g],{ xfn sfo{/tx?nfO{{ of]Uotf xfl;n to:– ljBfnosf lzIfsx¿sf] lbgdf o;sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u ug{ lzIffsf] kf7\oqmddf ;'wf/ ug]{ sfo{ uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5 . g]kfn e" e fuaf6 t' ? Gt lkmtf{ hfg /
ug{ cj;/ k|bfg ul/g] gLltut Joj:yf a[lQ ljsf; ubf{ ;Ifdtf, cg'ej, ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{{ xflb{s cfJxfg lta| ultdf cl3 a9fOPsf] 5 . Pp6f :jtGq, ;fj{ef}d tyf :jfwLg :jtGq, ;fj{ef}d tyf :jfwLg /fi6«sf]
ePsf] 5 . k|f/lDes afnsIffdf z} l Ifs of] U otf / sfo{ b Iftfsf ub}{ hf/L gLltsf] cfwf/df tTsfn} cfwf/e"t txsf] sIff ! b]lv # ;Ddsf] /fi6«sf ¿kdf ;+oQ' m /fi6«;‹sf] ;b:o ;Ddfg ug{;d]t ef/tnfO{ cfXjfg
cWofkg ug]{ lzIfs / ljBfno cfwf/df ljBfnosf] dflyNnf] tx / /fli6«o lzIff ljw]os, pRr lzIff Plss[t kf7\oqmd ljsf; u/L k/LIf0fdf /fi6« xf] . cfh;Dd g]kfn s;}sf] ub{ 5 f} F . lj:tf/jfbL ef/tåf/f
sd{ r f/Lx?nfO{ { >d P] g n] >]0fL;Dd a9'jf x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf ul/g] ljw]os / k|fljlws tyf Jofj;flos nluPsf] 5 . cfwf/e"t txsf] sIff * k/fwLg ePsf] 5}g . xfd|f] dft[e"ld cltqmldt e"ld lkmtf{sf nflu cfjfh
tf]sa] df]lhdsf] Go"gtd\ kfl/>lds Joj:yf 5 . lzIff ljw]os u/L tLg} j6f ljw]ossf ;Dd g} /+uLg kf7\ok':ts Joj:yf xfdLnfO{ k|f0feGbf Kof/f] 5 . ljZj a'nGb ub}{ ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbsf]
pknAw u/fpg] gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . – ;a} ;fj{hlgs ljBfnosf] k|f/lDes d:of}bfx?nfO{{ clGtd ?k lbg ul/Psf] 5 . dfglrqdf e"kl/j]li7t /fi6« g]kfn lj/f]w ug{ / cfˆgf] e"ldsf] /Iff ug{
– clgjfo{ tyf lgMz'Ns cfwf/e"t u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg b]ze/Lsf ;a} cfh}af6 sfd yfNg] dGqfnosf] – lzIfs ;]jf cfof]u lgodfjnL, ;u/dfyf / jL/ uf]vf{nLsf] b]zn] cfd d' l QmsfdL lzIfs,
lzIffdf ;a}sf] kx'r F ;'lglZrt ug]{ / ljBfnodf kfFr jif{leq of]Uo, bIf / sfo{of]hgf /x]sf] hfgsf/L u/fpg @)%& sf] bzf}+ ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] 5 . ljZj;fd' kl/lrt 5 .Ú a'l4hLljnufot ;a} g]kfnLx?nfO{
cfwf/e"t lzIffdf :s"n hf]lhªsf] :jMpTk|l] /t laifo lzIfssf] Joj:yf ug]{ rfxG5' . ljw] o sdf ;d] l 6g' k g] { lzIfs ;]jf k|jz ] k/LIffsf] k"0ff{Í !)) ;Ë7gsf dxf;lrj ¿kfv]tLsf] cfXjfg ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;d]t
cjwf/0ff qmdzM sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] k| l tj4tf gLltdf ul/Psf] 5 . ljifox?sf] ;DaGwdf kqsf/ ldqx?af6 af6 a9fP/ @)) agfOPsf] / k|yd lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …:jtGq /fi6«sf] cfˆgf] e"ldsf] /Iffsf nflu s"6gLlts
u/L gLltut Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . ljBfnodf lzIfs sdL x'g] bL3{sflng klg /rgfTds ;'emfjsf] ck]Iff u/]sf] kqsf] ;fdfGo k/LIffdf pQL0ff{Í %) cfˆg} klxrfg ePsf] b]znfO{ s;}sf] kxn cl3 a9fpg cg'/f]w ub{5f}F .
–dfWolds lzIffdf lj1fg, ;d:ofnfO{{ ;dfwfg ug{ lzIfs b/aGbL 5' . ;fy}, d}n] g]t[Tj ;Dxfn]b]lv sfod ul/Psf] 5 . o; Joj:yfn] x:tIf]k, bafa ;}Xo x'bF g} / x'g' klg cGTodf cltqmldt e"ldaf6 lkmtf{
;+uLt, v]ns'b, cfo'j]{b, hl8a'6L k'glj{t/0faf6 klg lzIfs gk'u ePdf cfh;Dd -!( dlxgf !( lbgsf] cjlw_ Ifdtfjfg\ / of]Uotd\ JolQmx? lzIf0f x'bF g} . If]qkmnsf cfwf/df b]z 7"nf]– hfg / l5d]sLsf] ;Ddfg u/L cfˆgf]
nufot ljleGg ljwfsf ljlzli6s[t k|b]z ;/sf/ tyf :yfgLo txn] lzIff, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfnon] k];fdf k|jz] u/fpg ;lsg] / u'0f:t/Lo ;fgf] x'G5 . h]h:tf] eP klg g]kfn lj:tf/jfbL ¿k gb]vfpg ef/tnfO{
ljBfno :yfkgf, ;~rfng / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df yk lzIfs xfl;n u/] s f pknAwL o;} ; fy lzIffsf] nflu Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ pknlAw cfˆgf] dft[e"ldsf] /Iff ug{ ;Ifd 5 cfXjfg ub{5f}F .Ú
@)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

d'l:nd ;d'bfodf g]tT[ jsf] cefj


hflxbf afg" 5g\ . db/;f lzIff k|0ffnLn] ;ds5\otf a9fpg' g]kfnL d'l:ndx¿sf] klxrfg ha dflg; c;Eo cj:yfdf lyof] /
u+ufsf] kfgLsf] /fh
sf7df8f}F . lxGb' wdf{anDaLx?n] u+uf gbLsf] kfgLnfO{ kljq hnsf] ?kdf
k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . u+ufsf] kfgL kljq x'gsf ;fy} :jR5 klg 5 . u+ufsf] kfgL
kmf]xf]/ gx'gsf ;fy} o;df ls/f klg kb}g{ . ;fy}, o;sf] kfgLaf6 b'uG{ w cfpFbg} .
g]kfn Ps ax'wfld{s, ax'hftLo / / cf}krfl/stf kfPsf] 5}g . o; /xb} cfPsf] 5 . sl/a @))& ;fn h+undf a;f]af; uy{of] ta klg g]tf u+ufsf] kfgL dflg;sf] cGofosf] lzsf/ x'g' k/]sf] 5 . kfgLdf nf;, gfnL,
ax';f+:s[lts b]z xf] . ef}uf]lns, wfld{s ;d'bfosf d'Vo rf8kj{x¿dWo] O{b pn b]lvs} ;]/f]km]/f]df /fhgLlts Joj:yf x'GYof] / cfh ha p ;Eotfsf] r/d kmf]xf]/nufot dfgahGo lasf/ kmfNg] ul/Psf] 5 . t/, klg kfgLsf] tfhfkgdf
tyf ;f+:s[lts ljljwtf leq Pstfsf] lkmq -O{b_, O{bn
' cHxf -as|f O{b_ tyf z'¿ ePsf] a]nf b]lv g} k|hftGq, zLv/df k'us ] f] bfjf ul//x]sf] 5 ta s'g} kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5}g .
dfnfdf ufl;Psf g]kfnLx¿sf] b]z g]kfn d'xDdb hoGtLsf] lbg ;fj{hlgs ljbf k~rfotL Joj:yf, k~rfotL Joj:yfsf] klg g]tf ljleGg ¿kdf k|s6 ePsf] u+ufdf s] /fh 5 <
xf] . g]kfnL ;dfh leq Psfk;df lbg ;/sf/nfO{{ Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg' kg]{ k'gj{xfnL / kl5Nnf] k6s k|fKt kfOG5 . u+ufsf] kfgL ;bf z'4 x'gs ' f] /fh xf] efO/; . u+uf gbLdf o:tf] lsl;dsf]
Pstf / d}lqk"0f{ jftfj/0f 5 . g]kfndf l:ylt /x]sf] 5 . u0ftGqdf g] k fnsf d' l :nd o'ufGtsf/L kl/jt{g ug{ rfxg] efO/; 5, h;n] kfgLdf s'g} klg j:t'nfO{ s'lxg lbFbg} . s'/f sl/a ;jf ;o aif{
d'l:nd hfltsf] wd{, ;+:sf/, efiff, d'l:ndx¿sf] ljleGg k5\ox¿sf] hg;d'bfosf] k"0f{ ;lqmotf /x]sf] 5 . d'l:nd /fhgLlts g]tT[ jn] ;fdflhs k'/fgf] xf] . ;g\ !*() sf] bzsdf a]nfotsf j}1flgs cg]:{ 6 x}lsg u+ufsf]
/xg;xg, k/Dk/f, e]ife"iff, ;flxTo, cGj]if0f / cg';Gwfg 5}g . o; d'l:nd ;d'bfox¿n] cfGbf]ngdf cfkmgf] kl/jt{gnfO{{ a'‰g ;s]sf] 5}gg . ;fy} kfgLdf cg';Gwfg ub}{ lyP . Tof] ;do ef/te/ emf8fkvnfsf] k|sf]k km}lnPsf]
snfsf}zn O{TofbL km/s /x]tf klg xfdL ;d'bfosf] xs, lxt Pj+ clwsf/sf] Hofg ;d]t u'dfPsf 5g\ . ;dfh xfdL d'l:nd ;d'bfo klg /fHo / g]tT[ j lyof] . dflg;x?n] nf;nfO{ u+uf gbLdf aufpg] uy]{ . x}lsgnfO{ 8/ lyof] ls
g]kfnL xf}+ eGg] efjgf o; ;d'bfosf lgjf{w pkef]u ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0fsf] kl/jt{gsf] nflu ePsf] qmflGtsf] dfly cfl;|t eof}+ . ;dfhsf] pTyfgsf]
JolQmx¿sf] /x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf ;lbof}+ ;Lh{gf ePsf] 5}g . k|ult cy{tGqsf cEof;nfO{{ x]l/of] eg] d'l:nd ;d'bfosf] nflu Psh'6 x'g ;ls/x]sf 5}gf}+ . Psfu|
b]lv d'l:nd ;d'bfosf] a;f]af; /xb} tYofÍn] dfq geO{ o; ;d'bfosf] cxd / ljlzi6 e"ldsf /x]sf] kfO{G5 . eO{ cfjfh p7fpg / bafa lbg
cfPsf] kfOG5 . dflg;sf] hLjg:t/, ;]jf, ;'ljwf, o:tf] of]ubfgsf] afjh'b klg ;ls/x]sf 5}gf}+ . jt{dfg g]tfx¿dfyL
hg;Vofsf] lx;fan] d'l:nd r]tgfsf] :t/ / v'zLnfO{{ hfRbf klg /fHoaf6 lsg o; ;d'bfon] af/Daf/ g} ljZjf; 5}g eg] bL3{sfn;Dd :d/0f
wdf{jnDjLx¿ cNk;Î\os /x]tf klg jf:tjdf of] ;d'bfosf] pTyfg ljsf; pk]Ifofsf] ¿kdf lng'k5{ < ;fdflhs ug{ nfossf g]tf slxn] kfp5f}+ < xfdL
oxfF sf cfk;L ;b\efj / ;xLi0f'tf x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . g]kfndf d'l:nd ;lÍ0f{tfsf] n8fO{ s] ca klg hfltut s:tf 5f},+ xfd|f] ;dfh s:tf] 5 ToxL
/xb} cfPsf] 5 . g]kfndf d'l:nd gful/sx¿ lk5l8Psf cj:yfdf 5g\ . ¿kdf n8\gk' g]{ xf] t < o;f] xf] eg] cg';f/sf] g]tf xfdLn] kfpg] xf}+ . g]tT[ j
;d'bfosf JolQmx¿sf] a;f]af; / ljb]zL O:nflds ljZjljBfnoaf6 cjZo klg g]kfnL /fhgLltn] km8\sf] anjfg, j'4Ldfg, lzlIft, OdfGbf/,
pkl:ylt k]zf tyf hLlasf]kfh{gsf pRr lzIff xfl;n u/]sf d'l:nd dfg{ ;Sg] 5}g . /fhgLlt Ps lg:jfy{ hjfkmb]xL / kf/bzL{ x'gk' 5{ t/ d'l:nd
sf/0f && j6} lhNnfdf /x]sf] 5 . gful/sn] z}lIfs pkfwLsf] dfGotf ;dfh ;]jf h;nfO{{ dfWod agfP/ cfˆgf] ;d'bfodf xfdLn] o:tf g]tf kfPsf 5f}+
/fli6«o hgu0fgf @)^* sf] tYof+s kfO{/x]sf 5}gg . xh ug{ hfg] lrGtgnfO{{ kl/:s[t ub}{ cfˆgf] ;d'bfo t < kfPsf 5}gf}+ eg] lsg kfPgf}+ of] u+ufdf g'xfpg] cGo JolQmnfO{ klg emf8fkvnf nfUg ;S5 eGg] . t/, To:tf] s]xL
cg';f/ g]kfnsf] s"n hg;+Vofsf] $=$% xfhLx¿sf nfuL xh xfp; aGg ;s]sf] / hgtfsf] lxt / ;du| b]zsf] ljsf;df ax;df xfdL slxNo} k|jz ] g} ug{ rfx]gf}+ . ePg . x}lsg crlDdt eP . lsgls pgn] o"/f]ksf] k|bl' ift kfgL lkpgfsf sf/0f
k|ltzt cyf{t !!,^$,@%% d'l:nd 5}g . o:tf ljljw ;d:ofx¿ gLltut ;fd]n x'g ;lsg] pQd :yfg xf] t/ cb"/bzL{ g]tfn] eL+8nfO{{ Ps¶f ug{ ;S5 dflg; la/fdL ePsf b]vs ] f lyP . u+ufsf] kfgLsf] rfdTsfl/s c;/af6 pgL
hg;+Vof /x]sf] b]lvG5 . t/ cGo ;d'bfo ¿kdf ;+;f]wg u/L sfo{Gjog ug{ / bIftf, lj4tf, OdfGbf/Ltf / lzIffsf] hasL c;n g]t[Tjn] cfGbf]ng crlDdt x'g' k¥of] .
;+u ;DalGwt wfld{s, ;fdflhs, u/fpg cfjZos b]lvG5 . lj4dfg v8]/L ePsf JolQm ha g]tf aGg rnfpF5 . lgGhf efO/;
cfly{s, z}l5\os, /fhgLlts tyf sfg"gL Joj:yf / gLlt lgodx¿sf] /fhgLltdf k|jz ] u5{g ta ;d'bfosf] v} t cfGbf]ng < v} ;d'bfonfO{{ x}lsgsf] ;f] cg';GwfgnfO{ @) aif{kl5 Ps k|mG] r j}1flgsn] cufl8 a9fP .
k|zf;lgs 5]qsf] ljsf;df d'l:nd ;dLIfof, cg'udg, d"Nof+sg u/L sNof0f eGbf klg cfk"m s;/L rlr{t ;Gt'i6L k|bfg u/]sf] < ;d'bfosf] tL j}1flgsn] cg';Gwfgaf6 u+ufsf] kfgLdf kfOg] efO/;n] emf8fkvnf km}nfpg]
;d'bfo lgs} k5fl8 k/]sf] 5 . ;|ft] ;dofg'sn" ;+zf]wg, kl/dfh{g ug{ g]kfn aGg] eGg] lrGtgdf nfu]sf x'G5g\ . ;d:ofx¿ ;dfwfgsf nflu dfu / AofS6]l/of leq k;]/ To;nfO{ gi6 u/]sf] gofF tYo km]nf k¥of] . Tof] efO/; u+ufsf]
;fwgsf] ;Gtf]ifhgs kl/j]zsf] cg'el" t ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{ h¿/L cfˆgf] kb tyf zlQmnfO{{ gLlh bafa v} < h'g;'s} kf6L{sf d'l:nd kfgLsf] z'4tf sfod /fVgsf nflu lhDd]jf/ lyof] . efO/;sf sf/0f gbLdf
o; ;d'bfon] ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . b]lvG5 . oL ;a}sf] k5f8L o; ;d'bfodf zf;gsf] ¿kdf lng] d'l:nd g]tfx¿nfO{{ cu'jf lsg gxf]; kb / zlQmsf] bDen] g'xfpg] dflg;df emf8fkvfnf km}lng ;s]g . AofS6]l/ofnfO{ tx nufpg] of] efO/;
clwsf+z g]kfnL d'l:nd ;d'bfo d'l:nd g]tT[ jsf] cefj xf] of xfdLdf o; ;d'bfon] d'l:nd g]tT[ j dfGg' Pp6f cfˆg} ;dfhsf] s' / f g;' g ] s f dflg;sf nflu lgs} pkof]uL x'g ;Sg] cWoogx?n] b]vfPsf 5g\ . @! cf}+
ul/aLsf] /]vfd'gL /x]sf] kfO{G5 . /fi6« k|d] geP/ /fHoaf6 g} ckx]lnt e|d xf] . g]tT[ jsf] cefjdf g]tfsf] d"No pbfx/0fx¿ sof}+ 5g\ . cfˆg} ;fdflhs ztfAbLsf cg';Gwfgstf{x?n] o;nfO{ lgGhf efO/;sf] gfd lbPsf 5g\ . sl/a
t"ngfTds ¿kn] g]kfnL d'l:ndx¿ 5f}+ < cflv/ bf]if s;sf] 5 < x'bg} . cyf{t h'g JoQmLdf g]tT[ jsf] d'2fx¿ k"/f ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . ha Ps ztfAbL klxnf d]l8sn b'lgofdf PG6Ljfof]l6ssf sf/0f qmflGt cfPsf] lyof] .
clzl5\ot / a]/f]huf/ 5g . ;fdflhs d'l:nd ;d'bfosf] dflg;sf] Åbodf 5\odtf x'bg} p g]tf aGg] of eGg] s'g} ;d'bfo leq g]tf 5g eg] ToxfFsf rf]6, 3fp jf la/fdLaf6 d'To'j/0f ug]{ JolQmsf nflu PG6Lafof]l6s j/bfg aGg
;dfj]zLs/0fsf nflu ;fj{hlgs 5]qdf /fi6«kd]| gePsf] klg cjZo xf]Og nfos x'bg} . g]tf Tof] xf] h;n] g]tT[ j g]tT[ j x'g' klg :jefljs xf] . of] ;d'bfo k'Uof] . o;sf d2taf6 sof}+ JolQm csfn d'To'af6 aRg ;s]sf 5g\ .
5'§} cf/If0f sf]6fsf] lgwf{/0f ePsf] 5}g . lsgsL Ps gful/ssf] x}l;otn] cfˆgf] u5{, ;'emfj lbG5, kyk|bz{g u5{, lk5l8Psf] ju{ pGd'v slxn] aGg] . xfnsf lbgdf sof}+ AofS6]l/of PG6Lafof]l6s k|efjlxg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . clxn]
wfld{s tyf ;f+:s[lts dxTj /fVg] b]zsf] /Iffsf nflu cfk"mnfO{{ kl/Tofu cfbz{sf] ¿kdf sfd u5{, ;/sf/ / o:tf] lrGtfhgs cj:yfdf lrGtf ;+;f/e/sf xhf/f}+ dflg; o:tf] AofS6]l/ofaf6 dg]{ u/]sf 5g\ . ;g\ @)!$ sf]
:ynx¿sf] :jfldTj :yflkt ePsf] ug{,' jfXo cfqmd0faf6 /fi6«nfO{{ arfpg' ;d'bfoaLr ;fd~h:o k|bfg u5{ . s;n] lng] < d'l:nd ;d'bfo /fHoaf6 Ps l/kf]6{ cg';f/, ;g\ @)%) ;Dd PG6Lafof]l6ssf k|efj Go'g x'G5 . h;sf
5}g . d'l:nd dlxnf / afnaflnsf / g}lts l;4fGtsf] ¿kdf sfg'g / g] t fsf] cy{ /fh ug{ ' geP/ ckx]lnt jf d'l:nd g]tT[ jsf] cefj < sf/0f ! s/f]8 dflg; AofS6]l/ofsf sf/0f dg]5 { g\ . of] ;+Vof eg]sf] clxn]
lzIff, :jf:Yo / kf]if0fdf k5fl8 k/]sf ;f+:s[ltsf] ljsf; u/]/ cfˆgf] uf}/j hg;d'bfosf] hLjg ;xhLs/0f ug{' xf] . -dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_ SofG;/af6 dg]{ hlt g} xf] .

s]/fsf] af]qmfsf] kmfObf Û


vt/gfs AofS6]l/of dfg]{ efO/;
PG6Lafof]l6ssf] k|efj sd ePdf ;fwf/0f rf]6af6 klg dflg;sf] d'To' x'G5 .
h:t} !* cf}F tyf !( cf}+ ztfAbLdf x'g] u/]sf] lyof] . o'4df ;fdfGo rf]6k6s
sf7df8f}F . s]/f :jf:Yosf lx;fjdf vfFbf af]qmf kmfNg' :jefljs xf] . t/, h;df el/k"0f{ dfqfdf kmfOa/ x'G5 . SofG;/k|lt/f]wL u'0fn] el/k"0f{ x'G5 . nfUg] JolQmx? klg dg]{ uy]{ .
lgs} nfebfos kmnk"mn xf] . s]/fdf tkfO{nfO{{ yfxf gx'g ;S5 s]/fsf] h;n] z/L/df sf]n:] 6«fn ] lgolGqt o;n] z/L/df JxfO6 An8 ;]N;sf] o; k|sf/sf] xfntaf6 aRgsf nflu u+ufdf pknAw efO/; ;xof]uL x'g;S5 .
dfgj z/L/nfO{{ cfjZo kg]{ w]/} kf}li6s af]qmfdf u'bLdf eGbf w]/} le6fldg ug{s
' f] ;fy} jhg sd ug{ klg d2t lgdf{0fdf d2t u5{ . Ps cWoogsf] of] efO/; k|fs[lt{s ?kdf pknAw 5 . ;+;f/e/ 5l/P/ /x]sf dflg;sf] ;+VofeGbf
tTjx? kfOG5 . s]/fdf le6fldg aL– kfOG5 . s]/fsf] af]qmfdf le6fldg P u5{ . cg';f/, s]/fsf] xl/of] af]qmfdf l6«K6f]kmg Ps u|fd df6f]df pknAw x'g] efO/;sf] ;+Vof w]/} x'G5 . tL dWo] sf]xL efO/;n]
^, aL–!@, kf]6flzod / DofUg]lzod k|r/' dfqdf x'G5 . h;n] z/L/sf] /f]u s]/fsf] af]qmfn] :jf:Yodf kg]{ gfds Pldgf] Pl;8 x'G5, h;n] /ftL AofS6]l/ofnfO{ cfqmd0f u/]/ df5{ . of] efO/;sf] u'0f eg]sf] o;n] ;a} AofS6]l/ofnfO{
h:tf cfjZos kf]ifs tTj kfO{G5 . k|lt/f]ws Ifdtf a9fpF5 . h;df k|efjnfO{{ lnP/ ul/Psf] hfkfgL /fd|f] lgGb|f Nofpg d2t u5{ . cfqmd0f ub}g{ . o;n] dflg;nfO{ c;/ k'of{pg] s]xL ls6f0f'nfO{ dfq cfqmd0f u5{ .
laz] i fu/L s] / f d;N; / tf} n n'6l] gg gfds Ps tTj x'G5, h'g ;fOlG6lkms l/;r{df hgfOP cg';f/ s]/fsf] af]qmf]df kfOg] ;]/f]6f]lgg o:tf] efO/; dflg;sfnfO{ ax'–pkof]uL x'g ;S5 . of] PG6Lafof]l6ssf] ljsNk x'g
a9fpgsf] nflu pkof]uL x'G5 . s]/f cfFvfnfO{{ :j:y /fVg d2t u5{ tyf kx] F n f] /+ u sf] s] / fsf] af] q mf tgfj sd ug{df tyf 8f]kfldg d'6s ' f] ;S5 . Go"lhNof08sf lxb/ x]l8«S;g lgGhf efO/; dfly cg';Gwfg ul//x]sf 5g\ .
w8\sgnfO{{ b'?:t ug{ tyf ls8\gLnfO{{ lxb/ x]l8«S;g eG5g\, …PG6Lafof]l6s /]l;:6]G6 AofS6]l/ofsf] 8/ a9\b} uPsf]
k|ofKt dfqfdf /ut cfk"lt{ ug{sf 5, xfdL PG6Lafof]l6s cl3sf] ;dodf k'gM hfb} 5f}+ .Ú x]l8«S;gsf cg';f/ olb
nflu d2tuf/ x'G5 . xfdLnfO{ o:tf] xfntaf6 aRgsf nflu lgGhf efO/; dfly sfd cufl8 a9fpg
s]/fsf] af]qmf cg'xf/df bNgfn] cjZos 5 . pgL cfˆgf s]xL ;fyLx?sf] ;fy lnP/ efO/;sf] ;"rL tof/
cg'xf/df rds cfpF5 . olb s'g} ub}5{ g\, h;n] AofS6]l/ofnfO{ dfg]{ sfd u5{ .
dflg; tgfadf 5 eg] Ps lunf; PG6Lafof]l6ssf] cfjZostf 5}g <
kfgLdf ;kmf s]/fsf] af]qmf lehfP/ of] efO/; ;fw/0f lsl;dsf] 5 . of] k|fl] 6gaf6 aG5 . o;n] AofS6]l/ofdfly
vfof] eg] tgfa sd x'G5 . slxn]sfFxL cfqmd0f u/]/ p;sf] 8LPgP df;]/ cfˆgf] ;+Vof a9fpg k|of]u u5{ .
efF8f df‰bf of sk8f w'bF f kfgLsf] lj:kmf]6 u/]/ ;f] efO/;n] AofS6]l/ofsf] cGTo u5{ . o:tf] efO/;n] AofS6]l/ofsf]
c;/ b]lvG5 To:tf] c;/ sd ug{ vf; g:nnfO{ cfˆgf] lzsf/ agfpF5 . PG6Ljfof]l6s eg]sf] P6d ad xf], h;n]
s]/fsf] af]qmf nfebfos x'G5 . xflgsf/s AofS6]l/ofsf ;fy} c;n AofS6]l/ofnfO{ klg df5{ . t/, lgGhf efO/;n]
s]/fsf] af]qmfn] bfFtdf 3f]6o\ f] eg] s]an ToxL a}S6Ll/ofnfO{ df5{, h;n] /f]u km}nfpF5 . klZrdL b]zsf nflu of]
bfFtsf] kx]n F f]kg x6\5 . olb tkfO{sf] cg';Gwfg gofF xf] . t/, k"jL{ o"/f]kLo b]zdf nfdf] ;dob]lv o; k|sf/sf efO;/sf]
zl//df d';f cfPsf] 5 eg] pQm d';f d2tn] ladf/Lsf] pkrf/ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . pgLx?sf] cg';Gwfg c+uh ]| Ldf k|sflzt
ePsf] 7fpFdf s]/fsf] af]qmf 6]ksf] gePsfn] afFsL b'lgofn] o;af/] hfgsf/L kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .
;xfotfn] s]xLlbg;Dd 6fF:of] eg] d';f lxb/ x]l8«S;gsf cg';f/ hlh{of, ?; / kf]Nof08sf j}1flgsn] o; k|sf/sf]
eufpg ;lsG5 . xl/of] s]/fsf] efO/;df w]/} cg';Gwfg u/]sf 5g\ . h;n] AofS6]l/ofsf] cGTo u5{ . tL b]zn]
af]qmfnfO{{ t/sf/Lsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug{ o:tf k|efjsf/L efO/;sf] ;"rL tof/ u/]sf 5g\ .
;lsG5 . AofS6]l/ofsf] odb"t
lxb/ x]l8«S;g klg cfˆgf] Nofadf o; k|sf/sf] efO/;sf] ;"rL tof/ ub}5 { g\ .
h;n] PG6Lafof]l6sf] :yfg lng ;S5 . h;n] /f]usf] ls6f0f' dfg{sf nflu ;xof]u

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ ug{ ;S5 . s]xL b]zdf lgGhf efO/; ;lxtsf] AofG8]h tof/ ul/Psf] 5 .
o;af6 efO/;n] 3fp l7s x'G5 ls x'bF g} eGg] hfGg vf]lhPsf] 5 . lxb/
x]l8«S;gn] Pp6f 36gf :d/0f ub}{ eg] …PNk|m8] u6{n/ gfdsf] Ps dflg;nfO{ kxf8
r9\g] qmddf 3'8fdf rf]6 nfUof] . pgsf] rf]6 s'g} klg PG6Lafof]l6saf6 l7s x'g
;s]g . o:tf] nflu/x]sf] lyof] ls v'§f sf6\g' g} Ps ljsNk afFsL 5 . To; ;do

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ k|of]usf nflu pgsf] 3fpdf lgGhf efO/; xflnof] . Tof] efO/; 3fpdf /x]sf
AofS6]l/ofsf nflu odb"t lyP . !) lbgleqdf PNk|m8] sf] 3fp lgsf] eof] .Ú ca
AofS6]l/ofnfO{ efO/;n] tx nufpF5 . ladf/L km}nfpg] a}S6Ll/ofsf nflu efO/;
odb"tsf] ;]gf tof/ x'bF 5 } .
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 g]kfnsf ljleGg gbLx?sf] kfgL klg kljq dflgG5 . oL kljq gbL jf tfn
tnfpsf] kfgLdf klg o:t} pkof]uL efO/; x'g ;S5g\ . t/, xfdL g]kfnLn]
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! cg';Gwfg t u/]sf 5}gf}+ g}, lab]zLn] klg kljq dflgPsf] hndfly cg';Gwfg
u/]sf 5}gg\ .
6 @)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/

d]l6“b} l;Gw'nLu9Lsf] cl:tTj


sf7df8f}Fb]lv !%) lsnf]ld6/ /fli6«s} uf}/jk"0f{ :ynsf ¿kdf dfGg ;'?jft uof{] . pQm hgo'4df !& k| : tfj u/] / ul/Psf] 5 eg] ul/Fb5
} . h;sf] nflu k|bz] ;/sf/n] 5}g . klxnfsf] ;dodf 9'+ufaf6
b"/Ldf /x]sf] l;Gw'nLu9L g]kfnL ;lsG5 . xhf/eGbf w]/} g]kfnLn] Hofg u'dfPsf] 3/jf;sf] gfddf l/;f]6s { f] kl/sNkgf $ s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/;s]sf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf a+s/, sf]t3/, dlGb/,
:jfledfgsf] k| t Ls dfq geO l;Gw'nLu9Ldf To;a]nf zq'nfO{ ;To vf]Hg clxn]sf] k':tfn] s'g} ul/Psf] 5 . ToxL of]hgfcg';f/ 5 . !$ 9f]sf / %^ ‰ofn ePsf] kf]v/L, Ogf/, 9'+u]wf/f, lznfn]v,
cfw' l gs g] k fnsf nflu ulj{ n f] cfqmd0f ug{ lgdf{0f ul/Psf cf8 Oltxf;sf] kfgf kN6fO/xg' kb}{g . clxn] sdnfdfO{ gu/kflnsfn] pQm ljzfn b/af/ k' g lg{ d f{ 0 f jf:t'snfn] el/Psf] b/af/, kf6Lkf}jf,
Oltxf; af]s]sf] :yn klg xf] . tyf b'u{x¿ clxn] klg 5g\ . u9Ldf g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df Pp6f gd]l6g] l;Gw'nLu9L If]qdf /f];f]6{ agfpg eO;s]kl5 s] ug]{ To;nfO s;/L v'Nnf d}bfg h] h:tf] cj:yfdf 5g\,
l;Gw'nLu9L g]kfn–c+uh ]| o'4sf] hLljt /x]sf lsNnf, b/af/, cbfntsf] 36gf xf] dfcf]jfbL hgo'4 . hgo'4 cfzokq dfu u/] s f] 5 . pkof]udf Nofpg] < pQm b/af/df ltgnfO hf]ufO/fVg] / cfjZos
b:tfj]h xf] . g]kfnsf] P]ltxfl;s ;' ? x' F b f cfqmd0f ePsf] u}/cfjf;Lo g]kfnL ;+3n] agfPsf] ;+u|xfno :yfkgf ubf{ x'Fb}gYof] < cg';f/sf] ;+/rgf dfq k'glg{df{0f
/fli6«o klxrfg af]s]sf], ljb]zL l;Gw'nLu9Lsf] k|x/L rf}sL kl5;Dd l;Gw'nLu9L u'?of]hgf k'/ftTjsf] b/af/ clxn] aGg] ;+u|xfnoeGbf ug{'k5{ . h:t}M k'/fgf] b/af/sf]
xdnfnfO{ k/f:t u/] / /fli6« o eUgfjif]zsf ¿kdf lyof] . pQm k|x/L ;xsfo{df agfPh:tf] b]lvFbg} . olb bf]Aa/ 7"nf] / @ tnfsf] x'g]5 . t/, k'glg{df{0f eO/xFbf ;+ux| fnosf] gfddf
:jfledfgnfO{ ;w}F pFrf] agfPsf] rf}sL dfcf]jfbL hgo'4sf] ;+u|xfno k' / ftTjsf] ;xdltdf To:tf] u9Ldf gofF ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf] gofF ejgsf] cfjZos x'Fb}g . pQm
l;Gw'nLu9Ln] cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] / o'4sf] Pp6f hLljt b:tfj]h aGg u' ? of] h gf ag] s f] xf] eg] klg k|lt:kwf{n] o;/L s'?k agfOFb} 5 . b/af/df g} ;+u|xfno /flvFbf emg\
lgdf{0fdf plQs} dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg ;SYof] . t/ rf}sL /x]sf] pQm :yfgdf k'/ftTjn] k'/ftflTjs dof{bf sfod Psb]lv csf]{ ;/sf/L lgsfoaLr g} pQd x'G5 . k'/fgf] rf}sL ePsf] 7fpFdf
u/]sf] 5 . ljqmd ;+jt\ !*@$ df @ jif{ cufl8 l;Gw'nLu9L :df/s /fVg ;s] g . k' v f{ n ] 5f] 8 ] s f] ;dGjo 5}g . u9Ldf w]/e } Gbf w]/} :df/s agfpg ldNb}g . :df/s
tTsfnLg Oi6 OlG8of sDkgLsf v8f ul/Psf] 5 . rf}sLsf] cl:tTj
sKtfg lsgnf]ssf] g]t[Tjdf g]kfn clxn] b]Vg ;lsFb}g . cem lj8Dagf
sAhf ug{ cfPsf] @$)) c+u|]h s] 5 eg] To; a]nf k[YjLgf/fo0f
kmf}hnfO{ l;Gw'nLu9Ldf uf]vf{nL ;]gfn] zfxsf] 5f]/f /0faxfb'/ zfxn] u9Lsf]
3/]n' xltof/s} e/df k/flht u/]sf
lyP, ha ls a] n fotL ;] g f;F u
e'jg yfkf k'glg{df{0f u/]/ n]lvPsf] lznfn]v
u9Lsf] Pp6f s'gfdf kmflnPsf] 5,
cTofw'lgs xftxltof/ lyP . eUgfjz]if clxn] klg b]Vg ;lsG5 . c¿ y'k}| lznfn]v ;+/If0fsf] cefjdf
;+;f/e/ cfˆgf] ;fd|fHo hGdfpFb} sltko ;+/rgfsf] efugfz]if ;+/If0f dfl;Psf 5g\ . oBlk, l;Gw'nLu9L
lxF8s] f c+uh
]| n] l;Gw'nLu9Ldf klxnf] x'g g;Sbf ufoa ePsf 5g\ . w]/} :df/s agfpg] gfddf d]o/, u0fklt
k6s uf]vf{nL ;]gf;Fu} xf/ a]xf]g'{ k/]sf] lznfn]vx¿ x/fPsf 5g\ eg] ePsf / s0f]{nsf gfd pNn]v u/]/ gofF
lyof] . ;f]xL sf/0f g]kfnLsf] zL/ ;w}+ lznfn]vsf] klg ;+/If0f ul/Psf] 5}g . lznfn]v v8f ul/Psf] 5 . h;n]
pRr 5 . /, g]kfnn] cfh;Dd P]ltxfl;s lsNnf uf}/jk"k{0f ubf{ k'/fgf Oltxf; d]6/] gofF Oltxf;
:jfledfgL /fi6«sf ?kdf o; If]qdf Oltxf; x]g,{ a'‰g rfxg]x¿sf nflu v8f ug]{ b'ik|of; eO/x]sf] 5 .
cfk" m nfO{ lrgfpF b } cfPsf] 5 . ko{6sLo s]Gb| cjZo klg xf] . hfkfg :yfgLo cfˆgf] w/f]x/ d]l6Fbf klg
l;Gw'nLu9Ldf g]kfnL ;]gfn] k|fKt ;/sf/sf] ;xof]udf k"jL{ g]kfnnfO{ 6'n'6'n' x]/]/ al;/xg ljjz 5g\ .
u/]sf] ;kmntfs} sf/0f g]kfnn] ljZj hf]8g\ ] aLkL /fhdfu{ l;Gw'nLu9Laf6} u9Ldf o:tf c¿ slt k' / fgf
Oltxf;df ;'gf}nf] cIf/ sf]g{ ;kmn lgdf{0f ePkl5 o;sf] cfsif{0f yk P] l txfl;s ;+ / rgfsf] cl:tTj
ePsf] 5 . l;Gw'nLu9Ldf xfd|f k'vf{n] a9]sf] 5 . :jb]zLdfq geO ljb]zL d]l6Psf] 5, To;sf] yk cg';Gwfg
b]vfPsf] axfb'/Ls} sf/0f g]kfnn] ko{ 6 sn] klg l;Gw' n Lu9Lsf] ug{'kg]{ b]lvG5 .
slxNo} s;}sf] cf}klgj]lzs /fi6« aGg' P]ltxfl;stf tyf lsFjbGtLh:t} nfUg] Pgcf/Pgsf] u' ? of] h gf
k/]g . h;n] g]kfnLnfO{ ;+;f/e/ aL/ df}lns o'4sf ljifodf a'em\ rfx]sf u} / cfjf;Lo g] k fnL ;+ 3 -
uf]vf{nLsf] klxrfg lbnfof] . uf]vf{ 5g\ / o;af6 To; If]qsf] ko{6sLo Pgcf/PgP_n] l;Gw' n Lu9Lsf]
Pp6f a|f08 aGof] . dxTj yk a9]sf] 5 . t/, kl5Nnf] u' ? of] h gf agfP/ sdnfdfO{
Oltxf;sf/x¿sf] cWoog ;do l;Gw'nLu9Ldf ko{6sLo ljsf;sf] gu/kflnsfnfO{ x:tfGt/0f u/]sf] 5 .
cg';Gwfgcg';f/ To;a]nf xfd|f k'v \ f{n] gfddf hyfefjL ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0f aflx/ ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] u'?of]hgfsf] P]ltxfl;s e"ld l;Gw'nLu9L k"0f{ ;+/rgf agfpg], p¢f6g ug]{ / agfpg k/] klg pko'Qm :yfgsf]
an, j'l4 / ljs]sn] l;Gw'nLu9L o'4 ;'? x'bF f To;n] o; u9Lsf] df}lns Pp6f Plgd]68 lel8of] x]bf{ cfsif{s ¿kdf Jofj;flos k|of]hgsf nflu lznfn]vdf cfˆgf] gfd /fVg] xf]8afhL 5gf]6 ul/g'k5{ . u9Lsf] k'glg{df{0f
glht]sf] eP g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f cl:tTj g} ;dfKt kfg]{ xf] ls eGg] t b] l vof] t/ l;Gw' n Lu9Lsf k|of]u ul/g] dg;fo b]lvFbf u9Lsf] rn]sf] 5 . h;af6 k'/ftflTjs x'Fbf kf}/fl0fs / k'/ftflTjs d"No /
c;Dej k| f oM lyof] . xfdL lrGtf ;a}df a9]sf] 5 . ;+/rgfnfO{ To;/L laufg]{ xf] eg] df}lns cl:tTj o;/L ;lsFb} 5 . dof{bfdf eg] rf]6 k'u]sf] 5 . dfGotf hf]ufpFb} u9Lsf] k'glg{df{0f
c+u|]hx¿sf] pklgj]zdf a:g'kYof]{ . d] l 6Psf] Oltxf; u9Lsf] cl:tTj s] /xnf eGg] k|Zg hyfefjL lgdf{ 0 f x' “ b } ef} l ts ˜ljhof]
ljhof] T ;jsf] e| d x'g'k5{ . of] ;lsFb}g eg] lgoldt
/, clxn]sf] g]kfnh:tf] cljefHo @)%@ ;fn kmfu'g ! ut] /f]Nkf, klg ;F u ;F u } p7] s f] 5 . pQm ;+ / rgf ljleGg ;/f] s f/ lgsfosf] ;/;kmfO u/]/ eUgfjif];sf] ;+/If0f
/fi6«sf ?kdf /xGYof] ls /xFb}gYof] uf]/vf / l;Gw'nLu9Ldf /x]sf] k|x/L u'?of]hgfdf u9LnfO 8f]dn] 5f]lkPsf] dNnsfndf pRr /0fgLlts ;lqmotfdf @)&^ ;fnb]lv x/]s u/]dfq klg k'U5 .
eg]/ o;} eGg ;lsFb}g . To;}n] rf} s Ldf Ps;fy cfqmd0f u/] / 5 . v'Nnf ?kdf /x]sf] 6'Fl8v]ndf e"efudf w]/} u9Lx? :yfkgf ul/Psf] jif{sf] sflQs @$ ut] cu|]h;Fu o'4 cGTodf,
g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df l;Gw'nLu9LnfO{ tTsfnLg dfcf]jfbLn] hgo'4sf] x]lnKof8 / ljleGg ;+/rgf agfpg] lyof] . k"jb{ l] v klZrd;Dd clxn] lht]sf] cj;/df ljho lbj; dgfpg] o:tf P] l txfl;s w/f] x / /
klg w]/} u9Lx?sf] eUgfaz]if sfodd} ul/Psf] 5 . u9Lsf] k|rf/k|;f/ / ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ bfloTj k'/ftTj
5g\ . ToxLdWo] l;Gw'nLu9L Ps xf] . Oltxf;sf] ;Ddfgdf of] k|zz + gLo ljefusf] xf] . t/ ljefun] o;df vf;}
To; a] n f pknAw 9' + u f, r' g , sfo{ xf] . t/, l;Gw'nLu9Ldf o'4sf] rf;f] / ;lqmotf b]vfPsf] b]lvFbg} .
;' s L{ n ufotsf ;fdu| L n] u9L ldlt olsg ug{ cWoog / 5nkmn sltko P]ltxfl;s :yndf P]ltxfl;s
lgu{df0f ul/Psf] lyof] . sltko x'Fbf c;f]h !% ut] ljho xfl;n dof{ b f ljk/Ltsf] k' g lg{ d f{ 0 fdf
u9Lx?df /fhfx¿sf] a;f]af;sf] u/]sf] tYo k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5 . k'/ftTjsf] ;dGjo eO/x]sf] pbfx/0f
nflu b/af/ lgdf{0f ul/Psf] lyof] . u9Lsf] o'4 ;DaGwdf ;d[4 l;Gw'nL xfdL;fd' 5 . h:t}, /fgLkf]v/Ldf /x]sf]
To; a]nf b'ZdgnfO{ cfqmd0f ug{ cleofgn] ko{6g af]8{sf] xndf afnuf]kfn]Zj/ dlGb/ dNnsfndf
9' + u faf6 lgdf{ 0 f ul/Psf a+ s /, cfof] h gf u/] s f] cGt/lqmof tTsfnLg snfcg';f/ u|Gys'6 z}nLdf
sf] t 3/, dlGb/, kf] v /L, Ogf/, sfo{qmddf Oltxf;ljb\ k|fWofks lgdf{0f ePsf] lyof] . kl5 k'glg{df{0f
9' + u ] w f/f, lznfn] v , jf:t' s nfn] lbg]z/fh kGt / g]kfnL ;]gfsf k"j{ x'bF } hfFbf dlGb/sf] :j¿k kl/jt{g
el/Psf b/af/, kf6Lkf}jf, v'Nnf dxf;]gfgL Pj+ u9L tyf lsNnfdf x'bF } uof] . @)&@ sf] e"sDkn] Wj:t
d}bfg g} u9Lsf] df}lnstf xf] . t/, ljBfafl/lw u/] s f 8f= k| ] d l;+ x ePsf] pQm dlGb/sf] k'glg{df{0f
clxn] u9Lsf] ko{6sLo ljsf;sf] a:Goftn] l;Gw'nLu9Ld c+u|]hnfO{ k'/ftTjn] /f0ffsfnLg u'Dah z}nLdf
gfddf hyfefjL ef}lts ;+/rgf uf]vf{nL ;]gfn] c;f]h !% ut] g} lgdf{0f ug]{ c8fg /fv]sf] lyof] . t/,
lgdf{0fsf] sfd eO/xFbf To;n] u9Lsf] k/f:t u/]sf] k'li6 u/]sf 5g\ . gful/s:t/af6 lg/Gt/ va/bf/L
df}lns cl:tTj w/fkdf kf/]sf] 5 . sdnfdfO{ gu/kflnsfn] @ jif{ cufl8 ePkl5 dfq k'/ftTj kl5 x6\of] .
hyfefjL 3/, :df/s, l;d]G6sf] :yfkgf u/]sf] :df/sdf ;d]t c;f]h clxn] /fgLkf]v/Lsf] afnfuf]kfn]Zj/
l;F9L, ;8s lgdf{0f eO;s]sf 5g\ !% d} ljho ePsf] n]lvPsf] 5 . dlGb/ dNnsfnLg u|Gys'6z}nLdf
eg] yk ejg, u]6, kfs{ agfpg Oltxf;sf] tYo aflx/ cfO;Sbf ;d]t k'glg{df{0f x'bF 5
} . To;}n] P]ltxfl;s
wdfwfd 6]G8/ eO/x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo sflQs @$ ut] g} ljho lbj; ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0f / k'glg{df{0fdf
;/sf/ / k|bz ] ;/sf/n] u9Ldf gofF dgfO/xFbf To;n] Oltxf; tf]8df]8 k'/ftTjsf] dfq e/ k/]/ x'bF g} . gful/s
;+/rgf agfpg k|lt:kwf{ ul//x]sf x'g] lrGtf a9]sf] 5 . ljhof]T;j :t/af6 klg lg/Gt/ va/bf/L
5g\ . o;/L lgdf{0f eO/x]sf ;+/rgfn] jif{e/L dgfpg ;lsG5 t/ ljho cfjZos 5 . l;Gw'nLu9Ldf klg
u9Lsf] d}lns cl:tTj df;]/ u9L lbj; olsg ldltd} dgfpg'k5{ . hyfefjL ;+/rgf aGgaf6 /f]Sg}k5{ .
If]qnfO{ ;x/Ls/0f ug]{ of]hgfdf c;f]h !% ut] s'g} sfo{qmd gug]{ / -n]vs ;d[4 l;Gw'nL cleofgsf
pBt b]lvG5g\ . :yfgLo ;/sf/n] ;fj{hlgs labf cleoGtf x'g\ ._
o' 4 ;+ u | x fno lbP/ sflt{s @$ ut] ljho lbj;
g]kfnL ;]gfn] l;Gw'nLu9Ldf o'4
;+ux| fno agfpg Pstn] 6«; ejgsf]
dgfO/xFbf P]ltxfl;s tYonfO{ unt
;fljt ug]{ k|of; ePsf] b]lvG5 .
;fj{ h lgs
l8hfOg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . em08} casf] af6f]
$ s/f]8 ¿k}ofF nfutdf eGg] pQm u9Lsf] k'/ftflTjs df}lnstf / :yfgdf kmf] x f] /
;+u|fxno oxL sflQs @$ ut] cl:tTj hf]ufO/fVg clxn] eO/x]sf
lznfGof; x'Fb}5 . csf]{tkm{ k|b]z
;/sf/n] eg] k'/ftTj ljefun] tof/
lgdf{0f tTsfn /f]lsg cfjZos 5 .
u9Ldf gofF ;+/rgfeGbf klg u9Ldf
kmfn] d f
u/] l8hfOgdf l;Gw'nLu9Ldf /x]sf]
/f0ffsfnLg b/af/sf] k'glg{df{0f ug{
/x]sf k'/fgf ;+/rgf h:tfsf] t:t}
x]g{ ko{6s cfpg] x'g\ . cfw'lgs kfs{,
hl/jfgfdf
6]G8/ ug]{ clGtd r/0fdf 5 . l;F9L, ;8s, ejg hxfF txLF b]lvG5 .
b/af/ klg ToxL lbg lznfGof; tL ;+/rgf u9Ldf agfO/fVg cfjZos kl/G5 .
@)&^ ;fn sflQs @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

c;kmn k'h“ Ljfb / dfS;{jfbsf] a}1flgs k'li6


;fj{ef}ldstfdfly==== aLr s"6gLlts dfWodaf6 5nkmn
u/L ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{ ;DalGwt
pgn] of] d'lQm :jflwgtfsf] ;+3if{df
;Dk"0f{ kf6L{, b]zeQm, jfdkGyL, kIf;Fu cfu|x ub{5 .Ú
nf]stGqjfbL, k|ultzLn / ;a} If]qsf ljZje/====
To;sf lj?4 ;zQm cfGbf]ngdf plqg
hgtf;Fu Psh'6 eP/ p7\g clkn
;d]t u/]sf 5g\ . cfXjfg u/]sf 5g\ . z]v/n] …ef/tLo
;do / kl/l:yltcg';f/ a:t'sf] l;4fGt ;a{AofkL ;fa{ef}d ag]sf] xf] . e'dG8lns[t k'h F Ljfbsf] gf}nf] :j?k /l;ofsf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] Oltxf; o;}u/L, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ;fd|Hojfb d"bf{jfb, g]kfnL e"ld lkmtf{
;xL ;:n];g / laZn]if0f u/]/ To;nfO{{ cf}Bf]lus k'h F Ljfbn] ;fdGtjfb;Fu lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ a}1flgs cWoogn] ;d]t k|dfl0t u/]sf] 5 . lgs6 clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ n] g]kfnsf] u/, g]kfnL zf;s d'v vf]nÚ eGb}
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s;/L cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . Tof]cg';f/ k|lt:kwf{ u/]/ Aofkfl/s k'h F Ljfbdf af}l4s dfgj ;dfhdfx?df uDeL/ leotgfd, sDaf]l8ofh:tf d'ns ' x¿sf] 7f]sj' f u/]sf] 5 . clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ g]kfnsf] emG8} #&@ ju{lsnf]ld6/
;fdflhs kl/jt{gsf] nflu /fhgLlt lasf; ug]{ 5 . ToxfF >dhLlj au{ ;d:of b]lvG5 . Psflt/ dfS;{jfb Oltxf; cWoogn] dfq dfS;{jfbsf] ;xL n] /fi6« / hgtfk|lt Go"gtd klg eGbf w]/} hldg cfˆgf] ePsf] bfaL
r]tgf cufl8 a9\of] ls gfO Tof] dWodau{ clehft au{ j aLrdf c;kmn eof] emG8} !* cf}+ ztfAbLsf] ¿kdf :yfoL k|of]u ug{ ;lsFbg} . hjfkmb]lxtf 5 eg] jt{dfg cf]nL ub} { bfr{ ' n f lhNnfsf lnk' n ] s ,
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lasf; agf]6 / lagf;sf] ;xL d"Nof+sg eg]/ dfS;{jfbdf elgPsf] 5 . csf]{ e"lddflysf] cltqmd0fsf] lj?4 af]n/] !^ sflQs, @)&^ zlgaf/sf lbg
x'g ;Sb}g eGg" / csf]l{ t/ emG8} cf7 lasf;qmdsf] P]ltxfl;s ef}ltsjfbL
;fj{hlgs u/]sf] gofF /fhgLlts
gu/L hah{:t ;dfhnfO{{ kl/jt{g ug{ dxTjk"0f{ s'/f cf}Bf]lus k'h F Ljfb / xhf/ aif{ k'/fgf] au{ w/ftndf cWoog / AofVof ug]{ xf] eg] la1fg b]vfpg r'gf}tL;d]t lbPsf] 5 .
clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf s]lGb|o cWoIf gS;fdf ;d]6]sf] 5 . o;cl3 klg
;lsG5 eGg] lrGtgn] yk ;dfhdf Aofkfl/s k'h F Ljfbsf] cGt/;+3if{sf] lasl;t eP/ ?l9jfbdf x'ss {] f] ;+;lbo k|fljlw pTkfbgsf ;fwg pTkfbg zlQm lnlDkofw'/f If]qnfO{{ cfˆgf] eGb}
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ub}{ ;f] r'gf}tL lbPsf x'g\ . cWoIf ef/tn] bfaL ub}{ cfPsf] lyof] .Ú
vt/f a9]/ hfG5 . laZj ;dfh ;kmn k|of]u /l;og cS6f]a/ qmflGtn] k'h
F LjfbLz}nLdf cfwfl/t 5 . To;nfO{{ lj1lKtdf cufl8 elgPsf] 5,
lr/lGhaL 9sfnn] g]kfnL bnfn
cf}Bf]lus k'FhLjfbaf6 Psflwsf/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;kl5 n]lggsf] o'udf qm; ug{ dfS;{jfbdf yk a}1flgs zf;sx¿sf] nfrf/Lkg / bl/b| …sfnL gbLsf] axfj, g]kfnL hgtfsf]
k'hF Ljfb pbf/ k'h F Ljfb tyf Aofkfl/s laZj ;fd|fHojfbn] gofF df]8n ] tof/ sfo{z}nLsf] clgjfo{ h?/L 5 . dfgl;stfsf] kmfObf p7fpFb} ef/tLo k'/fgf xsef]usf] lg:;f / P]ltxfl;s
k'h
F Ljfbsf ?kx? kf/ u/]/ e'd08lns[t u¥of] . h;cg' ; f/ Psflwsf/ clxn]sf] a}1flgs ;dfhjfbL qmflGt zf;sx¿n] e"ld cltqmd0f nufot b:tfa] h x¿sf cfwf/df xfnsf]
k'h
F Ljfbdf k|az ] u/]sf] 5 . of] ca:yfdf k' F h Ljfbdf laZj k| j ] z u¥of] . ;kmntfsf] u[xsfo{ eg]s} k'FhLsf] g]kfndfly nf2} cfPsf] x/]s k|sf/sf] klZrdL l;dfgf sfnL gbLsf] lz/
clasl;t tyf ul/a /fi6«sf /fli6«o Psflwsf/ k'FhLjfbn] l;b} /fli6«o /fli6«os/0f geP/ ;fdflhsLs/0f / bfbflu/Lsf] lj/f]w ug{ g]kfnsf ;Dk"0f{ /x]sf] lnlDkofw'/f g} g]kfn–ef/t /
k'h F LnfO{ bnfn k'h F Ldf kl/0ft u/fpFb} k'hF Ljfbdfly x:tIf]k u¥of] . /fli6«o ;fd'bflosLs/0fdf xf], hxfF ;fdflhs ljBfyL{, j'l4hLlj, kqsf/, sd{rf/L, rLgsf] lqb]zLo ;LdflaGb' xf] . lnk'ns
]
pTkLl8t /fi6« hgtf / >lds au{sf] k'h
F Ljfb / Psflwsf/ k'h F Ljfb aLrdf / ;fd'bflos k'FhLnfO{ a}1flgs ;' / Iff lgsfo tyf ;Rrf e~Hofªb]lv klZrd / lnlDkofw'/fb]lv
a}wflgs ?kn] >d zf]if0f ul//x]sf] 5 . rsf] { c+ t lj{ / f] w v8f eof] . k| o f] u åf/ pTkfbg / lat/0fdf /fi6«jfbLx¿df ljz]if clkn ;d]t k"j{ nfvf}F /f]klg Jof; sfnfkfgL
u/]sf 5g . cltqmldt g]kfnL e"ld If]qnfO{{ %# jif{cl3b]lv ef/tn] g]kfnL
olta]nf e'd08lns[t k'FhLjfbn] kl/0ffd:j¿k hlta]nf gf}nf] hgjfbL ;d]tnfO{{ a}1flgs ug{;Sg] xf] eg] e"efu cltqmd0f u/L ef/tLo ;}lgs
ax'/fli6«o k'h F Ljfbsf] dfWodaf6 lasf; qmflGtsf] dfWodaf6 ;a{xf/fau{sf] e'd08lns[t k'FhLjfbn] yf]k/]sf] lkmtf{ u/fpg / g]kfn dfly ef/tLo
bfbflu/Lsf] cGTosf nflu clvn - Aof/]s agfP/ a;]sf] 5 . of] ef/tsf]
/ ;d[l4sf] ?kwf/0f u/]/ ;fdflhs /fHo;Qf :yfkgf ug{ rLgdf ;kmn ax'/fli6«o bnfn k'h F Ljfbaf6 ;dfhnfO{ ;fd|fHojfbL, cltqmd0fsf/L /j}of /
qmflGtsf/L_n] olx sflQs @) b]lv
cGt/la/f]wnfO{{ csf]{ o'4df kl/0ft
u/fpg] k|oTg ul//x]sf] 5 . of] ca:yfdf
eof] .
e' d 08lns[ t k' “ h Ljfb / o;sf ;+;f/;]g k[ys a}1flgs d'lQm / ;a{xf/f >lds
au{nfO{ / k'h F LktL au{nfO{ ;dfgtfsf]
@# ut];Dd j'l4hLlj, ;Ldfljb\,
/fi6«jfbL JolQmx¿;Fu cGt/lqmof
g]kfndflysf] xdnf xf] .Ú
z]v/n] lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\, …of]
dfS;{jfbL l;4fGtdf yk a}1flgs ?kx? k|hftGqsf] huaf6 dfgj ;dfhdf laGb'df k'¥ofpg ;Sg] ;lhnf] ;"q x'g ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 eg] sflQs @! ut] g] k fnsf] :jfwLgtf, :jtGqtf,
ax;sf] clgjfo{ ag]sf] 5, ;dfhsf] e'd08lns[t k'FhLjfb ;dfh ;Ddfg dfgj ;Eotfsf] kl/sNkgf ug{' ;S5 . b]zJofkL SofDk;x¿df lj/f]w k|bz{g ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] 7f8f] / gfËf] x:tIf]k
a}1flgs xn / d'lQmsf] nflu dfq} xf]Og, lasf;sf] r/0f;Fu} ljsl;t la1fg eg]sf] k'h F Ljfbn] lgDTofPsf] r/d ljZj k' “ h Ljfbsf] jf:tljs ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . o;}u/L @@ ut] xf] . of] cGt/f{li6«o k~rzLnsf]
lasf; / ljgfzsf] sf/0f casf] of] k|lalwsf] o'u xf] . ;/n efiffdf eGbf c;dfgtfsf] pT;u{sf] sf/0f o'4af6 cGtlj{ / f] w s] xf] < ef/tLo b"tfj;df dfukq k]z ug{s ' f l;4fGtsf] ckx/0f klg xf] . df]rf{
e'd08lns[t k'h F Ljfb aGg] b]lvG5 . ljZje/ :l/sf pTkLl8t /fi6« / >lds dfgj ;Eotfsf] g} lagfz ug]{ ca}w k]l/; sDo'gb]lv ?;L ;dfhjfbL ;fy} ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] g]kfn ef/tLo ;fd|fHojfbL cltqmd0fsf]
pTkLl8t /fi6« / Toxfsf hgtfsf] ;d'bfodfly ;+;f/sf] s'g} Ps dflnsn] s;/t xf] eGg ;lsG5 . ca ;dfh qmflGt / klxnf] / bf];f| ] laZjo'4;Dd sfof{nodf ph'/L ;d]t lbPsf] 5 cfklQ, lj/f]w / eT;{gf ub{5 . ;fy}
hLag:t/ c? sdhf]/ agfpg /fli6«o >d zf]if0f ug{ ;Sg] o'unfO{ dfGg'k5{ . lasf; / ;+dfg ;Eotfsf] Ps dfq cfOk' U bf Aofkfl/s k' F h Ljfb eg] @# ut] lhNnf :t/df b]zJofkL ;/sf/n] ;':tf, sfnfkfgL, lnlDkofw'/f,
lj/f]w k|bz{g ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . ;f]xL lnk'ns ] lkmtf{ ug{ ef/t;Fu ;fy{s
k'h F LnfO{{ bnfn k'h F Ljfbdf kl/0ft / clxn];Dd pTkLl8t /fi6« ;d'bfo / ljsNk a}1flgs ;dfhjfb xf] . k|lt:kwf{Tds cf}Bf]lus k'h F Ljfb / sbd rfnf];\ . gSsnL /fi6«jfb clt
dWod au{nfO{ dhb'/ au{df kl/0ft pTkL8s /fi6« / au{n] >d zf]if0f sfNklgs ;dfhjfb / k|ltlqmofjfbL Psflwsf/ k'h F Ljfbn] pTkfbg u/]sf] sfo{qmdcGtu{t cfh @$ ut] d;fn
h'n; ' tyf k'Tnf bxg ug]{ sfo{qmd eof] . sfnfkfgL / ;':tfsf] ;Ldf ljjfb
u/]/ >dzf]if0f ul//x]sf] of] ca:yfdf ul//x]sf] 5 . o;sf ?kx? ljleGg ;dfhjfbsf] s;/t u/]/ a}1flgs pTkL8s /fi6«–/fi6«aLrdf pTkGg ldnfpg u7g ePsf] k//fi6«
k'h F LjfbL /fhgLlt cfly{s qmflGtsf 5g\, Psflwsf/ k'FhLjfbn] /fli6«o ;dfhjfbL qmflGtnfO{{ /f]Sg] tj/ tl/sf 3d08 / s'l07t cfqmf]zsf] sf/0f xf] /x]sf] 5 .
;lrj:t/Lo ;+oGqsf] a}7s Ps k6s
dfWodaf6 ;dfhjfbsf] kl/sNkgf ug]{ k' F h Ljfb;u n8] / cfk" m hLljt hlt;'s} u/] klg dfgj hutdf o'4sf] eGg]3 s'/fdf clxn];Dd ;dfhdf ef/tnfO{==== klg ga;L ef/tn] PstkmL{ ¿kdf
lrGtg cToGt} cfbz{jfbL ?l9jfb / cl:tTjdf /lx/xg ;+3if{ ug{k' Yof]{ eg] ;d'n cGTo / ;fdflhs ;lxi0f'tfsf] a'‰g] s'/fdf b'Od{ t b]lvG5g\ . ;lhn} ;'uf}nL ;lGwsf] wf/f % cg';f/ sfnL gS;f ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 .
k5f}6] lrGtg xf] . e'd08lns[t k'h F Ljfbn] ;;fgf /fli6«o a}slNks zlQm a}1flgs ;dfhjfb xf] . / ;xh} ;fd|fHojfbn] laZjAofkL gbL g} g]kfnsf] klZrd l;dfgf xf] lj1lKtsf] cGTodf elgPsf] 5,
k' “ h Ljfbsf ?kx? / ;fdflhs k'h F LkltnfO{ PsLs[t u/]/ ax'/fli6«o dfS;{ j fbsf] k| o f] u df o' a fx?sf] x:tIf]ksf] sf/0f dfq} b]v/] k'Ub}g . h'g s'/fnfO{ ;g\ !*%^ cl3sf gS;f …;g\ !*!^ sf] ;'uf}nL ;lGwsf] wf/f
cGt/la/f] w x? k'h F Lsf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o k'h F LnfO{{ e' l dsf Psflwsf/ k'h F Ljfbn] ;fd|fHojfbsf] ;lGw;Demf}tfnufotn] :ki6 kfb{5 . % cg';f/ lnlDkofw'/f sfnL gbLsf]
oL ofjt j:t'l:yltsf afah'b klg d'xfg xf] . sfnL gbL g} g]kfn–ef/t
;dfhdf alu{ o pTkL8g;F u } bnfn k'h F Ldf kl/0ft ub{5 . h;n] ;+;f/sf emG8} t]x| rf}w b]zx¿n] pbo u/fof] / Psflwsf/ k'h F Ljfb / ef/taf6 g]kfnsf] sfnfkfgLnufot
;dfhdf pTkGg c+tlj{/f]w / To:sf] x/]s AolQm–AolQmnfO{{ cfˆgf]af/]df ;f]r dfS;{jfbsf] k|of]u ul/;s]sf] P]ltxfl;s /fli6«o k'h F Ljfbsf] cGt/åGåsf] sf/0f l;dfgf xf] . To;otf $$ jif{;Dd
If] q df ul/Psf] cltqmd0fsf] lnlDkofw'/f g} sfnLsf] d'xfgsf ¿kdf
a}1flgs xn dfS;{jfbdf vf]lhPsf] 5 . csf{sf] af/]df rf;f] g/fvsf] l;4fGt tYo 5g\, hxfF sDo'lg:6 ;Qf c;kmn zlQm /fi6«x?sf] o'4sf] ;'?jft ePsf] hgclwsf/ cleofg g]kfn 3f]/ lj/f]w lglj{jfb lyof] . lj;+ @)!* df
cf}Bf]lus k'h F LjfbL o'udf dhb'/au{sf] ckgfpg nufpg] ub{5 . :jfy{l;4 ;d]t ePsf] klg lttf] oyfy{ xf] . s'/fdf :ki6 x'g h?/L 5 . To:t} ca ub{5 .Ú lnlDkofw'/f If]qsf u'GhL, uAof{ª /
;+3;{sf] dfWodaf6 pTkLl8t au{sf] k'h F Ljfb klg eGg ;lsG5, h;sf] oxL s'/fnfO{ w'/L agfP/ k|ltlqmofjfbL km]l/ klg ax'/fli6«o k'h F Ljfb / bnfn e08f/Lsf] lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, gfeL ufpFdf g]kfnn] hgu0fgf
d'lQm lbnfpg ;lsG5 eg]/ AofVof ¿kdf ;d[l4sf] kmhL{ pTkfbg / zlQmx¿n] dfS;{jfb c;kmn eof] eg]/ k'hF Ljfbsf] clGtddf x'g] cGt/åGåsf] …hgclwsf/ cleofg g]kfn g]kfnsf] u/fPsf] lyof] . g]kfn ;/sf/sf
ul/Psf] 5 . Tolta]nf ;To s] lyof]] lat/0fsf] lgoGq0fdf ;dfhnfO{{ 9\jfË lk6\g' s'g} cgf}7f] xf]Og . xfdLn] sf/0f dfgj ;Eotfsf] g} vt/fk"0f{ ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGgtf, :jfwLgtf, tTsfnLg hf]gn clkm;/ jl/i7
eg] cf}Bf]lus dflns / >dhLlj 8f]¥ofpg] ub{5 . aftfa/0f ;f}Gbo{ a'‰g h?/L s] 5 eg] hlt;'s} ;+s6 kg]{ b]lvG5 . e'd08lns[t ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jtGqtfsf kqsf/ e}/j l/;fnn] To; If]qsf]
>ldsau{ lardf r/d cGtlj{/f]w b[ l i6af6 lasl;t b] l vG5 t/ c;kmntf Aoxf]g'{ k/]sf] 5 . Tof] ;a k' F h Ljfbn] ;/sf/eGbf dflkmof kIfdf cl8u 5 . ef/tn] pQm hgu0fgf u/fPsf lyP . t;y{ t'?Gt}
r'lnPsf] lyof]] . 7Ls Tolta]nf ;fdflhs lje]b alu{o oyfy{df Ps /fhgLlt sfo{lbzf unt x'g' / zlQmzfnL lgdf{0f ub{5 / ltg} If]qaf6 cfˆgf ;]gf x6fO{ tTsfn g]kfnL e"ld 5f]8]/ c;n l5d]sLsf]
;fdflhs cfGt/la/f]wnfO{ xnsf] nflu 3/ cg]s ;d:ofsf] pTkfbg a9]/ /fhgLlt kIfdf cg' e j / dflkmofx?aLrdf x'g] cGt/f{l:6«o g] k fnsf] e" l d vfnL ug{ ' k 5{ .Ú st{Joaf]w ug{ ef/tLo zf;snfO{{
dfS;{jfbsf] laZjAofkL dfGotfnfO{ cfpF5 . cg]s ;d:of leq s'G7f / h8;"qjfbsf] k|/fsf:6 xf] . dfS;{jfbsf] ¿kdf bnfn k'h F Lsf] sf/0f ax'/fli6«o e08f/Lsf] jQmJosf] cGTodf elgPsf] r'gf}tL lbFb} g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfˆgf]
5, …o; ;DaGwdf ef/tn] ;fj{ef}lds d'v vf]n]/ hldg lkmtf{sf nflu
clxn] cWoog ug]{ xf] eg] yk lg/f;fsf] k}bf u/fpg pBt k'h F Ljfb ;}4flGts cfwf/ laZjsf] emG8} b'O{ k'h F LjfbLx?sf] cGt/la/f]w / To;}sf] ;dgtfsf] l;4fGt Pjd\ cGt/f{li6«o
oyfy{ k f/s a} 1 flgs k' l i6 x' g g} e'd08lns[t k'FhLjfbsf] p2]Zo ltxfO e"uf]n / hg;d'bfodf cfzfsf] b'ikl/0ffd cg'k|dfg' / xfO8«f]hg cGt/f{ l i6« o dfkb08cg' ; f/
sfg'gsf] kfngf tyf ;Ddfg ug{k' 5{ . kxnsbdL t'?Gt} lngsf nflu ;fpbL
cfpF b 5 . sfn{ dfS;{ s f] o' u df /xG5 . Pp6f dfq pbfx/0fsf] nflu s]Gb| ag]sf] oyfy{ xf] . ca Pp6f adx?sf] k|of]u x'G5g\ . To;}n] dfgj g]kfn ;/sf/ / ef/tLo ;/sf/sf df]rf{ xflb{s clkn ub{5 .Ú
k|lt:kwf{wds k'h F Ljfb lyof]] . To;sf] df]afOnsf] k|of]unfO{{ lng ;lsG5 . lrGtf / rf;f] s] xf] eg] dfS;{jfbsf] ;Eotfsf] lasf; geP/ lagf; u/fpg]
?k Aofkfl/s k'h
o'udf Psflwsf/ k'h
F Ljfb lyof]] n]lggsf]
F Ljfb lyof]] . Tof]
Pp6f dflnsn] kl/l:yltcg';f/
y/Ly/Lsf df]afOn pTkfbg u/]/
k|of]u ubf{ dfS;{jfbLx?n] lsg
c;kmntf a]xf]g'{ k5{ . To;sf] uDeL/
clgjfo{ b]lvG5 . To;sf/0f ;dfhdf
pTkGg ;d:ofsf] xn eg]s} /fli6«o n]v, /rgf;DaGwL ;"rgf
;Ddt lrlgofF gf}nf] hgjfbL qmflGtsf] ahf/df NofpF5 . To;sf] k|of]u ax; x'g cfaZos 5 . sDo'lg:6 k'h F LnfO{ bnfn k'h F Ljfbaf6 :jtGq
o'u;Dd oyfjt /x]sf]] ;To xf] . >ldsb]lv k'FhLklt;Ddn] ;Ddfg ;/sf/ lgdf{0f kl5 ;fdfhsf] lg0f{o agfpg]tkm{ a}1flgs ljlw eg]s} o; ;fKtflxsdf k|sfzgfy{
To;kl5 clxn] @! cf}+ ztfAbL la1fg
/ k| l alwsf] o' u n] Psflwsf/
k| o f] u df NofpF 5 g\ . la8Dagf
pTkfbgstf{ dlnsn] lat/0fsf]
;/sf/n] sfo{Gjog x'gk' g]{ xf], hxfF
;/sf/n] lg0f{o ;dfhn] sfo{Gjog ubf{
;Ddfghgs ;fdflhs ;fd'lxs/0fsf]
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l;4fGtcg';f/ lg/Gt/ ju{;3 + if{sf] 5g\ . o:tf ax'/fli6«o bnfn k'h F Ljfbn] ;dfhjfb g} l6sfp xf], h'g kl/0flt x'gg]: ;Qm}g . E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com
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lbPsf] cy{df lgsflnof] . lbg tof/, t/ cltqmd0f / x:tIf]k cfTd;dk{0fjfbL g]tfx? ;Qfdf eP;Dd /Iff x'bF g} . of] ;To xf] ls g]kfnnfO{ 5, t/ zf;sx?df s'g} uDeL/tf x]¥of}F eg] xfd|f k'vf{x?n] jL/tfk"js
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g]kfn ;/sf/, k//fi6« dGqfno c:jLsfo{ x' g ] cleJolQm lbP . xfd|f] /fli6«otfsf] /Iff x'g ;Sb}g . cfh j}bz] Ls qmL8f:yn agfP/ jf g]kfnL b]lvPg . b]zsf] /Iff / lj:tf/ u/] . cfh xfd|f
l;+xb/af/sf] n]6/Kof8df lgsflnPsf] sfnfkfgLaf6 ef/tLo ;}lgs gx6] v'lDrPsf] d]rLb]v ] L dxfsfnL leqsf] e"ldnfO{ ljb]zLx?sf] /0fd}bfg agfP/ *= ;]gf / k|x/Lsf] sfd ;Qfsf] jL/ uf]vf{nLx? ef/tLo, la|l6z, l;Ëfk'/
lj1lKtdf hf/L ug]s { f] gfd n]lvPsf] :jfwLgtfsf] cfGbf]ngsf] cfFwLa]x/L ;f]dfdfoL klg k6s–k6s ef/taf6 g]kfnsf] lxt x'gj] fnf 5}g . o:tf] bfa] b f/L dfq ;]gfdf uP/ ljb]zL e"ldsf nflu ;d]t
lyPg . a] g fd] pQm lj1lKtdf p7\ g ] pr] t fjgL pgsf] lyof] . cltqmd0f eO/x]s} 5 . ;g\ !*!^ sf] zf;sx?sf] r]tgfn] g]kfn ljZjdfg e|i6frf/n] xfd|f] /fHonfO{ g} nl8/x]sf 5g\ . xfd|f] of] u'gsf] abnf
…sfnfkfgL If]q g]kfnsf] e"efu xf] ef/tsf] rl/q lj:tf/jfbL dfq geO{ ;'uf}nL ;lGwn] ls6fg u/]sf] g]kfnL e"ld lrqdf sdhf] / aGb} uO/x] s f] lj36gsf] lbzftkm{ n}hfFb} 5 . cfh xfdLn] eg] ef/taf6 af/Daf/ x:tIf]k,
eGg] ljifodf g]kfn ;/sf/ :ki6 5Ú ;fd|fHojfbL txdf k'us ] f] rrf{ pgn] sfnfkfgL lnk'ns ] / lnlDkofw'/fnfO{ b[i6fGtnfO{ xfdLn] abNg]k5{ . ;Qfdf hfg' jf ;/sf/df hfg' cltqmd0f / gfsfaGbL dfq pkxf/
Joxf]/f pNn]v lyof] . Tof]afx]s ToxL a]nf u/]sf lyP . b]z} vfg] ef/tn] cfkm\gf] b]zsf] gS;fdf ufe]kl5 ^= xfd|f] k//fi6« gLltdf k'glj{rf/ e|i6frf/df 8'aL sfnf] wg y'kfg{sf nflu kfPsf 5f}F . s'/f :ki6 5, ef/tLo
clxn];Dd yk k|ult ePgePsf] af/] rl/q ;fd|fHojfbLsf] dfq ePsf] ca ef/t j}wflgs / 3f]lift ?kdf g} ug'{k5{ dfq xf] eGg] cfd;+:sf/ ag]sf] 5 . ;fd|fHojfb Psftkm{ xfd|f l;dfaf6
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k|wfgdGqLn] d'v vf]ns ] } 5}gg\ . g]kfn aGbdf vl6Psf ljKnjsf ePsf] 5 . eg]/ xfd|f] /fli6«o dgf]lj1fgnfO{ qmflGtsf/L / ;Rrf nf]stGqjfbLx?nfO{ eg] csf]t{ km{ dw]z x'bF } k"/} g]kfnnfO{
ef/tn] lnk'n]sdfly cltqmd0f g]tfsfo{stf{dfly bdg / w/ks8 $= g]kfn pQ/sf]l/of ag]/ pleg' sdhf]/ agfof}+ . s;}n] rLg / bdg ug'{ dfq xf] eGg] k|jl[ Q xfaL ePsf] cfk"mdf ljno u/fpg] jf cfkm\gf] d'7Ldf
u/]sf] lj/f]w kfFr jif{ klxNo} ljKnj rnfof] . c/fhstfsf] ;+1f lbOof] . k5{ ef/taLrsf] k'n aGg'k5{ klg elg/x]sf 5 . cfh u0ftGq, nf]stGq elgPsf] /fVg rfxG5 . p;sf] of] ;fd|fHojfbL
g]t[Tjsf] kf6L{ ;8s ttfO;s]sf] ljleGg d'2f rnfof] . g]kfnsf] :jfwLgtfnfO{ arfO/fVg] 5g\ . of] egfO{n] klg s]jn Jofkfl/s 5 t/ /fi6«jfbL zlQmdfly k|ltaGw gLlt 36\bf] cj:yfdf 5}g / a9\bf]
cj:yfdf aNn ;/sf/sf] b[li6 k/]sf] aGbsf qmddf g] k fnL e" l d xf] eg] g]kfnn] ;}Go lx;fjn] cfk"mnfO{ b[li6sf]0fnfO{ dfq ;Daf]wg u/]sf] 5 . nufOPsf] 5 . k|x/L t e|i6 ;+/rgfsf] cj:yfdf 5 . ctM o;sf] ;fdgtf
xf] . Tof] klg a]gfd] k|]; lj1lKt lnk'n]s, sfnfkfgL / lnlDkofw'/f pQ/sf]l/of agfpg' k5{ . xfdLn] cfhsf] ljZjdf xfdL alnof] aGof}+ eg] d'Vo /Iffsjr ag]/ l;l4Ps} 5 . Pp6f a[ x t/ Pstfa4 /fli6« o
lgsfn] / 6fl/Psf] 5 . ljleGg ldr]sf] cfqmf]zdf g]kfnleq rn]sf ab\lnbf] ljZjkl/j]zcg';f/sf] ;}Go ef/t / rLgnfO{ klg ;fOhdf NofpFb} ;] g fnfO{ klg ab\ l nF b f] hfu/0faf6 dfq ;Dej x'G5 . hfnem]n
36gfqmdnfO{ x]bf{ ljKnj cl3cl3 ef/tLo gDa/ Kn]6sf ;jf/L tf]8kmf]8 ljsf;df hf]8 lbg' kb{5 . ;}Go ljsf; Pp6f gjpboLdfg zlQmsf] ?kdf ljZjkl/l:yltcg';f/ ;'b9[ ug's { f] ;§f / e|daf6 o;sf] ;dfwfg 5}g .
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lsgls Pg;]n s/ sf08df ;/sf/
df}g /x]sf] a]nf ;/sf/d} ;xefuL x:tIf]ksf/L rl/qsf] lj/f]w u/] . ;f]xL jf kfls:tfgsf] xf/fxf/Ldf ;}Go zlStsf] x:tIf]k / x}sdsf lj?4 xfdLn] Pp6f g]kfnL ;]gfnfO{ /fli6«o ;]gf agfpg sdf{rfo{, gf/fo0f jgnfO{{ 3]/f xfn] .
bnsf ;f+;bx?n] ;+;b a}7s / /fHo cleof] u df g] s kfsf sfo{ s tf{ ljsf; ug]{ /fli6«o gLltsf] ljsf; ug'{ Gofok"0f{ x:tIf]k ug]{ jf g]tT[ jbfoL ;Sg'kb{Yof] . kfls:tfg, ef/t jf rLgdf rsf]{ lj/f]wkl5 @)&% j}zfv @$
Joj:yf tyf ;'zf;g ;ldltsf] pkTosfleq}af6 lx/f;tdf k'¥ofpg] k5{ . s'g} b]zsf lj?4 xf]Og, t/ cfkm\g} e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ cj;/ k|fKt h:t} g]kfnL ;]gfn] cfkm\gf] /fli6«otf / @% ut] :yfgLo k| z f;gsf]
a}7sdf ;/sf/n] s/ c;'Ng k5fl8 sfd sf+u; ]| g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/n] uof]{ . ;'/Iffsf nflu jf /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf x'g;S5 . t;y{, xfdLn] xfd|f] Pp6} hf]ufpgsf nflu kxnsb\dL lng] cfF6 dWo:ytfdf ;j{kIfLo a}7s eof]
x6\g gx'g] ljrf/ /fVb} cfPsf 5g\ . g]skf cfˆgf] c8fgaf6 6;d; nflu xfdLn] cfkm\gf] gofF /fhgLltsf] dfq b]z;Fusf] k/lge{/tfnfO{ x6fpg' u/f];\ eGg] g]kfnLx?sf] rfxgf lyof] . h;df pQm hUuf :yfgLo j8faf;Lsf]
clxn] ;'b"/klZrd k|b]zcGtu{t ePg . Toltdfq x}g, caf}{+ ?k}ofF s/ ljsf; ug'{ ckl/xfo{ 5 . ljb]zLx?sf k5{ . :jtGqtf / ;dfgtfsf cfwf/ xfd|f] ;]gfnfO{ s]jn åGåu|:t If]qdf g]tT[ jdf …;lxb :d[lt afnpBfgÚ g}
bfr{n ' f lhNnfsf] l5d]sL d'ns ' ef/t 5nL ug]{ Pg;]nlj?4 klg v/f] ?kdf ;fd' eLv dfu]/ vfg], ljb]zLx?sf] u'nfd ;a};Fu ;Ddfghgs / ldqtfk"0f{ zflGt;]gfsf] ?kdf dfq v6fpg] ls agfpg] lg0f{o eof] . g]tf vgfn, d]o/
/ rLg;Fu hf]l8Psf] e"efu lnk'n]s plqP pgL g]tT[ jsf] kf6L{ . jg] / pgLx?nfO{ l/emfP/ vfg] ;DaGwsf] ljsf; ug]t{ km{ ;f]Rg'k5{ . xfd|f] ;Ldf ;'/Iff / /fli6«otfsf] hu]g{ f jg;xLtsf] hglj/f] w L if8\ o Gq
pRr kxf8L If]qdf kb{5 . hxfF ToxL pQm g]skf dfcf]jfbL @)&# ;Qfw/LkqnfO{ Wj:t jgfpb} gofF /fli6«o d"ntM xfd|f] /fli6«o :jfy{nfO{ s]Gb|df ug{sf nflu klg ;an agfpg] eGg] c;kmn eof] . lgsf;f ePsf] %)
k|lts"n df};dsf sf/0f dfgja:tL af6 g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -g]=s=kf=_ ;Qfsf] lgdf{0f ug]t{ km{ ;j}n] j]nd} f ;f]Rg' /fv]/ xfd|f] k//fi6«;DaGwLsf] ljsf; k|Zg plAhPsf] 5 . ;a} s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f nfv ah] 6 lk| m h u/fP . pQm
5}g . ToxL df}sfsf] kmfObf p7fpFb} kl/0ft ePkl5 klg p;n] cfˆgf] k5{ . ug' { k 5{ . cgfjZos j} b ] l zs /fHo;Qfn] ubf]/{ x]5 . hgkIfLo sfddf :yfgLo ;dfh;]jL
ef/tLo To;a] n f klg ef/tsf lnk'n]s nufot ;Ldf cltqmd0f, %= /fli6«otf hf]ufpg] Pp6} ljsNk x:tIf]knfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ /fli6«o (= lgisif{ xl/ kf}8]n, 7fs'/ kf}8]n, afns[i0f
k|wfgdGqL /x]sf g/]Gb| df]bL rLg Pg;] n s/5nL, /fi6« 3 ft, cfly{s / ;}Go ljsf;df g]kfnn] k|lta4tfsf] cfjZos ePsf] 5 . s'g} jt{dfg ljZj ax'wj'| df ljeSt x'g] /]UdL, uf]ljGbk|;fb l/hfn -vf]nfsL_,
e|d0f /x]sf a]nf df]bL / ;dsIfL e|i6rf/lj/f]wL Ph]08fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf cfkm\gf] :jflwgtf hf]ufpgsf nflu xfd|f klg k|sf/sf] x:tIf]kaf6 xf]Og ls qmd hf/L 5 . jt{dfg ljZj /+ud~rdf k|d
] /]UdL, ;ËLtf vgfn, lji0f' kf}8n] ,
rLgsf k|wfgdGqLaLr @)&@ h]7 ! lbO/x]sf] 5 . ;a} s/ glt/] b]zaf6} l5d]sLx? rLg, ef/t / kfls:tfgsf] kf/:kl/s ;DaGw ;xcl:tTj / gofF–gofF b]zx?n] klg cfk"mnfO{ zf/bf clwsf/L, jL/an tfdfª,
ut] cyf{t d] !%, @)!% df g]kfnL Pg;]nnfO{ b]zaf6} nv]6g\ ] r]tfjgL ;fk]Iftfdf ;}Go ljsf; ug'k{ b5{ . ldq/fi6«sf cfwf/df k//fi6« ;DaGwnfO{ zlQm/fi6«sf ?kdf pEofpg] s;/t wGbk|;fb vgfnnufotn] g]tT[ j u/] .
e" l d lnk' n ] s nfO{ b' O { b] z aLr lbO/x]sf 5g\ . kf6L{ lgs6 ljBfyL{ cfly{s ljsf;sf lx;fan] :jLh/Nof08 k'gk{l/eflift ug{ h?/L b]lvG5 . ul//x]sf 5g\ . pQ/ sf]l/of, ef/th:tf To;df g]tfx¿ h]Pg yklnof, k|d ]
Jofkfl/s gfsf agfpg] egL lnlvt ;+u7g clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ n] t ;Ldf / l;Ëfk'/ aGg ;Sg'k5{ eg] ;}Go &= /fli6«o ;xdltsf] kxn ePg b]zx? gofF /+ud~rdf b]vf kb}5 { g\ . bjf8L, ofbj kf7s, k|tfk 8Nnfsf]6L,
;Demf}tf eof] . /Iffsf] cleofg g} rnfO/x]sf] 5 . lx;fan] pQ/ sf]l/of aGg'k5{ . g]kfn lnk' n ] s , sfnfkfgL x' F b } ef/t / rLgsf] aLrdf klg st} ldqtf ¿kg/fh l3ld/] , lktfDa/
Tof]a]nf b'j} b]zsf k|wfgdGqLn] lnk'n]s /fli6«otfsf] b[li6sf]0f /x] dfq xfdL /xG5f}+ . b]z} g/x] g kf6L{x? lnlDkofw'/f;Dsf] sl/a #&@ ju{ lsdL t st} ;+3if{ 5 . ef/tn] ;fd|fHojfbL cfrfo{nufotn] hgtfsf kIfdf
$! a'Fb] ;+o'Qm lj1lKt hf/L u/] . cToGt} /0fgLlt / /fhgLlts b[li6n] /xG5g\ g t ;/sf/ . ca xfdLn] a]nd} f If]qkmn ef/tdf uflePsf] gS;f cfPsf] gLlt c+uLsf/ ub}5 { . ljzfn ef/tsf e"ldsf lgjf{x u/] . pQm åGådf
lnk'ns ] nfO{ …Jofkfl/s gfsf agfpg]Ú cToGt} pRrtd dxTjsf] e"efu ;f]Rg'k5{ / Pstfa4 x'gk' 5{ . xfd|f] tLtf] 5 / g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qfdfly uDeL/ gfddf blIf0f Plzofdf p;sf] ;fd|fHo :yfgLo hgtfsf] ljho /
;xdltsf] a'Fbf @* gDa/df pNn]v dflgG5 . clxn] g]kfnsf] e"efu / gld7f] Oltxf; af]N5– g]kfndf hgtf y|6] pTkGg ePsf] 5 . o:tf] uDeL/ km}nfpg rfxG5 . e/t bfxfnn] eg] if8\oGqsf/Lx¿sf lj?4 g]=s=kf=
5 . pQm a'Fbfdf ‘The two sides lnk'n]s, lnlDkofw'/f, sfnfkfgL /fi6« j fbL 5g\ t/ zf;sx? cj:yfdf ;/sf/ eg] k//fi6« h:t} olb rLg;Fu dfq xfdL ghf]l8Psf] lrtjgsf] lg0ff{os e"ldsf /x]sf]
recognized that enhancing
If]qnfO{ g} ef/tn] cfˆgf] gS;f ufe]/ cfTd;dk{0fjfbL . hgtfn] alnbfg dGqfnosf] a]gfd] JoQmJo Tof] klg eP g]kfn plxNo} ef/tdf uflegf] lyof] . :yfgLox¿ atfpF 5 g\ . ljKnj
border areas cooperation
;fj{hlgs u/]kl5 lnk'ns ] cltqmd0f u5{g\ zf;sx?n] u2f/ . ca of] sfOt] zAbdf hf/L u/]/ df}g a;]sf] g]kfnL hgtfdf ePsf] /fi6«jfbL g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf o'jf
through border trade,
k|s/0fdf l9n} eP klg b]zdf /fli6«o la8Dagfsf] cGTo ug}k{ 5{ . xfdLn] 5 . s] a]gfd] JoQmJo lgsfNb}df r]tgfsf sf/0f klg xfd|f] cl:tTj /x]sf] g]tf pT;jn] …hglj/f]wL if8\oGq
pilgrimage by people of the two
:jfwLgtfsf] d'2fdf cfjfh a'nGb x'g ljb]zLx?nfO{ g]kfndf NofP/ eLv dfu]/ ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf k"/f eof] t < xf] . cfhsf] ljZjdfgrLqdf :jfwLg g/f]lsP hgsf/afxL ug{ afWo x'g]Ú
countries and other exchanges
k'us ] f] 5 . lnk'ns ] cltqmd0flj?4sf] :jfwLgtfsf] /Iff x'g ;Sb}g . ef/tLo ef/tLo Pshgf g]tfn] r'gf}lt lbO;s], /fi6« ag]/ plegsf nflu b'Oj{ 6f d'Vo r]tfjgL lbPsf lyP . cf=j= @)&^
can effectively promote mutual
d'2fdf cfhfj p7fpg] kfFr jif{cl3 k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ NofP/ ;+;b æg]kfnn] klg cfkm\gf] bfaL;lxtsf] cfwf/x? 5g\ – klxnf] xf] cfly{s ljsf; df /gkf– ! n] @ nfv @( xhf/
trust, and agreed to further
s]jn g]skfsf] kf6L{ dfq lyof], clxn] j}7sdf ;Daf]wg u/fP/ a'4 g]kfndf gS;f hf/L u/] x'G5 .Æ hgtfx? jf cy{tGq / bf];f| ] xf] ;}Go ljsf; jf pBfgnfO{{ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 / cfly{s
broaden this cooperation so as
nfvf}+df ljsf; ePsf] 5 . en}, hGd]sf x'g\ eg]/ eGg nufpFb}df ;8sdf plqPsf 5g\ t/ ;/sf/ ;}Go zlQm . oL b'O{ cfwf/x? gePsf hf]xf] u/]/ lgdf{0fsfo{ ;'? ePsf] 5 .
olt;Dd lsg oltv] / g] s kf
to transform the border into a
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Shipkila. -Source: Joint
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Statement between the India
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and China during Prime
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China," Press Information
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Prime Minister’s Office, 15th
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May 2015’ elgPsf] 5 .
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E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
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