Oracle Faq’s

Oracle Concepts and Architecture Database Structures. 1.What are the components of Physical database structure of Oracle Database? ORACLE database is comprised of three types of files. One or more Data files, two are more redo Log files, and one or more Control files. 2.What are the components of Logical database structure of ORACLE database? Table spaces and the Database's Schema Objects. 3. What is a Table space? A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called table spaces. A table space is used to grouped related logical structures together. 4. What is SYSTEM table space and when is it Created? Every ORACLE database contains a table space named SYSTEM, automatically created when the database is created. The SYSTEM table Space always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database. 5. Explain the relationship among Database, Table space and Data file? Each databases logically divided into one or more table Spaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each table space. 6. What is schema? A schema is collection of database objects of a User. 7. What are Schema Objects? Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database's data. Schema objects include tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database triggers, procedures, functions packages and Database links. 8. Can objects of the same Schema reside in different table spaces? Yes. 9. Can a Table space hold objects from different Schemes? Yes. 10. What is Table? A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns. 11. What is a View? which is

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A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query attached to it. (The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.) 12. Do View contain Data? Views do not contain or store data. 13. Can a View based on another View? Yes. 14. What are the advantages of Views? Provide an additional level of table security, by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows and columns of a table. Hide data complexity. Simplify commands for the user. Store complex queries. Present the data in a different perspective from that of the base table. 15. What is a Sequence? A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database's tables. 16. What is a Synonym? A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit. 17. What are the types of Synonyms? There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public. 18. What is a Private Synonyms? A Private Synonyms can be accessed only by the owner. 19. What is a Public Synonyms? Any user on the database can access a Public synonym. 20. What are synonyms used for? Synonyms are used to: Mask the real name and owner of an object. Provide public access to an object Provide location transparency for tables, views or program units of a remote database. Simplify the SQL statements for database users. 21. What is an Index?

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An Index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on ones or more columns of a table. 22. How is Indexes Update? Indexes are automatically maintained and used by ORACLE. Changes to table data are automatically incorporated into all relevant indexes. 23. What are Clusters? Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together. 24. What is cluster Key? The related column of the tables in a cluster is called the Cluster Key. 25. What is Index Cluster? A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key. 26. What is Hash Cluster? A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a hash function to the row's cluster key value. All rows with the same hash key value are stores together on disk. 27. When can Hash Cluster used? Hash clusters are better choice when a table is often queried with equality queries. For such queries the specified cluster key value is hashed. The resulting hash key value points directly to the area on disk that stores the specified rows. 28. What is Database Link? A database link is a named object that describes a "path" from one database to another. 29. What are the types of Database Links? Private Database Link, Public Database Link & Network Database Link. 30. What is Private Database Link? Private database link is created on behalf of a specific user. A private database link can be used only when the owner of the link specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or in the definition of the owner's views or procedures. 31. What is Public Database Link?

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Index Segment. What is a Data Segment? Each Non-clustered table has a data segment. What is Rollback Segment? Page 4 of 95 . the data for the row is stored in a chain of data block (one or more) reserved for that segment. and used to store a specific type of information. All of the table's data is stored in the extents of its data segment. When this occurs. Block size is specified in INIT. 33. A database users and allocated free database space in ORACLE data blocks. 35. What is Data Block? ORACLE database's data is stored in data blocks. 38. 39. 36. 41. A network database link can be used when any user of any database in the network specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition. obtained in a single allocation. Rollback Segment and Temporary Segment. all of the data for a row in a table may not be able to fit in the same data block. 40. 37. 34. How to define Data Block size? A data block size is specified for each ORACLE database when the database is created. What is an Index Segment? Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its data.ORA file and can’t be changed latter. What is an Extent? An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks. 32. What is Network Database link? Network database link is created and managed by a network domain service. The data of every table in the cluster is stored in the cluster's data segment. What is Row Chaining? In Circumstances. What is a Segment? A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure. A public database link can be used when any user in the associated database specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition.Public database link is created for the special user group PUBLIC. What are the different types of Segments? Data Segment. Each cluster has a data segment. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical database space on disk.

What are the Characteristics of Data Files? A data file can be associated with only one database. What are the uses of Rollback Segment? Rollback Segments are used: To generate read-consistent database information during database recovery to rollback uncommitted transactions for users. It contains the following information. The data of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the data files allocated for a database. 46. Time stamp of database creation. the temporary segment extents are released to the system for future use. 47. 45.A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to temporarily store "undo" information. 48. What is a Redo Log? The set of Redo Log files for a database is collectively known as the database's redo log. Once created a data file can't change size. What does a Control file Contain? A Control file records the physical structure of the database. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a table space. What is the function of Redo Log? The Primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data. What is the use of Redo Log Information? The Information in a redo log file is used only to recover the database from a system or media failure prevents database data from being written to a database's data files. What is the use of Control File? Page 5 of 95 . 43. 49. What is a Temporary Segment? Temporary segments are created by ORACLE when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution. What is a Data File? Every ORACLE database has one or more physical data files. 44. 42. Database Name Names and locations of a database's files and redo log files. When the statement finishes execution. A database's data files contain all the database data. 50.

the valid users of an ORACLE database. 55.Require each value in a column or set of columns match a value in a related table's UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY. its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. 56. 52. What is a Data Dictionary? The data dictionary of an ORACLE database is a set of tables and views that are used as a read-only reference about the database. 57.A referential integrity rule that disallows the update or deletion of referenced data. CHECK Constraint .Disallows Nulls in a table's column. Describe Referential Integrity? A rule defined on a column (or set of columns) in one table that allows the insert or update of a row only if the value for the column or set of columns (the dependent value) matches a value in a column of a related table (the referenced value). 53. integrity constraints defined for tables in the database and space allocated for a schema object and how much of it is being used. FOREIGN KEY Constrain . It is also used in database recovery. Describe the different type of Integrity Constraints supported by ORACLE? NOT NULL Constraint . What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and PRIMARY KEY constraint? A column defined as UNIQUE can contain Nulls while a column defined as PRIMARY KEY can't contain Nulls.Disallows duplicate values in a column or set of columns.Disallows duplicate values and Nulls in a column or set of columns. 54. Can an Integrity Constraint be enforced on a table if some existing table data does not satisfy the constraint? No. DELETE Cascade . Page 6 of 95 .Disallows values that do not satisfy the logical expression of the constraint. 51. What is an Integrity Constrains? An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define a business rule for a column of a table. It stores information about both the logical and physical structure of the database. What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEY integrity constraint? UPDATE and DELETE Restrict . It also specifies the type of data manipulation allowed on referenced data and the action to be performed on dependent data as a result of any action on referenced data. UNIQUE Constraint .When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows are deleted.When an instance of an ORACLE database is started. PRIMARY KEY Constraint .

What are the components of SGA? Database buffers. What is SGA? The System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contains data and control information for one ORACLE instance. 63. 60. 65. What constitute an ORACLE Instance? SGA and ORACLE background processes constitute an ORACLE instance. USER or USERENV SQL functions. UID. What is Cursor? A Cursor is a handle (a name or pointer) for the memory associated with a specific statement. 68.58. Cursors. 66. 67. sequence. 69. What do Redo Log Buffers contain? Redo Log Buffer stores redo entries a log of changes made to the database. Page 7 of 95 . What is self-referential integrity constraint? If a foreign key reference a parent key of the same table is called self-referential integrity constraint. What is PGA? Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. Redo Log Buffer the Shared Pool and 64. or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM. What is the maximum number of CHECK constraints that can be defined on a column? No Limit. 59. the SYSDATE. 62. It can also contain modified data that has not yet been permanently written to disk. What do Database Buffers contain? Database buffers store the most recently used blocks of database data. What is Shared SQL Area? A Shared SQL area is required to process every unique SQL statement submitted to a database and contains information such as the parse tree and execution plan for the corresponding statement. What is Shared Pool? Shared Pool is a portion of the SGA that contains shared memory constructs such as shared SQL areas. (or) Combination of memory structure and background process. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: 61. What are the Limitations of a CHECK Constraint? The condition must be a Boolean expression evaluated using the values in the row being inserted or updated and can't contain sub queries.

Name the ORACLE Background Process? DBWR . Page 8 of 95 .System Monitor PMON .When Does DBWR write to the database? DBWR writes when more data needs to be read into the SGA and too few database buffers are free. 80. 73. What is a Multi-threaded Server Configuration? In a Multi-threaded Server Configuration many user processes share a group of server process.Lock Snnn . What are the two types of Server Configurations? Dedicated Server Configuration and Multi-threaded Server Configuration.Dispatcher. What is Dedicated Server Configuration? In a Dedicated Server Configuration a Server Process handles requests for a Single User Process. and LCKn . 76. DBWR also writes when Checkpoint occurs. 79.Database Writer.70. 78.Log Writer CKPT . 71. A server process is in charge of communicating with the user process and interacting with ORACLE carry out requests of the associated user process. The least recently used data is written to the data files first.Archiver RECO . 72. What does LGWR do? Log Writer (LGWR) writes redo log entries generated in the redo log buffer of the SGA to on-line Redo Log File. 74.Check Point SMON .Recover Dnnn . LGWR . 75. What Does DBWR do? Database writer writes modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the data files. What is Server Process? Server Process handles requests from connected user process.Process Monitor ARCH . 77. What is a Parallel Server option in ORACLE? A configuration for loosely coupled systems where multiple instance share a single physical database is called Parallel Server. It is a shadow process created automatically to facilitate communication between the user and the server process. What is User Process? A user process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program.Server. When does LGWR write to the database? LGWR writes redo log entries into an on-line redo log file when transactions commit and the log buffer files are full.

How many Dispatcher Processes are created? Atleast one Dispatcher process is created for every communication protocol in use. In a multiple instance system (one that uses the Parallel Server). What are functions of PMON? Process Monitor (PMON) performs process recovery when a user process fails PMON is responsible for cleaning up the cache and Freeing resources that the process was using PMON also checks on dispatcher and server processes and restarts them if they have failed. 89. Define Transaction? A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user. What are the functions of SMON? System Monitor (SMON) performs instance recovery at instance start-up. ARCH is active only when a database's redo log is used in ARCHIVELOG mode. DATA ACCESS 90.. What is the maximum number of Lock Processes used? Though a single LCK process is sufficient for most Parallel Server systems Up to Ten Locks (LCK0. 83. At timed intervals... What is the function of Lock (LCKn) Process? Lock (LCKn) is used for inter-instance locking when the ORACLE Parallel Server option is used.LCK9) are used for inter-instance locking.81. 82.. 85. Page 9 of 95 . These transactions are eventually recovered by SMON when the table space or file is brought back on-line SMON also coalesces free extents within the database to make free space contiguous and easier to allocate.the local RECO attempts to connect to remote databases and automatically complete the commit or rollback of the local portion of any pending distributed transactions. 86. What is the function of Dispatcher (Dnnn)? Dispatcher (Dnnn) process is responsible for routing requests from connected user processes to available shared server processes and returning the responses back to the appropriate user processes. What is function of RECO? RECOver (RECO) is used to resolve distributed transactions that are pending due to a network or system failure in a distributed database. 87. 84. 88. What is the function of checkpoint (CKPT)? The Checkpoint (CKPT) process is responsible for signaling DBWR at checkpoints and updating all the data files and control files of the database. What is the function of ARCH? Archiver (ARCH) copies the on-line redo log files to archival storage when they are full. SMON of one instance can also perform instance recovery for other instance that have failed SMON also cleans up temporary segments that are no longer in use and recovers dead transactions skipped during crash and instance recovery because of file-read or offline errors.

What is Execution Plan? The combination of the steps the optimizer chooses to execute a statement is called an execution plan. 95. 94. 101. Will the Optimizer always use COST-based approach if OPTIMIZER_MODE is set to "Cost'? Presence of statistics in the data dictionary for at least one of the tables accessed by the SQL statements is necessary for the OPTIMIZER to use COST-based approach. 98. 100. What does ROLLBACK do? ROLLBACK retracts any of the changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction. What is the function of Optimizer? The goal of the optimizer is to choose the most efficient way to execute a SQL statement. What is SAVE POINT? For long transactions that contain many SQL statements. 92. 97. Otherwise OPTIMIZER chooses RULE-based approach. When does a Transaction end? When it is committed or Roll backed. What are the factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an Optimization approach? The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter Statistics in the Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command hints in the statement. This allows the option of later rolling back all work performed from the current point in the transaction to a declared save point within the transaction. What does COMMIT do? COMMIT makes permanent the changes resulting from all SQL statements in the transaction. 93. What are the different approaches used by Optimizer in choosing an execution plan? Rule-based and Cost-based. What is Read-Only Transaction? A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of each query executed in the transaction are consistent with respect to the same point in time. 99. 96.91. Page 10 of 95 . intermediate markers or save points can be declared which can be used to divide a transaction into smaller parts. What are the values that can be specified for OPTIMIZER MODE Parameter? COST and RULE. The changes made by the SQL statements of a transaction become visible to other user sessions transactions that start only after transaction is committed.

112. enforce complex Integrity constraints. audit data modifications. What are the uses of Roles? REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES . global package variables can be declared and used by any procedure in the package) and performance (for example all objects of the package are parsed compiled. it does not guarantee all data in a table conforms to the rules established by an associated trigger. or delete from a table. What are Roles? Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles. What is Database Trigger? A Database Trigger is procedure (set of SQL and PL/SQL statements) that is automatically executed as a result of an insert in. A constraint applies to existing data in the table and any statement that manipulates the table. What is a Package? A Package is a collection of related procedures. What are the advantages of having a Package? Increased functionality (for example. and customize complex security authorizations. 111. 113. functions. 114. Packages and Database Triggers.PROGRAMMATIC CONSTRUCTS 110. 116.Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a Page 11 of 95 . 119. update to. What are the differences between Database Trigger and Integrity constraints? A declarative integrity constraint is a statement about the database that is always true. What are the different types of PL/SQL program units that can be defined and stored in ORACLE database? Procedures and Functions. What is a Procedure? A Procedure consist of a set of SQL and PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform a set of related tasks. and loaded into memory once) 115. A trigger does not apply to data loaded before the definition of the trigger. 117. variables and other package constructs together as a unit in the database. DATABASE SECURITY 118. What are the uses of Database Trigger? Database triggers can be used to automatic data generation. What is difference between Procedures and Functions? A Function returns a value to the caller where as a Procedure does not. A trigger can be used to enforce transitional constraints where as a declarative integrity constraint cannot be used. therefore.

127. Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing. 121. 124. What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile? The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user's session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user's session the amount of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of idle time for the user's session the allowed amount of connect time for the user's session. 123. 120. SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES . What is Privilege Auditing? Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application. What is Table space Quota? The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular table space. 125. 129. 122. What is Statement Auditing? Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects. What is default table space? The Table space to contain schema objects created without specifying a table space name. The security domains of all users granted the group's role automatically reflect the changes made to the role. What is Object Auditing? Page 12 of 95 . What are the different Levels of Auditing? Statement Auditing. What is a profile? Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user. DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT . only the privileges of the role need to be modified.group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group. 126. This allows specific control of a user's privileges in any given situation. How to prevent unauthorized use of privileges granted to a Role? By creating a Role with a password. What is Auditing? Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use.When the privileges of a group must change. APPLICATION AWARENESS . 128.The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use).

a Prepare Phase and a Commit Phase. Snapshot logs are used in updating the snapshots based on the master table. 135. even if there is a failure) Commit . What is Two-Phase Commit? Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. 139. What are the steps involved in Database Startup? Start an instance. What is Restricted Mode of Instance Startup? Page 13 of 95 . 136.Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user. BACKUP AND RECOVERY 137. 133. the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction. It is used in Clint-Server and Server-Server communications. 132. What is a SQL * NET? SQL *NET is Oracle’s mechanism for interfacing with the communication protocols used by the networks that facilitate distributed processing and distributed databases. the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction. The data of all databases in the distributed database can be simultaneously accessed and modified. What are the steps involved in Database Shutdown? Close the Database. 138. Dismount the Database and Shutdown the Instance. 131. What is a SNAPSHOT LOG? A snapshot log is a table in the master database that is associated with the master table.Phase . What is a SNAPSHOT? Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to track the rows that have been updated in the master table. What is distributed database? A distributed database is a network of databases managed by multiple database servers that appears to a user as single logical database. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTED DATABASES 130. What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for table replication? Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs 134. DATABASE OPERATION. Mount the Database and Open the Database.If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared. if all participants cannot prepare. Describe two phases of Two-phase commit? Prepare phase .The global coordinator (initiating node) ask a participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction. It has two phases.

140. What is Full Backup? A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files. 142. the corresponding redo entries temporarily stores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an on-line redo log file by the background process LGWR. 144. changes made to one member of the group are made to all members. Whenever a transaction is committed. 141. 146. Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a database is started in parallel mode. only that Instance can mount the database. What is Partial Backup? A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short of a full backup. Page 14 of 95 . Online database backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. including the contents of rollback segments. What are the different modes of mounting a Database with the Parallel Server? Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a database does so in exclusive mode. 148. What are the advantages of operating a database in ARCHIVELOG mode over operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode? Complete database recovery from disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. What is Log Switch? The point at which ORACLE ends writing to one online redo log file and begins writing to another is called a log switch. What is mirrored on-line Redo Log? A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of on-line redo log files physically located on separate disks. What are the steps involved in Instance Recovery? R_olling forward to recover data that has not been recorded in data files yet has been recorded in the on-line redo log.WhatisOn-lineRedoLog? The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line redo files that record all committed changes made to the database. Can Full Backup be performed when the database is open? No. 145.An instance can be started in (or later altered to be in) restricted mode so that when the database is open connections are limited only to those whose user accounts have been granted the RESTRICTED SESSION system privilege. The on-line redo log files are used in cyclical fashion. on-line redo log files and control file that constitute ORACLE database and the parameter. 143. other instances that are started in parallel mode can also mount the database. taken while the database is open or shut down. 149. archived before being 147. What is Archived Redo Log? Archived Redo Log consists of Redo Log files that have reused.

Rolling back transactions that have been explicitly rolled back or have not been committed as indicated by the rollback segments regenerated in step a. What is the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database? accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU Page 15 of 95 . 2. 6. Resolving any pending distributed transactions undergoing a two-phase commit at the time of the instance failure. The process can be shared by all users. 7. 4. Releasing any resources (locks) held by transactions in process at the time of the failure. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.0) 5. What are clusters? Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster. Data Base Administration Introduction to DBA 1. What is a cluster Key? The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. What is an Index? How it is implemented in Oracle Database? An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. What is Parallel Server? Multiple instances environments) 3. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster. What is a Schema? The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema. What is a Database instance? Explain A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table comman (Ver 7. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database.

0 and Ver 7. These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally.. It holds the most recently requested structural information between users. Dictionary cache. by the other process then deadlock arises. What is SGA? How it is different from Ver 6. which are locked. Page 16 of 95 . Dictionary Cache Buffers. One or more control files. The Database contains Multiple users/schemas One or more rollback segments One or more table spaces Data dictionary tables User objects (table. What is a deadlock? Explain. indexes. 10. MEMORY MANAGEMENT 9. Redo Log Buffer and Shared SQL pool (ver 7.0? The System Global Area in a Oracle database is the area in memory to facilitates the transfer of information between users. views etc.It consists of One or more data files. Redo log buffers.0 only) area. It holds the most recently requested structural information about the database. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically.) The server that access the database consists of SGA (Database buffer. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper rowlock commands. Two processes waiting to update the rows of a table. The structure is Database buffers. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users. Two or more redo log files. Shared SQL pool) SMON (System MONito) PMON (Process MONitor) LGWR (LoG Write) DBWR (Data Base Write) ARCH (ARCHiver) CKPT (Check Point) RECO Dispatcher User Process with associated PGS 8. What is a Shared SQL pool? The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the Shared SQL Pool.

dmp indexfile=newrite.ORA decides the size. the ratio is greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE. 17.11. What is Database Buffers? Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the data blocks that are read from the data segments in the database such as tables.sql. What is meant by recursive hints? Number of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hints. So that they can be used in roll forward operations during database recoveries. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the size. What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA)? It is area in memory that is used by a Single Oracle User Process. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small. How will you swap objects into a different table space for an existing database? Export the user Perform import using the command imp system/manager file=export. indexes and clusters DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in INIT. Drop necessary objects. 16. they will first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will write into files frequently. 18. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA? Due to insufficient Shared SQL pool size. 13.sql after altering the tablespaces. What is dictionary cache? Dictionary cache is information about the database objects stored in a data dictionary table.sql. 12. This will create all definitions into newfile. Run the script newfile. LOGICAL & PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE OF DATABASE. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter we can optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache. What is meant by redo log buffer? Changes made to entries are written to the on-line redo log files. Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. If Page 17 of 95 . 14. What is a data segment? Data segment are the physical areas within a database block in which the data associated with tables and clusters are stored. 15. Before writing them into the redo log files.

0? Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6. RBS2 . 22.0.Import from the backup for the necessary objects. How will you force database to use particular rollback segment? SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs_name. What is the role of PCTFREE parameter is Storage clause? Page 18 of 95 . How does Space allocation table place within a block? Each block contains entries as follows Fixied block header Variable block header Row Header.0 and Ver 7.Static tables used for standard operations INDEXES . DATA . 21.. TOOLS1 . RBS1.Temporary purpose table space TEMP_USER . What is the significance of having storage clause? We can plan the storage for a table as how much initial extents are required.Additional/Special Rollback segments.Tools table. When a segment is dropped its extents are reallocated and are marked as free.Indexes of static tables used for standard operations. TEMP . USERS .Data dictionary tables. How free extents are managed in Ver 6.0 23.Indexes for tools table. List the Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA) of Oracle database? Or how can we organize the table spaces in Oracle database to have maximum performance? SYSTEM . 25. 20. RBS . 24. What is meant by free extent? A free extent is a collection of continuous free blocks in table space. Free extents are periodically coalesces with the neighboring free extent in Ver 7.Temporary table space for users. 19. of rows per block? PCTFREE parameter Row size also reduces no of rows per block.User table space.Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no. DATA2. TOOLS .Indexes for Standard operational tables. how much can be extended next. INDEXES1 .Standard Operations Rollback Segments.Standard operational tables.row date (multiple rows may exists) PCTEREE (% of free space for row updation in future) 26. how much % should leave free for managing row updations etc.

32. PARTLY AVAILABLE . Page 19 of 95 . 28.Rollback Segment Dropped. Deactivate Rollback Segment R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments. What is the functionality of SYSTEM table space? To manage the database level transactions such as modifications of the data dictionary table that record information about the free space usage. How will you monitor the space allocation? By quering DBA_SEGMENT table/view. How the space utilisation takes place within rollback segments? It will try to fit the transaction in a cyclic fashion to all existing extents.Rollback Segment is on-line.Contains data but need recovery or corrupted. 30. AVAILABLE . NEEDS RECOVERY . modify init. A single transaction may wipeout all available free space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. How will you create multiple rollback segments in a database? Create a database that implicitly creates a SYSTEM Rollback Segment in a SYSTEM table space. 29.Contains data from an unresolved transaction involving a distributed database. OFF-LINE . Make new rollback segment available (After shutdown. of extents is based on the optimal size) 31.Rollback Segment off-line INVALID . How will you monitor rollback segment status? Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view IN USE .ora file and Start database) Create other tablespaces (RBS) for rollback segments. 27. Once it found an extent is in use then it forced to acquire a new extent (No. This prevents other user using Rollback segments.This is used to reserve certain amount of space in a block for expansion of rows. Why query fails sometimes? Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger transactions entry loads. Create a Second Rollback Segment name R0 in the SYSTEM table space.Rollback Segment available but not on-line. What is the OPTIMAL parameter? It is used to set the optimal length of a rollback segment. 33.

The RBS checks to see if it is part of its OPTIMAL size. Disk Corruption will be very less. 37.34. How can we plan storage for very large tables? Limit the number of extents in the table Separate Table from its indexes. average number rows that can fit in a block number of blocks and bytes required for the table. RBS chooses its oldest inactive segment. Allocate sufficient temporary storage. System files? Yes. The advantages over file system files. What is a Control file? Page 20 of 95 . It is possible to use raw devices as data files and what are the advantages over file. 35. Transaction Completes. None is available. List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment to expand into another extend. After arriving the calculation. so that the RBS must extent. Transaction Begins. Oldest inactive segment is eliminated. An entry is made in the RES header for new transactions entry Transaction acquires blocks in an extent of RBS The entry attempts to wrap into second extent. I/O will be improved because Oracle is bye-passing the kernnel which writing into disk. How will you estimate the space required by a non-clustered table? Calculate Calculate Calculate Calculate Calculate Calculate the the the the the the total header size available data space per data block combined column lengths of the average row total average row size. 38. 36. add 10 % additional space to calculate the initial extent size for a working table. RBS extents The Data dictionary table for space management is updated.

Improved performance because most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O request to use the shadow set of files instead of the main set of files. What is meant by Redo Log file mirrorring ? How it can be achieved? Process of having a copy of redo log files is called mirroring. Each Rollback Segment entry must be completed within one rollback segment. 40. 43.Physical Reads . It will be used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations. Multiple copies of control files are advisable.Hits Misses)/ Logical Reads. 45.Database's overall physical architecture is maintained in a file called control file.name Restart the database. This can be achieved by creating group of log files together. A single rollback segment can have multiple rollback segment entries. What is advantage of having disk shadowing/ mirroring? Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of disk failure. If any one group fails then database automatically switch over to next group. What is use of Rollback Segments In Database? They allow the database to maintain read consistency between multiple transactions. 39. Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads . What is a Rollback segment entry? It is the set of before image data blocks that contain rows that are modified by a transaction. 44. so that LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members of the current on-line redo log group. When Shrink (RBS only) When truncated (TRUNCATE used with drop storage option) Page 21 of 95 . When will be a segment released? When Segment is dropped. 42. In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it automatically switchover to place of failed disk. How to implement the multiple control files for an existing database? Shutdown the database Copy one of the existing control files to new location Edit Config ora file by adding new control file. This reduces I/O load on the main set of disks. 41. What is hit ratio? It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is handling requests for data. It degrades performance.

which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables. 2. Page 22 of 95 . REVOKE. Database triggers fire on DELETE. DELETE. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE? TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i.Joining two tables in such a way that query can also retrive rows that do not have corresponding join value in the other table. EXPLAIN PLAN & SELECT.Joining two tables by equating two common columns. instead we can use dd command.e. Transactional Control: COMMIT & ROLLBACK Session Control: ALTERSESSION & SET ROLE System Control: ALTER SYSTEM. Self Join . What are disadvantages of having raw devices? We should depend on export/import utility for backup/recovery (fully reliable) The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup. Deleted records can be rolled back or committed. What is a join? Explain the different types of joins? Join is a query. What is a transaction? Transaction is logical unit between two commits and commit and rollback. Data Manipulation Language: INSERT. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATE DELETE allows the filtered deletion. TRUNCATE. 47. What are the types of SQL Statement? Data Definition Language: CREATE. UPDATE. Non-Equi Join . Inserts of. LOCK TABLE. List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the estimations? The space used transaction entries and deleted records do not become free immediately after completion due to delayed cleanout. SQL PLUS STATEMENTS 1. which is less flexible and has limited recoveries. NO AUDIT & COMMIT. ALTER. updates to and deletes of rows as well as columns larger than a single data block. Outer Join . Trailing nulls and length bytes are not stored.46. Equi Join .Joining two tables by equating two common columns. can’t be rolled back. DROP. can cause fragmentation a chained row pieces. 3.. 4.Joining the table with itself.

Explain Connect by Prior? Retrives rows in hierarchical order. What is ROWID? ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a table.returns all distinct rows selected by either query UNION ALL .including all duplicates. What is correlated sub-query? Correlated sub_query is a sub_query.5. ename from emp where. (m)). CONSTRAINTS ---------------------12.returns all rows selected by either query. String 2(n. What is the Subquery? Subquery is a query whose return values are used in filtering conditions of the main query. row number are the components of ROWID. Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR? INSTR (String1. MINUS .g. INTERSECT? INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both queries. 6. select empno. It is 18character long. Explain UNION. 13. 10. UNION ALL. which has reference to the main query. What is an Integrity Constraint? Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values to a column in a table.m) SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1. block no. What are the usages of SAVEPOINTS? Page 23 of 95 . 14. UNION . starting from nth postion of string1. MINUS. e. The search begins from nth position of string1. 7. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table? Using ROWID. 11. 9. What is Referential Integrity? Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that restrict the values of one or more columns of the tables based on the values of primary key or unique key of the referenced table.returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second. INSTR returns the position of the mth occurrence of the string 2 in String1. 8. SUBSTR (String1 n.

It is not possible to use LONG column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause. the table must be empty. If an unique key constraint on DATE column is created. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2? SIZE allowed for each type? What is the maximum CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length. NUMBER. To add a column with NOT NULL constraint? To modify the datatype of a column the column must be empty. Sequence name NEXTVAL.SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into smaller parts. RAW. 24. 23. LONG and LONG RAW. How to access the current value and next value from a sequence? Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value? Sequence name CURRVAL. 19. 15. What is a database link? Database Link is a named path through which a remote database can be accessed. To add a column with NOT NULL constrain. 21. Where the integrity constrints are stored in Data Dictionary? The integrity constraints are stored in USER_CONSTRAINTS. will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ? It won't. To modify data type of a column? ii. Maximum of five save points are allowed. Page 24 of 95 . DATE. How will you a activate/deactivate integrity constraints? The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled by ALTER TABLE ENABLE constraint/DISABLE constraint. 20. VARCHAR2. 16. What is ON DELETE CASCADE? When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified ORACLE maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values if a referenced primary or unique key value is removed. What are the data types allowed in a table? CHAR. What are the pre requisites? I. 18. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table? Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY? Only one LONG columns is allowed. 22. VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces. 17. For CHAR it is 255 and 2000 for VARCHAR2. It enables rolling back part of a transaction. Because SYSDATE format contains time attached with it.

25. NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot generate more values after reaching its maximum or minimum value. Oracle based interactive application. 28. BLOCK Page 25 of 95 . Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes under what conditions? A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert. To hide complexity of a query. Only if you access next value in the session. To hide complexity of calculations. How do you control the constraints in forms? Select the use constraint property is ON Block definition screen. What are the advantages of VIEW? To protect some of the columns of a table from other users. 2. FORMS 3. 3. it generates its minimum value. What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence? CYCLE specifies that the sequence continues to generate values after reaching either maximum or minimum value.It is not possible.If a View on a single base table is manipulated will the changes be reflected on the base table? If changes are made to the tables which are base tables of a view will the changes be reference on the view.What is an SQL *FORMS? SQL *forms is 4GL tool for developing and executing. After pan ascending sequence reaches its maximum value. update and delete is not possible. Name the two files that are created when you generate the form give the file extension? INP (Source File) FRM (Executable File) 4. 27. it generates its maximum.0 BASIC 1. current value can be accessed. What is the maximum size of a form? 255 character width and 255 characters Length. After a descending sequence reaches its minimum. 26.

5. Committed block sometimes refer to a BASE TABLE? True or False. False. 6. Can we create two blocks with the same name in form 3.0? No. 7. While specifying master/detail relationship between two blocks specifying the join condition is a must? True or False. True. 8. What is a Trigger? A piece of logic that is executed at or triggered by a SQL *forms event. 9. What are the types of TRIGGERS? 1. Navigational Triggers. 2. Transaction Triggers. 10. What are the different types of key triggers? Function Key Key-function Key-others Key-startup 11. What is the difference between a Function Key Trigger and Key Function Trigger? Function key triggers are associated with individual SQL*FORMS function keys You can attach Key function triggers to 10 keys or key sequences that normally do not perform any SQL * FORMS operations. These keys referred as key F0 through key F9. 12. What does an on-clear-block Trigger fire? It fires just before SQL * forms the current block. 13. How do you trap the error in forms 3.0? Using On-Message or On-Error triggers. 14. State the order in which these triggers are executed? POST-FIELD, ON-VALIDATE-FIELD, POST-CHANGE and KEY-NEXTFLD. KEY-NEXTFLD, POST-CHANGE, ON-VALIDATE-FIELD, POST-FIELD. 15. What is the usage of an ON-INSERT,ON-DELETE and ON-UPDATE TRIGGERS ?

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These triggers are executes when inserting, deleting and updating operations are performed and can be used to change the default function of insert, delete or update respectively. For E.g., instead of inserting a row in a table an existing row can be updated in the same table. 16. When will ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger executed? It fires when a value in a field has been changed and the field status is changed or new and the key has been pressed. If the field status is valid then any further change to the value in the field will not fire the on-validate-field trigger. 17. A query fetched 10 records how many times do a PRE-QUERY Trigger and POSTQUERY Trigger will get executed? PRE-QUERY fires once. POST-QUERY fires 10 times. 18. What is the difference between ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a POSTCHANGE trigger? When you changes the Existing value to null, the On-validate field trigger will fire post change trigger will not fire. At the time of execute-query post-change trigger will fire, on-validate field trigger will not fire. 19. What is the difference between an ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a trigger? On-validate-field trigger fires, when the field Validation status New or changed. Post-field-trigger whenever the control leaving form the field, it will fire. 20. What is the difference between a POST-FIELD trigger and a POST-CHANGE trigger? Post-field trigger fires whenever the control leaving from the filed. Post-change trigger fires at the time of execute-query procedure invoked or filed validation status changed. 21. When is PRE-QUERY trigger executed? When Execute-query or count-query Package procedures are invoked. 22. Give the sequence in which triggers fired during insert operations, when the following 3 triggers are defined at the same block level? a. ON-INSERT b. POST-INSERT c. PRE-INSERT PRE-INSERT, ON-INSERT & POST-INSERT. 23. Can we use GO-BLOCK package in a pre-field trigger ? No. 24. Is a Key startup trigger fires as result of a operator pressing a key explicitly?

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No. 25. How can you execute the user defined triggers in forms 3.0? Execute_Trigger (trigger-name) 26. When does an on-lock trigger fire? It will fires whenever SQL * Forms would normally attempt to lock a row. 26. What is Post-Block is a . a. Navigational Trigger. b. Key trigger c. Transaction Trigger. Navigational Trigger. 27. What is the difference between keystartup and pre-form ? Key-startup trigger fires after successful navigation into a form. Pre-form trigger fires before enter into the form. 28. What is the difference between keystartup and pre-form ? Key-startup triigger fires after successful navigation into a form. Pre-form trigger fires before enter into the form. PACKAGE PROCEDURE & FUNCTION ----------------------------------------29. What is a Package Procedure ? A Package proecdure is built in PL/SQL procedure. 30. What are the different types of Package Procedure ? 1. Restricted package procedure. 2. Unrestricted package proecdure. 31. What is the difference between restricted and unrestricted package procedure ? Restricted package procedure that affects the basic basic functions of SQL * Forms. It cannot used in all triggers execpt key triggers. Unrestricted package procedure that does not interfere with the basic functions of SQL * Forms it can be used in any triggers. 32. Classify the restricted and unrestricted procedure from the following. a. Call b. User-Exit c. Call-Query d. Up e. Execute-Query

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Restricted h.Restricted e. 36.Unrestricted d. Break a. Anchor_View Page 29 of 95 .unrestricted b.Restricted f. Message . Can we use a restricted package procedure in ON-VALIDATE-FIELD Trigger ? No. Form-failure 6. Up .Restricted g. 33. What ERASE package procedure does ? Erase removes an indicated global variable. 35. Exit_form . Break . What is the difference between NAME_IN and COPY ? Copy is package procedure and writes values into a field. What SYNCHRONIZE procedure does ? It synchoronizes the terminal screen with the internal state of the form. Identify package function from the following ? 1. Call_query .Unrestricted. Error-Code 2. Name in is a package function and returns the contents of the variable to which you apply. Error-text 5. Execute Query . 38. Call 4. 37. Message g. What Enter package procedure does ? Enter Validate-data in the current validation unit. Post i.Unrestricted c. 38. What are the unrestricted procedures used to change the popup screen position during run time ? Anchor-view Resize -View Move-View. Post . Form-fatal 7. User Exit . Break 3.Restricted i. Exit-From h. Execute-query 8. 34.f. Call .

System. Call(formname) 43. True b. List the system variables related in Block and Field? 1. How does the command POST differs from COMMIT ? Post writes data in the form to the database but does not perform database commit Commit permenently writes data in the form to the database.g. 6. False True. 45. Page 30 of 95 .cursor_block System. 7. 4.g. false False. Host (sqlplus)) 44. 46. 2.current_field System.field_status. 3. What package procedure is used for calling another form ? Call (E. 5. Message_code 1. Error_Code is a package proecdure ? a. 5. EXIT_FORM is a restricted package procedure ? a. 4.cursor_field System.9. If you want to examine the values of global variables and other form variables.block_status System.current_value System. Error_Code Error_Text Form_Failure Form_Fatal Message_Code 40.current_block System. 2. What package procedure command you would use in your trigger text ? Break. What package procedure used for invoke sql *plus from sql *forms ? Host (E. What the PAUSE package procedure does ? Pause suspends processing until the operator presses a function key 42. 41. SYSTEM VARIABLES 47. 3. When the form is running in DEBUG mode. True b.

Two popup pages can appear on the screen at a time ? a. What do you mean by a pop-up window ? Pop-up windows are screen areas that overlay all or a portion of the display screen when a form is running. System. What is system.0 ? Hide the fields for internal calculation. Page 31 of 95 ..cursor_field ? the difference between system. 53. 51. b. Deleting a page removes information about all the fields in that page ? a.What is the significance of PAGE 0 in forms 3. that link into the SQL * forms executable. Popup Window : 57.cursor_field gives name of the field with block name.48. How many pages you can in a single form ? Unlimited. What are the type of User Exits ? ORACLE Precompliers user exits OCI (ORACLE Call Interface) Non-ORACEL user exits. Page : 52. 55. The value recorded in system. System. What is an User Exits ? A user exit is a subroutine which are written in programming languages using pro*C pro *Cobol . What do you mean by a page ? Pages are collection of display information. Number b. True. False a. User Exits : 50. Boolean. True b. etc.current_field gives name of the field. b.current_field and 1. such as constant text and graphics. Character. Boolean c. True. 49. True. False a. 2. 54.last_record variable is of type a. 56.

What is an Alert ? An alert is window that appears in the middle of the screen overlaying a portion of the current display. MMB 3. Write the Abbreviation for the following File Extension 1. 05.0 01. Alert : 59.Menu Module Binary.0? Default Block facility. What is a Layout Editor? The Layout Editor is a graphical design facility for creating and arranging items and boilerplate text and graphics objects in your application's interface.PL/SQL Library Module Binary.0? Block is a single mechanism for grouping related items into a functional unit for storing. MMB ----. FMB 2. 03.displaying and manipulating records. What do you mean by a block in forms4. Built-ins Browser. PLL -----. PLL FMB ----. PL/SQL Editor. 04. Give the Types of modules in a form? Form Menu Library 02. Object Lists. Page 32 of 95 . What are the types of Pop-up window ? the pop-up field editor pop-up list of values pop-up pages. BLOCK 05. Tables Columns Browser. Property Sheets. Menu Editor. Layout Editor. FORMS 4.Form Module Binary.58. What are the design facilities available in forms 4.

08. A control block is a block that is not associated with a database table. User Area item. What is PL/SQL ? PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration. Control Blocks. conditional branching. 2. Image item. The display state of a check box is always either "checked" or "unchecked".0? Base table Blocks. What is a Check Box? A Check Box is a two state control that indicates whether a certain condition or value is on or off. What is a Navigable item? A navigable item is one that operators can navigate to with the keyboard during default navigation. What are the triggers associated with a check box? Only When-checkbox-activated Trigger associated with a Check box. 11. Display item.06. List item. or that Oracle forms can navigate to by executing a navigational built-in procedure. What is the basic structure of PL/SQL ? Page 33 of 95 . ITEMS 07. Check box. List the Types of Items? Text item. Chart item. PL/SQL Basiscs of PL/SQL 1. 09. 1. true or false. Can you change the color of the push button in design time? No. 2. Explain types of Block in forms4. Radio Group. 10. A base table block is one that is associated with a specific database table or view.

% ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a entire row of a table or view or columns selected in the cursor. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.deptno from emp.ename emp ename %type e_rec emp% ROWTYPE cursor c1 is select empno. VARCHAR2. What are the datatypes a available in PL/SQL ? Some scalar data types such as NUMBER. What is PL/SQL table ? Objects of type TABLE are called "PL/SQL tables".empno% type. Cursors Page 34 of 95 . What are the components of a PL/SQL Block ? Declarative part. Anonymous blocks or nested blocks can be used in PL/SQL. 6. e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE. 3. PL/SQL tables use a primary PL/SQL tables can have one column and a primary key. Some composite data types such as RECORD & TABLE. BOOLEAN. The advantages are : I. DATE. What are the components of a PL/SQL block ? A set of related declarations and procedural statements is called block. Executable part and Execption part. If the database definition of a column in a table changes.PL/SQL uses block structure as its basic structure. the data type of a variable changes accordingly. What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE RECORD ? % ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a entire row of a table or view. CHAR. ). TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns columns of different table or views and variables. E. What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the advantages of using these over datatypes? % TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a database column to that variable. LONG. Need not know about variable's data type ii. 4. which are modelled as (but not the same as) database tables. 7. 8. Datatypes PL/SQL 5.g.

end loop. They can be declared and used. loop Fetch C1 into eno. ename from emp. CLOSE cursor name. Begin open C1.to check whether cursor has fetched any row. Exit When C1 %notfound. True if rows are featched.number of rows featched/updated/deleted. 14. eg. What is a cursor ? Why Cursor is required ? Cursor is a named private SQL area from where information can be accessed. % FOUND .to check whether cursor has featched any row.----commit. END LOOP. Explain the two type of Cursors ? There are two types of cursors.9. % NOT FOUND . FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal.ename. 10. 12. 13. Page 35 of 95 . OPEN cursor name. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors. What are the PL/SQL Statements used in cursor processing ? DECLARE CURSOR cursor name. Cursors are required to process rows individually for queries returning multiple rows.opens a cursor. PL/SQL uses Implict Cursors for queries. What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL ? %ISOPEN .to check whether cursor is open or not % ROWCOUNT . What is a cursor for loop ? Cursor for loop implicitly declares %ROWTYPE as loop index. What will happen after commit statement ? Cursor C1 is Select empno. fetches rows of values from active set into fields in the record and closes when all the records have been processed. These attributes are proceded with SQL for Implict Cursors and with Cursor name for Explict Cursors. end. 11. Implict Cursor and Explicit Cursor. FETCH cursor name INTO or Record types. True if no rows are featched.

query query as as SELECT .. What are two virtual tables available during database trigger execution ? The table columns are referred as OLD. If WHEN value. o.column_name NEW.column_name and NEW. o. clause is specified. 19.k. Usages are Audit data modificateions.. Maintain replicate tables. o. Log events transparently.column_name values only available.k.k. o.k.column_name values only available.. the trigger fires according to the retruned boolean 18. of Page 36 of 95 . How many types of database triggers can be specified on a table ? What are they ? Insert Before Row After Row o.k.The cursor having COMMIT/ROLLBACK. if you use COMMIT ROLLBACK in a trigger. For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.k. o.k.k. 17. o. 15. Delete o. o. FOR does UPDATE gets closed after not get closed even after SELECT.column_name..DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. What is a database trigger ? Name some usages of database trigger ? Database trigger is stored PL/SQL program unit associated with a specific database table. Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in cursors ? WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE. Enforce complex business rules Derive column values automatically. Update o.. As triggers are defined for each table. For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD. Implement complex security authorizations.k. Before Statement After Statement If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified..k. The cursor having COMMIT/ROLLBACK. Database Triggers 16.column_name values only available. Is it possible to use Transaction control Statements such a ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ? It is not possible. then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement. o. For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.k. it affects logical transaction processing. o.k.

CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX NO_DATA_FOUND TOO_MANY_ROWS INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER LOGON_DENIED NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM-ERROR STORAGE_ERROR TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE OTHERS. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name. 21.g. oracle error number) 24. What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ? The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error. e. 23. What are the return values of functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM ? SQLCODE returns the latest code of the error that has occured. done using Database triggers. Exception : 22. What happens if a procedure that updates a column of table X is called in a database trigger of the same table ? Mutation of table occurs. The types are Predefined and user_defined.20. Some of Predefined execptions are. I & ii. Page 37 of 95 . ii. 26. SQLERRM returns the relevant error message of the SQLCODE. done using Integarity Constraints. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. What is Raise_application_error ? Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger. 25. Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ? In the standard package. Write the order of precedence for validation of a column in a table ? I. What is an Exception ? What are types of Exception ? Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block.

28. Give the structure of the procedure ? PROCEDURE name (parameter list.. 31. What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION ? A FUNCTION is alway returns a value using the return statement. Give the structure of the function ? FUNCTION name (argument list .OUT. 29..) Return datatype is local variable declarations Begin executable statements Exception execution handlers End. What is a stored procedure ? A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function. 27.Procedures. What are the modes of parameters that can be passed to a procedure ? IN. What are the two parts of a procedure ? Procedure Specification and Procedure Body. exception handlers end. What are advantages fo Stored Procedures / Extensibility. Functions & Packages . Explain how procedures and functions are called in a PL/SQL block ? Function is called as part of an expression... Page 38 of 95 . 32.) is local variable declarations BEGIN Executable statements. 30. Reusability. A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through parameters or may not return at all. Exception. 33.. 34.Modularity...IN-OUT parameters. Maintainability and one time compilation..

varying number of parameters is called overloading of procedures. 38. PACKAGE NAME. PRO* COBOL c.FUNCTION NAME (arguments). e. The advantages of packages are Modularity. What is a package ? What are the advantages of packages ? Package is a database object that groups logically related procedures. c. A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the procedure that can not be accessed by other procedures. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Information.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters) variable := PACKAGE NAME.g. 37.. DBMS_OUTPUT put_line 36.sal := calculate_sal ('a822'). an application program such a PRC *C. Stored procedure or anonymous block b. END EXEC. A function can not be called.What are two parts of package ? The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations. END. What is Overloading of procedures ? The Same procedure name is repeated with parameters of different datatypes and parameters in different positions. EXECUTE PACKAGE NAME. How packaged procedures and functions are called from the following? a. Hiding. procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement calculate_bonus ('A822'). SQL *PLUS a. variable := PACKAGE NAME. What is difference between a Cursor declared in a procedure and Cursor declared in a package specification ? A cursor declared in a package specification is global and can be accessed by other procedures or procedures in a package. 35.PROCEDURE if the procedures does not have any out/in-out parameters.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters). reusability and Better Performance. Easier Applicaton Design. EXEC SQL EXECUTE b. Page 39 of 95 . 39. BEGIN PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments).

color and pattern characteristics of objects that operators see and intract with in our application. Name the tables where characteristics of Package. 18. No element in the list is highlighted.0 12. No text Item displayed in the list item. 13. What is a visual attribute? Visual Attributes are the font. 16.What triggers are associated with the radio group? Only when-radio-changed trigger associated with radio group Visual Attributes. What are the display styles of list items? Poplist. FORMS4. procedure and functions are stored ? User_objects. can you change the default value of the radio button group at run time? No. 15. How group? many maximum number of radio buttons can you assign to a radio Unlimited no of radio buttons can be assigned to a radio group 17. what is a display item? Display items are similar to text items but store only fetched or assigned values. What is a radio Group? Radio groups display a fixed no of options that are mutually Exclusive . What are the types of visual attribute settings? Custom Visual attributes Default visual attributes Named Visual attributes. Operators cannot navigate to a display item or edit the value it contains. 20. User can select one out of n number of options.40. Tlist. Window Page 40 of 95 . 14. 19. User_Source and User_error. What is a list item? It is a list of text elements.

At run-time. secondary window. What are the types of canvas-views? is when-window-closed. The frame provides a way to intract with the window. move. radio groups. including the ability to scroll. List the buil-in routine for controlling window during run-time? Find_window.0 for the following. and resize the window. byitself . used for changing when-window-deactivated.Canvas-view null. operators can see only those items that have been assiged to a specific canvas. 29. Page. get_window_property. hide_window. What built-in dynamically? Set_window_property Canvas-View 27. set_window_property. The content of the window ie. move_window. must be displayed in a specfic window. the properties of the window Page 41 of 95 .Canvas-View Page 0 . resize_window. 24.21. 28. 22. can be thought of as an empty frame. check boxes. List the windows event triggers available in Forms 4. and so on. What are the differrent types of windows? Root window. in term. 23. Page 0? Page . What is a canvas-view? A canvas-view is the background object on which you layout the interface items (text-items. when-window-resized 26. Can a root window be made modal? No. Give the equivalent term in forms 4. What is a window? A window.) and boilerplate objects that operators see and interact with as they run your form.0? When-window-activated. show_View 25. what is displayed inside the frame is determined by the canvas View or canvas-views displayed in the window at run-time. Each canvas.

37. Yes. Stacked View. List the built-in routines for the controlling canvas views during run-time? Find_canvas Get-Canvas_property Get_view_property Hide_View Replace_content_view Scroll_view Set_canvas_property Set_view_property Show_view Alert 32. What built-in is used for showing the alert during run-time? Show_alert. What is the built-in function used for finding the alert? Find_alert Editors 38. What is an Alert? An alert is a modal window that displays a message notifies the operator of some application condition 33. A stacked view differs from a content canvas view in that it is not the base view for the window to which it is assigned 31. give the name of th built-in to chage the alert messages at run-time. List the editors availables in forms 4. Can you change the alert messages at run-time? If yes. What is the content view and stacked view? A content view is the "Base" view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed.0? Page 42 of 95 . What are the display styles of an alert? Stop.Content View. Caution. note 34. Can you attach an alert to a field? No 35. Set_alert_property. 30. 36.

Can you attach an lov to a field at design time? Yes. What is the built-in used to get and set lov properties during run-time? Get_lov_property Set_lov_property Record Group 45. What is the built-in used for showing lov at runtime? Show_lov 44. What is a record Group? A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a simillar column/row frame work to a database table 46. What is an Lov? A list of values is a single or multi column selection list displayed in a pop-up window 41. Yes. Give built-in routine related to a record groups? Create_group (Function) Create_group_from_query(Function) Delete_group(Procedure) Add_group_column(Function) Page 43 of 95 .Default editor User_defined editors system editors. Can you attach an lov to a field at run-time? if yes. 42. 39. What buil-in routines are used to display editor dynamicaly? Edit_text item show_editor LOV 40. give the build-in name. What are the different type of a record group? Query record group Static record group Non query record group 47. Set_item_proprety 43.

List system variables available in forms 4. and not available in forms 3.event_window System. Explain the following file extention related to library? .. What is a library in Forms 4. functions & packages 52. generated library file comparable to a fmx form file The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for source controlling your library files Parameter 54. New_form or run_product built_in procedure and include the name or id of the parameter list to be passed to the called form. Create a parameter list to execute the add parameter built_in procedure to add one or more parameters list. the calling form must perform the following steps in a trigger or user named routine excute the create_parameter_list built_in function to programatically.lib. Page 44 of 95 .pll. How do you pass the parameters from one form to another form? To pass one or more parameters to a called form.effective_date system variable is read only True/False False 51..0? System. including user named procedures.cordination_operation System Date_threshold System. System. Is it possible to attach same library to more than one form? Yes 53.Add_group_row(Procedure) Delete_group_row(Procedure) Populate_group(Function) Populate_group_with_query(Function) Set_group_Char_cell(procedure) 48. What is the built_in routine used to count the no of rows in a group? Get_group _row_count System Variables 49. Execute the call_form.0.effective_Date System.suppress_working 50.0? A library is a collection of Pl/SQL program units.pld The library pll files is a portable design file comparable to an fmb form file The library lib file is a plat form specific.

54. What are the built-in routines is available in forms 4.0 to create and manipulate a parameter list? Add_parameter Create_Parameter_list Delete_parameter Destroy_parameter_list Get_parameter_attr Get_parameter_list set_parameter_attr 55. What are application? the two ways to incorporate images into a oracle forms

Boilerplate Images Image_items 56. How image_items can be populate to field in forms 4.0? A fetch from a long raw database column PL/Sql assignment to executing the read_image_file built_in procedure to get an image from the file system. 57. What are the triggers associated with the image item? When-Image-activated(Fires when the operator double clicks on an image Items) When-image-pressed(fires when the operator selects or deselects the image item) 58. List some built-in routines used to manipulate images in image_item? Image_add Image_and Image_subtract Image_xor Image_zoom 59. What are the built_in used to trapping errors in forms 4? Error_type return character Error_code return number Error_text return char Dbms_error_code return no. Dbms_error_text return char 60. What is a predefined exception available in forms 4.0? Raise form_trigger_failure 61. What are the menu items that oracle forms 4.0 supports? Plain, Check,Radio, Separator, Magic

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INDEX 1. 2. Query for retrieving N highest paid employees FROM each Department. Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. 3. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept). 4. Matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments. 5. Nth Top Salary of all the employees. 6. Retrieving the Nth row FROM a table. 7. Tree Query. 8. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table. 9. Displaying EVERY Nth row in a table. 10. Top N rows FROM a table. 11. COUNT/SUM RANGES of data values in a column. 12. For equal size ranges it might be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). 13. 14. 15. 16. Count different data values in a column. Query to get the product of all the values of a column. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table. 17. Function for getting the Balance Value. 18. Function for getting the Element Value. 19. SELECT Query for counting No of words. 20. Function to check for a leap year. 21. Query for removing all non-numeric. 22. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP. 23. Function for displaying Rupees in Words. 24. Function for displaying Numbers in Words 25. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table. 26. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table. 27. Procedure for sending Email. 28. Alternate Query for DECODE function. 29. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later. 30. Query to list all the suppliers who r supplying all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2'. 31. Query to get the last Sunday of any month. 32. Query to get all those who have no children themselves. 33. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table. 34. SELECT with variables. 35. Query to get the DB Name. 36. Getting the current default schema.

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37. Query to get all the column names of a particular table. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. Spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS. Query for getting the current SessionID. Query to display rows FROM m to n. Query to count no. Of columns in a table. Procedure to increase the buffer length. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column. Removing Trailing blanks in a spooled file. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements. Differences between SQL and MS-Access. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent. Procedure to read/write data from/to a text file. Query to display random number between any two given numbers. Time difference between two date columns. Using INSTR and SUBSTR View procedure code

53. To convert signed number to number in oracle 54. Columns of a table 55. Delete rows conditionally 56.CLOB to Char 57.Change Settings 58.Double quoting a Single quoted String 59.Time Conversion 60.Table comparison 61.Running Jobs 62.Switching Columns 63.Replace and Round 64.First date of the year 65.Create Sequence 66.Cursors 67.Current Week 68. Create Query to restrict the user to a single row. 69. Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table. 70. Concatenate a column value with multiple rows. 71. Query to delete all the tables at once. 72. SQL Query for getting Orphan Records.

1. The following query retrieves "2" highest paid employees FROM each Department : SELECT deptno, empno, sal FROM emp e WHERE 2 > ( SELECT COUNT(e1.sal) FROM emp e1 WHERE e.deptno = e1.deptno AND e.sal < e1.sal )

Page 47 of 95

Index 3. empno)) "1981".'1980'. (SELECT SUM(sal) FROM emp b WHERE a. COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate.ORDER BY 1. ename. Give appropriate column headings.deptno. and of that total the number who were hired in 1980.deptno) FROM emp a ORDER BY a. of employees.deptno.3 DESC. 1981. 'YYYY'). OUTPUT : ======= DEPTNO ========= 10 30 10 10 30 30 30 30 ENAME SAL ======= ==== KING 5000 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 ALLEN 1600 TURNER 1500 JAMES 950 SUM (SAL) ========= 11725 10900 11725 11725 10900 10900 10900 10900 Page 48 of 95 . sal.deptno = b. Query that will display the total no. We need to stick to this format. Query for listing Deptno. empno)) "1980". 'YYYY'). 'YYYY'). empno)) "1983" FROM emp. I am looking at the following output. COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate. Total ----------14 1980 -----------1 1981 -----------10 1982 ------------2 1983 ----------1 SELECT COUNT (*). empno)) "1982". ename. COUNT(DECODE(TO_CHAR (hiredate. Index 2. '1983'. '1982'. 'YYYY'). and 1983. '1981'. SUM(sal in that dept) : SELECT a. sal. 1982. COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate.

and the total salary for that job for all departments. The output is as follows . SAL FROM EMP A WHERE 3 = (SELECT COUNT(B. 4th Top Salary of all the employees : SELECT DEPTNO. Index 5. Create a matrix query to display the job. SUM (DECODE (deptno.SAL) FROM EMP B Page 49 of 95 . SUM (DECODE (deptno. SUM (sal) "Total" FROM emp GROUP BY job . SUM (DECODE (deptno. 20. sal)) "Dept 20".we need to stick to this format : Job Dept 10 Dept 20 ------------6000 1900 2975 2850 950 Dept 30 ------------Total -------------------------------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 1300 4150 MANAGER 2450 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 5600 5600 SELECT job "Job". giving each column an appropriate heading. the salary for that job based on department number. ENAME.30 20 20 20 Index WARD SMITH SCOTT MILLER 2750 8000 3000 20000 10900 33000 33000 33000 4. sal)) "Dept 30". 10. 30. sal)) "Dept 10".

2) SELECT sub. 4.col = B. Index 8. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table : DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( SELECT min(ROWID) FROM table_name B WHERE A.WHERE A. Page 50 of 95 .SAL) ORDER BY SAL DESC. Index 9. Retrieving the 5th row FROM a table : SELECT DEPTNO.12 rows will be selected) SELECT * FROM emp WHERE (ROWID.SAL < B.4) FROM emp). SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID = (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 5 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5) Index 7. Displaying EVERY 4th row in a table : (If a table has 14 rows. MOD(ROWNUM.col). super FROM parts CONNECT BY PRIOR sub = super START WITH sub = 'p1'. ENAME. Tree Query : Name Null? Type ------------------------------------------------------------------SUB NOT NULL VARCHAR2(4) SUPER VARCHAR2(4) PRICE NUMBER(6.8. Index 6.0) IN (SELECT ROWID.

0. SELECT f2.0. COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1. 0).1. . How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x. rate_0. z). DECODE( TRUNC(sal/1000. 0)) "Range 00-29" FROM my_table GROUP BY f2. 2. sal "Salary". Index 12. 0). COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1. 0.30).0)) MALE. 1. COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1.3) "Tax rate" FROM emp. 0)) "Range 60-100". 0)) "Range 30-59".'M'. SELECT ename "Name". 1. 0. Index 11.29).. 3.1. sal FROM (SELECT * FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC) WHERE ROWNUM < 10. deptno. Top N rows FROM a table : (Displays top 9 salaried people) SELECT ename.100). 0. For equal size ranges it migth be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range).Index 10.2. 0. 0. How does one count different data values in a column? COL NAME DATATYPE ---------------------------------------DNO NUMBER SEX CHAR SELECT dno. Page 51 of 95 .).59). SUM(DECODE(sex. rate_1. least(f1. 59). 1.. least(f1. y) = LEAST(x. 13. 1. least(f1. 1.

SUM(DECODE(sex. l_defined_bal_id number. Query to get the product of all the values of a column : SELECT EXP(SUM(LN(col1))) FROM srinu. p_balance_name varchar2. Index 15.'*').temp. l_assignment_action_id number. Index 14. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table: SELECT num FROM satyam GROUP BY num HAVING COUNT(*) > 1. Index 16. p_dimension_name varchar2) RETURN NUMBER IS l_bal number.1.ROWNUM. Index 17. Function for getting the Balance Value : FUNCTION F_BALANCE_VALUE (p_business_group_id number.'*') FROM srinu1.1. Page 52 of 95 .'F'. p_payroll_action_id number.0)) FEMALE.1)) TOTAL FROM t1 GROUP BY dno.'F'.'M'. COUNT(DECODE(sex. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table : * ** *** **** ***** SELECT RPAD(DECODE(temp.

Function for getting the Element Value : FUNCTION f_element_value( p_classification_name in varchar2.BEGIN SELECT assignment_action_id INTO l_assignment_action_id FROM pay_assignment_actions WHERE assignment_id = :p_assignment_id AND payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id. l_bal := pay_balance_pkg.business_group_id = pdb.l_assignment_action_id).balance_type_id = pdb. SELECT defined_balance_id INTO l_defined_bal_id FROM pay_balance_types pbt. p_assignment_id in number Page 53 of 95 .balance_dimension_id = pbd. p_element_name in varchar2. exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0. p_input_value_name in varchar2.balance_name) = UPPER(p_balance_name) AND pbt.balance_type_id AND UPPER(pbd.get_value(l_defined_bal_id.business_group_id = p_business_group_id AND UPPER(pbt. p_payroll_action_id in number. pay_balance_dimensions pbd WHERE pbt. END.business_group_id AND pbt. pay_defined_balances pdb. p_business_group_id in number. RETURN (l_bal). Index 18.balance_dimension_id.dimension_name) = UPPER(p_dimension_name) AND pdb.

assignment_action_id AND paa.0) INTO l_element_value FROM pay_run_result_values prrv. pay_run_results prr.element_type_id%type. pay_element_classifications pec WHERE pet.run_result_id = prr. END. SELECT input_value_id INTO l_input_value_id FROM pay_input_values_f WHERE upper(name) = upper(p_input_value_name) AND element_type_id = l_element_type_id.2) default 0. l_input_value_id pay_input_values_f. BEGIN SELECT DISTINCT element_type_id INTO l_element_type_id FROM pay_element_types_f pet.run_result_id AND prr.business_group_id = p_business_group_id. RETURN (l_element_value).payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id.classification_id AND upper(classification_name) = upper(p_classification_name) AND upper(element_name) = upper(p_element_name) AND pet.assignment_id = p_assignment_id AND input_value_id = l_input_value_id AND paa. pay_assignment_actions paa WHERE prrv. l_element_type_id pay_element_types_f.assignment_ACTION_ID = paa.input_value_id%type.) RETURN number IS l_element_value number(14. Page 54 of 95 . Index 19.result_value. SELECT NVL(prrv.classification_id = pec. SELECT Query for counting No of words : SELECT ename. exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0.

Index 21. 'Day') weekday FROM emp WHERE is_leap_year (hiredate) = 'Y'. END is_leap_year.' @'). TO_CHAR (hiredate. Explanation : TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)). SQL> SELECT hiredate.' @').'') -.'DDMon-YYYY').' '.This will translate all the characters FROM AZ including a single quote to a space.' @').'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ '' '. Function to check for a leap year : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION is_leap_year (p_date IN DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_test DATE.NVL(LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)).' '. It will also translate a space to a @.'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZ'' '. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN RETURN 'N'.' '. BEGIN v_test := TO_DATE ('29-Feb-' || TO_CHAR (p_date.1) word_length FROM emp.'ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' '.This will replace every space with nothing in the above result.''))+1.This will give u the count of @ characters in the above result.' @') -. RETURN 'Y'. Index 20. Query for removing all non-numeric : SELECT Page 55 of 95 . REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)).'ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' '.''))+1 -. LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)).'YYYY').

' lakh '. v_num2 VARCHAR2 (50) := NULL. Page 56 of 95 . ' shankh '). SUBSTR(temp. '. 'JSP' ))|| ' paise '.'') FROM DUAL. ' crore '. BEGIN amount := amt. LOWER(SUBSTR(temp.%') THEN IF (SUBSTR (amount.2). IF ((amount = 0) OR (amount IS NULL)) THEN v_word := 'zero'. TYPE myarray IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (255).'''')+1))) FROM srinu1. ' kharab '.1. v_word1 VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL.TRANSLATE(LOWER(ssn).2). '. ELSIF (TO_CHAR (amount) LIKE '%. v_length INTEGER := 0.') + 1). v_word1 := ' AND ' || (TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_num2. 'J').'. Function for displaying Rupees in Words : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION RUPEES_IN_WORDS(amt IN NUMBER) RETURN CHAR IS amount NUMBER(10. v_str myarray := myarray (' thousand '. LENGTH (v_num2) . INSTR (amount.'''')+1. INSTR(temp. v_word VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL. Index 23. INSTR (amount. END IF. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP : SELECT TRANSLATE(INITCAP(temp). IF (LENGTH (v_num2) < 2) THEN v_num2 := v_num2 * 10. ' arab '. INSTR(temp.') + 1) > 0) THEN v_num2 := SUBSTR (amount. Index 22.'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.1). v_amount VARCHAR2 (50).

Only up to integers from 1 to 5373484 Page 57 of 95 .1.1.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (v_amount IS NULL). amount := SUBSTR (amount.. END LOOP. v_str.1). LENGTH (v_amount) . END. END IF.3)..'Jsp') FROM DUAL. RETURN INITCAP (v_word). 'J').'j').INSTR (amount. 1.3). Index 24. ' '.1. 1. '. v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word). LENGTH (amount) . 'J'). 'J'). 'J'). FOR i in 1 . END LOOP. v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount.2). LENGTH (amount) . 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word. Function for displaying Numbers in Words: SELECT TO_CHAR( TO_DATE( SUBSTR( TO_CHAR(5373484). LENGTH (amount) . v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount.2. 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word. LENGTH (v_amount) . ELSE v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (amount. 1. LENGTH (amount) .3). LENGTH (v_amount) .2). v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word). v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount.2). FOR i in 1 . v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (amount. '-'.2. END IF.')-1). v_str. ' ').3). 'Jsp' ).v_amount := SUBSTR(amount. 1. ' '). amount := SUBSTR (amount. v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount. 'Jsp' ) || v_word.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (amount IS NULL).2). v_word := v_word || ' ' || v_word1 || ' only '. LENGTH (v_amount) .

lv_crlf || message).write_data ( l_mail_conn.1) IN (SELECT ROWID..com'. BEGIN l_mail_conn := utl_smtp.2) FROM srinu). lv_crlf VARCHAR2(2):= CHR( 13 ) || CHR( 10 ). Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID.rcpt ( l_mail_conn. EXCEPTION Page 58 of 95 .com'.open_connection (lv_mailhost. sender).'. utl_smtp.helo ( l_mail_conn. 'Subject:' || subject || lv_crlf). MOD(ROWNUM.open_data (l_mail_conn). utl_smtp. Index 27. Index 26.write_data ( l_mail_conn. Procedure for sending Email : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Send_Mail IS sender VARCHAR2(50) := 'sender@something.close_data(l_mail_conn). message VARCHAR2(1000) := 'This is a sample mail . recipient VARCHAR2(50) := 'recipient@something. lv_mailhost). l_mail_conn utl_smtp. utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn. MOD(ROWNUM. utl_smtp. utl_smtp. utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn. utl_smtp.quit(l_mail_conn). 80). subject VARCHAR2(100) := 'Test Message'.2) FROM srinu).connection. 'FROM: ' || sender || lv_crlf). lv_mailhost VARCHAR2(30) := 'HOTNT002'.0) IN (SELECT ROWID.mail ( l_mail_conn. utl_smtp. recipient). utl_smtp.. 'To: ' || recipient || lv_crlf).. utl_smtp.Index 25. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID.

supp != 'S2' AND a. Query to list all the suppliers who supply all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2' : SELECT DISTINCT a.PARTS) >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT PARTS) FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2'). END.parts IN (SELECT DISTINCT PARTS FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2') GROUP BY a.PUT_LINE('Error').WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. / Index 28. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later: CREATE TABLE srinu(dt1 date DEFAULT SYSDATE.------S1 P1 S1 P2 Page 59 of 95 . Index 29.SUPP FROM ORDERS a WHERE a.SUPP HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT a. Alternate Query for DECODE function : SELECT case WHEN sex = 'm' THEN 'male' WHEN sex = 'f' THEN 'female' ELSE 'unknown' END FROM mytable. CONSTRAINT check_dt2 CHECK ((dt2 >= dt1) AND (dt2 <= ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE.3))). Index 30. dt2 date. Table : orders SUPP PARTS -------------------.

the top level entry 2 b 1 .'DD-MM-YYYY')) 7. Index 32. Index Page 60 of 95 .S1 S1 S1 S1 S2 S2 S3 S4 S4 S4 Index P3 P4 P5 P6 P1 P2 P2 P2 P4 P5 31.'sunday') FROM DUAL. Query to get the last Sunday of any month : SELECT NEXT_DAY(LAST_DAY(TO_DATE('26-10-2001'.a child of 2 5 e 2 6 f 3 7 g 3 8 h 4 9 i 8 10 j 9 SELECT ID FROM MY_TABlE WHERE PARENT_ID IS NOT NULL MINUS SELECT PARENT_ID FROM MY_TABlE.a child of 1 3 c 1 4 d 2 . Query to get all those who have no children themselves : table data : id name parent_id ------------------------------1 a NULL .

xValue NUMBER. xQuery varchar2(100). DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xQuery). Index 36.33. Index 35. END. Index 34. name varchar2(10) := 'CLARK'. DBMS_OUTPUT. Query to get the DB Name: SELECT name FROM v$database. xFieldName varchar2(25):='ename'. Getting the current default schema : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV'. Index 37. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE xQuery INTO xValue.'CURRENT_SCHEMA') FROM DUAL. SELECT with variables: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE disp AS xTableName varchar2(25):='emp'. Query to get all the column names of a particular table : Page 61 of 95 . BEGIN xQuery := 'SELECT SAL FROM ' || xTableName || ' WHERE ' || xFieldName || ' = ''' || name || ''''. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table : SELECT empno FROM emp WHERE ROWID in (SELECT ROWID FROM emp MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM <= (SELECT COUNT(*)-5 FROM emp)).PUT_LINE(xValue).

SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID IN (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 7 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5).ename FROM emp.SELECT column_name FROM all_tab_columns WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'ORDERS'. Query for getting the current SessionID : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV'. /* Write your Query here */ spool off / Index 39. Index 38. ENAME. Index 40. OR SELECT ename FROM emp Page 62 of 95 . Query to display rows FROM m to n : To display rows 5 to 7 : SELECT DEPTNO.txt SELECT empno.'SESSIONID') Session_ID FROM DUAL. How do I spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS : Place the following lines of code in a file and execute the file in SQLPLUS : set heading off set feedback off set colsep ' ' set termout off set verify off spool c:\srini.

FOR i IN 1. Index 41. Query to count no. / Index 43.GROUP BY ROWNUM. Index 42. Of columns in a table: SELECT COUNT(column_name) FROM user_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'MYTABLE'. Procedure to increase the buffer length : dbms_output. /*allows the output buffer to be increased to the specified number of bytes */ DECLARE BEGIN dbms_output. END LOOP.400 LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.enable(4000).PUT_LINE(i). ename HAVING ROWNUM > 1 and ROWNUM < 3. set define '~' Index 44. How do you remove Trailing blanks in a spooled file : Change the Environment Options Like this : set trimspool on set trimout on Index Page 63 of 95 .. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column : Set the following to some other character. END.enable(4000). By default it is &.

Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements : Sample :1 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE CNT(P_TABLE_NAME IN VARCHAR2) AS SqlString VARCHAR2(200).'. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING emp_id RETURNING INTO salary. dept_name. sql_stmt := 'INSERT INTO dept VALUES (:1. tot number. dept_name VARCHAR2(14) := ’PERSONNEL’.45. emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE plsql_block USING 7788. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING dept_id.Of Records In ' || P_TABLE_NAME || ' ARE=' || tot). BEGIN SqlString:='SELECT COUNT(*) FROM '|| P_TABLE_NAME. sql_stmt := 'UPDATE emp SET sal = 2000 WHERE empno = :1 RETURNING sal INTO :2'. plsql_block := 'BEGIN emp_pkg. :2. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE SqlString INTO tot. :amt).raise_salary(:id.2).PUT_LINE('Total No. DBMS_OUTPUT. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM dept WHERE deptno = :num' Page 64 of 95 . location VARCHAR2(13) := ’DALLAS’. amt NUMBER)'. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt INTO emp_rec USING emp_id. salary NUMBER(7. Sample :2 DECLARE sql_stmt VARCHAR2(200). 500. dept_id NUMBER(2) := 50. plsql_block VARCHAR2(500). location. :3)'. sql_stmt := 'SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno = :id'. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE TABLE bonus (id NUMBER. emp_id NUMBER(4) := 7566. END. END.

Access: select name from table1 where name like 'k*'.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor).PUT_LINE('Deptartment name: '||v_dname). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_SQL. Index Page 65 of 95 . 'select dname from dept where deptno > :x'. END IF. v_dname. raise_application_error(-20000. ':x'.EXECUTE(v_cursor). BEGIN v_cursor := DBMS_SQL. Index 46. Oracle : will not work there is no such TOP key word. LOOP IF DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS(v_cursor) = 0 THEN EXIT. DBMS_SQL.Differences between SQL and MS-Access : Difference 1: Oracle : select name from table1 where name like 'k%'. END. v_dname).COLUMN_VALUE_CHAR(v_cursor. 'Unknown Exception Raised: '||sqlcode||' '||sqlerrm).PARSE(v_cursor. v_rows integer.BIND_VARIABLE(v_cursor. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. 1.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor). 1.V7). 20). EXECUTE IMMEDIATE ’ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE’.USING dept_id. DBMS_SQL.DEPTNO %TYPE) AS v_cursor integer. Difference 2: Access: SELECT TOP 2 name FROM Table1. DBMS_OUTPUT. END. v_rows := DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_CHAR(v_cursor. no). v_dname char(20). DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. Sample 3 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DEPARTMENTS(NO IN DEPT. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

v_buffer).47.FOPEN(c_path.PUT_LINE(v_buffer). DBMS_OUTPUT. UTL_FILE.VALUE (1. Query to display random number between any two given numbers : SELECT DBMS_RANDOM. v_file_id := UTL_FILE. Procedure to read/write data from a text file : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE read_data AS c_path varchar2(100) := '/usr/tmp'. Query to display all the children. v_file_id utl_file.PUT_LINE(v_file_id. v_buffer varchar2(1022) := This is a sample text’.name FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE organization_id in ( SELECT ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD FROM PER_ORG_STRUCTURE_ELEMENTS CONNECT BY PRIOR ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = ORGANIZATION_ID_PARENT START WITH ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = (SELECT organization_id FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE name = 'EBG Corporate Group')). UTL_FILE. END.FCLOSE(v_file_id). UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path.c_file_name.CSV'.file_type. / Index 49. sub children of a parent : SELECT organization_id.2) FROM DUAL. Index 48. BEGIN v_file_id := UTL_FILE.'r').FCLOSE(v_file_id). Index Page 66 of 95 .GET_LINE(v_file_id. v_buffer). UTL_FILE. c_file_name varchar2(20) := 'EKGSEP01.c_file_name.'w').

I want to take whatever value follows LOT and put it into a different column and whatever value follows CONC and put it into a different column Page 67 of 95 .50. Index 51. How can I get the time difference between two date columns : SELECT FLOOR((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600) || ' HOURS ' || FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60) || ' MINUTES ' || ROUND((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 (FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60))) || ' SECS ' time_difference FROM my_table. Using INSTR and SUBSTR I have this string in a column named location LOT 8 CONC3 RR Using instr and substr.

999.999.99') from dual. 999.'CONC')+3))) from dual Index 52. select substr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR'.text from dba_source where name='ur_procedure' and owner='scott'.123.999.45 select to_number('+999.999. select text from user_source where name = 'X' select text from user_source where type = 'procedure' and name='procedure_name'.select substr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR'.instr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR'. View procedure code select text from all_source where name = 'X' order by line. 's999.99') from dual.999.45'.'CONC')-4) from dual. 999. 's999.99'.999.99'.4.-(length('LOT 8 CONC3 RR')-(instr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR'. select name. Columns of a table column_name from user_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = column_name from all_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP' column_name from dba_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = column_name from cols where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP' - select 'EMP' select select 'EMP' select Index Page 68 of 95 .99') from dual. To convert signed number to number in oracle select to_number('-999.999.999. 123. Index 53.99 select to_number('+0.99 Index 54. 's999.

. Index 56. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN Page 69 of 95 . pos. return l_var.c) not in (select a. begin LOOP if dbms_lob. bfils bfile. How can I delete other rows? delete from 'table' where (a.max(c) from 'table' group by a.b should be unique. l clob. l_var := l_var||buffer. amt BINARY_INTEGER := 4000. pos:=pos+amt.c field.b.read (clob_col. amt.b). Delete rows conditionally I have a table have a. buffer).Exceeding varchar2 field limit'.getlength(clob_col)<=4000 THEN dbms_lob. create or replace function lob_to_char(clob_col clob) return varchar2 IS buffer varchar2(4000).if clob column's data exceeds 4000 limit. a. END LOOP. exit.b.b. and leave max(c) row in. pos INTEGER := 1.55. l_var varchar2(4000):=''. you have to follow different approach. ELSE l_var:= 'Cannot convert to varchar2. END IF.CLOB to Char 1) This function helps if your clob column value not exceed 4000 bytes (varchar2 limit).

varchar_col varchar2(4000)).return l_var.your_column_name dbms_lob. FOR crec IN c1 LOOP amt:=4000. pos:=1. Page 70 of 95 . bfils bfile. SQL> var r refcursor SQL> exec lobpkg.clob_col to crec. CURSOR C1 IS SELECT * FROM clob_tab. amt.clob_col. end. l_var varchar2(4000):=''. -.ref1. l clob. SQL> print r create or replace package lobpkg is type ref1 is ref cursor. r lobpkg. END. buffer). --change next line if you create temporary table with different name insert into temp_tab values (n. / create or replace package body lobpkg is PROCEDURE lob_to_char(rvar IN OUT lobpkg. n number:=0. PROCEDURE lob_to_char(rvar IN OUT lobpkg. pos. 2) CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE temp_tab(id number.lob_to_char(:r). pos INTEGER := 1.ref1) IS buffer varchar2(4000).change clob_tab to your_table_name begin n:=n+1.buffer). BEGIN LOOP --change crec.ref1) .read (crec. amt BINARY_INTEGER := 4000.

--change next line if you create temporary table with different name open rvar for select vchar from temp_tab where id=n. END. DBMS_OUTPUT. Index 58. Page 71 of 95 . EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN NULL. begin DBMS_OUTPUT. Double quoting a Single quoted String declare -. v_str := replace(v_str. end.PUT_LINE ( 'after double quoted v_str= ' || v_str ). Change Settings Open file oracle_home\plus32\glogin. '''''').pos:=pos+amt.we need one here to get a single quote into the variable v_str varchar2 (20) := 'O''reilly''s'. END.sql and add this set linesize 100 set pagewidth 20 and save the file and exit from sql and reload then it will set it.PUT_LINE ( 'original single quoted v_str= ' || v_str ). END. END LOOP. END LOOP. Index 57. ''''.

'dd-Mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss') to_date('11-Jan-2002 11:05:05'.a minus select * from b. Table comparison The table in both the schemas should have exactly the same structure. Running Jobs select * from user_jobs.a and select * from b. Index Page 72 of 95 . Time Conversion CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION to_hms (i_days IN number) RETURN varchar2 IS BEGIN RETURN TO_CHAR (TRUNC (i_days)) &#124&#124 ' days ' &#124&#124 TO_CHAR (TRUNC (SYSDATE) + MOD (i_days. The data in it could be same or different a-b and b-a select * from a. 'HH24:MI:SS'). 1).SQL> / original single quoted v_str= O'reilly's after double quoted v_str= O''reilly''s Index 59.a Index 61. 'dd-Mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss')) from dual. select to_hms(to_date('17-Jan-2002 13:20:20'. Index 60.a minus select * from a. END to_hms. exec dbms_job.remove(job_no).

Index 66.store it somewhere temporarily). U can create an anonymous plsql block or a stored procedure. select round(replace('63. Switching Columns Update tblname Set column1 = column2. 01-jan-2002 last year this month through a select statement select add_months(sysdate.9823874012983 and I want to round it to 63. Create Sequence create sequence sh increment by 1 start with 0. 63. padd.'.62.98 and at the same time change the .'. concat or validate. Replace and Round I have the number e. Cursors cursor is someting like pointers in C language. all this are done in temporary areas called as context area or the cursor area.. u can do any manipulation to the data that is fetched by the cursor. u fetch the data using cursor. to a .'.2) from dual. like trim.( wiz.').like setting up some flags etc. the major advantage Page 73 of 95 . 'y') from dual. U can display the contents of cursor using the dbms_output only. Index 63.9823874012983'.. -12) from dual. Index 64.. First date of the year select trunc(sysdate.g.. Column2 = column1. 05-APR-01 Index 65. u can insert this data again in some other table or do anything u want!!.

72. declare cursor c1 is select * from emp. 70. begin for var in c1 loop exit when c1%notfound.'SUNDAY').sal). set serveroutput on. NEXT_DAY( NEXT_DAY( --------. WHAT IS DATA OR INFORMATION? Ans: The Matter that we feed into the Computer is called Data or Information. next_day(sysdate. dbms_output.--------07-APR-02 13-APR-02 Index 68. end.put_line('the employee' &#124&#124 var.of cursors is that you can fetch more thatn one row and u can loop through the resultset and do the manupulations in a secure manner.ename &#124&#124'draws a salary of '&#124&#124 var. Current Week select next_day(sysdate-7. Index 67.'SATURDAY') from dual. 71. 69. Index Create Query to restrict the user to a single row Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table How to concatenate a column value with multiple rows Query to delete all the tables at once SQL Query for getting Orphan Records : ORACLE FAQs : 1. end loop. Page 74 of 95 .

i. 3. Codd presented 12 rules that a database must obey if it is to be considered truly relational. WHEN CAN WE SAY A DBMS PACKAGE AS RDBMS? Ans: For a system to Qualify as RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT system. 4. View definition. also called as the CODSYL database structure.e. Each tree is made of nodes and branches. b) Information Rule: Tabular Representation of Information. and relationships among data are represented by links. A link is an association between precisely two records. Data is represented by collection of records. no pointers are maintained between tables. Page 75 of 95 . 5. Data manipulation. WHAT ARE HIERARCHICAL.F. The nodes of the tree represent the record types and it is a collection of data attributes entity at that point. AND RELATIONAL DATABASE MODELS? Ans: a) Hierarchical Model: The Hierarchical Model was introduced in the Information Management System (IMS) developed by IBM in 1968. Ans: Dr.. E. c) Guaranteed Access Rule: Uniqueness of tuples for guaranteed accessibility. the relationship of the data. e) Comprehensive Data Sub-Language Rule: QL to support Data definition. b) Network Model: The Network Model.the ‘zero rule’: For a system to Qualify as RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT system. some are as follows a) The rules stem from a single rule. WHAT IS A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) PACKAGE? Ans: The Collection of Interrelated Data and some Programs to access the Data is Called Data Base Management System (DBMS). it must use its RELATIONAL facilities to MANAGE the DATABASE. i. In this data is organized as a tree structure. WHAT IS DATABASE? Ans: The Collection of Interrelated Data is called Data Base. 7. it must use its RELATIONAL facilities to MANAGE the DATABASE. In RDBMS.e. Authorization and Security. is an improvement over the Hierarchical mode. The topmost node in the structure is called the root.2. data is organized in two-dimensional tables consisting of relational. and the behavior of the data (i. 6. Nodes succeeding lower levels are called children. NAME SOME CODD'S RULES. Out those. c) Relational Model: The Relational Database Model eliminates the need for explicit parent-child relationships. Many-to-many relationships can exists between the parent and child.e. the way it interacts with other data). any child can be subordinate to many different parents (or nodes). Integrity. NETWORK. WHAT IS ORDBMS? Ans: Object (oriented) Relational Data Base Management System is one that can store data. in this model concept of parent and child is expanded to have multiple parent-child relationships. d) Missing Information Rule: Systematic representation of missing information as NULL values.

referred to as an attribute. Of clients. 3-TIER OR N-TIER DATABASE ARCHITECTURES? Ans: 1-Tier Database Architecture is based on single system. Entity relationship is technique for analysis and logical modeling of a system’s data requirements. which acts as both server and client. 3-Tier Architecture is based on one server and client out that on client act as a remote system. WHAT IS ER-MODELING? Ans: The E-R modeling technique is the Top Down Approach. Ans: Entity: An Entity is a thing. The Second Normal Form 2NF. AND RECORD? Ans: Table: A Table is a database object that holds your data. their attributes and the relationship that exists between the entities. 9. It uses three basic units: entities. concept or activity about which an enterprise records data. 2-TIER. Column: A column. It uses a graphical notation for representing these. WHAT IS DATA MODELING? Ans: Data Modeling describes relationship between the data objects. WHAT ARE VARIOUS NORMAL FORMS OF DATA? Ans: The First Normal Form 1NF. place. WHAT IS NORMALIZATION? Ans: Normalization is a step-by-step decomposition of complex records into simple records. which can be easily identified. The Third Normal Form 3NF. 15. WHAT ARE 1-TIER. 11. It is made up of many columns. COLUMN. WHAT ARE A TABLE. 12. It is the most widely used and has gained acceptance as the ideal database design. The relationships between the collections of data in a system may be graphically represented using data modeling. The Boyce and Codd Normal Form BC NF. Each of these columns has a data type associated with it. person.8. is similar to a field in the file system. 14. WHAT IS DENORMALIZATION? Ans: The intentional introduction of redundancy to a table to improve performance is called DENORMALIZATION. 2-Tier Architecture is based on one server and client. ATTRIBUTE AND RELATIONSHIP. Relationship: Relationship is an association among entities. 10. Of servers and N no. 13. Page 76 of 95 . An entity is any object. DEFINE ENTITY. Attribute: An attribute is the property of a given entity. N-Tier Architecture is based on N no.

23.TRUNCATE OR DELETE? WHY? Ans: Delete is the efficient command because using this command we can delete only those records that are not really required. usually referred to as tuple./ which concerts what to do rather than how to do any process. CLASSIFICATION OF SQL COMMANDS? Ans: DDL (Data Definition Language) DML (Data Manipulating Language) DCL (Data Control Language) DTL(Data Transaction Language) Create Alter Drop Select Insert Update Delete Rollback Commit Grant Revoke 19. 25. 21. WHAT ARE RULES FOR NAMING A TABLE OR COLUMN? Ans: 1) Names must be from 1 to 30 bytes long. 16.Record: A row. 4th generation Language. 20. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PROCEDURAL LANGUAGE AND A NONPROCEDURAL LANGUAGE? Ans: Procedural Language NON-Procedural Language A program in this implements a step-by-step algorithm to solve the problem. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPDATE AND ALTER COMMANDS? Ans: Alter command is used to modify the database objects where as the Update command is used to modify the values of a data base objects. Page 77 of 95 .WHAT TYPE OF LANGUAGE "SQL" IS? Ans: SQL is a Non-procedural. WHICH IS AN EFFICIENT COMMAND . WHAT ARE COMMANDS OF TCL CATEGORY? Ans: Grant and Revoke are the two commands belong to the TCL Category. 24. 22. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUNCATE AND DELETE COMMANDS? Ans: Truncate Command will delete all the records where as Delete Command will delete specified or all the records depending only on the condition given. is similar to record in the file system. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRANSACTION AND A QUERY? Ans: A Transaction is unit of some commands where as Query is a single line request for the information from the database. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DDL AND DML COMMANDS? Ans: For DDL commands autocommit is ON implicitly whereas For DML commands autocommit is to be turned ON explicitly. It contains what to do but not how to do 17. 18.

4) Multiple LOB columns per table or LOB attributes in an object type. Nclob. Varchar2 (size). WHAT IS RANGE FOR EACH DATATYPE OF SQL? Page 78 of 95 . 3) Names are not case sensitive. 6) A name must be unique across its namespace. 3) LONGs support only sequential access. Number (n). But these characters are discouraged. 5) A name cannot be ORACLE reserved word. Objects in the name space must have different names. HOW MUCH MEMORY IS ALLOCATED FOR DATE DATATYPE? WHAT IS DEFAULT DATE FORMAT IN ORACLE? Ans: For Date data type oracle allocates 7 bytes Memory. 30. Long. Number. Bfile for large objects. Number (precision. 26. 1) The maximum size is 2GB. 4) Only one LONG column was allowed in a table 29. Float. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT DATATYPES SUPPORTED BY SQL? Ans: Char (size). Blob. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHAR AND VARCHAR2 DATATYPES? Ans: Varchar2 is similar to Char but can store variable no. Raw (size). Of characters and while querying the table varchar2 trims the extra spaces from the column and fetches the rows that exactly match the criteria. 28. Long Raw. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LONG AND LOB DATATYPES? Ans: LOB LONG 1) The maximum size is 4GB. Clob. Nchar (size). scale). 27. 31. Nvarchar2 (size) data types for character values. 2) LONGs cannot. 2) LOBs (except NCLOB) can be attributes of an object type. 4) A name must begin with an alphabetic character from your database character set and the characters $ and #. Default Date Format is: DD-MON-YY. 3) LOBs support random access to data.2) Names cannot contain quotation marks. HOW MANY COLUMNS CAN A TABLE HAVE? Ans: A Table can have 1000 columns. 7) A name can be enclosed in double quotes. Date data type for date values. Float (binary precision) data types for numerical values.

34. ii.There r two levels 1)Column-level constraints 2)Table-level constraints. Unique. 36. HOW TO DECREASE SIZE OR CHANGE DATATYPE OF A COLUMN? Ans: To Decrease the size of a Data type of a column i. Truncate the table first. HOW TO RENAME A COLUMN? Ans: We can’t rename a Column of a table directly. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UNIQUE+NOT NULL AND PRIMARY KEY? Ans: Unique and Not Null is a combination of two Constraints that can be present any number of times in a table and can’t be a referential key to any column of an another table where as Primary Key is single Constraint that can be only once for table and can be a referential key to a column of another table becoming a referential integrity. WHAT IS A CONSTRAINT? WHAT ARE ITS VARIOUS LEVELS? Ans: Constraint: Constraints are representators of the column to enforce data entity and consistency. So we follow the following steps. Ans: Not Null. 35. 38.Ans: Datatype Range Char Varchar2 Number Float LONG. c) drop the old column. LONGRAW Large Objects (LOB’s) 2000 bytes 4000 bytes Precision 1 to 38 Scale -84 to 127 Precision 38 decimals Or 122 binary precision 2 GB 4GB 32. Primary Key and Foreign Key or Referential Integrity. Alter the table column whose size is to be decreased using the same name and data type but new size. b) Then copy the values in the column to be renamed into new column. To Rename a Column: a) Alter the table specifying new column name to be given and data type. 33. 37. RAW. WHAT IS A CANDIDATE COLUMN? HOW MANY CANDIDATE COLUMNS CAN BE POSSIBLE PER COMPOSITE PRIMARY KEY? Page 79 of 95 . WHAT IS A COMPOSITE PRIMARY KEY? Ans: A Primary key created on combination of columns is called Composite Primary Key. LIST OUT ALL THE CONSTRAINTS SUPPORTED BY SQL. Check.

HOW TO DEFINE A NULL VALUE? Ans: A NULL value is something which is unavailable. WHAT IS A PSEUDO-COLUMN? NAME SOME PSEUDO-COLUMNS OF ORACLE? Ans: Columns that are not created explicitly by the user and can be used explicitly in queries are Page 80 of 95 . WHAT IS CREATED IMPLICITLY FOR EVERY UNIQUE AND PRIMARY KEY COLUMNS? Ans: Index. WHAT ARE LIMITATIONS OF CHECK CONSTRAINT? Ans: In this we can't specify Pseudo Columns like sysdate etc. 44. 42. it is neither zero nor a space and any mathematical calculation with NULL is always NULL. WHAT IS "ON DELETE CASCADE"? Ans: when this key word is included in the definition of a child table then whenever the records from the parent table is deleted automatically the respective values in the child table will be deleted. 50. WHAT IS NULL? A CONSTRAINT OR DEFAULT VALUE? Ans: It is a default value. WHAT IS PARENT-CHILD OR MASTER-DETAIL RELATIONSHIP? Ans: A table which references a column of another table(using References)is called as a child table(detail table) and a table which is being referred is called Parent (Master) Table . 45. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REFERENCES AND FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINT? Ans: References is used as column level key word where as foreign key is used as table level constraint. 40. 47. HOW TO DROP A PARENT TABLE WHEN IT’S CHILD TABLE EXISTS? Ans: Using "on delete cascade". 43. IS ORACLE CASE SENSITIVE? Ans: NO 49. HOW ORACLE IDENTIFIES EACH RECORD OF TABLE UNIQUELY? Ans: By Creating indexes and reference IDs. 41. 48.Ans: 39. WHAT IS DEFAULT VALUE FOR EVERY COLUMN OF A TABLE? Ans: NULL. 46.

WHAT IS A CORRELATED SUB QUERY. MIN.nextval. If a sub query produces any result then it evaluates it to TRUE else it evaluates it to FALSE. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COUNT (). which on execution uses a value from a column in the outer query. result of inner query will be 58. Ref () is SQL operator. SUM. of rows in a table."ALL". the column value used in inner query refers to the column value present in the outer query forming a correlated subquery. NAME SOME AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS OF SQL? Ans: AVG. All: ALL compares a value to every value returned by SQL."SOME". 54. WHAT FOR "ORDER BY" CLAUSE FOR A QUERY? Ans: To arrange the query result in a specified order(ascending. Page 81 of 95 . WHAT IS A SUB-QUERY? Ans: A query within a query is called a sub query where the used by the outer query. In normal sub query the result of inner query is dynamically substituted in the condition of the outer query where as in a correlated subquery. HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM A NORMAL SUB QUERY? Ans: A correlated subquery is a nested subquery. MAX. 53. 55.descending) by default it takes ascending order. 51. Exists: This operator produces a BOOLWAN results. WHAT IS "GROUP BY" QUERIES? Ans: To group the query results based on condition. EXPLAIN "ANY". 59. 52. 56. COUNT (*) FUNCTIONS? Ans: Count () will count the specified column whereas count (*) will count total no.sysdate…. 57."EXISTS" OPERATORS? Ans: Any: The Any (or it’s synonym SOME) operator computes the lowest value from the set and compares a value to each returned by a sub query. which is executed once for each ‘Candidate row’ by the main query. Ex:currval. WHAT ARE SQL OPERATORS? Ans: Value ().called Pseudo-Columns.COUNT. WHAT FOR ROLLUP AND CUBE OPERATORS ARE? Ans: To get subtotals and grand total of values of a column.

63. NAME SOME NUMBER. n). 65. Floor (m). Ceil (m). Ans: Number Functions: Round (m. WHAT IS A JOIN . DATE. RIGHT OUTER JOIN? Ans:If there r any values in one table that do not have corresponding values in the other. Trunc (m.TYPES OF JOINS? Ans: A join is used to combine two or more tables logically to get query results. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEFT. CHARACTER.in an equi join that row will not be selected. INTERSECT or MINUS is called SET OPERATORS. Power (m. WHAT ARE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AN EQUI-JOIN? Ans: There shold be atleast one common column between the joining tables. 61. 62. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EQUI AND SELF JOINS? Ans: SELF JOIN is made within the table whereas EQUI JOIN is made between different tables having common column. Abs (m). Sqrt. n) Character Functions: Chr (x) Page 82 of 95 . WHAT ARE "SET" OPERATORS? Ans: UNION. There are four types of Joins namely EQUI Join NON-EQUI Join SELF Join OUTER Join.60. 64. OTHER FUNCTIONS.Such rows can be forcefully selected by using outer join symbol(+) on either of the sides(left or right) based on the requirement. [n]). CONVERSION. Mod (m. 66. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "UNION" AND "UNION ALL" OPERATORS? Ans: UNION will return the values distinctly whereas UNION ALL will return even duplicate values. [n]).

d2) To_char (d. Conversion Functions: To_char To_date To_number 67. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUBSTR () AND INSTR () FUNCTIONS? Ans: Substr() will return the specified part of a string whereas Instr() return the position of the specified part of the string. Of days between January 1. Page 83 of 95 . WHAT FOR DECODE () FUNCTION IS? Ans: It is substitutes value basis and it actually does an 'if-then-else' test.Concert (string1. day). WHAT IS A JULIAN DAY NUMBER? Ans: It will return count of the no. 70. string2) Lower (string) Upper (string) Substr (string. 68. Date Functions: sysdate Months between (d1. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MAX () AND GREATEST () FUNCTIONS? Ans: MAX is an aggregate function which takes only one column name of a table as parameter whereas Greatest is a general function which can take any number of values and column names from dual and table respectively. WHAT FOR NVL () FUNCTION IS? Ans: NVL Function helps in substituting a value in place of a NULL. 4712 BC and the given date. to_str) ASCII (string) Length (string) Initcap (string). 71. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSLATE () AND REPLACE () FUNCTIONS? Ans: Translate() is a superset of functionality provided by Replace(). from_str. 72. format) Last day (d) Next_day (d. 69.

Currval are the Pseudo Columns associated with the sequence. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TO_DATE () AND TO_CHAR () CONVERSION FUNCTIONS? Ans: To_date converts character date to date format whereas To_char function converts date or numerical values to characters.73. 74. 81. WHAT IS AN INDEX? ADVANTAGE OF AN INDEX Ans: An Index is a database object used n Oracle to provide quick access to rows in a table. 76. 75. 80. WHAT IS A CLUSTER? WHEN TO USE A CLUSTER? HOW TO DROP A CLUSTER WHEN CLUSTERED TABLE EXISTS? Ans: Cluster and Indexes are transparent to the user. **83. 79. 82. View is saved as a select statement in the database and contains no physical data whereas Table exists physically. HOW TO UPDATE A COMPLEX VIEW? Ans: Using 'INSTEAD OF' TRIGGERS Complex views can be Updated. It is not a schema object like SQL-object. WHAT IS A SEQUENCE? PSEUDO-COLUMNS ASSOCIATED WITH SEQUENCE? Ans: Sequence is a Database Object used to generate unique integers to use as primary keys. 78. 77. When cluster Page 84 of 95 . which exists logically but contains no physical data and manipulates the base table. An Index increases the performance of the database. WHAT FOR "WITH CHECK OPTION" FOR A VIEW? Ans: "WITH CHECK OPTION" clause specifies that inserts and updates r performed through the view r not allowed to create rows which the view cannot select and therefore allows integrity constraints and data validation checks to be enforced on data being inserted or updated. HOW TO INSERT DATE AND TIME INTO A DATE COLUMN? Ans: By using format 'dd-mon-yy hh [hh24]: mi: ss' in to_date() function. WHAT IS AN INLINE VIEW? Ans: Inline view is basically a subquery with an alias that u can use like a view inside a SQL statement. WHAT IS A VIEW? HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM A TABLE? Ans: View is database object. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIMPLE AND COMPLEX VIEWS? Ans: Simple views can be modified whereas Complex views(created based on more than one table) cannot be modified. HOW TO DISPLAY TIME FROM A DATE DATA? Ans: By using time format as 'hh [hh24]: mi: ss' in to_char() function. Nextval. Clustering is a method of storing tables that are intimately related and are often joined together into the same area on the disk.

89. SPOOL OUT. Select. sequence. 84. WHAT ARE SYSTEM AND OBJECT PRIVILEGES? Ans: Connect and Resource etc are System Privileges. 86. Create <object>. WHAT IS A SNAPSHOT OR MATERIALIZED VIEW? Ans: Materialized views can be used to replicate data. 87. view. procedure. / are SQL*PLUS COMMANDS. HOW TO CHANGE PASSWORD OF A USER? Ans: Using Password command or Using ALTER USER <user name> IDENTIFIED BY <new password> COMAND. BREAK ON. 90. 92. WHAT ARE "SQL*PLUS REPORTING" COMMANDS? Ans: SPOOL file-name. GET. 91. A schema is owned Page 85 of 95 . BTITLE. Query performance is improved using the materialized view as these views pre calculate expensive joins and aggregate operations on the table. or schema objects. It is an alias for a table. snapshot. Alter etc are Object Privileges. Earlier the data was replicated through CREATE SNAPSHOT command. Rollback are DCL commands.table exists then to drop cluster we have to drop the table first then only cluster is to be dropped. WHAT FOR DCL COMMANDS ARE? Ans: Commit. COMPUTE <any aggregate function> OF <column name> [break] ON <column name> etc are SQL*PLUS REPORTING COMMANDS. 85. WHAT FOR GRANT COMMAND WITH "WITH GRANT OPTION"? Ans: “With Grant Option” with Grant Command gives privileges to the user to grant privileges to other user(s) among the privileges he/she has. TTITLE. **88. WHAT IS A SCHEMA AND SCHEMA OBJECTS? Ans: A schema is a collection of logical structures of data. Insert. SAVE. Now CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW can be used as synonym for CREATE SNAPSHOT. 93. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "SQL" AND "SQL*PLUS" COMMANDS? Ans: SQL commands are stored in the buffer whereas SQL*PLUS are not. START. WHAT IS A SYNONYM? Ans: A Synonym is a database object that allows you to create alternate names for Oracle tables and views. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SYNONYM? Ans: Only the user or table owner can reference Private synonym whereas any user can reference the Public synonym. 94. NAME SOME SQL*PLUS COMMANDS? Ans: DESC [CRIBE]. function or package.

PAGE SIZE AND SQL PROMPT? Ans: By using SET LINESIZE <value>. 101. WHAT IS A PL/SQL BLOCK? Ans: DECLARE <declarations> Page 86 of 95 . HOW PL/SQL IS DIFFERENT FROM SQL? Ans: SQL is non-procedural language whereas PL/SQL is procedural language that includes features and design of programming language. HOW TO DISPLAY DATA PAGE WISE IN SQL? Ans: By using SET PAUSE ON command. Synonyms. Database Links. Database Triggers. Packages. Views. HOW TO STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN ORACLE DATABASE? Ans: Startup and Shutdown Oracle database can be done by only the administator.by the database user and has the same name as that of user. WHAT IS A CLIENT PROCESS? WHAT IS A SERVER PROCESS? Ans: ref: 172 Q & A. WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE OF PL/SQL? Ans: 103. WHAT IS A SESSION? Ans: The period between Login and Logoff on schema. Indexes. Startup is done by using STARTUP command and Shutdown is done by SHUTDOWN command 96. Schema objects include following type of objects Clusters. Tables. SET PAGESIZE <value>. 97. HOW TO MAKE EVERY DML OPERATION AS AUTO COMMIT? Ans: By using SET AUTOCOMMIT ON command. Functions. Sequences. 102. 98. 99. **95. 100. HOW TO CHANGE LINE SIZE. Each user owns a single schema. Procedures. SET SQLPROMPT <new prompt>.

This block is also very optional. Fetch values from SQL into the local Variables. EXCEPTION BLOCK: In this block all the exceptions are handled. WHAT IS SCOPE OF A VARIABLE IN PL/SQL BLOCK? Ans: The visuability and accessibility of a variable within the block(s) is called scope of a variable. Page 87 of 95 . 106. statement. BEGIN BLOCK: In this block all the executable statements are placed. WHAT IS A PL/SQL ENGINE? Ans: The PL/SQL engine accepts any valid PL/SQL block as input. WHAT IS A NESTED BLOCK? Ans: A block within a block is called Nested Block. Open the Cursor. Tables are two Composite data types. 105. WHAT IS A CURSOR? STEPS TO USE A CURSOR? Ans: Cursor is Private SQL area in PL/SQL. 109. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIMPLE LOOP AND A FOR LOOP? Ans: Simple requires declaration of variables used in it and exit condition but For Loop doesn’t require this. END: Every begin must be ended with this END. executes the procedural part of the statements and sends the SQL statements to the SQL statement executor in the Oracle server. 107. 104. 108. If no variables are used this block will become optional.BEGIN <Exececutable Statements> EXCEPTION <Exception Handler(s)> END. Declare the Cursor. 111. WHAT IS DEFAULT VALUE FOR A NUMERIC PL/SQL VARIABLE? Ans: NULL 110. WHAT ARE COMPOSITE DATA TYPES? Ans: Records. This block is Mandatory. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PL/SQL BLOCKS? Ans: DECLARE BLOCK: In this block all the declarations of the variable used in the program is made.

Ans: Too_Many_Rows No_Data_Found Zero_Divide Not_Logged_On Storage_Error Value_Error etc. RAISE <exception name>. WHAT IS A CURSOR FOR LOOP? Ans: Cursor For Loop is shortcut process for Explicit Cursors because the Cursor is Open. .. Explicit Cursor.. 116. WHAT IS AN EXCEPTION? HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM ERROR? Ans: Whenever an error occurs Exception raises. 114. 117. NAME SOME BUILT-IN EXCEPTIONS...-.. Rows are fetched once for each iteration and the cursor is closed automatically when all the rows have been processed... ---------.. HOW TO CREATE A USER-DEFINED EXCEPTION? Ans: User-Defined Exception is created as follows: DECLARE <exception name> EXCEPTION. 112.. 115.. ... 113. WHAT IS USE OF CURSOR WITH "FOR UPDATE OF" CLAUSE? Ans: This Clause stop accessing of other users on the particular columns used by the cursor until the COMMIT is issued.. BEGIN . 118..Close the Cursor. EXCEPTION Page 88 of 95 .-... HOW MANY TYPES OF CURSORS ARE SUPPORTED BY ORACLE? Ans: There are two types of cursors namely Implicit Cursor.. Error is a bug whereas the Exception is a warning or error condition... WHAT ARE CURSOR ATTRIBUTES? Ans: %Found %NotFound %IsOpen %RowCount are the cursor attributes...-.

. 124. WHAT IS A SUB-PROGRAM? Ans: A SUBPROGRAM IS A PL/SQL BLOCK.. 123. 127. END. OUT. is called IN OUT parameter.. 122. WHAT IS ADVANTAGE OF PACKAGE OVER PROCEDURE OR FUNCTION? Ans: Packages provides Functions or Procedures Overloading facility and security to those Functions or Procedures.. WHAT IS "IN OUT" PARAMETER? Ans: A parameter. WHAT IS SCOPE OF EXCEPTION HANDLING IN NESTED BLOCKS? Ans: Exception scope will be with in that block in which exception handler is written. DOES ORACLE SUPPORTS PROCEDURE OVERLOADING? Ans: NO. HOW A PROCEDURE IS DIFFERENT FROM A FUNCTION? Ans: Function has return key word and returns a value whereas a Procedure doesn’t return any value... 119.. WHICH WILL BE INVOKED BY TAKING PARAMATERS. WHAT IS "OTHERS" EXCEPTION? Ans: It is used to along with one or more exception handlers. . which gets value into the Procedure or Function and takes the value out of the Procedure or Function area. WHAT IS A PACKAGE AND PACKAGE BODY? Ans: Package is declarative part of the functions and procedures stored in that package and package body is the definition part of the functions and procedures of that package. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUB-PROGRAMS? Ans: THEY R TWO TYPES: 1) PROCEDURE 2) FUNCION. Page 89 of 95 . 125..WHEN <exception name> THEN .. 126.-. 120. This will handle all the errors not already handled in the block. 128.... 121.-. WHAT ARE TYPES OF PARAMETERS THAT CAN BE PASSED TO FUNCTION OR PROCEDURE? Ans: IN. IN OUT...

Update and Delete on those Views. WHAT ARE AUTONOMOUS TRIGGERS? Ans: 136.129. 130. ** 135. WHAT IS AN "INSTEAD OF" TRIGGER? Ans: These Triggers are used with the Complex Views only to make possible of Insert. HOW MANY TRIGGERS CAN BE CONFIGURED ON A TABLE AND VIEW? Ans: 138. WHAT IS "TABLE MUTATING" ERROR? HOW TO SOLVE IT? Ans: ORA-04091: Table name is mutating. 131. WHAT IS A TRIGGER? HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM A PROCEDURE? Ans: Trigger: A Trigger is a stored PL/SQL program unit associated with a specific database table. Action : Rewrite the trigger or function so it does not read the table. trigger/function may not see it Cause : A trigger or a user-defined PL/SQL function that is referenced in the statement attempted to query or modify a table that was in the middle of being modified by the statement that fired the trigger. ** 137. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT EVENTS FOR A TRIGGER AND THEIR SCOPES? Ans: Insert. DOES ORACLE SUPPORTS RECURSIVE FUNCTION CALLS? Ans: YES. 133. IS IT POSSIBLE TO HAVE A PROCEDURE AND A FUNCTION WITH THE SAME NAME? Ans: NO if it is out side a Package. The prefix :new is a Page 90 of 95 . WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TABLE LEVEL AND ROW LEVEL TRIGGERS? Ans: Table level Triggers execute once for each table based transaction whereas Row level Triggers will execute once FOR EACH ROW. WHEN TO USE ":NEW" AND ":OLD" SPECIFIERS? Ans: The prefix :old is used to refer to values already present in the table. 134. 139. Update or Delete. 132. Procedure: A Procedure is to be explicitly called by the user whereas Triggers are automatically called implicitly by Oracle itself whenever event Occurs. YES if it is within a Package. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRIGGER AND A CONSTRAINT? Ans: Constraints are always TRUE whereas Triggers are NOT always TRUE and Constraints has some limitations whereas Trigger has no limitations.

) Command 145. WHAT IS A CONDITIONAL TRIGGER? Ans: ** 141.. WHAT IS A COLLECTION OF ORACLE? Ans: Varray. **143.. WHAT IS A COLUMN OBJECT AND TABLE OBJECT? Ans: A Column Object is only a Column of a table. HOW TO MODIFY CONTENTS OF A VARRAY IN ORACLE? Ans: To modify a stored VARRAY it has to selected into a PL/SQL variable and then inserted back into the table.correlation name that refers to the new value that is inserted / updated. 151. WHAT IS USE OF "THE" OPERATOR FOR NESTED TABLE? Ans: THE operator allows nested tables to be manipulated using DML when it is stored in a Page 91 of 95 . HOW TO GRANT PERMISSION ON AN OBJECT TO OTHER USER? Ans: GRANT <permission> ON <object name> TO <user name>. 147. Nested tables can carry any number of values. 150. HOW TO CREATE A USER-DEFINED VARIABLE IN PL/SQL? Ans: 142. ** 140. HOW TO MAKE A USER-DEFINED DATA TYPE GLOBAL IN PL/SQL? Ans: 144. 149. 148. HOW TO CREATE AN ARRAY VARIABLE IN PL/SQL? Ans: Using CREATE [OR REPLACE] TYPE <type name> AS VARRAY (size) OF ELEMENT_TYPE (NOT NULL) Command. **146. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VARRAY AND NESTED TABLE? Ans: Varray has a fixed size. HOW TO CREATE AN OBJECT IN ORACLE? Ans: Using CREATE [OR REPLACE] TYPE <type name> AS OBJECT (ATTRIBUTE NAME DATA TYPE. Object created on execution of PL/SQL block is called Transient Object. Nested Table is a collection of Oracle. WHAT IS A TRANSIENT AND PERSISTENT OBJECT? Ans: The Object created in a table is called Persistent Object.

** 156. WHAT IS PHYSICAL MEMORY STRUCTURE OF ORACLE? Ans: The basic oracle memory structure associated with Oracle includes: Software Code Areas The System Global Area (SGA) The Database Buffer Cache The shared Pool The Program Global Areas (PGA) Page 92 of 95 . WHICH PACKAGE IS USED FOR FILE INPUT/OUTPUT IN ORACLE? Ans: UTL_FILE Package is used for File input/output in Oracle. 152. There are two types Iterators namely Named Iterator and Positional Iterator. WHAT IS PARALLEL PROCESSING? Ans: 159. 153.Table. 158. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT STEPS TO WRITE A DYNAMIC SQL PROGRAM? Ans: Eg: char c_sqlstring[]={“DELETE FROM sailors WHERE rating>5”}. 157. Partitioning is a “divide and conquer” strategy that improves administration and performance in data warehouse and OLTP systems. EXEC SQL PREPARE readytogo FROM :c_sqlstring. WHAT IS AN ITERATOR? Name some TYPES OF ITERATORS? Ans: SQLJ Iterators are basically record groups generated during transaction. NAME SOME METHODS AND PROCEDURES OF FILE I/O PACKAGE? Ans: FOPEN FCLOSE FFLUSH IS_OPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE PUTF NEW_LINE **154. EXEC SQL EXECUTE readytogo. WHAT IS TABLE PARTITIONING AND INDEX PARTITIONING? Ans: Oracle8 allows tables and Indexes to be partitioned or broken up into smaller parts based on range of key values. WHAT IS SQLJ? HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM JDBC CONNECTIVITY? Ans: SQLJ is basically a Java program containing embedded static SQL statements that are compatible with Java design philosophy. which requires manipulation of more than one records from one or more tables. 155.

DATA DATA INDEX Ans: Database Tablespace DB Object Segment Extends 161. **165. IF the multiple users are concurrently connected to the same instance. .Stack Areas Data Areas Sort Areas 160. WHAT IS SGA? Ans: A System Global Area is a group of shared memory allocated by Oracle that contains data and control information for one Oracle database instance. WHAT IS LOGICAL MEMORY STRUCTURE OF ORACLE? DB_STG STUDENT SYSTEM EMP DEPT EMP_IND …. the SGA is often referred to as either the “system Global Area” or the “Shared Global Area”. The information in a PGA depends on the configuration of Oracle. In a multiple instance system (one that uses the parallel server). 162. A process normally has its own private memory area in which it runs. the data in the instance’s SGA is “shared” among the users. **166. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT ORACLE PROCESSES? Ans: A process is a “thread of control” or a mechanism in an operating system that can be execute a series of steps. SMON of one instance can also perform instance recovery other instance that have failed whereas The PMON (Process Monitor) performs process recovery when a user process fails. An Oracle database system has general types of process: User Processes and Oracle Processes. WHAT IS AN ORACLE INSTANCE? Ans: Every time a database is started.. 164. 163.. The combination of these processes and memory buffers is called an Oracle instance. WHAT IS PGA? Ans: The Program Global Area is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PMON AND SMON? Ans: SMON (System Monitor) performs instance recovery at instance of startup. an SGA is allocated and Oracle background processes are started. A PGA is created by Oracle when a server process is started. Some operating systems use terms jobs or task. Consequently. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DATABASE AND TABLESPACE? Page 93 of 95 .

ARCH is active only when a database’s redo log is used ARCHILOG mode. WHAT IS A SELF REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY? Ans: 174. A multithread server configuration allows many user processes to share a small number of server processes. WHAT IS RECOVERER? Ans: The Recover (RECO) is used to resolve distributed transactions that are pending due to network or system failure in a distributed database. Other processes call ORACLE processes. ** 171. In a dedicated server configuration. WHAT IS A "RAISE" STATEMENT? Ans: It is used to Raise Exceptions. WHAT IS A STORED QUERY? Ans: 172. 170. WHAT IS USER PROCESS AND SERVER PROCESS? Ans: A User process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program (such as PRO * Program) or an ORACLE tool (such as SQL * DBA). Page 94 of 95 . the local RECO attempts to concept to remote database and automatically complete the commit or rollback of the local portion of any pending distributed transactions. As transactions commit and log buffer fills. Redo log data is generated in the redo log buffer of the SGA. **173. a server Process handles requests for a single user process. 168.Ans: 167. WHAT IS ARCHIVER? Ans: The Archiver (ARCH) copies the online redo log files to archival storage when they are full. WHAT IS JOB OF LOG WRITER (LGWR) PROC*SS? Ans: The Log Writer writes redo log files to disk. WHAT IS JOB OF DATABASE WRITER (DBWR) PROCESS? Ans: The Data Base Writer writes modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the data files. minimizing the utilization of available system resources. The User process also manages the communication with server processes. 169. User processes communication with the server processes through the program interface. LGWR writes redo entries into an online redo log file. At timed intervals.

salary) from employee a where 4=(select count(distinct(b.salary)) from employee b where a. select distinct(d.175.salary)). Page 95 of 95 .salary <= b.salary > (select distinct(a. WHAT IS ROWID? HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM ROWNUM? Ans: Rowid is the address of the row at where it is stored in the database. Rownum is count of records whereas Rowid is identification of the each row.salary) from employee d where d.

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