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PK 2971.B581S96
History of the caliphs

3 1924 023 164 654
















Extensive as


the reputation of as Suydti as a distinguished author


and unsurpassed for the number and range of the works which in every branch of literature known to his age, his unwearied pen never

ceased to produce,


are indebted to the malice or envy of but one

of his

contemporaries and to his


testimony, for the




and studies that we possess. Eeference to one or other of his multitudinous volumes is made by writers of his own and succeeding times where
the kindred subject of which they treat naturally
calls for

but only one

contemporary biographical notice of him besides his own, these I shall presently refer.



Haji Khalifah, at the close of his Lexicon, gives a detailed list of as Suyuti's works, prefaced by a column of laudatory epithets which have less the ring of sincere admiration than of conventional panegyric, yet hia

wonder or


envy might well


the incense

of adulation



astonishing author of five hundred and four volumes.

Kuranic exegesis,

Tradition and its cognate subjects, jurisprudence, philology, rhetoric, prose and poetical composition, the phenomena of nature, curiosities of literature, discourses on social questions, criticism, history, biography, all these were fields not too vast for his discursive intelligence and none too minute for his
indefatigable industry.


of his compositions are indeed, nothing more

than pamphlets of smaller compass than many an article of a modern Eeview, but a considerable number, to judge from some of those, about one-fifth of the whole, that have come down to us, must have been of goodly bulk.
It would doubtless have been better for his reputation as it would assuredly have been more profitable to the generality of his readers, had he confined his labours to the production of a few works of universal interest and

written for posterity rather than for his day.

By far

the greater part of

his writings were on subjects which have no interest to a European student. Two hundred and six works on Tradition and ninety-one on Jurisprudence would, it might be supposed, have been thoroughly exhaustive

had not another


been previously written regarding them, yet this




was the contribution of but one author to the store of countless volumes that had already preceded his labours and had been forgotten, to be followed by others as countless and as unreraembered.

However much we may
which as Suyuti
his course of study,

regret this misapplied


the age in

lived, naturally


his literary tastes

and influenced

and he but reflected its spirit in seeking pre-eminence among the scholarly and erudite of his nation after the manner in which they had attained it. Legal studies, inseparably connected as they are with the religion of the Moslems, were of the utmost consequence from the
very infancy of Islam, and at a time when the Crescent waved from the pillars of Hercules to the steppes of Tartary, they formed a necessary
part of the education of

cultured minds.

Every Moslem author or nearly,

every one with

whom we

are acquainted, was either a recognized doctor

of jurisprudence or

had studied

under some one of

famous masters.

was founded but we read that its first chairs were those of Tradition and Law. Other branches of knowledge were indeed, far from Grammar, Medicine and the complicated problems of Inheritance neglected. were cultivated with assiduity and success, but with the exception of the first mentioned of this Eastern Trivium, which is rather an instrument of knowledge than an end in itself, they occupied, the second place. In the



bank of the Tigris at Baghdad by the Caliph al Mustan^ir and endowed by his splendid munificence, provision was first made, as as Suyliti tells us, for Chairs of the The next was that of Tradition, four great Schools of Muhammadan law. the third of Grammar, followed by professorships of Medicine and the Law
great Mustansiriyah College built on the eastern
of Inheritance.


Slane in his Introduction to Ibn Khallikan's Biogra-

phical Dictionary has described the system of education pursued during

the times of which
his labours as he

we write. The young student, he by learning the Kuran by heart, and as many



of the traditions

acquaintance with

was able to acquire at his native place to this he joined a slight grammar and some knowledge of poetry. On attaining

the age of fourteen or sixteen, he began his travels and visited the great

where he learnt traditions and received certificates of licence to relate them, from eminent traditionists. He then followed the courses of lectures held in the mosques or colleges, and generally attached himself to one of the professors. He there learnt by heart the most approved works on the dogmas of religion, and studied their commentaries under the
tuition of his master.


acquired a knowledge of the different readings

orthodox interpretation, whilst he pursued the of study of ancient poetry and philology, grammar and rhetoric. The secondthe Kuran and
of its

ary points of jurisprudence, forming the doctrines of the school to which he belonged, next became the object of his study and an acquaintance with







completed his education.

Having obtained from

his professors, certificates of capacity



teach the

works he

had mastered, he was


for the

posts of preacher, Kddhi, Mufti,


or professor.

so universal in its adoption and so rigidly upheld by learned opinion as the sole method of orthodox mental discipline, profitable

Under a system

as a

means of worldly advancement
studies to

as well as

the most


for the

soul, it is not surprising that the literary efi'orts of as


should bear

principally upon those was attached by his

which such an exaggerated importance and Tradition already mentioned, his commentaries and writings on the Kuran

Besides the treatises on Jurisprudence




Grammar and Ehetoric



of his volumes.

Seventy-six were his contribution to general literature,

and thirty-three were devoted to history and biography.
fied list of his writings,





are indebted to his

own autobiography

in his

well-known work entitled Husn al Muhadhirah fi akhbar i'l Misr wa'l Kahirah (agreeable colloquy on Misr and Cairo'). This autobiography has been published with a Latin version by Albert Meursinge in the Prolegomena to his edition of as Suyuti's Tabakat u'l Mufassirin {Classes of the Interpreters of the Kurdn). But as it is a work not easily accessible and no English translation of the original has as yet appeared I cannot more fitly introduce the author to those interested in his life, than in his


words. " The author of this work,"

he writes,



Abu'l Fadhl A'bdu'r

Eahman-b-u'l Kamal Abu Bakr-b-Nasiri'ddin Muhammad-b-Sabiki'ddin Abi Bakr-b-Pakhr Othmau-b-Nasiriddin Muhammad-b-Sayfi'ddin Khidhrb-Najmi'ddin Abi's Salah Ayyiib-b-Nasiri'ddin Muhammad-b-i's Shaykh
al Khudhayri al Usuyiiti.* In recording the narrative of my life in this book, I have but followed the example of recent writers, for it is rarely that any of them has





without introducing therein his own biography.f





of the masters of the spiritual life

I have to observe that he was one and of the doctors of the mystics.


of him who came


follow in the section treating on the Sufis.



him were men

of position and authority.



one exercised judicial functions in his own city, another held the ofiice of of markets, another accompanied the Amir ShaykhiiJ and
* The name
of the writer's

t I here omit a

written TTsuyiiti or Suyuti indifferently. list of authors and their works, as irrelevant to the main subject

t See page 529.

Further partioulais of him are furnished by Weil.




Eg. pp. 475, 477,





founded and endowed a college at Suyut
chant, but I



;* another was a wealthy mernone who altogether devoted himself to the acquisi-

tion of learning except
section treating of the



a notice of



occur in the I do not

Sliafi'ite jurisconsults.

As regards our connection with the name know to what it can refer save the Khudhayri
in fact, a person

of Khudhayri,

quarter of Baghdad, and


—may God have mercy on him—
was born
after sunset


I can implicitly trust, told


that he heard


say, that his ancestor

was a Persian

from the East.

The connection therefore

apparently with the quarter

above mentioned.

on Saturday night the 1st Bajab, 849 (3rd

October, 1445), and I



father being then living, to the



the recluse, a

man eminent

sanctity, near


Nafisif tomb,
I learnt the

who gave me his blessing. Kuran before I was eight years of

grew up an orphan and
I next

got by-hearfc

the U'mdah, the Minhaju'l Fikh wa'l Usdl and the Alfi'yah of Ibn Malik.


the beginning of year 64 I began to devote myself to learning.


studied jurisprudence and

grammar under a number
Shaykh Shihabu'ddin
I read with

of doctors

and read

the law of inheritance with the learned and most distinguished professor
of his age in that science, the as Sharimsahi


used to say that he had arrived at a great age and had passed a hundred

by many


God knows




commentary on

the Majmliu'.J and received a certificate of licence to teach the Arabic

language in the beginning of the year 66.



ijJl §

In this year I became an work I composed was an exposition of the formula and 4U| *<~J which I submitted to my master the Shaykh u'l

Islam A'lamu'ddin

al Bulkini||

who wrote







I con-

tinued to study jurisprudence with him




read with

him from the beginning the Tadrib,^ by

his father,

up to the chapter on



• In Upper Egypt on the western hank of the Nile about 27° lat. Yakiit speaks as having contained 75 Christian churches and a large Christian population, t See Note J page 509.
I Al Majmuu'





KilUi as



died 777 (1375).

by A'hdu'Uah Shamsu'ddin Muhammad-h-Sharaf H. K.

My MS.

has SilAi**! and omits the second word.

The work

referred to will

be found in hia

under the



(1388) and died 868 (1463). in the district of Hauf.

Abu'l BakS Salilj-b-0majr-b-Easl5n A'lam u'ddin al Bulklni was bom 791 Meurs. He was named BuDjini after Bulkinah in Egypt

H gA^I



Omar.b-Easlau Bolkeiui


(Exeroitatua de partibua juris speoiaUbus) auotore Sirdju'ddin aimo 805 (1463) mortuo. H, K.

to the chapter on : Testaments or thereabouts. and he gave verbal and my proficiency in the sciences on more than one for verily he once acquiesced in my bare statement regarding a tradition. C*!*^-*) C*'?- by Taju'ddin A'bdu'l Wahab as SubH : died 771 tf*^*'' l3>«^ "-^ir*^ <5** . Reference is Zsrkeshi. died 871 (1466). _.[ ^ii ] Procuration. For traditions and the Arabic language. Then I went through the whole book but did not light upon it. H. 514 t There are t t'-'^^^ S?^ { II many works '^)J\ art.§ and from the chapter on the Cultivation of Waste lands." U Abu Zakariya Yahya-h-Muhammad Sharafu'ddin Meurs. I resorted to the Shaykh u'l Islam Sharafu'ddin al Munawi^ and read with him a portion of the Minhaj. adduced in his marginal gloss on as Shifa. || he died in the year 68. portion of ar commencement nearly up to the chapter on the Poor-rate likewise a RaudhahJ from the chapter on the Judicial office a portion of the supplement to the commentary on the Minhaj by az Zarkashi . on the Arabic language. I heard his lectures on the Hawi as Saghir* from the .JJ the tradition of Abu'l Hamra on Captives and alleged its citation by Ibn Majah. a commentary on the Alfiyah of Ibn Malik and the Jama'u'l Jawami'tt written testimony of occasion. I heard his Expositions on Partition except a few lectures which I missed When and I attended his readings from the commentary al Bahjah. to this in the list of his made taries and works on the Kuran. K. K. Saghir by Zaynu'ddin (1369). XI ft sai^l Jr^^^i^ ' H. K. He wrote to me in praise of two of my compositions. commentary on the Hawi H. of thia name as well as that of Minhaj in H.** and its marginal notes by him. I had occasion to quote it with its ascriptions and I therefore searched Ibn He Majah in the place where it was supposed to be. u's ** Al Bahjah al Wardiyah : a Omar-b-Mudhaffar-b-i'l Wardi died 749 (1348). and from the commentary on the Kuraa by al Baydhawi. at In the year 67 he granted me a license to teach jv/risprudence and to decide on eases proposed to me and was present my inauguration. to the chapter de Statibus Mulieris the beginning. K. K. Suspect» See p. but I did not find it. I read with our Shaykh the learned Imam Taki'uddin as Shumunni the Hanafite and continued with him for four years. beginning. ee H. ^*^' ty the Imam IJafidh Abu'l Fadhl I'yadhYahsabi: died 544 (1149). Munawi. works under the heading " Commenal See D'Herb. notes on this book at some length and b-Musa rnentions the gloss of as Shumunni. to the chapter on the Poor-rate its : and on the Minhaj from and on the Tanbiht from .

and not after the fashion of the Persians and philosophers. What I am conscious of is this. al Halabi. in a third time but did not discover it. and in Tradition to the distinction of the Hafidh Ibn Hajr.=^l in'*^*' lirf ^a-UjJ Kib -born 790. I drank of the water of the well : Zemzem with various intentions among others that I should arrive in Jurisprudence to the eminence of Shaykh Siraju'ddin al Bulkini. H. India. upon which I went to the Shaykh and informed him. and the contemptuous opinion I had of myself and I said " will you not wait " No. Mauritania and Takrur. Tradition. by Kazwini. died 879. the Arabic language. he struct out the name of Ibn Majah and wrote Ibn Kani' in the margin. K. I saw it.J on the Taudhih with his gloss thereon. a little. mentions several Tau^lhilj. On hearing this from me. Meurs. perhaps you may consult the work yourself ?" He replied his manuscript : I relied for Ibn Majah on the authority of Burhan until his death. Yaman. many lectures of the Shaykh Sayfu'- ddin Hanafif on the Eashshaf. My writings up to Syria. none of my and the writings thereon which Shaykhs ever reached therein nor were therewith A*J=* * So Meurs. God.ls-'| ) 1=^1 ^^. Grammar and the three branches of Ehetoric after the manner of the Arabs and the rhetoricians. «Jl^ ^Jl. E. the fundaI next attended mentals of doctrine. the Talkhi's u'l Miftah and the A'dhud. and I began to write works in the year 66. him various branches of knowledge such as Kuranic exegesis. points tlie name Or*i J t**^*^' S?'^-^* t£>^. probably in the 6aud£u. Mm X The famous commentary of Zamakhshari. died in 881. this time numbered 300 works exclusive of those I obliterated and of left unfinished. the Catalogue of the companions by Ibn Kani'.§ When I made the pilgrimage.[ viii J it ing an oversight." I did not quit the Shaykh when I attended our Shaykh the learned I studied under and most eminent master al Kafiaji* for fourteen years. As t Mnhammad-b-Muhammad-b-Omar-b-^etlu Bogha al Yektamri. I acquired a pro- found knowledge of the seven sciences of Exegesis. A'li al Farisi § Abu The Talkhi's is a work on rhetoric The A'dhud is a work on grammar by Dawlah. aeoording to Ya^tit. Jurisprudence. he at once took up and taking a pen. From the beginning of the year 71 I gave decisions on points of law and I employed myself in writing traditions from the beginning of the year 72. that the proficiency I attained in these six sciences (save jurisprudence) I perused. Suyuti wrote an elegy on recorded in the Husn al Muhddh. I4J According to the Lubbu'l Lubab his name refers I. . &S\j3\j «3|y xJSJ ( c_K=. on account of the great veneration in which I held the Shaykh. I read I returned to it it through a second time and again found not. I was distressed at this and dismayed. H. praise be to Hijaz. however. composed for A'dhud u'd In the extreme south of al Maghrab. the countries and they penetrated. rhetoric and others and he gave me a high diploma.

whether cited or it by the mind. At the commencement my of logic. its refutations and a comparison between the contrary opinions held regarding it. and to which I have already alluded. and hath passed. him memoir is of This * furnished to us by his contemporary Muhammad-b-Abdi'r fiahman- i^i-" t>* ^ "^^ (^ ) tliese words axe in Meursinge. with dialectics and grammatical inflexions. And now if I wished to write on every question. the various readthe most remote ings of the dicine. I have now to which we possess. for there is no power or virtue but in God. there is no power to accomplish reasoned from analogy. ed on what was of more importance. lower degree After these seven branches of knowledge comes in a with the fundamentals of jurisprudence. t See page 431. difficult to me and from and when I apply myself to a question appertaining thereto. Whatever God willeth. list of worlis. I have adduced them in my CatalogueJ to the number of about 150. and through Him. now that the time of departure from the best part of life approaching. for my Shaykh has a deeper insight and a larger grasp of the subject. I read God Himself. of jurisprudence. called the Greater and the Lesser Mua'jam which are t There are two of these. my Below this. in is acknowledgement of the favour of God and not the world that one should strive to gain it is in vain-glory. I did not however. given in his . still less those inferior to them I do not say the same. and hoariness hath begun. but not in my MS. but subsequently the Lord put a dislike of its place to me with the science of tradition which is the noblest of all studies. nation. I abandoned it for that reason. and the Lord supplied of studies. it is as though I strove to support a mountain. As for my Shaykhs in the relation of traditions whom I heard. praise be to the Most High. the perceptions of vindications. by Allah. they were numerous. the means I say this my of diligently investigating and determining cases referred to me. Kuran which I did not study under any Shaykh* and next Me- but Arithmetic I found the most inclination. a dissertation with its statements and proofs. composition and acquaintance epistolary style and the law of inheritance. I should be able to do so by the grace of the Most High.[ ix ] acquainted. the study of their critical exami- "With these words concludes the autobiography which is followed by notice the only other a catalogue of the author's works. or from whom I received certificates of licence. devote myself much to the hearing of traditions as I was employ. and it save in somewhat of the science it into my heart. Below this. not of my own strength and ability. and hearing that Ibn u's Salahf had decided a reference to him on the subject by interdicting it. I have now completely acquired." vig.. for what it in glorying.

the derivative and part of the Minhaj both the section on the fundamental principles." This form of the verb bears the meaning of devoting one's self to a thing. He then read with al Munawi for a very short time who gave him a lesson in good manners when. : * Othmau-b-A'tdi'llah-b-Othmfin al died 877 (1472). al Burhan al A'jluni.: [ ^ ] is b-Muhammad Shamsu'ddin as Sakhdwi. . but the object is not mentioned and the ordinary signification of the word is here most applicable. and the Alfi'yah on 64. These stations wiU II be found mentioned in the JAmi' Eumtizby Shamsu'ddin Muhammad al Kohistdni. Bom 778 (1376). Meurs. (1480). the U'mdah. died 870. under an progressed until he read some works on jurisprudence Nua'mani.|| and under Muhammad-b. died 873 (1468). with some of them. as he asserts. and he was reared an orphan.Ibrahim as Sharwani ar Riimi^ the phyal and Kafiyaji the Hanafites. the work following notice of as Suyiiti " He was born on the first night of the month of Eajab 849.) entitled j/o3U| ^^J| j^ gJlk/tj^*J| (Luna . Having proved his capacity in the year gram- mar under Shamsu'ddin Muhammad-b-Mlisa al Hanafi Imam of the Shaykhuniyah College." On this he broke ofE§ from him and read altogether with as Sayfu'ddin. with as Shihab as Sharimsahi a part of his commentary on the Majmdu' of al Kallai likewise under al I'zz al Mikati his treatise on the Mikat. The speaker is al Munawi not as Suydti. and according to some. born 820 (1417) died 885 Muhammad-b-A'li al (1416). t Mutammad-b-Abmad as Shams al Bami. jurisprudence.f Ibn Tusuf one of tjie most eminent doctors of the Shaykhuniyah. t § Ku?i as Shafi'i. He learnt by-hearfc the Kuran. Meurs. Cairo. The Mikat is an appointed place of rendezvous for pilgrims proceeding to Mecca where they first enter into the state of Ihrdm or prohibition from lawful acts which are at that period unlawful. we never sat save behind the circle of distinguished personages such as these. {Catal JST. he studied grammar. 1876. grammar.* as Shams al Bami. and under al Fakhr Othman al Maksi. somewhat of the sciences. I do not follow Meursinge in his translation of "turn vero totum se Bcientiis vovit. ^^^ — Ibid. pained at his taking a seat at the head of the assembly. The preceding passage is also misunderstood. Fakhr Abu A'mr al Maksi bom 818 Maks is a village on the Nile adjacent to. " when we were young. Meursinge's translation of Mi^at " horologia" ir is quite imtenable. he said. This fragment. He under al A'lam al Bulkini. as Shumunni and also. he states) is taken from the Leyden Codex 518. oriens ex Itmiine miea/nte) by Ahmad-b- Abdi's Salam Kadhi of Maniif It contains an excerpt of the principal £«t-i^l of as Sakhawi called {lumen micant ej/' cl*JI g*^l 5'*'' hominibus stBculi noni) and gives amongst the celebrities of that age. and given by Meursinge in his Prolegomena and translated by him into Latin. born 824. his mother being a Turkish slave.t Ibn u'l Falati. with some.

Shaykh and Moreover at when he used constantly he carried off - many of J/j my compositions j^JLe !s^«aJ| .' at Cairo. he owed much of solace in his to the bounty Ahmad-h-Muhammad. died 887.* and under Hanbali some studies in the fundamental principles of jurisprudence from the Jama' u'l Jawami. In the same way.' . Meurs.sa^)\ airs of a applied himself to the sciences suitable to that profession. D'Herh. &i. bom 759 (1358). Thence to Mecca by sea in Kabii' II. al Mahallah and other places and took down in writing what he had heard from those who professed versification. H.n xl ] two abridgments on medicine by Ibn u'l Jamaa'h. horn 798. died 819 toil IMd. spacious courtyard of his affluence. Nay he took * I'zzu'ddin Mul^ammad-b-Sharafu'ddin Abi Bakr. such as UjKi ui<y«. J^«aLJ JLai^i &jf^iJf U« ^ijJ( and others I need not enumerate. treatise on Muhammadau law. The Hafidh.J and he heard traditions from the compilers of tradition then living such as al Kammasi. t { II a Meursinge does not find the 7th form vires suas. as Shawi. certificate was as no profound study of all that I have alluded to. author of a work entitled Durrar as Sunniyah wa Bahiyah. (1416). He then travelled to Fayyiim. Damietta.[ Bicia. but nevertheless he had made al Maliki and profited by the assistance of our friend Ibn Fadhl§ among al Bulki'ni and more than one granted him a licence to teach and instruct."t Moreover he praised me on other occasions in verse and prose as I have elsewhere shown. He attached himself to me some time and wrote to me in a long prose epistle the following words. A'lam therein. " and verily we presented ourselves uninvited to the feast of his comprefor hensive bounty. to say that t As Suyuti means of as Sakhawi. composed 865 A. 69 and studied a little under al Muhyi'ddin A'bdu'I Kadir some doctors of Aleppo gave him certificates of among them Ibn Mukbil. and we made the camel of our affliction kneel in the. He also practised himself in poetry under as Shihab al Mansuri. as al Muliyi'ddin-b-Saki'yah and al A'la-b-u'l Janadi al Hanafi.' this verb 'omnes ooUegit Lane gives the form and example C*^' and translates it u»WI w* £*^l 'he withdrew himself from men. The last who gave Salah-b-Abi Omar. Then he held himself the time aloof || and affected the to visit me. for a very short period he frequented the lectures of az Zayn Kasim al Hanafi and al Bikai'i. al I'zz al Here ends what he asserts to have done. Al granted him his encouragement until he obtained the chair of jurisprudence in the Shaykhiiniyah mosque which had come down to him from his father and was present with him at some conferences others. al Muktumi Nashwan and him a Hajir. and licence to relate traditions. al Hijdzi.

of the Maured is allatdfat fCantabrig 1792) for this title. Gesoh. and had it not been for my such as al Anbasi. altered them slightly. it and read the first (^ or perhaps u'^*! His rendering of § t5^ as " pupillus" al Bajashi. 1356). transposed them and gave them out as his own. 333. Note 41. was also appointed to the post of lecturer on the Sahihayn of al Buhhdri and Muslim although he was unable to fulfil the condition attached to those offices by the endower. M. ** What those Chairs conditions were scribing the foundation of the Feb. Amir Bhaykhu. on various sciences. In the reign of al Malik al Ashraf Kaitbai. Cal. but not a part of which compositions was first he produced was a paper on the interdiction of the which he had extracted from a work of Ibn Taymiyah and in the greater part of it he was indebted to my assistance. See Weil. a chair of Tradition. p. He also lectured to a . of Kurau reading. al Maksi as Shafi'i. died 891. II president of prefects^ until that personage appointed him professor of tradition in the Shaykhuniyah College after the death of the Shaykh Othman al Maksi.[ xii ] from the books of the MuljmMi'yah College and elsewhere. mentioned in the IJusn al Muljddhirah in deIt was begun in Muharram 756 {Jan. and Ibn Kasim. for the four orthodox were appointed doctrinal schools. Abb. I He would omit the second \J^ in (t***i 1^* <rf^* j'**. lectures (^^""O on the ^aljiljayn and the Shifa'. X I differ from in the translation of this passage. Eg. would retain is. number of the common people in the mosque of moreover he acquired a predominancej over some who were themselves good for nothing. he was transferred from the government of Malatiyah Probably Barsabai I Inal al Ashkar az Zahiri. Upon this many eminent scholars opposed him and even al A'lam al Bulkini rejected him and took from him what he had dictated to him in his lectures on this fulfilled. . p. to that of Aleppo. and prefaced them with pretentious introductions from which the unlearned reader might expect much. many ancient which were unknown to many of his contemporaries.** left notwithstanding he had a son. He * A'bdu'r Eahim-'b-rbrahim-'b-Hajjaj Zaynu'ddin al Anbasi. 1)0111 829. died 893. Mention of him is made by Weil first in the reign ol Sultan Khush Kadam in 867 (H62) when he was Atabek of Aleppo. pp. as Shafi'i. 307.t the result would have been disastrous. t Muhammad-b-K&sim-b-A'U Shamsu'ddin M. II. The science of logic question.* Ibn u'l Falati good offices with a number of these. so that this was the means of his being favoured by his executor Shihab-u'ddin-b-u't Tabbakh who provided for Ahmad-b-Tdlun his being brought up under Barsabai§ Comptroller of al the Household. 313. I think. inadmissible. of the order After this he attached himself to Inal Ashkar. Carlyle's edit. bom 817. H See 7.

and for this he was reproved by one of the Hanabalite vice-presidents in the presence of their Kadhi. the other a particle. art. and was not to he a ]^a4hi. k »'. and were he to set them but a tenth part of the same. he told me what I have asserted and I relied upon his authority. He also disparaged as grammar without to a stranger who. t Ahu'l Hasan A'li-h-Muhammad Zaynu'ddin al Husayni al Jurj&u known as Meurs. was required and to be profoundly versed in exegesis and the fundamentals of jurisprudence. Cal. «. died 816.)J intrinsically hath no meaning either inherent in it or otherwise. though he was not fitted for those offices nor nearly so. sufficient foundation. general one for all the salaried College officials. All this. I This terra is who exerts all his capacity for the purpose of forming a right opinion upon a legal question. He then gave a loose to his tongue and his pen against his Shaykhs who were his superiors. Here follows an extract from as Suyuti' which has already been translated in the employed to denote a doctor preceding autobiography. He likewise elaborated a work to facilitate the acquisition of the degree of Mujtahid|| and the Hanafite theology. had never reached such a degree of proficiency as to entitle him to be called moderately acquainted with till grammar. and to other posts. Gesch. said. § if all the learned men of the time were to propound thousands of questions to him. Barkok. He also said that any one who read with ar Radhi and his grammatical teaching. 510 seq. See Lane. one a letter. they would be unable to solve them. that he undertook what he was not qualified to perform. I KJjf^ has two senses grammatically speaking. " verily thou assertest that the Jurjani maintains that a letter (iJ^a. and this condition was a The head professor who lectured on Mysticism to he the most learned Hanafite in Egypt." The other answered. The title was common in ." He replied. but this statement of the Sayyid's testifieth to the falsehood of what thou dost allege. I conversed with a distinguished person on this subject. so that Sayyidf and ar Eadhi on a point of he withdrew his statement Sayyid al when he met him. and for this reason it was said proverbially. through the favour of his townsman Abu Tayyib as Suyuti. " it is strange how any one who is an author himself could depend upon such a statement in connection with such a master.. * Consult D'Herb.as Sayyid as Sharif. " verily I have seen no statement of his to that effect. he declared him- He He continued thus displaying his presumption further maintained that self prof oundly versed in the seven sciences." Thus far this assertion. but when I was at Mecca. Ahb. and Weil. even to saying of Kadhi Adhud that he was not of as much consequence as a prick in the foot of Ibn u's Salah. he could answer them all by the sole exercise of his reasoning powers. which is by the gate of al Karafah at Oairo. Eg.[ xi'i ] and to lecture on Mysticism at the Mausoleum of Barkdk* governor of Syria. what is used to express a meaning and is not a noun or a verb.

" Tes. 98) generally contains 20 X See Note. 603. 201. as has already gone before. and those that are less than a " kurrasah"t are numerous. § Meursinge understands him to mean here. He mentions that his compositions number more than 300 volumes. this title { l^***" ) in his al Bulkimi. " it cannot be that met him and desired to my store of knowledge in scholastic theology is of small account. is a proof dullness and lack of understanding from the testimony of masters it is of this science that one needing quick intelligence. Is there any one living conversant with them ?" He replied. but both were K. are own words when confer with him a certain distinguished person on some point. p. § . t • Alluding to as Suyuti's disinclination to that study.. and thou shalt speak with them. . —" that claim to And how well spoke one of the regarding which he hath confessed* himself in order that of his might be inferred that he was impartial. [ xW it. as aa Sakh&wi speak* of him under biography. p. Among his writings. that he had studied them under no Shaykh. p." And he was silent and uttered not a word." The other rejoined." The following speech was made to him by another—" inform me regarding the means of acquiring the degree of Mujtadhid.. and if each one of them confesseth that thou hast a they are. "tell me who and we will bring them together for thee.'•'. ' ' ' " the first ages of IsUm. A " kurrasah" according to De Slane (Vol. II. * „ " I ^ . He mentions amongst them a commentary on the ShatibiyahJ and the Alfiyah on the readings of the Kuran. there are those who have some knowledge of them. See De Slane and the right. refused to them by public opinion. And to this effect also. knowledge of possible that his subject and noteth thee as distinguished therein. ] in order to assert his own it professors of arithmetic. it is we may allow thy claim. Some later doctors like as Sujrd^i claimed title I. the following were fraudulently appropriated from the compositions of our Shaykh. pages. the exercise of private judgment in legal questions soon ceased to be recognized. notwithstanding his own confession. but they are not collectively united in one person but dispersed among a number. but the principal points having heen fixed the by the great doetors. but I have seen some of them consisting only of one page." is And his similar to this the saying of some one that he claimed the rank of Mujtahid to hide his own errors. I.

Similar to this is his saying (which verifies the that forgetfulness is the undoing of falsehood) in one place that he knew by heart a part of the Minhaj on Fundamentals. and of his own accord communicated to me what contained a falsehood in every part of it. seen were all the works among his compositions are numerous. . through his not fre quenting the lectures of the learned nor attending their among evening and nightly assemblies. " perhaps he used to come at the same time. iJ He composed lsj^J^^ l^^^l the following works: — g?>M'^( ^^ J * See note. and his remarking to me several times. So too his assertion that the first who was appointed to the Shaykhliniyah College was al Kafiyaji. S40. instead of which he worked alone. it would have been more profitable." He replied. and that he wrote an Alfiyah on tradition superior to the Alfiyah u'l I'rakif and other things which it would be adage tedious to mention. In the same way he related on the authority of alKamal brother of alJalal alMahalli. for if he had given them as they were. if the Turkish Superintendent had not appointed him. p. This would named at hand. The works belonging to other authors also. but in any case. a dream in which al Kamal proved his untruth. " I never saw him reading the Jama' u'l Jawitmi' with my Shaykh notwithstanding my constant zeal in attendance on him {the Shayhh') . and in another that he knew the whole of it. he was given be to much arrogant boasting. He came to me once and asserted that he had read the Musnad of as Shafi'i with al Kammasi. and relied upon what had not secured the . deep codices and tomes. K. " I never observed it.[ *v ] All these are the dissertations of our Shaykh. but indeed Khayru'ddin ar Rishi the Nakib studied it under him. approval of accurate scholars versally moreover he was opposed by the all men uni- when he claimed degree of Mujtahid. and that the course of Dictation was discontinued after the death of our Shaykh until he reinstated it. I would not have preferred him from my knowledge of the special claim of another." He asserted that he composed the Nafhat u'l Miskiyah wa'l Tuhfat u'l ' Makkiyah (The Mushy Fragrance and the Meccan gift) in one kurrasah' when he was at Mecca after the manner of the Ifuwan u's Sharaf of Ibn u'l Mukri* in a single day. or had I alone to do in the affair. and would that he had not altered them when he appropriated them. This and commentaries are noticed at some length by H. t Alfiyah Eahfm-'b-i'l u'l T'rajki al fi XJ?u'l : u'l Haditli by the ^lafidh Zaynu'ddin its A'bdu'r Huaayn I'raki died 806 (1403). Al Badru'ddin the Hanbalite Kadhi said to me. " by Allah." that fell Add to all this the inversions and solecisms in pronunciation his from him and what arose from misapprehension of meaning." I said.

Al Burhan wrote a pamphlet which he entitled al Kaul al Mufassal fi radd a'la'l Mughaffal. az Zayn Kasim al Hanafi. which induced al Burhan to procure and those who wrote agreeing with his reading U'bbadi. invidi^ ducti. M. some of these Of these I have seen only the which contains great disparagement of al Jaujari and much arrogance which in parts shows his folly. al incensed against him who undertook this person eulogized that his work contained. but he sent him back.. equidem plane non intelligo et magis etiam miror partium stadium eorum eruditorum. here an inf. aut oerte illi non plane t Muhammad-b-A'bdi'l Muni'm Shamsu'ddfn al Jaujari al Kahiri as Shafi'i 822 (1419) died 889 (1484). from Meursinge's rendering of this. ia as a dual . bom : according to Meursinge where as Suydti had an estate. He was the author against whom was directed the first treatise mentioned in the last page. moreover one of the disciples of al Jaujari wrote also in support of him but al Jaujarif was learned opinion al upon it were Amin al Iksirai. The words at the close of the lij.^^d and tS/iS^ Burhanu'ddin took Quo modo vero number. Among his best known works are a history of Cordova. was not satisfactory Kirmani. " non posse se patri ejus (in response suo) omues quos oporteret tituloa dare. qui nud^. See his life in D'Herb. must I differ . [ xvi ] All this during his stay at Mecca.^/aj«a=i lx. Weijers' note on this in Meurs. The fourth is in refutation of al Burhan an Nuaraani* where he reads the words of the Kadhi I'yadh at the close of the Shifa . nay his rabid rage. likewise. • The Imam Hdfidh Abu'l Padhl ryadh-li-Musa Yah?abi. X Abu'l Hand Muhammad al Kamalu'ddin-b-Abi Sharif as ShAfi'i bom 824' Meurs. ut videtur. is remarkable.. called as Sabti because he was a native of Ceuta. hunc adstipulati. legere . n.. {teste Meurs.j nobis faoere volet (Bern) peouliarem favorem turboe Prophetsa nostri ejusque agminia. and the Shifa (Note % p. He was bom in 470 (1077) died in 644 (1149). vii). Ix^sij gt peouliarem Shifa alluded to are. to al on account of the praise of the As Suytiti also wrote a letter Kamal-b-Abi Sharif J and filled it with unworthy attacks on al Al Khatib al Waziri sent his son to him at Kaudhah§ to exhibit his proficiency in study. Burhanoddinus iste ibi in duali numero . first after he had written him a paper containing hard and coarse language not proper to be addressed to scholars. {A clear tractate in refutation of the imiecile) . Borhannodino iUi adversus oblecuti sunt. compositions being more foul than others. al Bami. Sojuti it ^^-a^^fli. treating discourteously therein the people of Hijaz for which he richly deserved severe reproof. alleging as an of him on certain excuse that he did not fulfil his father's description points and that his letter for other reasons..) 4i*Ua. a devotional work called Azhar u'r Byadh.*J if"} ^-Ax-air. al Fakhr ad Dayyimi and the writer of this memoir." § II A place. of U*"^ like {. || to him.ascij in the dual number..

but ad Dahabi excuses him on the ground that his writings on Sufiism and his austeriSee ties.though he were : * Muhyiddiu-b-A'li a most voluminous writer on Sufiism. and his conduct continued to grow worse in this respect. p. II. To be brief. The Caliph who appointed him must have been al Mutawakkil 'ala'Uah Abu'l I'zz who died in 903. "verily war is announcedf that shall come upon him from God. but were I to discuss all that regarded him. him it is stated that some of his expressions were not altogether orthodox and that : bom though outwardly confirming to the faith. . though the judge can find nought against him and he himself deprecates examination of his writings for points which he judges orthodox in which the believer and discerner of true doctrine cannot concur with him. *-[y"J J Meaning. he had some peculiar views on doctrine. known as Jalalu'ddfn Bakri. also D'Herb. of In Suyflti's notice of as Suyuti. I should transgress due limits. Hasani College whose lectures he attended for some said. died 638 (1240).§ after which his zeal abated.[ xvii ] When a certain student once spoke of the impiety of Ibn u'l A'rabi. » native of Muroia 560 (1165). — may the Most High inspire him with rectitude. so that she used constantly to complain of him. nay became congealed. translation " Et hoc celeriter describi potest. " I gave up lecturing and resolving cases of law and turned myself to the Most High. " you threaten him with war shall come upon you from God and his apostle. The Caliph favoured him and appointed him Shaykh siyah College in succession to al Jalal al of the Baybar- Bakri. that he might revert to lecturing and expounding the law when he took it upon himself to abandon them. «Ul^>x) t^ys! tyil* fjg apprized of war that f Referring to Kur." A'rabi's) As Suyuti was one of those who adopted this tenet (of Ibn from A'bdu'llah Muhammad-b-Omar al Maghrabi who lived al near the Karakiha time. born 807 (1404). K.* he replied." X I cannot concur in Meursinge's . and that he asked pardon and desisted from his purpose so that if any one came to him with a case." Before this time he asserted that he had a dream in which the prophet upbraided him.) from God on account of his impiety. had disturbed his intellect. Arabi. art." Moreover he reported of him that he said. even towards his own mother. M. though the temporal judge can find nothing to and he himself deprecates examination of his writings to substantiate the charge prove him unorthodox by wresting his words from their proper sense. so that he sought retirement from the world according to what he himself says. IV. 351. "it is forbidden to examine my words. Meurs. al . Vol. Consult Haj. also De Slaue. and his Vicegerent as Siddik ordered him to be imprisoned for a year. Khal and the Tabakat al Mufass. and he imagined things that had no existence. edit. § A'bdu'l Baka Muhammad-b-A'bdi'r Rahman ad Dahrdti. died 891 (1486)." The Arabio of this passage is obscure and probably corrupt. I. he wrote hastilyj without More might be re/lection : I never knew him to be anything but vain and overweening.





would take it to write his decision thereon. before. It was not long after this, that he said what has gone Mughayzil left him when he experienced from 'Al Muhyi'ddin-b-u'l with after he had acted towards him previously
about to drown at the time,

great ili-treatment, which generosity and he has related instances of his extravagant pretensions example, he requested al the circumstances themselves verify. As an

Karati to appoint him to conduct a judicial case which The latter complied and on his own part furnished As Suydti went to him in addition a duplicate of the original process. accompanied by al A'lamu'ddin Sulayman al Khalif ati to take it, and he never thanked him nor uttered a word expressive of his obligation. He on one occasion related to Muhyi'ddin after as Sunbati's death, a circumstance showing his injustice. He said, " why hast thou told me of this only after his death?" As Suyliti replied, " that thou mayest know the hearts of men." And this notwithstanding his great kindness to him,

was under

his charge.

especially during the time of the high prices


there was a dearth of

bread and food in the Shaykhiiniyah, and he used to give

him a dinar

weekly as he states himself. lu the same way a certain Turk left him, whom from a Hanafite he had made a Shafi'ite, notwithstanding that as Suyiiti had begun by showing great kindness and courtesy towards him.

Al Maghrabi likewise abandoned him, the same who used to great sanctity, and also al Fath al Kami.*

assert his


instance of his arrogance,
office of


his saying to one of

his attendants,

" when I receive the

Kadhi, I will appoint thee to such and such a

thing, nay thou shalt obtain every thing."

Subsequently in the year 898, the Shaykh Abu'n Naja sonf of Shaykh Khalaf opposed him and publicly exposed his deficiencies and faults, and he was humbled by him and greatly abased. The Imam al Karaki spoke highly of Abu'n Naja as I have fully shown in the HawaPreviously to this as Suyiiti wrote a work entitled, "the Cautery dith.J in refutation of as Sakhawi," in which he opposed what is affirmed in the Sahih,§ although I never touched upon the subject save some time before,
* Meursinge conceives that these were

instances of persons

who were

at first

attached to as Suyuti but were afterwards driven from

him by

his violence

and harsh-

blies in the

t Abu'n Naja-b-Khalaf al Mi§ri as Shfifi'i, born 849. He used to hold assemmosques and other public places to which he drew large numbers even from the quarters where as Suyuti lived, and even lectured in Suyuti's own college tha


note 183, p. 43.
is the name of a book {Be made by H6ji Khalifahi

X Meursinge supposes that this

rebut gestiaj



Sakhawi but of which no mention


Meursinge translates

*iS'»'^i ti*

"inter vera."

I understand

§alji^ to

signify the authentic traditions that are

known under

that name.





it having been to speak neither in affirmation or Let us praise God the Distributer of understanding." The Compiler* adds, " The Sultan al A'adil Tdmani Baif removed him from the post of professor of the Baybarsiyah on Monday the 12th Eajab 906 {1st Februari/ 1501) when a number of the Sufi Shaykhs of the


course towards


Madrassah held a meeting against him on account of



with them and his hostility to them by depriving many of them of their stipends and appointing others thereto. He received many humiliations
such as judicial mandates, annoyances, interdictions
things occurred.
al Bilbisi,

and other similar

In the professorship after him was appointed Laishin known as Ibn u'l Ballan, on Monday the 26th of the said month,
in desert,

although there were others superior to him
over merit.

but fortune prevails

Yet he was in no way at ease, Suyu^i) should disturb him by assorting that
publicly to forego his right.

fearful lest Jaldlu'ddin (as

A'adil had forced



indeed this move of


actually took place though not persisted in, and thus the position of al

was insecure. After

this Jalalu'ddin's affairs

turned aside from this

became tranquil and he and that of professor of tradition in the Shaykhufrom worldly

niyah with a view to a
off all

of withdrawal

and he broke
he did not

connection with society by residing at Eaudhah, and I have heard

that a number of the principal nobles used to visit him
rise to greet.


The professorship

of the Baybarsfyah

of al Bilbisi on Saturday the 25th of


Kamalu'ddin at after he had expended largely,

was offered to him on the death Dul Hijjah 909, but he declined it Tawil assumed it on Monday the 27th of the said
it is said,

on that account.


continued in retirement

Thursday the 18th Jumada F, 911 (ilth October 1505). May the Lord have mercy upon him and- upon us." Having now giyen as Sakhawi's strictures on as Suyiitl, I cannot in
he died on

from presenting to the reader the latter's opinion of his and for this I am indebted to Meursinge who has extracted the following notice from a work of the historian's, entitled liil-*) *'iJt j c^Ij^sJ/I h)Uc| {ihe choicest of the great and sons of the Age), Cod. 416th, p. 94. " Muhammad-b-A'bdi'r Eahman-b-Muhammad-Abl Bakr-b-Othmanjustice refrain

Sakhawi Shamsu'ddin, the traditionist, the historian, the 831 (1427-8) and attended while he was yet young, the dictations of the Hafidh Ibn Hajr who fostered in him a He frequented his classes and wrote out love of the science of tradition.



calumniator, was born in


The word


that what follows


the author

here indicates the termination of as Sakhawi's narrative and who has extracted it.

t One of the Circassian Mamelukes who reigned three years and a






own hand. He studied under very Egypt, Syria and Hijaz and he selected and extracted them for himself and for others, notwithstanding his misreading of them and his being destitute of all knowledge, so that he was

many many

of his

compositions with hia

collectors of traditions ia

good for nothing but in the mere science of tradition. Then he fell upon history and dissipated his life therein and devoted all his efforts to it, and lacerated therein the reputations of men and filled it with their misdeeds, and all that had been imputed to them whether true or false, and asserted
that he was thus doing a necessary duty, viz., apportioning blame or praise,

whereas this

is manifest folly and error and blasphemy against God. Moreover he was guilty of a fragrant violation of right and was under the burden of many sins, as I have shown in the preface to this book. I mention this only that no one may be seduced by him or trust to any thing that is in his historical writings defamatory of men, especially the learned, He died in Shaa'ban 902." (April 1497.) or pay heed thereunto. The Leyden copy of the work from which this is taken, Meursinge believes to be the only one existing in Europe, and he proposed to himself to treat further of it on some future occasion as it contains memoirs more or less full, of the distinguished men of as Suytiti's age. Whether he ever fulfilled his intentions I do not know, and am therefore unable to give

further particulars regarding the irregularities

alluded to at the close of

the above extract.



however, of





nations of authors are

little to their credit,

when the




and are read with indifference which evoked them are hushed and
Sakhawi's narrative bears unwilling

The supplement



evidence of the reverence in which as Suyiiti was held at a time when, retired from the world, he still received the unsolicited visits of the great.

His petulant notice of the historian's just criticism of Burhanu'ddin's reading of the Shifa of Kadhi I'yadh, and the evident jealousy which
induced the learned referees to side with Burhdn, his hints of the disapproval with which Bulkini and Munawi regarded our author who nevertheless speaks of

them in his Husn al Muhddhirah in terms of unqualified esteem, sufficiently prove the unfairness and suggest the untruthfulness of the writer. His rancour against the historian was probably caused by as
Suyiiti's criticism of his

Cautery, and the


work the Dhu'l Lami', in his pamphlet entitled the name not indistinctly hints that the iron was applied red previous differences may have made his duty a grateful

and a critique undertaken in this spirit, would not be altogether just. The angry retort of his patient, however, inflicted as keen a wound as he received and the passing satisfaction of an incisive and now forgotten criticism, was more than avenged by the immortality of his victim's reply.




to which these hitherto little known particulars of as have unavoidably led me, precludes any extended notice of the work which is here presented to the public. The sources whence the author derived the materials for his history are indicated by him at its
Suyiiti's life

The length


if their it

treatment does not discover any evidence of originality

of design,

has at least the merit of condensing into a readable compass,

not only the principal events which occurred during the reign of each Caliph, but the personal details and sketches of court life and manners which are often wanting in Abu'l Fida but which lend their chief interest
to the lively narrative of Masa'udi.


the dignity of a history


to the European acceptation of the term,

has indeed no pretensions.


investigate the relations of cause and effect, to trace the growth and deve-

lopment of communities and assign the reasons of their arrestation or decline, to discuss the social, political and religious questions which disturb
the tranquillity or affect the fortunes of states, to analyze the characters of

men and

the influences which bear on their conduct


to paint vivid

descriptions of battle-scenes and pageantries of state

to survey the arts,

manufactures, trades and products of a country and all that constitutes and adorns its national life, this ideal epic of poetry and philosophy, no Eastern historian has ever attempted. Historical science in its infancy


the Moslems as


Slane has shown, began with oral traditions

transmitted from one

Hafidh to another, together with the series of authorities for each independent fact, till their accumulated store became

too burdensome for retention by memory.

They were then committed to writing in the form of a collection of statements supported by lines of
ascription reaching to the original narrators

who were


most cases eyethe

witnesses of what they



subsequent writer suppressed

and blended the disconnected traditions into one continuous but bulky history. Such were Ibn u'l Athir and at Tabari. Then came the abridger who condensed the work of his predecessor into a simpler and smaller volume while the greater work was consigned to veneration and decay in some public library. Such were Abu'l Fida and as Suydti. De Slane has, I think, unfairly censured these last-mentioned writers. He considers them to have done nearly as much injury to their predecessors as Justin and Florus have done to Livy and Tacitus. I do not admit the justness of the parallel nor perceive its Justin's history, is a compilation of extracts rather than an relevancy. abridgment of the lost books of Trogus Pompeius whose guides were exclusively Greek, and who treated in the main but with voluminous digresThough sions, of the rise, decline and fall of the Macedonian monarchy. Justin has been censured for omitting much from his original that was worthy of record, yet that original was professedly not Tacitus, whose
ascriptions to a large extent, marshalled the facts





Histories and Annals are concerned

with the period between the second
of Domitian, and from the death of

consulship of Galba and the death

Augustus to the death of Nero.
it is


Florus published about 1471, bore the


true that the Editio Princeps of " Titi Livii Epithoma," but

not regarded by modern scholars as an abridgment of Livy, but a

compilation from various authorities epitomizing the leading events from

the building of the city to the rise of the Empire.

The Epitomes of

the books of Livy have been ascribed to Floras, and with equal probability

There is no internal testimony in favour of either concluand external evidence is altogether wanting.* It is difficult, therefore to perceive in what way the assumed injury has been afEected. The paralTheir merit would lel applied to the Easterns fails in a similar manner. perhaps be slight, were it confined to their condensation, however judicious, of a single work, but this is far from being the case. Abu'l Fida cites no less than fourteen authors, and as Suydti, twelve, to whose voluminous
to Livy himself.

pages they are indebted for their materials.

The greater number

of the

works which they mention have perished, and it is to their labours we owe the preservation of much that would otherwise have been irretrievably lost. Eeiske's eloquent commendation of Abu'l Fida is a just and sufficient testimony to his eminence, and his concluding words wiU suffice me for

any panegyric of

as Suytiti,

ipse usus

eum commendabit,

quare laudibus

ejus celebrandis parcam.

The MSS. from which the text of this work was edited, which is but one among the many services of the accomplished Orientalist Colonel JS^assau Lees to the world of letters, were the following

MS. belonging
„ the property

to Maulvie


Wajih, Head Professor of the

Calcutta Madrassah




Maulvie Abd'us Shukiir of Jounpore.


„ in the possession of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. This latter is the only one with which I have been able to collate the text.

Another MS.
Caliphs in


mentioned by Weil
(note, p.

in his history of the


122, Vol.


Abbaside and numbered Cod.


Goth. N. 321, which I have not seen. The system of transliteration of Arabic proper names adopted by me, the same now in general use throughout India. The following letters

alone present any difficulty, and are thus represented

• Consult.



on Livy in 'WiUiam Smith,







promises and performs, and and peace upon our Chief, of the nobly born, progenitor of the Caliphs and upon his family and Companions, the possessors of magnanimity and good

After the praises of God, of

Him who

who threatens and Muhammad, Prince



I proceed to give in this slight historical sketch, a biographical account of the Caliphs, the Princes of the Faithful, who have stood in authority over the people from the age of


—may God approve him—up to

Abu Bakr

the "Witness to the



time, according to the order

of their reigns one after another.


I have mentioned in the lives of

them, the remarkable occurrences which happened during the reign of each, and the chief doctors of the faith, and the illustrious personages who
lived during their time.


circumstances instigated the composition of this work



them, that a collection of the biographies of the chiefs of the faith, and those eftdowed with virtue, was desirable and would be welcome, and in
truth, there are those

who have compiled

histories in

which they have

introduced these distinguished men, but unsystematically, and

giving a full account of them, and their completion would entail prolixity

For this reason I was desirous of separately detailing each work apart, which would be more advantageous for those who wished for particulars of any one class, and easier to consult. Thus I have set apart one book for the prophets upon whom be the benediction and peace of God, and another for the Companions of the Prophet and abridged from the " Isaba" of the Shaykhu'l Islam Ibn Hajr and an another comprising the various commentators of the Kuran
and weariness.
class of


in a







abridged work on the lives of the Hufiadh,* epitomized from the TabaHt philologists, of ad Dahabi ; and a voluminous work on the grammarians and

been before composed; and a book on those learned in the fundamentals of the faith, and a voluminous work on those famed for sanctity and another on the doctors of the Law of Inheritance and another on Ehetoricians ; and another on Writers, that

any similar to which had not



authors of prose composition ; and another on those celebrated for calligraphy ;t and another on the Arab poets whose works are authorities in the language,

and these comprehend the greater number of eminent


of the nation.

I rest satisfied, regarding doctors of Law, with

what other men have

written on that subject, on account of


abundance, and independence of

am further

information thereon,


I have likewise contented myself

with what the Tabakat of ad Dahabi J contains on the Readers of the Kuran. The Kadhis are included among the preceding, and therefore, among personages of distinction, the history of the Caliphs alone remains
tmwritten, notwithstanding the eagerness of


for accounts of them.

I have therefore

book for them but have not included in it, disputed the Caliphate by force of arms, and did not succeed any who to power, such as many of the descendants of Ali and a few of the House
set apart this




neither have I

made mention


any of the Caliphs, the descen-

dants of U'bayd-u'llah,§

because their authority was illegal for


reasons— among them this, that they were not of the tribe of the Kuraysh, and although the ignorant vulgar have named them Fatimites,



Hafidli or one

who remembers

wliat he has heard or read,


of the 3rd grade

Of these there are five. The Hafidh must know 300,000 traditions hy heart, and he able to name the lines of authorities of each. Consult Ibn-Sala^ on tradition. + The Khattu'l Mansub is a species of handwriting, the invention of which is attributed by Ibn Khali (see life of al-Bawwab) to Abu Abdullah al-Hasan brother
of the Traditionists. of Ibn Muklah, while ad pahabi (Tarikhu'l Islam) gives the credit of

to the latter.

on this handwriting. Ait. Ibn al Aamidi the 5^dhi. ' J Abu Abdullah Muhammad a doctor of the Shfifii school, sumamed the sun of religion' bom at Damascus A. H. 673, (1276) but his ancestors were Turkoman. He was the chief Hifidh and !l§[.urau reader of Syria. His works are very numerous.


Slane's notes

The Taba]k;dt

there mentioned


a biography of the Headers of the


See Ibn

The founder

of this

house was

Caliphate in 296 A.



D. 908).

ITbaydu'llah al Mahdi who assumed the At the same period Abdu'Uah was Caliph in

Spain, and Al Mu^tadir at

Mahomed was


Baghdad " In the 10th century" says Gibbon " the chair by three Caliphs who reigned at Baghdad, Caiioan and


Cordova, excommmiioated each other and agreed in a principle of discord that a sectary more odious and criminal than an unbeliever."




nevertheless their ancestor was a worshipper of
of Basrah says that the

fire. Kadhi Abdu'l JabbAr name of the ancestor of the Egyptian Caliphs was Said and his father was a Jew blacksmith of Salamiyah.* The Kadhi Abu Bakr al Bakilanif says that al Kaddah the grandfather


of Ubaydu'llah, called al Mahdi, was a fire-worshipper, and l/Baydu'llah to Africa and asserted that ,he was a descendant of Ali ; none of

the genealogists recognised


as such, but ignorant people called


the pedigree of

Ibn Khallakan remarks that most of the learned did not hold as valid, Ubaydu'llah al Mahdi, the ancestor of the Egyptian Caliphs, insomuch that when al Aziz bi'Udh son of al Muizz in the beit

ginning of his reign, ascended the pulpit on a Friday, he found there a
piece of paper, and in

these lines



have heard a false pedigree
pulpit in the mosque.

Eead from the
Then name

If thou art truly

what thou assertest. up to the fifthj generation. And if thou mean to verify what thou sayest Then give us thy pedigree like that of at Taia. § If not, then leave thy pedigree in obscurity
fhy ancestor


And enter

with us into a



For the genealogies of the sons of Hashim To them aspires not the desire of the ambitious.
Al Aziz wrote to the Umayyad,|| then ruler of Spain, a
letter in


he reviled and satirized him, whereupon the Umayyad replied, saying, " After the usual greetings, verily thou knewest me, therefore hast thou satirized me, and surely if I knew thee, I would answer thee :" and this came sorely



Aziz and silenced him from reply, for


meant that he was an im-

postor and his family unknown.

The printed

edition has





MS. has



district of


latter is probably a copyist's error for

ixjl« a small town

in the

Enessa where according to Ibn !^hallakau Al Mahdi was



preferred the latter reading.

t Called Bakilani or vendor of beans.

He was

of Basrah but long resident in

Baghdad and

celebrated as a doctor of scholastic theology a voluminous author, died

A. H. 403 (1013 A. D.). Ibn KhaU. *jU> X The text and MS. have
lakan that the former
§ is

instead of






from Ibn Khal-

incorrect as al Aziz
al Aziz.



in descent from al Mahdi.
as Caliph at


ootemporary of


Taiali'llah reigned



A. H. 363 (A. D. 913) a lineal descendant from Hashim great-grandfather of jbammad.


This must have been either




called al Mustansir.

Hakam died

one year

after the accession of al Aziz

and was succeeded by Hisham





Ad Dahabi

says that authorities are agreed upon this, that


Mahdi was not a descendant of Ali and how well spoke his grandson al Mtiizz, the ruler of Cairo, when fbn Tabataba,* the descendant of All questioned him regarding their origin He half drew his sword from

the scabbard and said " This



pedigree," and scattering gold
said " here are ike proofs


the nobles and those

who were






reasons aforesmA

is this,

that the greater

number of

them were Magians, beyond the pale of Islam; and there were of them,
some who reviled the prophets, and among them some who held the use of wine lawful, and some of them commanded worship unto themselves, and the best of them were heretics, unclean and base, who directed the execration of the Companions of the jprophet may God approve them and to

such as these, homage


not binding and their headship

is illegal.


Abu Bakr


Bakilani says that l/baydu'Uah al Mahdi, was a vUe Batini,t

eager for the subversion of the orthodox faith.


persecuted learned

men and

doctors of law, that he might be able to seduce the people, and

descendants followed his ways.

They gave

a license to wine



nication and promulgated heresy.

Dahabi says that al Kaim the son of al Mahdi, was more wicked than his father, an accursed Magian, who openly reviled the prophets, and he adds that the House of Ubaydu'llah


was more malevolent towards the Orthodox faith than the Tartars.
Abu'l Hasan al KabasiJ says that Ubaydu'llah and his descendants put to death four thousand of the learned and pious, seeking to turn them

from acknowledging the Companions of the prophet, but they preferred death then, well indeed, had he been only a heretic but he was a Magian.


The Kadhi lyadh


us thatH

Abu Muhammad




Abu Muhammad

Abdu'llah 9th in descent from AU, a native of Hijaz but an
a Sharif noted for the nobility of his character, his vast

inhabitant ot Egypt.

He was

and the style in which he lived, born A. H. 286 (A. D. 899) and died 4th !Rajab at Cairo A. H. 348 (September A. D. 959). Ibu Khali. t This is the same sect as the Assassins so often mentioned in the history of the Crusades, founded by Hasan Saba, known as the Old Man of the Mountain. The word signifies possessing inward light and knowledge. See Von Hammer-Gesch-dor


doctor of the M41iki school.


great Traditionist

—died A. H. 403,




This term primarily implies an assertor of the doctrine of Dualism, but it is also who denies the world to come and maintains the eternity of the present. Consult. Lane, art De Saoy, Ohresth. Ar. 2nd Ed. II. p. 274. Jj (i,)) used to signify an atheist or one

Abu'l Fadtil lyddlj a traditionist


greatest authority of his age

history and literature.

He was

educated at Cordova and died in Morocco


on Arabic H. 644

D. 1160).

Ibn Khali.





Kiz^ni, one of the doctors of the Maliki school was asked as to the case of

one compelled by the House of Ubayd, namely, the Caliphs of Egypt


acknowledge their claims or



replied " he

must choose death and no

one can be excused in such an instance

their assumption of authority at first

took place before their pretensions were understood, but afterwards flight was
imperative and no one through fear of death could excuse his volimtwry

forasmuch as residence in

a place, the people of

which are

required to abandon the religious precepts of Islam

not permissible


few doctors of




a Tonowledge of their religious ordinances might be wanting to the Muslims and the rulers seduce them from their faith." And Yusuf ur Euayni says that the learned of Kayruwan were agreed



that the
for they


of ITbayd were in the condition of apostates and Magians,

declared openly against the law.

Ibn Khallakan remarks as



" Verily they laid claim to the knowledge of hidden things, and

accounts of them regarding this are well-known, for
g,scended the pulpit, he observed a piece of paper in



Aziz cue day,

which was written


we are patient under tyranny and But not under infidelity and folly


If thou art gifted with the knowledge of




Eeveal to us the writer of this


A woman,


once addressed to him. a petition in which was written

hath exalted the Jews through Misha* and the Christians through Ibn Nastur, and hath disgraced the true believers in thee, see
that thou look into
finances in Syria

By Him who

my case," and Misha the Jew was intendant of the and Ibn Nastdr in Egypt.
is this,


other reasons

that their assumption of the Oaliphate,
already in possession with

occurred at a time

when an Abbasi Imam was

priority of allegiance


was therefore

illegal, for a'

covenant of fealty to
fijst is

two Imams
ful one.

at the

same time cannot be


and the

the right-


again there

a tradition to this effect, that this authority
children of Abbas, shall not



come into the possession of the

depart from them, until they themselves shall resign

unto Jesus the

Son of Mary, or


It is therefore ascertained that whosoever

assumes the Caliphate during their incumbency

a schismatic

and a

For these reasons therefore, I have made no v mention of any of the House of ITbayd, nor of other schismatics but only of the Caliphs who
unite orthodoxy of headship and a covenant of allegiance.
* The readings of

t The

last of the

MS. vary in both places where this name ocouts. Imams who it is believed, will appear before the Day

of Judg-

ment, to overthrow Bajjal

—the Man of Sin that


to come.

" (meaning the Apostle of God).[ 6 ] I have prefaced the beginning of the book with a few chapters. § Al Bukh£ii and Muslim. the two greatest of the six highest authorities dition II —the other are at Tirmidi. See Gibbon. ^. he also hath left you so. Ibn Khali. punishment would come upon you.^ he said. verily the Apostle of God hath ! committed nothing unto us in regard to this authority. an eminent H The ^ bom Ed. 276. He replied. 1123. 354.) "and were I to leave you without one. 66. . Abu Dauud. verily. VI. battle so called from the camel ridden by Aysha when defeated and taken prisoner by Ali under the walls of Basrah A. died A. a great traditionist flourished about A. he named a successor. in order that we might of our own judgment approve and appoint Abu Bakr. D. an Nasai and Ibn Mdja. and the Lord my helper. t Abu Abdu'llah-b-u'l Yaman." The two Shaykhs§ have recorded regarding Omar that he said when " Were I to name a successor. In explanation of haw the prophet left no successor and the mystery of this. verily. that when Ali was victorious on the day of the Camel. then. D. Mil. con- taining observations of importance and what I have introduced of strange and remarkable occurrences. one of the oompanionB died A. surnamed the Kadhi of the infirmary. " O men. The MS.* Al-Bazzarf in his Musnad (collection of traditions) states on authority of HudayfahJ that the Companions of the prophet said : the ! Apostle of God. they will be omitted. H. t Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abdu'l Baki. and the responsibility for his own work is upon him. p. has al Bazzdz of whom I can find no notice as traditionist but only as a teacher of Kurdu reading. on Ibn tra- Hajar. who ruled and so continued until he went his way then Abu Bakr thought fit to . author — — of the Ghilaniyat. then. greater than I. who was he was stabbed. wilt thou not appoint a successor unto us ?" " Verily did I appoint a successor over you. is is taken from the history of the Hafidh-acl Dahabi. 656. Vol. Another al Bazzar is Abu Bakr Muhammad Abdu'Uah-b-Ibrahim a Shafiite doctor. who was greater than I. and were you to rebel against the successor appointed by me. have related on good authority from Amar-b-Sufyan. nominate Omar who ruled and so continued until the right became establiaea of authorities for first * As tte mention of the each tradition last alone is of no pf ofit to the general reader." (meaning Abu Bakr. the and being given. Abu Bakr-b-al-Husayu traditionist called al Bayhaki from his birthplace near Naypabur 384 (994) died 458 (1066). Ahmad and al Bayhaki|l in their Proofs of Prophecy.

D. {>)j^. died at Medina A. because Omar Ali. U Abu Abdu'llah Mu^ammad-b-Yabya-b-Haban. office Samani rule. " The Apostle of God appointed none.'J Al Bukhari says in his history that it is related on the authority of Safinah|| that the prophet said of Abu Bakr. shall I therefore do so ? hut if God desireth the good of the people. Omar. Abu Bakr take the lead We approved. (933) and held the and died there A. 405 (A. H. therefore. and verily Huzayl-b-ShurahbilJ says. When the apostle of God died. Safma signifying a boat." Ibn Saad§ has recorded on the authority of Hasan that Ali " said. Abdu'Uah Muhammad. at Companions. stone on the foundation and said to Abu Bakr. § II • the age of 74 An. and Othman have the apostle of gave precedence to — asserted that the prophet did not appoint a successor. We thus Abu Bakr. An Nawawi. He was what is called a Tabi or one next in time to the t Abu Abdu'Uah Muhammad bom of Kadhi under the at Naysabur '321 A. Consult. Ibn Khali. as He united them after their prophet upon the best among them. ibn-Haban^ has recorded the above tradition and relates on the authowhen the apostle of God built the mosque at Medina. b. Saad of Basrah called Katib-i-Wakidi from having transcribed and completed the works of that historian. and Bayhaki has confirmed it in his " Proofs" on the testimony of WAil. that it was asked of KM. The Mustadrak ala's Sahihayn (Supplement to the two Sahihs of al Bukhari and Muslim) is the work alluded to. and Othman "these shall be the Caliphs after me. for our temporal affairs one whom God approved for our spiritual concerns. He Abu will unite them after me upon the best of themselves. 739." Al. " Did Abu Bakr obey Ali. and we found that the prophet had made in public prayers. on account of his having carried across a stream some of the Companions with whom Muhammad was one day walking. for then he would have forced Ali to ditions Ad that submit. he deliberated upon our tnode of govern- ment.[ 1 1 lished.Hakimf in his Mustadrak al has recorded. " Wilt thou not appoint a successor unto us ?" He replied. Ibn KhaU. An Nawawi. He was the most eminent traditionist of his time. . died 845 A. J Of the tribe Aud.* regarding which Then the people sought worldly advantages and events occurred may the Lord determine. Also author of the Tabakati Kabir. Dahabi remarks that among the heretics there are some idle tratAe prophet bequeathed the Caliphate to Ali. " Lay thy stone he laid a rity of Safinah that * For this ourious meaning of &J|yS^ S!/* ^®® Lane art. Abu Abdu'r Kahman Mihran sumamed Safinah by Muljammad whose freedman he was. H. He composed numerous others. the legatee of the apostle of God ? Abu Bakr would have been glad to have received the bequest from the apostle of God." but this is not to be followed. D. Naw. on the sciences connected with tradition. D. says al Bukhari. 1014).

and pardon is implored of them and they are compassionate. the rightly guided. and the wicked. for in another tradition." And Imam Ahmad . he did not lay down an authoritative injunction for the succession of any particular one. and calling to prayers with the Abyssinians. 81 S. as long as they shall rule and do justice and promise and fulfi]. " to a saying of the prophet Obey my law. t Oxus. the orthodox. Ibn Khali. . " Follow those after me Abu Bakr and Omar" and to the Caliphate." and to his saying. well-tnown Compiinion of Muljanunad. his real name places his death in A. time of his death. died A.that at the " Proofs" and others besides these two. for the meaning of these two is ." not unreliable. : ." office of calling to prayer with the Abyssinians. • Atu Dautid Sulaymfai a Porsian by birth resident at Basrah. " lay thy stone by the side of the stone of Omar. side ia seven engagements. died A. D. in his Musnad from tftbah-b-Abdan Kuraysh and that the prophet said shall rest in the judicial authority " The Caliphate with the Auxiliaries and : the His authorities are Al Bazzar has recorded from Ali Ibn Abi Tdlib that the " The princes shall he of the Kuraysh the just apostle of God said among them rulers of the just. rulers of the wicked." then he said to Omar " lay thy stone by the side then he said to Othman. 892." after me." And at said — " The TirmidiJ from Abu Hurayrah§ that the apostle of God said " the sovereignty shall rest in the Kuraysh and judicial authority with the Auxiliaries." Then he said " These shall be the Caliphs of the stone of Abu Bakr . Ibn Hajr. § Abu I'aa ia Muljammad called after his birthplace Tirmi^ on the banks of the is He A one of the six great traditiouists." trustworthy. and the law of the Caliphs after me. D. and indeed al-Bayhaki has confirmed al it Abu Zarah says that his authorities are Hakim has recorded it in his Mustadrak and in his I remark that there is no contradiction betweeq it and the saying of Omar and Ali that the prophet did not name a successor. a subject of dispute Ibn Uajr H. S9. others from among the traditions referring On the Imams leing of the Kuraysh. and the Calif hate being the prerogative of these.[ 8 ] by the side of my stone . died during the t Abu Barzah Nazlah-b-TTbayd one of the Companions who fought by Mut^inimad's campaign in Khurasan 684. Abu Dauiid at Tay^lisi* in his collection of traditions has recorded from Abu Barzahf that the prophet Imams shall he of the Kuraysh. and it is similar this other refers to what occurred at a period antecedent.

" The two Shaykhs . " then what will follow ?" an addition follow . D." and and "this rule shall remain in force" —and. Aljmad as Shaybani-al-Marwazi (native of Marw) was the son of Muhammad-h-Hanbal. " This faith shall all of continue to abide until twelve Caliphs shall have been over you. His persistence in refusiag to declare the He died at Baghdad A.Ahmad records Your religion ." and also according to him " this authority shall not come to an end until twelve CalijDhs shall have passed away in it from among the people ." and according to al Bazzar. and * The Imam Atu A'bdu'llah. and others have recorded readings of it . is well-known. " the sway of my people shall continue to abide until twelve Caliphs. all of them of the Kuraysh. shall follow a monarchy. its holders overcoming all that oppose them therein. born at Baghdad A. 164 (A. 2 . all of them of the Kuraysh shall have passed away" and according to Abu Dauud there them — — is and when he returned to his house. H. " shall rule this people ?" He replied : " How many of We asked the Apostle God con- cerning them. " there the Kuraysh and they said." And also according to him.[ 9 ] The Imiim Ahmad* has related on the authority of Safinah that he heard the Apostle of God say. there came to him He replied. A'bdu'Uah-b. traditionist of the first class. " The Caliphate shall last for thirty years and after thirty it. upon whom the al people shall be gathered together :" and according to Ahmad and the Caliphs of Bazzar from Ibn Masa'ud who was asked. would flourish during the period of the glory of the Caliphate and the vigour of Islam." years are included al only the four The learned say that in these Caliphs and the reign of al Hasan. is perhaps this. " will sedition. up to twelve Caliphs. and the gathering of the people around him who assumed the vicegerency. that they. this among them — and there are other " this lines of ascription rule shall continue secure. H. 780). according to Muslim. and the integrity of its government. a It is said he knew by heart a million of these traditions. al Kui-an created Bukhari tod Muslim were his disciples. men shall " the rule over the people shall continue in force until twelve have ruled ." Kadhi I'yadh says that the meaning of the twelve Caliphs in this tradition and in those resembling it. like unto the number of the chiefs' of the children of Israel." and " Islam shall continue revered and unassailable until there shall have heen twelve Caliphs . to t Abu U'baydah commonly called the son of al Jarrah but incorrectly according Ibn Hajr and sin Nawawi who maintain that his father was A'bdu'Uah and his grand- — father al Jarrah." A reliable tradition. on the authority of Jabir-b-Samurah from the prophet that he said " This rule shall continue in honour. said " And Bazzar from Abu U'baydah-b-u'lt Jarrah that the prophet : began with the prophetic mission and in clemency it then shall follow monshall continue with the Caliphate and in clemency archy and despotism. and he answered " Twelve. 241 (855).

" Islam Ibn Hajr in the " Commentary on al Bukhari —the words of the Kadhi I'yadh are the best that have been uttered tradition. then A'li until occurred the affair of the " two Arbitrators" at Siffin. When Yazid died. therefore. . The Euphrates. but the remote west passed away from them through the conquest of Spain by the Then his brother al Mansiir held sway. These. Then they gathered round his four sons. and his reign was long. their submission to do him homage. A'mr b-u'l Aas on the part of Mu'4which extends along the western bank of the determined by D'Anville (1' Euphrate et le Tigre. al Walid. * Abu Mtisa Asha'ri on the part of A'li and plain of Siffin. when Hisham. Yazid-b-Walid. lines of ascription of the authentic tradition. the son of was not long : for there marched against him before he Marwan-b-Muhammad-b-Marwan. Campus Barbarioua . and thus continued tmtil arose the Abhaside The Shajkh gays . and the twelfth is Walid-b-Yazid b-Abdi'l Malik. of al — — gathered round Abdu'l Malik-b-Marwan. his father's brother died. and Sulayman. died. and Yazid and Hisham and between Sulayman and Yazid. for the Abu Bakr.[ 10 ] these conditions were found in those round whom the people gathered until fell among among them the sway of the children of Umayyah was troubled and discord it them in the reign of Walid-b-Yazid. after the death of Ibn uz Zubayr. says Gibhon. that the people gathered round any Caliph. Then the first of the his father's uncle. discord fell among them until they plishment. 29) to he the of Procopiua. p. there intervened Omar b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. then Omar. then Othman. round whom the . He reigned about Then they rose up against him and slew him and dissension prevailed and things were changed from that day. after the orthodox Caliphs. thereupon the sons of his brother Ibrahim reigned but Marwan slew him A'bbas made war upon Marwan until he was slain." u'l power and they overthrew their sovereignty. on this and the most important. the same who rose against his cousin al Walid-b-Yazid. "upon all of whom the people shall be gathered together:" that the meaning of and the is elucidation of this gathering together. for the reign of people gathered four years.* and Mu'awiyah people gathered round assumed the Caliphate from that day. and it never happened after that. and this very thing came to pass. are seven. Then the people gathered round Mu'dwiyah at the time of the treaty with al Hasan then they united upon his son Yazid and the authority : Husayn was never established nay he was killed before its accomThen when Yazid died. Caliphs of the children of Abbas was as Saffah. but his reign was not protracted by reason of the multitude of those who went out against him. is wiyah. on account of their confirmation of his remark on some of the is.

* Ad Dhahir hi'amri'Uah." that is. exclusive of those of Caliph and together with them. the four and al Hasan and Mu'awiyah and Omar Ibn A'bdi'l A'ziz these are eight and it is probable that there : be added to them.* on account of what was vouchsafed unto him of rectitude of conduct. and it. and none in any one of the provinces. name. and in the same way. among them. it continued in tteir hands predominant over until they afterwards assumed the Caliphate — and things came to such a pass that nothing remained of the Caliphate in the provinces but the it had been that in the time of the children of Abdu'l Malik b-Marwan. the Khutbah was read in the name of the Caliphs in all the regions of the earth. after wherever the true believer had been victorious. al Muhtadi of the House of A'bbas. although their reigns may not follow and this confirms what has been recorded in succession one after another . them labouring in the way and the true and is. for he is of the may Muhammad. are accounted for. And has been also said that the meaning of the appearance of the twelve Caliphs during the whole duration of Islam until the day of judg- ment. by Musaddad Caliphs. ad Dhahir. was appointed to hold a single Caliph. all except by order of the fifth Regarding the immoderate lengths to which things went." issue thereof — twelve Caliphs. verily in the century in Spain alone." According to the meaning of his words " there will follow sedition" the troubles foretelling the resurrection by the coming of Dajjal and the I observe that according to this. of the (here he ends). acting according to the truth. all of in his Musnad-i-Kabir from Abu'l Khuld who of salvation says. office." who claimed the Caliphate in the regions of the earth.[ 11 ] descendants of Marwan. therefore. and such actually occurred. shall be of the family of Muhammad. " This people shall not perish until there shall have been from among them. . the right hand and the left. twelve faith. upon whom be the blessing and peace of God. two this. among the children of Umayyah. and there remain two who are to be family of awaited. it is. of the descendants of A'li and the He adds. for he is among them what Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz is. there were six persons who assumed the title in Baghdad. " perhaps this interpretation is the meaning of the prophet's words " there will follow sedition. a descendant of U'baydu'llah ruler in Egypt and an A'bbasi schismatics. the east and the west. slaughter arising from sedition openly occurring it and continuous. one among them heinff al Mahdi.

. of dispute unto God revealed to him concerning it." — Ibn JarirJ in grandfather of his Abu Commentary has related on the authority of the Sahl that he said. and Ya'la-b-Murrah. jurisprudence and the like bom A. O Muhammad. such as tradition. 224 (838-9) at Amul in Tabaristau and died at Baghdad A. for the prophet saw the children of Umayyah on his pulpit." At Tirmidi says " this but once recorded tradition. " the Apostle of God saw the child- xen of al Hakam-b-Abi'l A'as leap upon his pulpit with the leap of apes. H. Husayn-b-A'li and others. A't Tirmidi relates on the authority of Yusuf-b-Saa'd that a man stood up before al Hasan the son of A'li. no more and no less."§ from the traditions of A'bdu'llah-b-Omar. but there are concurring testimonies * Kur. See Sale. { Al Kauthar is a stream in Paradise Hence tKe gift of wisdom. H. uttknown. XVII. Abu at Tahari is the author of a great Commentary on the j^uran and a famous history. after he had sworn allegiance to Mu'awiyah. the " Eeasons of Eevelation." t Kur. and it troubled him : then was revealed to him " Verily and there was also revealed to him of power and —" we sent down how we have given the thee al Kauthar"* Kuran on a night what shall make thee understand excellent the night of is : the night of power is greater than a thousand months"t " in which the children of Umayyah shall possess the Caliphate. and vision men. D. — § Kur. and said. See Sale. which was the occasion of much dispute amongst his followers until con- firmed by the testimony of Abu Bakr. — —the word signifies " ahxm. may the Lord have mercy on them. which we showed thee only for an occasion " We have appointed the The authorities are weak.- XVIII Jaa'far —the concluding sentence Muhammad-b-Jarir is not in the Kuran." Al Kasim says. " Thou hast blackened the faces of the true believers. " I have computed and lo it is a thousand months. I power ! know only from the tradition of al Kasim who is reliable but his master is Al Hakim has given this tradition in his Mustadrak (Supplement) and Ibn Jarir in his Commentary but the Hafidh Abu'l Hajjaj and Ibn Kathir say that it is unreliable. 310 (A." and he replied " Eeproach me not. This verse is generally supposed to refer to the prophet's journey to heaven. I have quoted it with its authorities in the Commentary and Musnad. dance of good. and alluded to it in my work. 923) Ibn Khali. and that troubled him and he never brought himself to smile until his death. He was a master of the highest authority (Imim) on various branclies of knowledge.[ 12 ] On the traditions premonitory of the Caliphate of the children of Umayyah. VIII.

or oma- meat of the Saints " containing the lives of the principal Muslim Saints. his death J Hafidh Abu Nu'aym Aljmad b-A'bdu'llah author of the *LjJjJ|( *jJ«a. and there met him A'bbas and he said. H. a native of Saragosaa in Spain. "Verily God hath begun this authority with me and will fulfil it said. on Saturday 28th of Du'l Ka'adah A. that the Apostle of God said to A'bbas. quoted by Ibn * Abu'l Ilasan Eazin-'b-Mu'£wiyah-'b-A'mmar a member of the trite of A'bdu' d Dar." and Abu Nua'ymJ in his Huliyah. and Muslim. De Slaue. . 948) and died at Ispahan in Safar 430 (A. I observe that this tradi- and that which precedes are the best that have come down on saw in vision this subject. was Imam to the Maliki school at Mecca." and he O father of excellence ?" who replied 'Yea." it. ! vouchsafe unto leave . one after another. that I may invoke upon thy descendants a blessing by which. " when it shall be the morning of the second day. 971) at His Dictionary (Mu'jam) of the traditionists is the best known of hjs works. D. 525 (A. in thy posterity. Caliphate abiding in his posterity. an outward and inward mercy . Apostle of God. the Jami' of at Tirmidi and the Siman of Ahu DauM. " and at Thus has mate the tion. " I Marwan taking possession of my pulpit. D. 360 (September A. and I saw the children of A'bbas taking possession of pulpit one after another and that gladdened me . preserve him in his son." and he went at dawn and I went with him and said to A'bbas — he clothed us with a mantle then he said. small (saghir) and medium (auaat) Ibn Khali. that the Apostle of God came forth. At Tabaranif the children of records that the Apostle of God said. in which he assembled and classed all the traditions contained in the Sahi^ of al Bukhari. Ibn Khali." (The ascription is unreliable. come to me." his " Jami'. Al Bazzar has related from Abu Hurayrat that the Apostle of God " in ye shall rest prophecy and sovereignty :" and at Tirmidi from Ibn A'bbas. " Shall I not give thee good tidings. " Lord A'bbas and unto his son. His wort is generally designated Kit&h-i-Eazin. 1130. from Abu Hurayrah. the Muwatta of Malik. the chief Hdfidh of his time bom at Tabariya in Syria and having settled at Ispahan contiaued there — till the age of about one hundred. thou and thy son.) There has also come down a tradition of A'li's on authorities still weaker than this. the large (kabir). 1038). them not in sin it in . Ihn Khali.) t Ahu'l Kasim Sulaymfc b-Ahmad of the tribe of Lakhm. born in Rajab 336 (A. editions of which are frequently alluded to. D. D. may God profit tbee and thy son . died at Mecca A. Lord." and Eazin* al Tirmidi quoted A'bdari has added to the end of it.[ 13 ] On the traditions annunciatory of the Caliphate of the children of A'bhds. H. my which troubled me.

and the reading of it " With ye shall begin this authority and in ye shall it be : and this will appear with its ascrij)tion in the life of al Muhtadi It has also come down in the tradition of A'mmar-b-Tasir." God hath begun And the same this authority with me and has been handed down in the tradition as follows fulfilled. and Abu Nua'ym who Jabir-b-A'bdu'llah. 499. may God Also in his " Proofs" from TJmmu'l PadhlJ who said " I was passing by the prophet when he exclaimed " verily thou art pregnant of a boy and when thou givest him birth. I went to the prophet and he called out the AdAn in his right ear. 1071). the former § is is here meant. " he is what she told you . . bom A. and the§ Ikamah in his left. upon Him be peace. The Ikamah a sentence which is said after the conclusion of the Adan is still or call occa- to prayer and which announces that prayers have begun. it shall come to pass that the children not depart from their hands * Atu'l Kasim tionist of Syria ed." I made this known to A'bbas and he spoke of it to the Apostle who said. H. D. said to in thy posterity. he is the Father of the Caliphs among whom shall be as SaS'ah and among shall whom shall be al Mahdi." the name of the wife of A'bbas and also of his X The of dred works. " Mother of Excellence. H. died ledge of traditions was imperfect. 1002) and died A. that Karimi (and he will fulfil was a fabricator of traditions) up to A'bbas. it the Apostle of God. he made tradition his principal study. ad Daylami. This ceremony sionally performed at the birth of a child II —but is not obligatory. Ibn KhaU. and he made him drink of his spittle and named him Abdu'llah and said to me "depart with the Father of the Caliphs." bi'llah. and among u'l whom shall be one who pray together with Jesus the Son of Mary.— [ 14 J al A'sakir* from the ascription of " Verily Muhammad-b-Yunas A'li. H. of Ibn A'bbas quoted by al Khatibf in his history." my people . a native Baghdad who composed a history of the city and is the author of nearly one hunThough a doctor of law. H." and when I gave birth to him. 509. " there shall be kings of the posterity of A'bbas. his knowfull of idle tales. then bring him to me. 1176). and he could not distinguish between good and untrust-worthy ones and therefore his Firdaus is A. 392 (A. D. (1105) died at Damascus A. Ibn KhaU. D. daus. t Hafidh Ahu Bakar AJimad-h-A'li known as Alkhatib or the preacher. 463 (A. H. sumamed Thikatuddin. A'li. a native of Damascus and chief tiadi- who acquired a superiority in that science that no other had ever attain- horn A. that the Apostle of records in the Huliyah on the authority of God said . quoted by al Khatib." Abu Shujdd Shiruyiah-b-Shahrd4r-b-Shiruyiah-b-Fanna Khusrau of Hamadin He was the author of a history of Hamadan and the " Musnad u'l FirHAfidh Yahya-b-Mandah says of him that though fairly well read. (A." Ad Daylami|| in his Musnad tradition ascribed to the prophet — " It and Firdaus has related from Aysha a shall of A'bbas shall possess a standard. Bustdn u'l Muljaddithin. 571. daughter. shall be the rulers of glorify the faith through them.

His " Fabricated Traditions" is in 4 Vols. J. sensitive ears of the poet. born A. for verily. 199. was a native of BagMad tlie name Darakutni means belonging to Daru'l Entn (cotton house) a quarter of Baghdad. t The towns and villages of Babylonian I'rak. One of the authorities in the line of ascription. ' the purport of this tradition is not far from the truth. until they deliver it unto the Messiah. D.) he remarks that according to Ibn Duraid. for the Abbaside * Abu'l Hasan A'li-'b-Omar. H. and of the race of my father.JAP should be pronounced A'kil. His compositions are so numerous that it is said (with some exaggeration) that he wrote 180 pages a day and the parings of his pens were gathered up into a heap and in pursuance of his last orders." it (A'd Daylami has quoted from Ummi Salimah§ with a different ascription). X Abu'l Faraj Ibn u'l Jauzi a celebrated preacher and doctor of the Hanbalites. IV. This is so in respect of § II One De the son of Abu mous II ancestor of a branch of the Talib and Akil-b-Mukarrin the Companion. A Hafidh of great loaming and a Shafii doctor. Bom about A. 306 (A. D. H. 919. Ibn -KhaU. dominion shall not cease to abide with them until they resign unto Jesus. " When thy posterity shall inhabit the Sawwadf and it clothe themselves in black and their followers shall be the people of Khurasan. but U'kayl was the eponyHawazin who were of the tribe of i^ays. I). . 385 — (A. 995). 1281). the neglect of — which advice waa avenged on the therein related. H. 597 (A." is Ahmad b-Ibrahim is is a worthless authority and his master unknown and it the tradition so little reliable that Ibn u'l JauziJ has mentioned it in his " Fabrications" — but there is evidence for in a tradition ascribed to the prophet. See the Muntaha'l Arab. 508 (1114-5). p. quoted shall abide by at Tabarani in the " Kabir" — " the Caliphate among the children of my paternal uncle. Saadi of Shiraz mentions him in thte G-ulistan as having counselled him to forego profane music. for every month. but in a note (Vol. and died A. and has added I hope there is no harm in aecepting him as an authority . AlU'kayli|| records in his book of " Invalid authorities. that he is among the doubtful authorities whose traditions are recorded." " A£rad" from Ibn A'bbds that the prophet said to A'bbds. was washed." a tradition' Abbas shall reign ascribed to the prophet " the children of two days for ' every day in which the children of TJmayyah shall reign. the Son of Mary. Slaue so writes the name. at a convivial meeting as of the prophet's wives." . and two months Ibn u'l Jauzi has quoted this in his Fabrications' and has invalidated it on account of the untrustworthiness of Bakkar." and on my life. H. were employed to heat the water with which his corpse . died at Baghdad A.^ but it is not as he has said.[ 15 ] as long as they shall And Darakutni* in his uphold righteousness. Bakkar should not be accused of falsehood nor fabrication moreover Ibn A'di says of him.

. the authority : ' Umayyah that he said to Mu'awiyah " ye shall not reign a day. He also taught traditions and died at Mecca A. 870) aged 84. p. and the whole west seceded from rule. 68 (A. its sway : him. a member of the tribe of Kuraysh. He was Kadhi < of Mecca and composed tbe genealogies of the Kuraysh. H. as will appear. the Caliph A'U." and he said this three times then save from the : he exclaimed. Al Karimi is one of the authoritaas in the line of ascription. " the black standards shall be for us. at the time of its splendour. t Abu'l A'bbas A'bdu'Uah son of A'bbia uncle of Muljammad. and he gathered in his estimation — A'li said —" What whom is it ?" He replied. we * Atu A'bdu'Uah az Zubayr. from Ibn Abbds. and the sciences of poetry and arithmetic. sent to the children of A'bdu'l them together about him and A'li held a place which no other possessed. dost thou not know. for that lasted 92 years. and in his time. but two. from he deducted nine years. 91. verily I have formed an opinion and I do not wish to determine anything regarding it until I have sought counsel of thee . Masudi Tome VII. . " descendants. defend A'bbds and the son of A'bbds. and their . the people of the prophetical House. Ibn KhaU. besides the remote west. that al Mahdi shall be of thy is —the prospered of God. D.dominion was about 160 illustrious children of and that is double the reign of the which must was vested in Ibn u'z Zubayr thus there remains 83 years and a fraction and that is a thousand months exactly and so I have afforded confirmation of the tradition. died at Taif A. uncle. He named the book mentioned in the text after his son al Muwaffak to whom he dedicated it. D. and not a month but we shall reign we shall reign two months. that al A'bb&s the son of A'bdu'l Muttalib. the law. the legal decisions of the first three Caliphs. born three years He was considered the ablest interpreter of the Koran of his day and the mos^ learned in the traditions. Az Zubayr-b-Bakkar* records in his Muwaffakiyat. and approved. X . its organisation was broken up. Appointed governor of Basrah by before the Hijrah. may be placed between the year one hundred and thirty and odd and the year 290 when al Muktadir reigned. Ibn Khali." Ibn A'sakir relates in his history of Damascus from Ibn A'bbasf that the' Apostle of God said to him " O God. H. during which. happy. us. in shall rest this authority after him and if it rest in. then followed dissension and trouble in his government and after Thus the period of the glory of their sovereignty years. 687) aged 70." then Muttalib. " (al KarimiJ a fabricator) Ibn Saa'd records in his Tabakat (classes) from Ibn A'bbas." and. " Go to the prophet and ask of him. towards the rising and the extension of its authority and the setting sun.[ 16 ] throughout the countries of the earth. and not a year but shall reign two years :" and. and al A'bbas said " O son of my brother. a standard authority on the subject. De Slane. 256 fa. " their overthrow shall not come we side of the west.

that the prophet gave a mantle to the people of Aylah. died at Basrah 216 (831). while there remaineth of us a chief upon the earth.* in his Tuydriyat. verily Yunas-b-Bukayr relates from the account of the expedition of Tabiik of Ibn Ishak. H. the Elana of Ptolemy. born A. made his submission. He had written some satirical verses on the prophet.§ with his letter. Kaa'b not caring to indulge his wit at the expense of his life. 546 (1151) by al Aadil as Sallar at Alex- He was at andria." A'li said. Mu'awiyah Bent to his children an offer of twenty thousand dirhams. called as Silafi after his grandfather. in whom shall abide this authority save in thee. . has quoted. records a tradition ascribed When God willoth to form any one for the Caliphate. with its ascription to al Asma'i. H. we shall never seek it. and this has been related by others. and he received from them the mantle.t on the authority of Ibn A'mr-b-i'l A'la. As Silafi. for his numerous treatises. and when Kaa'b died. from the Persian (Seh lab) three double. t Abu Sa'id A'bdu'l Malik the celebrated philologer.Dahabi says in his history . (1079) and died A. 576 (1180)." but he refused. " regarding the mantle in the possession of the Caliphs of the House of A'bbas." On the dignity of the prophetic mantle which the Caliphs wore in succession to the very last. and will any contend with you regarding this autliority ?" the prophet " Ad Daylami in his Musnad u'l Firdaus. to he toucheth his forehead with His right hand. lips —he received this name as one of his lips was s'plit and appeared a Hafidh and taught traditions and was appointed President of the College called after him. X This well-known poem was recited before Muhammad on the poet's embracing Islam. consult Ibn Khali. uncle. a native of Basrah. Ibn Khali. " and if it rest in other than us. founded in A. by Allah.J lie threw to him the mantle that was upon him he wrote to Kaa'b saying. who in consequence ordered his followers to put him to death if they caught him. me the mantle of the Apostle of God for ten thousand dirhams. the same which was in the possession of the Caliphs But ad of the House of A'bbas. The printed edition has Turyat for Tuyuriyat. The the praise of his mistress Su'ad and ends with an entreaty of pardon. 122 (740). § poem begins with On the Red Sea. and when Mu'awiyah reigned. 3 . H. bom Ispahan 472 A. but 'o:emoved to Baghdad in the reign of Hariin u'r Eashi'd. that when Kaa'b b-uz Zubayr read out before the prophet his poem beginning Banat Su'ad. H. " sell . He was a complete master of the Arabic language and was consulted by al Mamiin on all doubtful points of literature .[ 17 ] shall not resign it. the same that he wrote * ATdu'I Tahir Aljmad.

is deposed. and it became thread bare. and adds " I reflectedon this and observed it with wonder. whether in assembly or — On some observations which occur scattered throughout these hioffraphies. Mua'tasim and al Wathik and Musta'in and he was deposed. and it was upon al Muktadir when he was slain. Verily this mantle was in the possession it it upon their mounted cavalcade. its length four cubits. Then al Mamiin. His father az Zubayr b-A'wwam was one of the ten Companions to whom Muhammad promised His mother was Asma-d. and wore state occasions. The Imam Ahmad b-Hanbal records in his " Zuhd" from TJ'rwah-b-uz Zubayr* that the garment in which the Apostle of God went out to meet deputations was a mantle from Hadhramaut. Then al Walid and Sulayman and Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz and Yazid and Hisham and al Walid in our prophet A'li . Jauzi narrates that according to as Siili. — . and was stained with his blood. He was an accomplished scholar and traditionist. and Hasan and he was deposed. and al ceased. 336 (A. The supreme authority was vested u'l Ibn sixth Caliph then there arose Abu Bakr. He became one of the Caliph ar Radl. Then Mu'awiyah and Yazid-bMu'awiyah and Mu'awiyah-b-Yazid and Marwan. and A'bdu'l Malik-bMarwan and Ibn u'z Zubayr and he was deposed. and its breadth two cubits and a span. t Abu Bakr as Suli known as the chess-player.[ 18 ] them granting them immunity and. and I think it was lost during the irruption of the Tartars " for we belong to God and unto him shall we return. D 986-7) Ibn KhaU. 22 (642-3) died A H Paradise. of Abu Bakr born A. and al — After this the dominion of the House of Umayyah and as SafEah reigned. Abu'l A'bbas as Saffiah purchased for 300 dinars. died at Ba?rah A. which was in the possession of the Caliphs. Ibn Khali.) and they inherited in succession." (Kur II. 93 (711-2). on Fitr. and al Mansur and al Mahdi and al Hadi and ar Eashid and al Amin and he w. shoulders. is but the mention of which here in one place most suitable and advantageous. * al Mutawakkil and al Muntasir and Then al Mua'tazz and al Muhtadi." I remark that that which Mu'awiyah bought was lost in the decline of the House of pmayyah. He composed numerous works the chief science he cultivated was biography. one of the seven great jurisconsults of Medina. and he was deposed. H. and Omar and Othman.ii's' boon companions and was intimate with al Muktafi and al Muktadir.f it is said that every who ruled over the people was deposed. and they lined it with stuffs and it used to be worn to it on the festivals of Adha and of the Caliphs. and al al Abu A'bdu'Uali. . H.

* " Before his accession to th. that Marwan falls out of the account.Yazid. undoubted. the honorable epithet of the Ass of Mesopotamia. He adds what Ibn u'l Jauzi has stated. He had been governor of Mesopotamia and the Arabic proverb praises the courage of that warlike breed of asses rison of who never fly from an enemy. for unto Ibn u'z Zubayr was sworn a prior allegiance. and the authority of Ibrahiih." . : he who succeeded Yazid An Nakis was not completely established. and was the last The Caliphate was interrupted subsequently then al of for three and a half. that after ar Rashid. but this was not the case. that what Jauzi has mentionstatement. Mustansir afterwards was elected. for Mua'tazz was deprived I reply that is.e throne" says Gibboa "he had deserved by his Georgian warfare. and Mu'awiyah opposed in Syria these two are therefore one. Thirdly. al the sixth. The surname of Mervan may justify the compaHomer (Iliad A 557) and both will silence the moderns who consider the ass a stupid and ignoble emblem. but he does not deny that there were others besides them in addition to who were deposed as well. for thus computing them. and after him came A'bdu'l Malik. Either or one was the true paliph and the other a rebel. and he was the same years the sovereign Caliphs. and therefore the Caliphate of A'bdu'l Malik was legally established only from the time for Ibn u'z Zubayr was fifth both of them must be fifth. I remark u'z count Yazid has An that it already been said.[ 19 1 Mua'tamid. but not the Caliphate. Then al Kadir and al Kaim and al Muktadi and al Mustadhir and deposed. and others did not so acknowledge him and there were some who claimed for him the supreme power. and an Nasir and al Dhahir al Muktafi and al Mustansir who was the sixth but was not deposed. his omitting to i\'akis and his brother Ibrahim wlio was deposed and Marwan. because he was a rebel. al Mustarshid and ar llashid and he was deposed " This al is the end of the narration of Ibri u'l Jauzi Ad Dahabi says points. Therefore : according to this computation. and again a second time and then put to death. his stctement is not affected by this objection because the meaning the deposal is that as regards every sixth.* was Amin after him. that ed is defective in several One of them is his A'bdu'l Malik was succeeded by Ibn u'z Zubayr. and al Marwan the Ass. al Amin would be the ninth. for allegiance was him sworn to Ibn u'z Zubayr after the death of Yazid. al Muttaki and al Mustakfi. for he was the sixth. and he ruled but for forty or seventy days. the deposals are not confined to every sixth. when Ibn Zubayr was killed. and al Mua'fcadhid and al Muktafi and al Muktadir and al lie was Then Kahirand ar Radhi and al Muttaki and al Mustakfi and al Mutii' and at Tail' and he was deposed. for some acknowledged him as Caliph. whom the Tartars slew. of ofiice and likewise al Kahir. The second point is. reigned and al Mustanjid and al Mustadhii. Then al Musba'sina. the twelfth from Mu'awiyah. and also Mu'avpiyah-b.

held the ever ruled the Caliphate except A'li-b-Abi Talib and his son al Hasan. I — occur singly up to al Musta'sim. al Mansiir. either among the Caliphs or the temporal sovereigns.[ 20 ] but hv did not actually assume the Caliphate. accurate in pelled but al Mua'tadhid among the most glorious of surnames and th« is The text has Musta'sim incorrectly. the middle of the Mamun and the end all al The Caliphs of a House of A'bbas. a middle.iwim. were of them the children of concubines. Mutawakkil who was the sixth and was deposed. who was the sixth from al Mua'tasim the first (who was then al Then al Mustanjid also al Mua'tasim the second) and he was deposed. and al Note. the fifty first of the Caliphs of the House of A'bbas. *tintil his death. It is said thdt the House of A'bbas is distinguinhed hy a be- ginning. for among the A'bbaside Caliphs. and tanjid. then al Mua'tadhid. except Mustansir. Then reigned al Mua'killed likewise. Mua'tasim. and no Hashimite. and an end al — The beginning was Mua'tadhid. al Mustakfi and al Musta'in. . and thos. then al Hdkim.* imd al Musta'in. tlie name. tasim hut he was deposed after fifteen days and'al Mutawakkil recalled. and al Mustakti. three are called by those two names. Kaim. then then al al Mustakfi. and he was deposed. and al al Mutawakkil. of the Caliphs of the Not one and al House al of A'bbas is distinguished oy a surname of the House of U'bayd. al JHdkim. al Mahdi and al al Amin. and al Mua'tadhid and al Mustakfi. and Mua'tadhid. the assumption rise of the surnames by the House. ad Dhahir Mahdi and al Mansiir. Dahabi). and the first of the Caliphs was al Hakim.. of A'bbas preceded the H^iuse al of U'bayd. the son Hashimite woman. and Amin (so says as Slili) — and no one whose name was A'li ever son of Caliphate except A'li the Abu Talib and A'li al Muktafi (ad remark that the greater number of the names of the Caliphs occur but once. by which surnames two of the House * of A'bbds were distinguished. : Mutawakkil recalled who continued to reign Nest al Musta'in. the reigning Caliph. but as regards al of these Kaim.oftener. And some writers have mentioned that none surnamed Kahir was prosperous. except al Mustakfi and al Mua'tadhid which recur once. and al R. Ahmad and MuhHUimad. except as SafEah. then al WdthiTi. Then it was established in Egypt. and All of these recur but once. the Caliphs of last of the Caliphs of Irak — Then Mus- recur the surnames of the Egypt al — thus al al jMustansir recurs. is and those two were deposed and exThe MS. and al Kaim. and al Wathik. and few twice. and 1 add also. He was again deposed and al Wafchik acknowledged then al Mua'tasim .e most frequently recm-ring are and all the surnames of the Caliphs A'bdu'llah. for he was acknowledged in Egypt and he inarched into Trak and encountered the Tartars aid was and the Caliphate remained in abeyance a year.

al Musta'in.. The first who was called. viz. and the sons of al al Mutii'. father except No one ruled the Caliphate during the lifetime of his as Abu Bakr Siddik. tansir. The first who caused his name to be The first who prostruck on the coinage. and he was the first who introduced eunuchs into his service. and the who made tlie addition of call to prayer on Fridays. except the sons of ar Rashid. to say. first who governed the Caliphate while his first Abu Bakr. Iksijji A . and Abu Bakr at Taii'-b-ul Mutii'. according to different persuasions. was Othman. and he was the who assigned lands on feudal tenure. and he was the and the first who instituted a public treasury who appointed a and the first who prince of the named the Kuran al Mushaf. was successor. and the sons of Muktadir. Mua'tazz and Mua'tamid. that first is who did so to any extent. and that no parallel to this is to be among temporal sovereigns. The first introduction of surnames. was Omar-b-u'l Khattab. Art. al Mamun. and Tarawih.* and the first who established the public registers. after the ordinary prayer of nightfall consisting of twenty or more le'kahs.. and the bulary. and al Mustakfi. and Mus- Ad Dahabi states this. The the the first who first interdicted pasturage from encroachment. and the the first first who established the date who first ordered the prayers called at from the Flight. except reigning Caliph. was A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwan. al Muktafi and He continues. and al Kaim and al Mustanjid the found. hibited his being addressed by name was al Walid-b-A'bdi'l Malik. Lane's Lex. for four. No one held the Caliphate after al the son of his brothers. al Amin. al al Musviz. was Mu'awiyah. in whose father was struck by paralysis and who voluntarily abdicated favour of his son. nay five of the sons of al Mutawakkil Muhammad. was by the House of A'bbas.. ia the month of Eamadh^n. except al Mustakfi after ar Rashid. The first who ever caused the heads of criminnls to be brought before him was A'bdu'llah-b u'z Zubayr.. and al al Mua'tasim. ar Eadhi. al iVlutawakkil. and adds that no three brothers possessed the Caliphate. that four of the sons of A'bdu'l Malik governed the state. first first who sanctioned a stipend for who was confused in speech while readwho appointed a chief Officer of Consta- The first who during his lifetime named an heir to succeed him. and al Mua'tadhid. viz. I remark that a parallel case to it occurs among the Caliphs after the prophet. viz. and the ing the Khutbah. Ibn Fadhli'llah says that * some think that the House of Umayyah had sur- form of prayer performed at some period of the night. and the first the criers to prayer.[ 21 1 most blessed for hkn who was tansir after al Mua'tasim. called by it. held the Caliphate. The learned say that the father was alive. Faithful. and he was the first who made use of the scourge.

the Caliph was first addressed by word and in writing. The last Caliph who kept the troops and public effects under his personal direction was ar first The who invented head-dress was al Musta'in. al Mustansir. Turks or Nubians according to the Muntahal u'l Arab. as Shakir li anu'mi'llah. : tical tradition as quoted by at Tabarani by a respectable line of ascription. and that of Mu'awijah his son.[ 22 ] names similar to those of the House of A'bbas. The first who in ofiices of trust and gave them prece- ordered the composition of polemical The first before The first who played at polo in the open plain was ar Rashid. and he too was the last Diwan. and treasury and meats and drinks and festal assemblies. and he was the first dence over who employed slaves Arabs. and the Caliph before the people. and the last Caliph whose expenses and gifts and rewards. Al Mua'tasim was the first who employed Turks in the office of the public registers. al Mtitamin bi'llah and that of A'bdu'l Malik. and stipend. The first who ruled the Caliphate among minors was al Muktadir. Al Mua'tamid was the first Caliph treated with severity and kept under restraint and guarded. and chamberlains. and that of Yazid-b-Abdi'l Malik. and other affairs were conduoled after the manner of the * Banu some siiy 5. said. for verily they who shall take from my people their kingdom and the things which the Lord hath conferred upon them. The first Caliph who gave stars access to astrologers al and acted according to the judgments of the was Mansur. from whom the Turks are duscended. Kadir hi Sana' i'llah. or as Kantdra waa the name of a slave of Abraham's. are the sons of Kantdra.antura. and that of A'ziz. . " from Ibn Masa'ud who stated that the Apostle of God first Molest not the Turks. The first whom the Turks adjudged to death was al Mutawakkil and from this is seen the confirmation of the prophewritings to refute the enemies of the Faith was al Mahdi. and that of Marwan. and the whose poems were collected into a who uniformly read the Khutbah and prayed last Cali[)h who sat in company with boon comlast Caliph. and that of Yazid an Nakis. and the surname of Yazid. The was iirst time that public opinion became conflicting and disunited in the reign of as Saffah. whom men walked with swords and maces. was al Hadi. retinue. by his surname. panions. as long as they leave ye unmolested. In the reign of al Amin. al Muntakim bi'llah. I remark that certain writers assert the surname of Mu'awiyah to have been an Nasir li dlni'llah. and that of Omar b-A'bdi'l al Ma'sum bi'llah. fir Eaji' ili'l Hakk. Al Mutawakkil was the first who ordered a distinguishing garb for Jews and Christians. al Muwaffak li' amri'llah."* large sleeves and diminished the size of the Al Mua'tazz was the first Caliph who introduced ornaments of gold on riding animals. Itadhi. al his son al Walid.

Hafidh. Rashid. in gar- al Mus- tansir. and its extinction in the Faiz and A'adhid. in was The beginning of their rule the year two hundred and ninety and odd. and ar Rashid. terrible daggers. al A'ziz. Tabakat u'l Mufassirin. and they were fourteen the Batinitef not the violaters of covenants not successors to the vicegerency. consult D'Herbelot. J were in a better position than the descendants of * Al Hasan-b-A'tdi'llah-ti-Sahl. . Died subsequently to the year 400 A. is not the whole but only a portion Edit. {This is mentioned in the Awail his mother's lifetime. Abu one held the Caliphate during the lifetime of his father. as Suyuti Mearsinge. that there may be added. the Awail (Initions) a work on prose and vei-se. same race. and to him-may be added at Taii'. al al Mustansir. but not that of the descendants of Fatimite. of Daulid and Sulayman. except Bakr as Siddik. he who ruled after al Musta'^im. says that this year 567. al ad Dhahir. the West (Al Maghrab) The word "' Afrikiya. The first time that surnames recurred was after the reign of . or dynasty. The first Caliph who reigned during was Othman-b-AfEan. al Mua'tadhid and Mutii'.— : [ 23 ] 'early Calipbate and he was the last Caliph who went journeying ments like unto the Caliphs of former times. Sulayman. No. were three in Africa. the mother of al Hadi dnd ar . the two sons the two sons of al and Shahin. indifferently. al Kaim. the Ismailites of the East. Siili No A's says : " I know of no al woman who gave Walid and as birth to two Caliphs. al al of al A'skari*). and al Amin and Mutawakkil. of the !]^uran. t U'baydu'Uah. A scholar of exemplary life. (1009)." I remark. the mother of Yazid an Nakis and Ibrahim. Atu Hilal al A'skari. al Mustansir. a diseiplo of : Abu Ahmad author of a Commentaxy on the :^uran in 5 Vols. Walid and Khayzurdn. and another on Proverbs. except Wiladah. and his descendants are termed by the Oriendistinguish them from another branch of the tal writers tlie Ismailites of the West to These latter were the famous assassins. Ad Dahabi may be called the Magian or the Jewish A'li. and the mother Mutawakkil. the mother of al A'bbas and Hamzah. H. Umayyah Those who assumed the title of Caliph among the descendants of in the West. al Musta'li." which they sometimes use. the founder of this dynasty. claimed descent from Ismail-b. For its divisions. the children of the last Those who assumed the fourteen : title of Caliph. and al Mansiir. al Amir. al A'skari . of al Maghrab. al Mahdi. al Musta'in. (here he ends). then al Hadi. 29. the mother of of Ahdu'l Malik . of the House of U'bayd. the East crouched for two t The Arabs termed Spain and Africa. and eleven in Egypt. al Mua'tazz. al al Miii'zz.Jaa'far the seventh Imam of the posterity of Ali. ad Dhafir. under whose called also Batinis from their mystical interpretation hundred years.

— history of the Abbaside Caliphs by al A'bbasi. the blank might be filled up with the name of al Mutii li'llah who succeeded to the Caliphate in A. to whom obedience the mantle of the prophet : pulpit. that that restriction is not to pass unchallenged. as rer/ards orthodoxy. and the Aurak of as Suli. As SuK died in A. and they were many in number. : Some former writers have compiled histories of the Caliphs among them. so that there were together at one time in Spain.. H 335 and as his History professes only to relate what he had himself seen (see Kashfu'd Dhunun). that by Niftawayh the Grammarian. and knowledge. " I do homage to our lord and master the Imam. H. the wazir was standing in front of him upon a and the Comptroller of the Household upon a step below him. in two volumes. and several have made this Asma and Saa'i says of Ali likewise it among them an Nawawi in his Tahdib u'l handed down by one line of tradition th.it Ibn u's he had the whole of was present at the ceremony of allegiance sworn to the Caliph ad Dbablr. white robe. Abu Nasr Muhammad aji^ Dhahir bi'amr'illah verily there is according to the boolc of God. Amir Abu Musa Hariin-b-Muhammad Al Khatib in his History. fur Abu Bakr knew clear. in which he has mentioned the Abbasides only up to* with which I am acquainted. records with authorities from Muhammad b-A'bbad that none of the Caliphs knew the Kuran by heart. 334. and he was^ seabed at the window of a chamber in a I —" by heart. and the history of the Caliphs by Abu'l Padhl Ahraad-b-Abi Tahir al Marwazi. each of them calling himself Caliph. and tradition and justice and merit. after the death of the prophet. and battling and warring with infidels. except 0thman-b-A'ffan and al Mainun." * The MS. . it is it accurately also.and the . H. and no Caliph but he. and he was taking the covenant from the people and the words of the covenant were. auiJiors . has here a blank—the text inserts J^s*-^ ^^\. and the law of the prophet and the decision of the prince of the faithful. up to the reign of al Kahir. and about him a cloak of camel's hair. I remark. al Katib one of the most excellent of poets who died in the year 280 A. : is a bounden duty upon all men.[ 24 ] U'baydu'Uah in many ways. six persons. and upon his shoulders.

Sa'id. b-A'mr. life any remissness or hesitation. but the truth upon which firef as the learned agreed is. b-Luwayy. and A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Auf. It is said likewise that there is nothing in his genealogy which can be found fault with. It is name was Atik B. t Nine others are included by Muhammad as sharing Othman.re name all said also. Talhah. b-Kaa'b. Saa'd Ibn Abi "Wakkas. is correct. Among flight those events. A'li. b-Saa'd. and his steadfastness and reply to the unbelievers regarding with the Apostle of God. Sale "-when at Hudaybiyah sent Ja-ww£s-b-Ommeyya J "Muhammad" says with a peaceable intention the Khozaite to acquaint the Mecoans that he was come 4i . b-Ghalib. that is to say. Omar. al b-Taym. and there never escaped from him on any one of the many events of his in Islam. b-Murrah. and throughout the whole journey then his exhortations on the day of Badr. Abu U'baydah. and the day of : HudaybiyahJ when the delay in entering Mecca. and he was surnamed al A'tik on account of his exemption from hell come down in the tradition given by at Tirmidi and it is : has also said. b-A'amir. and his forsaking his family and and his children."* the of An Nawawi in his Tahdib says " What I have stated regarding Abu Bakr being A'bdu'Uah. on account of the " itakat" of his countenance. b-Kaa'b. that the people concurred in naming him as Siddik (Witness to the Truth). were his conduct regarding the Nocturnal journey. not a name. was the occasion of grave * Murrah f ^ Tamim Saa'd Kilab Kaa'b A'bd Manaf A'mr A'amir I Hashim A'bdu'l Muttalib I Abu :^uhafa A'bdu'Uah Abu Bakr Muhammad. and his being with the Apostle in the cave. Abu'Bakr'as Siddik. and steadfastly adhered to truth. because he hastened to testify to the Apostle of God. God in Murrah. az Zubayr. that al A'tik was his surname. at Taymi. its comeliness and its beauty. and well known. and he held exalted positions it. unites with the genealogy of the Apostle of Kurayshi. Musa'b-b-uz Zubayr and others say. the vicegerent of the apostle of God whose name A'bdu'Uah-b-Abi Kuhafah Othman.[ 25 1 Ahu Bah' is as Siddik. this distinction. that his {the Liberated).

and the reason of it for some say that it was on : account of im- to visit the temple. . and his them then. he sent Othmiin prisoned and a report ran that he was slain whereupon. but they refusing to admit him. Ibn 653 4) Khali. 110 (A. Khal. Then there is some disagreement as to the time of his being so surnamed. overwhelmed them with arguments-and God opened their hearts had opened his heart to the understanding of the truth. and I shall arrange this in sections. deUvered traditions on the authority of Abu Hurayra and others and was skiUed in the interpretation of dreams. and the most glorious of his titles to honor. Muhammed whom they called hia about him and they took an oath to be faithful to him even to death. ^Regarding his name and surname an allusion to which has already preceded. He was a draper by profession." Consult. and dignities. Ibn Kathir* says. in the con: tention regarding the oath of allegiance. and his determination regarding it : then his rising until he as He and his dispute with the Companions. Haj. H. H. D. men t Abu Bakr Muljammad a native of Basrah. 33 (A. The name of hia well known history is the " Biddyah wa'l Nihdyah fi't Tdrikh"— « the beginning and the end of history. his appointing Omar and what virtues. and excellencies without number belong not to the Witness to the Truth ?" (an Nawawi). up to oppose the apostates. :" given his servant a choice between this world and the next : reading the Khutbah to the people and consoling then his firmness on the day of the death of the Apostle of God. H." * The H£fidh I'mfidu'ddin Isma'il-b-Abdu'Uah ad Damashki died in 774 A. viz. two years before the death of the Caliph Othmdn and died at Basrah A. D. battle with the apostates : then his fitting out the army for Syria for his succour : conquests and sending it lastly the conclusion of this career by an important action which was among the best of his good deeds. mentioning therein much of what I know of him regarding his life. his undertaking the charge for the good of the true believers of : next. He was bom A.[ 26 ] doubts to others God hath then his weeping when the Apostle of God said " Verily.. I add that I am desirous of enlarging upon the biography as his successor over the true believers : of as Siddik to some extent. that all admit that his name was A'bdu'llah-b-Othmdn. except the narration of Ibn Saa'd on the authority of Ibn Sirin f which asserts his name to have leen A'tik whereas the truth is that it was his surname. 729). to do. his diligence in despatching the army Usamah-b-Zayd to Syria. and that was.

noble. (A. and the prophet said. that it was on account of his priority* in merit and also it is said. ] the " i'tdkat" of his countenance that its beauty —but Abu Nua'ym al Fadhl-b-Dukayn says. Ibn MandahJ and Ibn A'sakir record on the authority of Mlisa-b- my father Talhah. t Grandson of Abu Bakr one great jurisconsults of Medina. on account of the nobility of his pedigree. it is purity. that by which his family called him was A'bdu'llah but the name of A'tik superseded it. De Slane." he replied. D. that he was called A'tik from the beauty JTalhah that he said. that she said. H. * A'tik signifying: also ancient. as there is nothing in his lineage that can be accounted a stain. said too that he . and lo Abu Bakr came up." then he said that the people called him A'tik she answered that Abu Kuhafah had three sons whom he named Atik. why Abu Bakr was mother had no son surviving and when she gave him birth. " A'bdu'llah . thou art exempted by the Lord from hell fire. and a curtain between me and them. well known collection of traditions and § Hafldh Abu Ya'la A^ad author of a of works on ascetic devotion and other subjects." and from that day. O God if this one is granted immunity from death. let him behold Abu Bakr. that by which his family called him. 210 (826) died A. " but the prophet named Abu — him A'tik. " he who would rejoice in looking upon one exempted from hell fire. that the name of fire . (919-20). she took him to the temple and exclaimed." Musnad (likewise Ibn Saa'd and al Hakim) on the testimony of Ayesha. that Abu Bakr went to the Apostle of God and he said. born at ilosal A. At Tabardni relates from al Kasim-b-Muhammadf that he questioned Ayesha as to the name of Abu Bakr.' " At "Tabarani records from Ibn A'bbas. H. 307. and she replied. he was Ta'la§ records in his it Abu and confirms ! ! Al Bazzar and at Tabarani record on good authority from Abu Bakr was A'bdu'llah." And at Tirmidi and al Hakim from Ayesha. and Mua'ytak. but the name of A'tik superseded it" and in one reading. and Ibn A'sakir from Ayesha that she said " the of name Bakr. H. that is its and was first so named and afterwards called A'bdu'llah. Mua'tak. "I asked called A'tik . " By Allah verily I was in my house on a certain day and the Apostle of God and his Companions were in the courtyard. Abu A'bdu'Uah-b-Mandah a celebrated traditionist and a Hafidh of high authoX Ibn Khali. I. "his ' ! of his countenance. " O Abu Bakr. .— [ 27 is. author of a history of Ispahan. 301. and the Apostle of God said to him " thou art exempted by the Lord from hell called A'tik. 913-4J. A'bdu'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr. died A. was A'bdu'llah. then bestow him upon me." thus he received the name of A'tik. rity. K. of the most eminent of tbe Tabi'is and of tbe seven Ibn Khali." and verily his name.

distinguished for his of truth. by Ibn Khallakau to be a traditionist. born A. He was born at Medina two * So the MS. (The authorities are Sa'id-b-Mansur narrates in his " Traditions" from Ibn Wahab. much consulted by the Ummyyad family on points of history. " O ! Gabriel. because he was . the text has Ibn Masada elegant writer but not stated years before the death of the Caliph Omar and died al Basrah A. (735-6). genealogy and poetry.[ 28 ] As regards as Siddik. his mother was a slave of TJmm Salimah one of the prophet's wives. died at Wasit § birth. (Supplement) records on the authority of Nazal. Bakr. of Kays-b-Makhramah. A H 117. + Muhammad-b-Ishak-b-Yasfa the freedman. Prince of the Faith.) consult Tdkfit Mua'j. A . (679-80). 151. 110 (728) Ibn KhaU." He replied " Abu Bakr will testify to thee. a native of Basrah and one of the Tabi'is. to who pretends that he was borne by night Jerusalem ?" . he arrived at Du Tua|| and said. H. H. died at Baghdad A. even to the announcement of Ms journey and for good)." He replied. Ibn Ishakf records on the authority of Hasan al BasriJ andKatadah. from !^atfidah-b-Dyama as Sadusi. where Moses saw the burning bush. for he is a Witness to the Truth. Tasar was one of the prisoners taken al A'yuu't Tamr. this to Heaven. (Ibn Mandah*) and also because he hastened to certify to the truth of the prophet with regard to what he announced. verily my people will not believe me. that the idolaters went to " Abu Bakr and said What dost thou think of thy companion. 60. X Abu Sa'i'd al ^asan of Basrah one of the most eminent of the Tabi'i's.§ first time he was known by it was the morning after the " NocAl Hakim relates in his Mustadrak (Supplement) on turnal Journey. sent by KhaHd-b-Walid to Abu Bakr at Medina. it is said that he was so called in the time of love ignorance. " I said unto 'Ali. II Ibid. " and did he say that ?" They answered " yes then he said' " Verily he hath spoken the truth. going in the morning and returning in the evening. the freedman of Abu Hurayrah that when the Apostle of God returned on the night of his Nocturnal journey. blind but of the greatest learning. Ibn KhaU. village near Mecca." he was called the Witness to the Truth. an. He is held by the majority of the learned to be a sure authority on tradition and his work the "Maghazi wa'e Siyar (conquests and expeditions) bears a high character.b-Sabrah that he tells us. (Kur xx. his Al Hakim in ful tell me of Abu . (768). not to be confounded with the valley of Tria or Tawa according to Sale. H." He replied " The Lord named that man as who was one of al Mamun's vizirs." Mustadrak. and indeed I would testify to him in more than that. He went to the Caliph Abu Jaa'far al Mansur at Hira and put the Maghazi in writing for his use and the learned of Kufa heard him read and explain that work ." that the the authority of Ayesha. Bui.

" Ohud. talents. was a HAfidh versed in history and of great H. b-A'amir. . and the wisest in . relative to the Battle of In the tradition and two martyrs. " Be at peace. Ibn KhaU—who omits the def.t on the authority of Yazid- that what b-u'l viz." An Nawawi says that he was one of the chiefs of the Kuraysh in the time of Ignorance. b-Kaa'b and she received the surname of the " mother of goodness" (Ummu'l Khayr) On Ms Nativity and place of hirth. the propJiei said. that God undoubtedly revealed from Heaven. and he was the possessor of great wealth in his tribe. is years. D. 4ied A. and beloved among them. Ibn Kathir says. article before Khayyat. as Siddik upon the tongue of Gabriel and at Tabarani on good unexceptionable authorities from Hakim-b Saa'd. and a man of perfect generoas Ibn u'l Dughannah says. courtesy. a witness to the truth The mother of Abu Bakr was Her name was Salma. sity. (A. recorded by Khalifah-b-u'l Khayyat. and acquirest what others are denied and givest help in worldly troubles. the daughter the daughter of his father's uncle. his authority.. of Sakbar. There are no less than eleven of this name given by Ibn Hajr as being acquainted with Muhammad. " I have heard A'li declare and confirm by oath. 2iO." a tradition of an imperfect lino of ascription and cited but by one for the authority. He was the vicegerent of the Apostle of God in public prayei'S. and indeed confirmed on the authority of Ibn A'bbas. that the prophet said to Abu Bakr " Verily am I the greater or art thou ?" and he replied " thou art greater. His birthplace was Mecca which he never left except to trade. but I am older in Asamm. the name of Abu Bakr as as Siddik." kutni and al often I Hakim from Abu Yahya. has Atu'l Hayya. for verily unto you there is ffiven a prophet. contrary is notorious.. And Dara" It is beyond computation how have heard A'li say upon the pulpit that the Lord named . [ 29 1 Siddik by the tongue of Gabriel and by the tongue of Muhammad. Al Bukhari gives traditions on Consult. He for he died is was born two years and some months after the birth of Muhammad when he was sixty-three years of age. and one of their conncillors. He ap^ proved him for our spiritual concerns. and beneficence among them " Verily thou art affectionate to thy kindred and speakest the truth in what thou narratesfc. 864-3). t Abu A'mr surnamed Shabab a native of Basrah and author of the Tabakat. and art hospitable to the stranger. and we have acquiesced in him for our worldly government.* (The authorities for this are good)." Abu Bakr. * The MS.

" and Ibn Asakir from Abdu 'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr. door-keeper and guardian of the Kaa'hah. infidels who pretended that the Kuran was only a "Those err poetical composi- Again uyjWl /ni*^i M«Jt Kur. . and Abn Nua'ym records from her on excellent authority. save done therein and it appertained to the Banu iftdu'd Dar." and religious poetry There are verses imputed to the great Shdfi'i in which he declares that is permissible. no one might enter the the office of the banner of war. Abu Bakr never recited poetry. and indeed he and Othman-f orbore from wine even in the time of Ignorance . that is to say. and to the Banu Hashira pertained the right of Sikayah and Eifadah. XXXVI. and to the Banu A'bdu'd Dar. upon him lay the settlement of 'blood-money and fines. " Abu Bakr never recited a verse ." Kur. the Kaa'bah except with their permission." and from * Eifadah was a contribution which the trite of the Kuraysh made in the time of Ignorance. were not men of his cloth prohibited from writing poetry.t whether in the time of ignorance or Islam. Abu Bakr was the most abstinent of men in the time of Ignorance. he would Jiave surpassed But the learned have determined that moral. Lane. Bach gave according end of those days to his ability. who follow the steps of the poets. he chose it above all things and entered it with the most perfect submission.* the meaning of which is. Kuraysh to and Islam : whom for attached pre-eminence both in the time of Ignorance. wheat and raisins for the beverage called a great AJjAJ. -these provisions. Ibn A'sakir records with accurate authorities from Ayesha " by Allah. and when the Kuraysh fastened on Banu A'bdu'd Dar bound it for them. . and thus they collected sum in the days of the assembling of the pilgrims. feed the pilgrims until the And they continued to the " Sil^ayah" was the supplying this beverage and Eifadah. for the purpose of purchasing for the pilgrims. that no one : might eat or drink except of their food and their drink . and that was because the Kuraysh had no king upon whom the direction of all moreover in each tribe there existed a general jurisaffairs might devolve diction exercised by its several chiefs." . XXVI. didactic Labid. and the Banner and the Council. that Abu Bakr as Siddik was one of ten amongst the the direction of their affairs . their gathering could not take place except in the Hall of Council and nothing could take effect. " Verily Abu Bakr denied himself wine in the time of Ignorance .[ 30 ] and when the true faith came. Az Zubayr-b-Bakkar and Ibn Asakir record on the authority of Ma'rdfb-kharrablid. 4j (j**^! i[j j*^\ 8^i*J^ I* " We have not taught (Muhammad) the art of poetry nor is it expedient fer him. t The Kuran though not directly forbidding yet discredits the profession of verse making. and when they assembled together for any purpose either to confirm or to annul. Sale remarks that this was in answer to the tion.

De Slane I. . and he dyed it with Such is his description. De Slane I. This -tradition is wanting in regularity of transmission and is cited but by one authority hothias regards authorities and the text. he said. thin cheeked and with a stoop he could not keep up his lower garments from slipping over his loins eyes deep set. K. that Abu Bakr said claim among men to it. " the * Lawsonia inermia. " was not to embrace the faith was it not I who did such a thing ? was not I who did such another thing ?" And Ibn first A'sakir on the ascription of al Harith from A'li. Abu Bakr. who embraced the faith is —the Katam is a herb which mixed with cypress used as a t Abu Sulayt Anas b-Abi Anaa. and on the authority off Anas. of slender build. He states also binna and katam. battle.[ 81 ] was asked of Abu Bakr in an assembly of the Companions of the Apostle of God " didst thou ever drink wine in the time of Ignorance ?" he replied " God forbid. the Caliphate ? in his Sahih. Haban on the authority of I the greatest I the it first Abu Sa'idJ al Khudri. " he was a man of a very fair . with fleshless. he accompanied his father to Ohud who fell at that The son accompanied Muljammad in twelve expeditions." that is. " 1 sought to preserve my reputatiop and retain his reputation my decorum. " why not ?" Abu'l A'aliyah av Riahi." The narrator says that when this reached the apostle of God. one of the Banu Najjar. that when the apostle of God went to Medina. that he said." Abu Bakr hath spoken truly Abu Bakr hath spoken truly.' and she replied. he was lean. . he was a companion of fought on his side at Badr. and Ibn his embracing the faith. there was none among the companions with grizzled hair. Muhammad and 74 (693-4). his forehead prominent. that it He answered. me on the authority of Ayesha that a man said to her. tincture." and they said. (authentic traditions) record " Have not . except Abu Bakr. and the backs of his hand on her authority. died at Medina A. H. that Abu Bakr made use of the tinctures of hinna* and katam . On At Tirmidi. K. At the age of 13. complexion." twice. On Ibn Saa'd " describe to relates his outward description. and verily he who drinketh wine destroyeth and his decorum. I Abu Sa'id Saa'd b-Malik of the tribe of Khudra a Companion and an Ansar of the third class.

4 lit (yJ-i-*! ^^\ "the Muhammad was reclining under a lote tree says conversing with Buhayra. was Abu Bakr as Siddik" and Ibn Saa'd on the authority of Abu Arwa ad Dausi the Companion." record on the authority of as Shaa'biJ that he said. The latter asked him who it Ibn Hajr. or Omar ?' " his hand and then replied " I never thought that I should live to the time to those two to God be attributed their good deeds they two were the chief in Islam. died A. that the first who embraced Islam was Abu Bakr as Siddik.I asked Ibn A'bbas what man was the first to embrace Islam ?" he replied. H. 56 or as some say 68. " I is Ali the most excellent in thy inquired of Maymiin-b-Mihran saying. born about A. 19. ". Then remember too thy brother Abu Bakr and what he hath done. the place of whose witnessing is extolled And the first among those who have Abu Nua'ym records on the authority ' borne witness to the prophets. K. the monk^ ou when any one should be compared — — * dad and died A. H. II. De Slane I. 849). 356. An Nawawi. verily Abu Bakr believed in the prophet in the time of Buhayra. The second.|| the follower. He trembled so that the staff fell from opinion." Pur^t-b-Saib that he said." tj'»U. § IJassan-b-Thabit was one of the poets who espoused the cause of Muhammad.[ . Leben Muhammad. 33 ] among the men was Abu Bakr" and Khaythamah* on accurate authoritiea from Zayd-b-Arkam. and 'Abdu'llah b-Ahmad in the " Zawaidu' Zuhd. D. the most pious and most just of them Save the prophet and the most faithful in performing what he hath undertaken." I said " then was Abu Bakr the first to embrace IsMm or Ali ?" he answered " By Allah. At Tabarani in his Kabir. De Slane I.t " the first man who prayed with the prophet. or Abu Bakr. H. H. For his elegy on Muljammad's death see Weil. daughter of that Caliph. p. he is the prophet for none has taken shelter under that tree since the time of Jesus the Son of Mary. J Abu Amr A' amir sprang from Himyar and was accounted a member of the tribe of Hamdan of which Shaa'b is a branch. said Buhayra." This impressed itself on Abu Bakr's mind and was the . accompanied Muhammad in seventeen expeditions setKufah and died there A. He held high rank among the Tabi'is and was distinguished for his learning. Vol. while Abu Baler was was. 104 (722). Ibn KhaU. of Nasa who settled at Bagh- + One of the Companions. The best of men. K. His son A'bdu'r Eahman lived under Mu'awiyah and used to address complimentary poems to Eamla. that was seated there . II Abu Bakr. " Then by Allah. 234 tled at Abu Khaythamah Zuhayr an eminent traditionist (A. second of the two IT is referred to in Kur IX asj'*^' when they two were in the cavo. " Abu Bakr Hast thou not heard the words of Hassan§ where he says ? as Siddik. " When thou rememberest the afl[iiction of a faithful brother. he replied that it was Muhammad the son of A'bdu'llah.

De Slane I. for there were more than five in the faith before in Islam. 50-8. " His verses. 239 (A. He composed a commentary on the Kuran and a collection of traditions 30.[ 33 ] the occasion of his meeting him. but there the first a reconciliation of these accounts." "I was seated in the courtyard of the Kaa'bah where Zayd-b-A'mr-b-Nufayl was sitting. among women and the first Abu Hanifah from whom Na'aym quotes Ibn Abi Shaybahf and Ibn A'sakir record on the authority of Salimwas Abu said. . but more for the curiosity of the discovery than with intent to follow it. " No. 853-4). K. * By assisting Muhammad with account the third convert to Islam. " was Abu Bakr as Siddik the first of you in embracing the faith ?" He said.s to priority in Islam between him and Khadijah when he procured her marriage with the prophet* and all this was before A'li was born. " because he was the most excellent "of them in Islam. said Muhammad " are pious enough but his heart 5 . K. when there authority of I'sa-b-Tazid that Abu Bakr passed by him Umayyah-b-Abi Salt§ and he said. I may add that Ibn Hajr discords as erroneous the opinion held person as hy Ibn Athir (and adopted by Sprenger) that this Buhayra was the same the one who figures in a deputation to Muhammad from the king of Abyssi- money on that occasion as is generally beHeved. " it is clear that — Muhammad- him but he was the best of us Ibn Kathir every other Muhammad's family believed before — his wife Khadijah. H. and verily there are many among there the Companions and their immediate successors. and some say. " for what reason then is he exalted and preferred. died A. Umm-i-Ayman and and Warakah. in that Abu Bakr was to embrace the faith among. thou cause of Hs early conversion.J that he said to his father Saa'd. from the time he embraced the faith until he attained b-Abi Jaa'd that he — — to his God." I said.000 persons are said to have attended his lessons." Accouniis va. a descendant of A'bdu Manat was by his own : nia forty years afterwards. he being then 17 years of age. Bakr the first of the people to adopt Islam ?" He replied " no. Ibn Hajr says that § He was a poet of some reputation of the tribe of Thakif. Again. his A'li freedman Zayd and the wife of Zayd Ibn A'sakir records on the said. was it.' so that no one speaks of any but Abu Bakr?" He replied. " How art thou. he was an enquirer after truth. t Abu Ishak Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkds.". and others first who say. He fought in aU the prophet's battles his death occurred between A. De Slane I. men. D." says. universal assent to this. t The Hafidh Othman a native of Ktifah. that he was the is to embrace Islam." And Ibn A'sakir on a reliable ascription from b-Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkds. Khadijah. H. it is some of them assert that said that A'li was the first to is join the true faith.vy a. A'li among children and Khadijah who pointed out this reconciliation. indeed. " I asked of Muhammad-b-Hanifah.

sou of my brother. the most noble among what will the prophet say ?" He replied. shall he be from us or from among you ?" Abu Bakr continues. he whom men await. stantly watched the heavens and muttered frequently to himself and I He said " Tea O stopped him and related to him the circumstance. and when the prophet summoned him." " Then I went out to Waraka'-b-Naufal* and he was one who con. shall perish." The He replied No then the ' other said " haat thou :' other said— " Every religion in the day of truth. and thy " tribe is by descent." He then records on the authority Abu Maysarahf that when the Apostle of forth. that he heard from MuHammad-b-Abdi'r Eahman-bAbdi'Uah b-i'l Ha?in at Tamimi that the Apostle of God said. shall be by descent of the most among — ." the Arabs. and know." Al Bayhaki called says " and this was because he had been accustomed to behold the proofs of the prophetic mission of the Apostle of God." and when he heard the voice he would turn fleeing he told this in secret to Abu Bakr who was his intimate friend in the time of Ignorance. and to have transcribed some portions of unbelieving. " he hath been said to him. adds. except Abu Bakr who delayed not from it when I spoke to him.! [ 34 ] seeker after good ?" discovered anything ?" He answered " well. had not He heard before that of a prophet expected who was to be sent. " and I." Ibn Ishak says." Abu Nua'aym and Ibn A'sakir record on the authority of Ibn A'bbas God went : that the Apostle of but he denied is God said. Ibn Hajr." is considered a Companion. and to hear its traditions. he that men look for. and did not hesitate therein. save the son of Abu Kuhafa and There is a doubt whether he was ever converted. before his call." I said. he used to hear one calling to him " O Muhammad. then verily thought and deliberation had passed by for him and he at once embraced Islam. 61. that he ed nor desire you to oppress each other. noble of the Arabs. and speak that which • shall not oppress nor be oppressof Therefore when the Apostle God was sent. I am likewise skilled in genealogy. but by spme he His excuse for not testifying to the prophet was. p. the Gospels into t Hebrew or Arabic' See Muir. Vol. I believed in him and testified to him. that he had once hinted to his tribe that he himself was likely to be the prophet to come. II." judgment : save that founded of God in But regarding the prophet. Tie froedman of al A'bbaa-b-Abdi'l Muttalib. that this prophet. . " I never any one to the true faith but there arose in him an aversion to it. shall O uncle. " I never spoke to any one regarding Islam me and rejected my words. • A cousin of Muljammad's said to have been a convert to Christianity and to have been acquainted with the Scriptures. I am skilled in the scriptures and in knowledge know. and an irresolution and deliberation.

I am apostle of God unto ye all. . and when he was converted to Islam. he said mark to me on the day of Badr. and acompanied him in his flight. " as to thee." verily.. and ye said " thou liest. " be not sad for God with us. the Apostle of " with one of you two is Gabriel and with to ^bu Bakr on the day of Badr." And Ibn was on the side of the of Abu Bakr on the day of Badr the son to his father. Kitabu'l Manakib." On Ms companionship with the prophet and the expeditions which he accompanied. hadst away from thee and did not slay thee. were his services in the day of Ohud and the day of Hunayn when wars he was steadfast on the the people fled. me my companion ? verily I said. but I turned thou wert exposed as a Bakr said." Abu should not have turned away from thee. and forsook his family and children with cheerfulness for the sake of God and The Lord called him." thou come before me.to the said And al Bukhdri from Abu'd Darda* that the apostle of God said. VI. I idolaters. when he had per- and he was present with him in all his expeditions.Vol. * One of the Companions.' The particulars of this narration will be found in Bukhari's aa Sahib. men. Eahman Ibn A'sakir records on the testimony of Abu Hurayrah." and he assisted the Splendid. that the said " See ye not as angels took part in the battle of Badr and they with the Apostle of God in a shed ?" And Abu Ya'la and al Hakim Siddik " God said to me and and Ahmad from A'li that he said. except . [ 35 ] yerily I never said unto fast therein. that A'bdu'r the other Michael. Apostle of : God on other occasions. " the second of the mission to depart on account of pilgri^nage or war two when tht-y two were in the cave" is when the prophet said to his companion. and he was his companion in the cave. The learned say that Abu Bakr accompanied the prophet from the time he embraced Islam to his death. his Apostle. and never separated himself from him either in journeying or residence at home." and Abu Bakr ! "thou hast spoken truly. as will appear in the chapter on his courage." him a thing but he acquiesced in it and was stead- " will ye not leave un. A'sdkir from Ibn Sirin.

for verily on the day of Badr. " do ye not answer me ? by Allah. A'li that he said .[ 36 ] On Ms lraverti. remain with the Apostle of God lest any of the idolaters fall upon him ?" then by Allah. to say whether was the true believer* of the family of Pharoah the better or Abu Bakr ?" and the people were silent. " we know not . Al Bazzar records is in his Musnad from Tell me who the bravest of men . . so spelt. but tell me. the Companion." they said " thou art. he replied " I saw U'kbah-b- Abi Mua'yt go towards the prophet who was praying and throw his cloak about his neck. according some as early as 55 A. and designed to put him to death." he who struck one and threatened another and pushed aside another and said " woe unto ye will ye slay a man who saith my God is Allah ?" then A'li lifted up the mantle that was on him and wept. An Nawawi name A'a? commonly and received no less than 700 traditions from Muljammad. " I asked what was the greatest violence that the had offered to the Apostle of God . were universally acknowledged. H." of A'bdu'Uah-b-A'mr-b-i'l A'as. " who shall. He is mentioned in the Kuran.t idolaters Al Bukhari records from U'rwah-b-uz Zubayr that he said. The date of his death is to His devotion and learning differently stated. whereupon Abu Bakr came and drove him from him and said. * Tliis person." assaulted by the Kuraysh. and throttle him violently. who finding that the king had been informed of what Moses for his safety had done. according to tradition. was 12 or 13 years younger than his father and was converted to Islam before him Muhammad or Abu A'bdu'r Eahman. so that his beard was wet with tears and he said " I conjure ye by Allah. and we said. for that man concealed his faith and this man pro- — — claimed it. " thou art he who makest of the gods. t Abu See Sale. is therefore the bravest of men. Consult An Nawawi and Ibu Khali. who is he ?'* He said " Abu Eakr. one God " and by Allah not one of us approached except Abu Bakr added.for Tie was the bravest of the Companions. according to others in 73. was an Egyptian and Pharoah's uncle's but a true believer. not one of : us approached except the Apostle of brandished a sword over the head of no one attacked him but he attacked him likewise he " I saw the Apostle of God Ali said. who was the bravest of men ?" They said. Chapters XXVIII and XL. we made for the Apostle of God a shelter from the sun. gave him notice to provide by flight. a single hour of Abu Bakr is better than a thousand hours of the believer of the family of Pharoah. violently and they said. " will ye slay a man who saith my God is — son. ." He replied " Verily I never encountered any one but I was even with him. that the He says should be more properly written A'asi. and one threatened him and another shook him Abu Bakr who God . and he said.

records on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Apostle of " No wealth hath ever availed me. " when the prophet gathered the Companions together there were thirty. but he said " O Abu Bakr we are only a few . Ibn Khali.eight persons. that summoned the people to when Abu Bakr was converted. Abu Bakr then entreated the Apostle of God to declare himself openly. he God and to his apostle. born A. strictly bewareth idolatry and from the same (hell fire) who giveth his rebellion. until he declared himself. ! kindred.. one of the seven great jurisfirst forty thousand dirhams. D.different authoas if it were his own. The Lord hath said." and for thee ! Abu Bakr wept and Apostle of said —" I God Abu and my wealth are they not God ?" Al Khatib relates a tradition imperfect in regularity of transmission. on the authority of Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. the people forsook the Apostle of to return to him. (Kur XCII). shall be removed substance in alms" &c.* and adds that the Apostle of God made use of the substance of Abu Bakr And Ibn A'sakir from Ayesha with. Ibn u'l Jauzi says that the learned are agreed. rities. On God and I was the '' ^the rest of the Musnad it. On Ms spending Ms substance on the Apostle of God for he was the most generous of the Oompanions. (636-7). consults of Medina. of God. to the end of the Sdra. "But he who far : — Ahmad said. as hath availed me the wealth of Bakr. (A. and from U'rwah-b-uz-Zubayr. . He was the chief of the series of Tabi'is—he married the daughter of Abu Hurayra and related traditions on his authority. that this was revealed regarding Abu Bakr. — follow in the biography of Omar. 91. he had forty thousand dinars —and according to another reading.'' but Abu Bakr did not desist from importuning the Apostle of God. and he spent i them upon the Apostle * Abu Muhammad Sa'id-'b-u'l Musayyab. 15—16. and he was the first who summoned the people to God and to his Apostle then the idolaters fell upon Abu Bakr and upon the Muslims and beat them with heavy blows round about the Mosque" the rest of the tradition will . Kurayshi. The Muslims were scattered round about the Mosque each man among his when Abu Bakr rose before the people preaching. H. H. died at Medina A.[ 37 ] Allah ? and in truth he hath come to you with manifestations from your God first !" And al Haytham-b-Kulayb in all his the day of Ohud." as he has related — Musnad from Abu Bakr.that on the day when Abu Bakr was — converted. And Ibn tradition will appear in the A'sakir from Ayesha. 709-10). Ibn A'sakir records from declared his faith and A'li.

Ibn Shahin* records in his " Sunnah. he remained neutral. 1117) at MarwarBaghawi is the relative adjective. he had in his house forty thousand dirhams. A'bdu'Uah-b-Omar i'l Khattdb one of the most eminent ' and contempt of the world. and when he set out for Medina at the time of the Tlight. 73 (692-3) aged 84. all of which he spent upon the manumission of slaves. X Abu A'bdu'r Ealiman. also a weak ascription. a Shafi'i doctor * The Hifldli at 330 in number. and by him was Abu Bakr. D. For a period of sixty years. During the civil wars which raged among the followers of Islam. 386. K. 317. Died at Mecca A. ." is my God— I am " Can I be content with my its (related only by one authority and ascription untrustworthy). that Abu Bakr gave freedom to seven slaves all of whom had suffered persecu- tion for the sake of God. D. (A. K. tions. (Ibn Khali). " Verily the Lord said to him " O hath commanded the angels to fasten their garments in heaven as Abu Al Khatib records prophet. and upon him a garment a skewer is . through Ibn Omar to the who said. upon whom be peace.000dirhams. learning him. And Ibn A'sikiv on that of Ayesha. and Commentator on the Imuran. in charity on the days in which he gave audience. he. irregularly formed. D. (A. occupied in the duties of religion. 929). and in aid of Islam. and Ibn A'sakir from Ibn 0'mar. ! Bakr fastens his upon earth.J that he said. of goat's hair. persons came from all parts to consult of the CompanionB for his piety. There is also a traditionist Abu'l K&sim Traditionist al Baghawi. died A. rud. De Slane I. died A. H. a Hafidh of great repute. H. H. spent his it that I see Abu Bakr ! substance upon me before the conquest of Meeea." Ibn Kathir remarks that it this is excessively untrustworthy and adds that were not that this and the preceding Abu Hafs Omax 'b-Shahin of Baghdad composed works computed among them a Commentary on the Kuran and a collection of tradiDe Slane I. 995). that on when Abu Bakr was converted. t Abu Muljammad al Husayn— known as al Farra al Baghawi. angry with — art thou con- my God ? I am content with God — I am content with my God. he had no more than five thousand. came down to me and upon him was a coarse garment fastened together with a skewer. K. and I Gabriel what is this ?" He replied." Gabriel said " Then the Lord sendeth him His benediction and saith. " Say unto him tent with me in this thy poverty or angry ?" Abu Bakr said." and al Baghawif in his commentary on the Kuran. 610 (A. and his generosity was so great that he would frequently distribute 30. H. how ! wearing a garment of goat's hair which he hath pinned on his breast by a skewer ?" He replied " O Gabriel. died A. and he had pinned it together on his breast with then Gabriel came down to him and said " O Muhammad. De Slane I. " I was near the prophet. " Gabriel. derived from Bagh or Baghshur a town in Khorasan.[ 38 J Abu the day Sa'id al Aa'rdbi records on the authority of Ibn O'mar.

which God will requite unto him on the day of resurrection. and the prophet said. and I said to Abu Bakr if I am to surpass him on any day." (At Tirmidi says that the tradition is good and ! trustworthy." He answered. and I brought half of my property. " the Apostle of God commanded on the authority of Omar-b-u'l us to give alms myself. save Abu Bakr. the rejection of the two would be advisable. " I would be considerate towards him for the kindnesses of his son towards me. " O Abu Bakr what hast thou kept for thy family?" He replied." then I said. died at Basrah A." Al Bazzar records on the authority of Abu Bakr that he said. " why didst thou not leave the Shaykh where he was that I might go to him ?" If said " it is his duty rather to go to thee. and for me belongeth with God come.[ 39 so ] tradition have been handed down by > many people. 202 (817-8) Ibn Khali." Then the Apostle of God said '" what hast thou kept for thy family ?" I replied. who and compiled a book of traditions (Kitab u's Sunan). who hath aided me with his person and his substance and hath given me his daughter in marriage. He was bom H." The Apostle of God exclaimed " there is the saime then your offerings as between your words. " I shall never surpass him in anything." t The text has d^ meaning " Abu Bakr . to any one but I have requited him. as Sijistani. that the Apostle of God said. H.' on the authority of al Hasan al Basri that Abu Bakr brought his alms to the prophet secretly and said. as hath availed me the wealth of Abu Bakr.) Abu Nua'ym records in his ' Huliyah. " . said. eminent for his piety and holy He was one of the A. " I have reserved for them God and his prophet .) And at Tirmidi from Abu Huray" I have never been under obligation rah. and the wealth of none hath ever availed me. " The like unto that . in the traditions. was a Hafidh earliest * Atu Daudd Sulayman b-u'l Ashftli of the tribe of Azd. and verily he hath put obligations upon me. " I is difference between brought my father Abu Kuhafah to the prophet who said." Apostle of the world to Omar brought his offering and showed it openly and God this is my alms." and Abu Bakr came with all the property that he had. Abu* Daudd and Khattab. " to-day I will surpass and that was in proportion to the property I possessed." (The ascription good but interrupted in transmission." And Ibn A'sakir from Ibn A'bbas that the Apostle of God said " No one hath benefited me in greater measure than Abu Bakr. life. 275 (889). " O Apostle of God this is my alms and with God belongeth for me the world to come said. that he at Tirmidi relate said.

his fell short of comprehending the it wisdom of this He then explained to them in his discussion of with them.t by Allah. " my ancestry male and female be thy ransom." and Abu Bakr wept and said. Then the Apostle of God said. but the brotherhood of Islam and its affection J * The two works entitled Sahih of al Bukhari and Muslim. The council having assembled to consider this recusancy. but Abu Bakr strongly insisted on repressing this heresy on the spot lest the dangerous example should be followed by others to the peril of the rising faith. in his Companionship." and we wondered at his weeping because the Apostle of God had spoken regarding a servant that had been given a choice. (classes) in testimony that Abu Bakr was the wisest of the Companions. He answered. hath given unto one of his servants a choice between this world and the things which are His." The Shaykh Abu Ishak has brought forward this and other things in his Tabakat. I know of no others besides those two. if they withhold from me as much as the halter of a camel which they used to pay to the Apostle of God. this sentence is not ia the printed text or it abrupt and incomplete. that the Apostle of God addressed the people and said " God. with I will oppose by force every one the exception of him. and Abu Bakr was wiser than we were. and they were converted to it." And the two Shaykhs record on the authority of Abu Sa'id al Khudri that henarrates. J This termination of authority of Ibn A'bbas. I will oppose them by force for withholding it. which is Bukhari in his Sharalj on the . the Companions were in favor of letting it pass as a matter of little moment. that judgment was the right one.[ 40 1 On Ms learning. " Abu Bakr has been the most generous of men towards me. it and the most sagacious his An Nawawi work) . course. says in " Tatdib" (and I have copied in from his " The learned of our time have adduced proof of his great wisdom his words in the tradition verified in the " Sahihayn. that he was asked who used to decide cases for the people in the time of the Apostle of God. and worldly goods. for verily Tie was the wisest of the Oompanions of them. t Keferring to the people of Hira and Yaman who after the death of Muhammad accepted prayers to be an article of faith. the Holy and Most High. and that servant hath chosen that which is with the Lord God . but it was the Apostle of God himself who had been left to choose. hut rejected alms-giving. for they aU of them. It has me on the authority of Ibn Omar. and were I to choose a friend besides my God. but I find supplied by al MS."* " by Allah who maketh a difference between prayers and alms. " Abu Bakr and Omar. I would been related to assuredly choose Abu Bakr.

'with a relation of the sayings of the prophet. he decided according to it. in his day. were the Companions. " the most learned of the people in the Kurdn shall be their Imam. that the Apostle of expedient for a people God said. another on to that of but Abu door. that Abu Bakr. was a secret allusion to his succession to the Caliphate. various interpretations of of. when a plaintiff came before him." (These are the words of An Ibn Kathir says. and the like with Omar and A'li and the closing of ." At Tirmidi records from Ayesha. Abu'l Kasim al Baghawi records on the authority of Maymiin-bMihrau. he would go forth and ask of the true believers and say. now do ye know whether the Apostle of God passed judgment* Then sometimes a number of the people would gather round him. and he was aware of a tradition of the prophet respecting such a . on account of the fewness of his days and his death following quickly on that of the prophet. that as Siddik was the best read. Abu Bakr. but these. and the narrators would not have left a single tradition of his but they would have transmitted it. none of whom had occasion to relate on his authority. There shall not remain a door* but it shall be closed except the door of Abu Bakr. but if it embarassed him. and he would say. an event in which they themselves had taken part with him they therefore related on his authority only what they did not themselves ^ know. all of them relating a decision of the Apostle of God in such a matter. and if it were not in the Book. orally transmitted from him. yet had his life been prolonged.) that is the most learned of the Companions in the Kuran. as Imam in public prayers by his words. and which they knew not and how could it be otherwise for verily he was constantly in the society of the Apostle of God from the beginning of his mission till his death and withal he was one of the most acute-minded of the servants of God and the most learned of them. 6 . so that when the Companions : case. and if he found in it that which would decide between the claimants. : traditionary law. " it is not among whom is Abu Bakr that another than he should act as occasions he ImAm to them. " such a one and such a one came to me . inasmuch as the prophet gave him precedence of the Companions. used to look into the book of God. he decided according to it ." He was withal the most skilled in the referred to him on several came out before them. " Praise be to God who hath set amongst us on such a case ?" • The Commentators give probatle opinion is. and although there are but few traditions recorded.[ is sufficient 41 ] for me. which he recollected and bi'ought forward when there was necessity for it. tliis passage : the most that the doors spoken are those of the Mosque all built by MuBakr's hammad at Medina and one of which opened on to his house. Nawawi. assuredly they would have been far greater in number.

) Ad Daylami records in his Musnadu'l Firdaus. H. and if he discovered that Abu Bakr had adjudged such a matter. to cause dreams to be interpreted by the best preacher God said " Abu Bakr. Ibn Ishak records on the authority of Yakub-b-U'tbah. and among them. perilous to the common cause. the rival claims of the fiigitives of Mecca aid the auxiliaries of Medina to elect a successor were iirged with a fierceness. he acted according to people. after the prophet the best interpreter dreams of this nation. and Ibn A'sakir on the authority of Samurah." And further. he would decide accordingly.J * Abu Muhammad . Az Zubayr-b-Bakkar says " I have heard certain of the learned declare that the most eloquent preachers. 54 and some say 69. were Abu Bakr as Siddik and A'li-bAbi Talib. t Abu Sa'id Abu Mujiammad or Abu A'bdu'llah Samurah-b-Jundab the Companion foxight at Ohud and other battles. of the tribe of Kuraysh. As Siddik was also the most learned of men in the genealogy of the it.t that the Apostle of mandeo. he used to interpret dreams in the time of the prophet. A. more especially that of the Kuraysh. } As Sa^ffah was a building in Medina belonging to the Banu Saa'd. the first in this Abu Bakr was. by the side of the prophet resided at Basrah where he acted as governor during the absence of Ziyad b-Abihi at Kufa.(and he was by science) that common consent. where after the death of the prophet. he would summon the chiefs of the and when they had concurred in a decision. (Ibn Saa'd. But if it emGod concerning it chosen among them according to that judgment . he would decide otherwise. who was one of the most learned in genealogy of the Arabs.[ 42 ] those *ho bear barassed him to in mind traditions from the prophet. Omar used to do likewise. and indeed Muof hammad-b-Sirin says ." and the saying of Omar wUl appear in the tradition of Sakifah. among the Companions of the Apostle of God. A. An Nawawi. and he used to say. or Abu A'di Jubayr-b-Mu'tim. a Companion. died — — at Basrah 68 or 69. who had it from an Ansar Shaykh that Jubayr-b-Mu'tim* was amongst the most learned of the Kuraysh in the pedigrees of the Kuraysh and the Arabs " verily I learnt genealogy from Abu Bakr in general. Arabs. and if their opinions concurred in one decision. . he would look to see if there were a judgment by Abu Bakr in such a case. An Nawawi. and when he was unable to find a decision in the Kuran or traditional usage." discover a tradition of the Apostle of he would assemble the chiefs of the people. and the and consult them. T. was converted before the Khybar Expedition and some say on the day of the conquest of Mecca died at Medina. and as Siddfk was skilled in the science of the interpretation of dreams." I have been com- Ibn Kathir says that he was one of the most eloquent of men.

the wisest of the Companions." " easy"— "faeUe. that as Siddik was one of the who knew the Kuran by heart." and " Sahl." An Nawawi.[ 43 1 He was likewise the most learned of men in ike Jmowledge of the Lord. and thirty-eight) An Nawawi." t Of the tribe of Khazraj. died at Medina A." (his authorities are trustworthy). and this generous action was the occasion of the truce struck up by the Kuraysh with Muhammad. " : Usdmah not that relates this in his Musnad thus. the most judicious of the Companions in counsel and ar Kazi records in his " the most perfect of them in wisdom. * " According to Jellalu'ddin. 639) aged thirty-three (and some say. a native of Medina and one of the Companions.* when Omar " : inquired of the Apostle of God regarding that truce and said why should we accept dishonor in our religion ?" and the prophet answered him then he went to Abu Bakr and inquired of him regarding that which he had asked of the Apostle of God. of the plague at Bmaus. O Mu'ad ?" {Mudd continues) I said I approve what Abu Bakr hath spoken the prophet exclaimed " verily the Lord in the heavens above willeth not that Abu Bakr should err. and the most God-fearing of them his utterances regarding that and : regarding the interpretation of dreams and his preachings will follow in a future section." (Al Bukhari and others. H. from Mu'ad-b-Jabal. 707). An Nawawi panions says in his Tahdib. " I heard the Apostle of God Tamam God commands thee to take Abu Nua'ym and others. 88 (A. fourscore of the infidels came privatelyto Muhammad's camp with an intent to surprise some of his men. " verily the Lord . Comamong them tradition Ibn Kathir in his commentary. and as Saddik answered him with the same answer as the prophet's exactly. all of them Among is the proofs which point to his heing the tradition on the truce of Hudayhiyah. and Omar and Othman and Talhah and Az Zubayr and XJsayd-bsay counsel of — Gabriel. A. he took counsel of some of the Companions.) He was withal." And At Tabarani and Hudhayr. but were taken and brought before the prophet who pardoned them and ordered them to be set at liberty. Abbas or Yahya Sahl-b-Saa'd one of the Companions and a native of Medina. among them. H. % Abu'l ." in heaven willeth Abu Bakr as Siddik should err upon earth and at "Tabarani records in his Ausat from Sahl-b-Saa'dJ as Sai'di that the Apostle of God said " verily the Lord willeth not that Abu Bakr should err. D. and each one of the number gave his opinion then the prophet what dost thou think. T. came to me and said " verily Abu Bakr. Huzn signifying « grief. delivered 188 traditions. thirty-four.t that when the prophet desired to send Mu'ad to Yaman. died A." Ibn : said. have stated the same. Abu Bakr. 18 (A. His name was ipiuzn and he was called Sahl by the prophet to avoid the ill-omen of its meaning. says But the Sale. and a number others. D. Fuwaid" and Ibn A'sakir from A'bdu'Uah-b-A'mar-b-i'l A'fis that he narrates.

" we. viz.. Abu Bakr. See note. Xj-i*** ^jA* or tlie ten to whom joyful tidings al are given." t Called page to 25. said the this people after their prophet. on the authority of as Shaa'bi. The Sunnis of are agreed that the most eminent of men. then Omar." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Ibn Omar. J then the rest of the Companions.— 44 ] [ of Anas wMcTi. that Abu Bakr died and the Kuran was not collected. D. " we (and among us was the Apostle of God) gave the preference first to Abu Bakr. then Omar then Othman then we were silent. as a fkct Abu Man§ur al Baghdadi§ relates this upon -which all are agreed. four among the auxiliaries. 429. likewise skilled in the law of inheritance and composed poetry." means. then the rest of those engaged at Ohud . well Man?tir A'bdu'l Kahir a native of Baghdad." and from Abu Hurayrah. then Othman ." and at Tabarani adds in the " Kabir" " and the prophet knew of this and did not disapprove it. then Othman. then to A'li . are most distinguished of Abu Bakr. " we were making a choice among men in the time of the Apostle of God. that he said. a dogmatic theologian of the acquainted with general literature and versed in a numher of . its collection into a book according to the arrangement adopted by Othman. after the Apostle A'li. On his heing the most eminent of the Companions and the most virtuous. and we preferred Abu Bakr. then to Omar. (A. then Omar. God were. a gathering of the Companions of the Apostle of God. says " Four persons collected the Kuran in the time of the Apostle of God. Al Bukhari narrates on the authority of Ibn Omar that he said. then then the rest of the ten.t then the rest of those engaged at Badr. other sciences particularly arithmetic at Takmila. as he has explained in his work Al Ittkan .* hut what Ibn Abi Daulid says. then the rest of the people of the Covenant. then to Othman. . a book of his on the latter bears the name of He was Ish&k. H. being a considerable number together. 1037-8) and was interred by the grave of his master Abu Ibn Khali. i Those whom he called together Hudayhiyah and who swore to he faithful him § till death. died at Isfardin A. Abu Shafi'i school. is either to be rejected or interpreted to mean.

and whosoever speaketh otherwise a slanderer : upon him said. H." and in another reading " upon one of the true believers. Muhammad al Akaha (Abul Feda." Abdu'r Eahman-b-Hamid in his Musnad. He died A." he replied " Omar." Ad Dahabi may God curse the hereticsf how ignorant are they !" At Tirmidi and al Hakim record on the authority of Omar-b-u'l Khattab that he said. An Nawawi. ." true believers. that the Apostle of God said. " Abu Bakr is our chief and the most excellent of us. 78 (A." among the of this people after its says " this hath come down in regular transmission from A'li. and the most beloved among us of the Apostle of God. " I said to my father^who among men is the best after the Apostle of God ?" He replied " Abu Bakr. " The sun hath never risen and hath never gone down upon one more eminent than Abu Bakr. Tom 1.5 ] At Tirmidi records from Jabir-b-A'bdu'Uah* that Omar said to Abu Bakr " O best of men after the Apostle of God." And the same from the tradition of Jabir with the reading " The sun hath never risen upon one amongst you more eminent than he." I said '' who after him." and Abu Bakr replied nay." and that A'li " let not any one prefer me in merit to Abu Bakr or Omar. then verily." And al Bukhari from A'li-b-Abi Talib. and Abu Nua'ym and others. H." And Ibn A'sakir from Abdu'r EahmanJ-b-Abi Layla. De Slane. record with different authorities from Abu'd Darda. " know that the most eminent of this people after its prophet is is Abu Bakr. made with. K. 697-8) aged ninety-four years. page at the second. after the prophets and Apostles. I continued " then thou. save he were a prophet . " the best prophet is Abu Bakr and then Omar. more eminent than Abu Bakr. D. thou if thou speakest thus.— C 4. therefore He answered " I am nothing but one And Ahmad and others from A'li. or I shaU scourge him according to the punishment of the law for the slanderer. be the retribution that overtaketh the slanderer. died and -was present A." At Tabarani and others record this and it has evidences from other sources which determine its accuracy or trustworthiness and indeed Ibn Kathir hath pointed out its absolute authenticity. 83. his three the pre-eminence of Ali over t The Shiahs and such as maintain predecessors." and I feared lest he should say Othman. * Atu year before tbe Sa) A'bdu'llah Jabir-b-A'tdi'llali as Salami-al Ans&i. I have heard the prophet say " the sun hath never risen upon a man better than Omar.6 years before Omar'a death. I. emtraoed Isldm one first pact. % father Abu had I'sa A'bdu'r Eahman one of the principal Tabi'is bom at Kufah where his settled. that Omar ascended the pulpit and said.

" This tradition without the replied." I sai4 " then who people after thee ' lie " Then Omar-b-u'l Khattab. At Tirmidi. Ibn Khali. He composed a work called the Al Khasiis (cha(A. David. 829-30). tlie t The Hafidh. an JSTasaijf and al Hdkim record on the authority of A'bdu'Uah-b-Shakii. A. "then Omar" has come down in the narrative of Anas and Ibn Omar and Ibn A'bbds. D." And at Tir- midi from Anas. that the Apostle of God said of Abu Bakr and Omar. one of tlie CompanionB. X The Muhammadan doctors place the Apostles higher in degree than the prophete. but on the death of Omar. H." Companions of the Apostle of God over Abu Bakr and Omar. D. to By the latter they signify." are employed only for those who bear advocate of the rights of the effects of which he died A. " I said God." I said "among men?" "Her father. He was a great A'U and was maltreated by the mob on that account. lie left it for Eabadah and returned to Medina a few days before his death. " the best of thy At Tabarani said " records — is Abu Bakr. The two words cU'y'jjV " prophet apostle. Ibn KhaU. of those who have been the first and of those who in will be the last. that he narrates. chief traditionist of his age and author of a Sunan or collection of traditions. The Prophet Apostles are four. 916)." J At Taibarani records said. " These are the chief of the adult dwellers in paradise. He swore allegiance to Muham- mad on day of Hudaybiyah and aooompanied him in seven of his expeditions. (A. his Ausat on the authority of A'mmar-b- Tasir§ that he " whosoever giveth precedence to any one of the putteth a slight upon the Fugitives and Auxiliaries. H. " I said to Ayesha— which of the Companions of the Apostle of God was most beloved by him ?" She answered "Abu Bakr. " The holy spirit Gabriel announced to me. Moses. H. save it be of God . the double character. Abu A'bdu'r Eahmfin. that the Apostle of a prophet God said." and in his Ausat from Saa'd-b-Zurarah. was an inhabitant of old Cairo. 214-5. who among mankind is the most beloved by thee ?" He replied ?" "Ayesha. Jesus. He used to reside at Medina. . 303. under Bom at Nasa n city of KhorabSxl a. verily he And Ibn Sa'id on * Salimah-b-u'l A'kwaa'. 37) between A'li and Mu'fiwiyah at Siffi'n. who fell in the battle fought (A. save they be prophets and Apostles.[ 46 1 from Salimah-b-u'l A'kwaa'* that the Apostle Abu Bakr as Siddik is the most eminent of men. § One of the Companions." I said " which next ?" She replied " Then Omar" I said " which next ?" She answered Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah. racteristics) on the merits of AU." Apostle of And the twp Shaykhs from A'mr-b-u'l A'as. An Nawawi. Muhammad. 74 (693J at the age of 80. one whose divine mission is testified by a sacred hook whereas the prophetical office alone is not always so distinguished. H.

D. " The most compassionate of my people unto my people is Abu Bakr." verse " " Hast thou said anything in verse of God said to Hassfin-bAbu Bakr ?" He answered and he repeated this Then he said " speak and I will listen. request Muhammad prayed ." and the Apostle of God laughed so that his back teeth were said. an honour which no other Companion shared with him died at Medina before A.* that the Apostle of Thabit. De Slane. Hassan. one of the most eminent of the Tabi'is. at the express divine command. Omar. § One of the Companions. through which the Anas multiplied. jurisconsults and traditioniats of Medina. An Nawawi." jl^ was one of the most eminent of the Companions. A. one that b-u'l is confided Jarrah." The second of the two in the glorious cave and verily The enemy went round about it when they ascended the mountain And verily they knew that he was the beloved of the Apostle of God: visible.§ and in every in. . Zayd-b-Thabit. K." Ahmad and and at Tirmidi record from Anasf-b. D. Muhammad recited to him the 98th Sura of the Kuran as he said. and the most truly modest among them. *Jj Uy»j /« Anas-b-MaUk surnamed "the servant of God's Apostle.— [ 47 ] the authority of az Zubri. 30 in the Caliphate of Othmdn. H. 64.Malik that the Apostle of God said. H. He saw ten of Muliammad's Yazid-b-Abdi'l Malik and died A. He was Muhammad's Secretary and used to commit his dictation of the Kurdn to writing and carried on his master's ordinary. He was one of the three to whom Abu Bakr committed the task of collecting the !Kuran. riches of . " thou hast spoken truly. H. he is as thou sayest. Othman. and people." Ad Daylami quotes this in his Musnad u'l Firdaus from the tradition of Shaddad-b-Aus * Abu Bakr Companions. there is the most skilled in the law of inheritance. " yes. correspondence and afterwards acted in the same capacity under Abu Bakr and Omar. present at the second pact of al A'kabah fought at Badr and other engagements. X Abu Sa'id-Zayd-b-Thabit a Companion and native of Medina. : T. A'li. 742) at the age of seventy-two or three. He died at Medina A. Who held no one his equal among the people. An Nawawi. Ibn Khali. 711-2). He was made Kadhi by t Abu Hamzah. and the most learned of them learned of in things lawful and unlawful Mu'ad-b-Jabal. Muhammad Ibn Shihfib of the Kurayah. his date trees bore fruit twice a year and he was the father of 78 sons he was 10 years in his master's service and on his death removed to Basrah. He was celebrated for his knowledge of the law of inheritance among other subjects and had the charge of the public treasury in the Caliphate of Othm£n. At his mother's for his spiritual and temporal prosperity. and the most zealous of them-in upholding the commands of God.J and the most them in theKuran Ubayy-b-Kaa'b. 93 (A." it Abu and the trusted one of this people is Abu U'baydahYa'la has taken this from the tradition of Ibn Omar and added to " and the best of them in adjudication. I. 124 (A. He died A. H.

" (Kur. The Lord said. § Muhammad's Abyssinian caller to prayer. ix. " By the night when it coverefch" (Kur XCII) to the words " verily your endeavour is Abu Bakr and Umayyah and Ubayy." And verily my most erudite master Al Kafijif was asked whether these characteristics were at variance with those before given.* the most devout of my people and the most sincere.[ 48 ] and added " and Abu Darr. being a little more than sixty years of age. but in- accurate and incomplete and. and thus different" that is the endeavour of * Jundub-'b-Junadah life Abu Darr Ali Gtaffari. He died at Babadah a village three imles from Medina A. the most benign of my people and the most munificent." that he said. There is much variance of opinion regarding his real name. ." Bilal§ from Umayyah- b-Khalaf and Ubayy-b-Khalaf. whatever refers to As Siddik. and there will appear a tradition from him on this subject. H. is t This name % written Kafiaji A'bdu'Uah-b-Masa'M-b-Ghafll. Ibn Jarir records from A'amir-b-A'bdu'Uah-b-iz Zubayr that Abu Bakr used to give manumission in Mecca to slaves of the true faith. A eminent Companion and one of the Fugitives both to Abyssinia and Medina and a trusty confidant of Muhammad's whom he accompanied on all his expeditions. I therefore myself composed a sutject. Know. comprehensive. Some say he died at Kufah. See Introduction. upon cave : Abu Bakr. "be not grieved for God is with And God sent down his security upon him. believers are agreed that the Companion mentioned is Abu Bakr. by by Meursinge. at Medina about A. for a cloak and ten pieces of money and he set him free for the sake of God then God revealed. 32. " The second of the two when they two were in the when he said unto his Companion. and the most Godfearing and Mu'awiyah-b-Abi Sufyan. for as to the prophet. and he replied that there was no contradiction.) The true us. H. An Nawawi. others. 32. exhaustive work on that and accurate and I extract from it here. For particulars of his life consult Ibn Hajr.J that Abu Bakr purchased : ceased to be with him. one of the Companions of an ascetic and one of the earliest converts. On what has been revealed in the verses of the Kurdn in Ms praise and his witnessing to the truth and other matters regarding him. e. " that is. Ibn Abi Hatim records from Ibn A'bbas concerning the divine words " and God sent down his security upon him. that I have seen a work of a certain author on the names of those regarding whom there hath been a revelation in the Kur4n. the security never And from Ibn Masa'lid. and Abu'd Darda. and an Naw. the most pious of my people.

.my son. 719-20). I see that thou freest weak women. " Al Bazzar records from A'bdu'llah-b-u'z-Zubayr. far from the same" to the end of the Sura verse. III. De Slane I. LXVI) were revealed concerning Abu Bakr and Omar. " and he who brought the truth was Muhammad and Abu Bakr as Siddik testified to him. freed seven slaves. " this is the tradition regarding this reading but perhaps it is a reading of A'li's. " O. and there are other ascriptions which 1 have mentioned in the Eeasons of Revelation. " things which are of God. K. Ibn Abi Hatim and at Tabarani record from U'rwah that Abu Bakr but if thee. " and consult them in the affair" (Kur. i^^\ Kur. 101. LV). H. And A'bdu'Uah-b-Abi Hamid in his Commentary. all of whom had suffered persecution for the sake of God and and regarding him was revealed. (Kur.* Al Hakim records from Ibn A'bbas regarding the words of cerning God. Abu Bakr said. V).[ 49 J he used to set free old women and other women when they embraced Islam and his father said to him." ! hath never revealed to thee a blessing but he Then was revealed this verse " it is he who gracious to you and his angels intercede for i/ou. " O Apostle of hath included is God God me in it.t that when " verily God and his angels bless the prophet" (Kur. thou wert to free strong men.^kk"—^J0^J ^JiJ^Jb *U. " Sid^" and t The oelehrated (espected Imam and Tabi'i Ahu'l Hajjaj Mujahid-b-Jubayr." to the end.).) is * That is with the words " ti'l Hakk. that this no benefit is bestowed on any that it may be recompensed. " but he who strictly bewareth idolatrif rebellion shall he removed. XCII) was revealed concerning Abu Bakr." (Kur." The -word in the Kuraa not " n3. from Mujahid. 7 . XXXIII) was revealed. Al Bazzar and Ibn A'sakir record from Usayd-b-Safwan (who enjoyed the Companionship of the prophet) that A'li said." (Kur. XXXIX. XXXIII. A'bdu'llah-h-Omar him to such a degree that he held his stirrup when he mounted on horsehack. D. that the verse " but for And Ibn Abi Hatim from Ibn Shaudab him who dreadeth the tribunal of his Lord are prepared two gardens." Ibn A'sakir says. died A. (A. At Tabarani records in his Ausat from Ibn Omar and Ibn A'bbas that the divine words " and the good man among the faithful" (Kur." He replied. they would stand by thee and protect father I desire the and repel Tiarm from thee. was revealed regarding Abu Bakr. and al Bukhari records from Ayesha that Abu Bakr never violated an oath until (Kur." He adds " I was told by some of my family that this verse was revealed concerning him " now who is obedient and feareth God" (Kur XCII)— to the end. XCII). was a doctor of high authority on jurisprudence and Kuranic interpretation. by whom God revealed the atonement for an oath violated (Kur. that they were revealed con- Abu Bakr and Omar.

: assisted him as He him formerly when the unbelievers drove him out of Mecca. that an ox should talk !" The prophet said.[ 50 ] Ibn A'sakir records from 'Ali-b-u'l Husayn. The wolf turned to him and said " who will he a protector to it on the day of resurrection ? the day when there will be no other shepherd than myself . " Good God. 198 (814 A." it. . distinguished for the exactitude of the traditions which he handed down. — they were not present in the assembly. ait. "I believe in it and likewise do Abu Bakr and Omar . " we have one another on couches" (Kur. a wolf rushed upon it and carried off from it a sheep and the shepherd pm-sued it. because of his knowledge of the perfection of their records from Abu Sa'id al Khudri. " and we will remove aU grudges from their breasts they shall he as brethren sitting over against and from Ibn A'bbas. and from Ibn TJ'aynah. XV) commanded man to show kindness to his parents" down to the words "this is a true promise which they are promised in this world" (Kur. Omar and A'li. mankind will be assembled for the judgment. In ^ustultoi's commentary on .) He was an Imam of learning. verily God will assist On the traditions handed doim regarding his merit covpled with that of Omar the Apostle of over and above what has preceded. piety and of a mortified Hfe. The two Shaykhs record from Abu Hurayrah that he said. D. This very tradition is quoted in proof—but it also stated that there are other interpretations— what they are I cannot discover. bom at Kufah A." and Abu Bakr and Omar were not there. H." (Kur. the words "if ye assist not the prophet.al Buthpi this tradition * Atu Muhammad Sufyan father to is but without explanation. At Tirmidi said. " whilst a shepherd was in the midst of his flock. that the Apostle of " there was never a prophet but he had two ministers from the dwellers in heaven. 107 and "taken by his Mecca where he died A. but I was created for tillage" and the people cried out. that.***. IX). " I heard God say. that is. that the following verse was revealed regarding Abu Bakr. and two ministers from among the dwellers on earth. God b-tT'aynah. t " Saba' " in Yakit (Mua'jam u'l Bnldan) is a valley in Palestine in which tradition says. Ibn Khali. . noted Sou also Lane. it turned to him and spake and said "verily I was not created for this. but he bore witness for them both as to their belief in faith."t and as a man was driving an ox which he had laden. except Abu Bakr alone who had escaped from the reproach and he recites . H.* that God had chided all the true believers through the Apostle of God. XL VI) was revealed regarding Abu Bakr as Siddik. the second of the two when they two were in the cave.

for verily Omar is a good work amongst the good works of Abu Bakr . Al Tirmidi and al Hakim record from Ibn God went forth one day and entered the mosque. " I heard the be in paradise and Omar shall be in and A'li shall be in paradise. are Gabriel and Michael. and smiling upon him and he upon them." Traditionists and others record The Apostle of paradise." and from Anas. God say. with Omar that the Apostle of Abu Bakr and Omar. and verily Abu Bakr and Omar God went out shall be among them . Gabriel came to the merits of Ta'la from A'mmar-b-Tasir. of the Fugi- and Auxiliaries." And Abu while ago." of this person beyond the mention. confirming it on the authority of Ibn Handhalah that the prophet looked upon Abu Bakr and Omar and said." Al Bazzar. and they remained gazing upon him and he upon them. but none of them raised his eyes to him except Abu Bakr and Omar. " I shall be the first from whom ." and he answered " if I were to relate Omar. of one or two with a slightly different reading) on his authority. the narration of his merits would not be ended during the period in which Noah tarried with his people. one of them upon his right hand and the other upon their hands and said. that the Apostle of God said to Abu Bakr and Omar " if you were agreed upon a counsel. " I Omar was with the prophet when Abu Bakr and Omar approached and he said " praise be to God whg hath strengthened me with ye two. recount unto me Khattab. " thus shall we arise his left. that the Apostle of God said. affair of " IJ^arifeLarat u'l Kudr" and_ died at the close of Mu'awiyah's . then Abu Bakr and then and he and al Hakim record. and he held on the day of judgment . " a little me and I said " O Gabriel.[ 51 ] and and my 4iwo ministers of the dwellers in heaven. I would not oppose you. " Abu Bakr and Othman shall be shall from Sa'id-b-Zayd." and Ahmad Omar b-u'l to thee the merits of from A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Ghanam. Hia name and genealogy are unknown he is supposed to have been present with the traditions (including this * See page 25. " these are my hearing and my sight. Note t t Ibn Hajr can give no account — prophet at the reign. that the Apostle of God said." in paradise and he mentioned the whole below them of the ten ." and at Tirmidi from Ibn Omar. and al Hakim record from Abu Arwa ad Dausi." the earth shall be rent asunder. my two ministers of the dwellers on earth are Abu Bakr and Omar.* and Al Tirmidi from Abu Sa'id " verily the dwellers in the lofty mansions [of pa/radise)—ih.t that he said.Qj that are shall see them as ye see the stars shining in the horizon of the sky. that the Apostle of tives to his Companions. and there were seated among them Abu Bakr and Omar.

that a man came to A'bdu'Uah b-Ahmad records in the " Zawaid u'z Zuhd" from Ibn Abi A'li-b-u'l Husayn and said. 32. " love towards Abu Bakr and Omar is faith. Othman and A'li used to decide cases in the time of the Apostle of God . " every prophet hath a panions. direct from the prophet." and Ibn A' sakir from A'li that the Apostle of God said. " no one shall have authority over you two after me . An Nawawi. " love towards Abu Bakr and Omar and a knowledge of them is an in- Abu Omar hold near the Apostle of which they hold at this moment.ahman-b-A'uf. by their pro/essio» of love towards Abu Bakr and Omar." •• Abu Muhammad first A'bdu'r Eahman b-A'uf of assured. died A.— 52 [ ] Ibn Saa'd relates on the authority of Iba Omar that he was asked who used " to give decisions in the time of the Apostle of God. p. the ^nraysh a native of Medina.' verily Abu Bakr hath never done me a glorified Him and said. from Ibn Masa'ud that the Apostle of God said. and at Tabarani. verily I am content with him and with Omar and Othman and A'li and Talhah and az Zubayr and Saa'd and Abdu'r E. ' wrong. . for the speaking truth hath left before him without a friend whom the angels are —may God have mercy upon Othmaa abashed — may God have mercy upon A'li of the O God from encompass him with the truth whithersoever he goeth.* and the First FugitiveSjf know this his last pilgrimage. and four of them were. in number. and bore me to the city of refuge (Medina) and gave freedom to Bilal may God have mercy upon Omar chosen one among — who ever speaketh the truth though it be bitter." and Ibn A'sakir. I and he replied." Hazim.aooompanied by their wives. 133." at Tabarani records from Sahl that when the prophet returned God and people. Omar. " verily I hope for the same henefit to my people. " may God have mercy upoin Abu Bakr who hath given me his daughter in marriage. and verily my elect from among my ComAbu Bakr and Omar. one of the ten to whom paradise was H. know from Abu'l Kasim-b-Muhammad. are his people. " there is that I hope for them by their profession of faith no God but God. + The fugitives to Abyssinia who were driven by the persecution of the ^uraysh to seek shelter with the king (Naj&hi) of that country. hatred towards them is infidelity . And he ascended the pulpit and blessed of them. There were eleven See Muir's Life of Mu- I^ammad. and of no others besides those two . " what place did !Pakr and God ?" He replied " that And Ibn Saa'd from Bistam-b-Muslim^ that the Apostle of God said to Abu Bakr and Omar." and from Ibn Masa'ud. people. aged 72. therefore know this of him. II." and that Abu Bakr. Vol." junction of the law :" and from Anas. Abu Bakr and Omar. a tradition relating direct to the prophet through Anas.

that thou wilt be among them. this is goodi for thee and he who is of those who pray." and he comforted me with the service of his person and his goods . shall be summoned through the said. but afterwards I repented and besought him to forgive me. . then will ye not leave me to me my Companion?" this he said twice and • My authorities for this sense of tlie word ^ji^jj are Turbushti and Tibi. for the sake of God." and Ibn DauM and al Hakim Abu Bakr." The prophet twice. " thou hast spoken truly.. " the t The MS. Afterwards. him and said. omits. Abu Bakr. O Abu Bakr" three times. " I was sitting with the prophet when there came forward Abu Bakr. see the Commentary of Kustulani on this tradition. I was more intemperate than he. " thou liest. the Lord sent me unto you as a prophet." : " servant of God. from A^u Hurayrah that the Apostle of God said. " verily a dispute arose between me and Omar and I was hasty with him.. and I hope. one be summoned through them all?" And he answered. shall be who is he who of those who fast shall be — shall be the first of my people to enter paradise . and he who is of those who have fought for the faith. verily Omar repented and went to the house of Abu Bakr. and he fell upon his knees and said Apostle of God. and greeted. " but thou. but the brotherhood of the faith is sufficient. wherefore I have come to thee." and Abu Bakr said. and you said.— [ 53 ] On tJie traditions handed down referring exclusively above what has preceded. " it cannot be necessary that one should be summoned though these gates shall." Al Bukhari records on the authority of Abu'd Darda that he said. and summoned through the Gate of Fasting that is\ the Gate of Satiety. " he who hath laid me under is the greatest obligation of men both with his person and his goods. " exclaimed to the bystanders " verily. words ' Gate of Fasting. . and he who is of ' summoned through the Gate of Alms. to his merit. but found him not. shall be summoned through the Gate of Prayer. " yes. Abu Bakr ." and the two Shaykhs from Abu Sa'id that the Apostle of all God said. but he refused. I would surely take Abu Bakr. and if I were to take a friend other than my Lord. over and The two Shaykhs record on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that he heard the Apostle of God say. " I gates of paradise in these words to enter ly. and he hastened to the prophet and the face of the prophet became flushed with wrath so that Abu Bakr was afraid. then." he who repeatedly* giv:eth of the things that are his." Then Abu Bakr said. those give in alms." The printed text is correct here : the /•(Ji«aJ| us^ y* being in al Bukhari —where it ia explained as I have translated it. shall be summoned through the Gate of Religious War." and he said " May God have mercy upon thee.

or t biyah. . andj has Anas and at the end of it " paradise shaU al And Bazzdr records the tradition of A'bdu'r * Al Mikdam-b-Ma'di Karib. and the Apostle of God rose up before Companion. one of the Companions— he resided at Emessa. and his ? By Allah there is not a said to me. 87 at the age of 91. " the Apostle of God said." afflict me not in my Companion. The MS." Eahman-b-Abi Bakr." and Abu Bakr replied " I . He was quick in repartee says an Isa the 2nd son of ." then he said." from al Mikdam* that A'kilf the son of Abu Talib. but he gave unto me that which he had." then the Apostle of God said " these things shall not come together in a man. that the Apostle who among you hath begun the day fasting ?" And Abu of God said. He wiyah. and Abu Bakr A'sakir Lord had named him reviler as well as a great genealogist were reviling each other and he adds that Abu Bakr used to be a great but that he had learned courtesy of manner' from his Companionship with the prophet and he turned away from A'kil and complained to the prophet. has here a blank and the printed text does not supply the omission. " I have . " thou hast lied. but he shall upon the door of his house." and Abu Bakr said. for verily the Lord sent me as as a guide unto salvation and the true faith and you said." and ye withheld your possessions. died in Syria A. Nawawi. " will ye not leave unto me my worth. H." from the tradition of Ibn Omar in which is the following. Abu silenced his antagonist. what is your the people and said. must I be careful of that ?" The Apostle of God replied " thou art not he who doeth that >in pride." then he said " who among you hath fed the poor Bakr replied to-day?" Abu Bakr replied "I." And Muslim from Abu Hurayrah. but And al Bukhari from Ibn Omar that he." his door. An Nawawi. cherished me and followed me. there is light said. He was a. verily ye man among you.[ 54 ] Ibn A'di records a similar account after that he was troubled no more." Verily this tradition hath been handed down through the narration of Anas-b-Malik and Abdu'r mentioned this tradition of surely be thy portion. and related forty-seven traditions regarding his master. but darkness is of Abu Bakr." and had " it not been that the Companion. the upon him on the day of judgment. " thou hast spoken truly." verily I would have taken him as an And Ibn intimate friend but the brotherhood of Islam is sufficient. hath visited the sick to-day." and Abu Bakr said " should either of the two sides of my garment trail loosely. Ahu Yazid side of the infidels al Badr. and ye reviled me. " he who traileth his garments haughtily. "who among you. " thou hast lied. and generally J Abu Talib he fought unwilUngly on the and was taken prisoner and was converted before Hudaydistinguished genealogist. and verily upon — the Apostle of God Lord will not look '' enter paradise. having lost his sight — and was buried at al Bakii' died in the Caliphate of Mu'athe cemetery at Medina. save the door and by Allah." and Abu Bakr said " thou hast spoken truly.

during the past night.[ 55 ] Rahman and the morning : its God read the praj^ers in then he turned to his Companions and said " who. " Eabii'h return it to me likewise. having already been before him and he said " verily thou art the foremost in good. H." Ahmad records on good authority from Eabii'h-u'l Aslami. " Apostle of God. how then can we have visited the sick ?" but Abu Bakr said ' I heard that my brotherf A'bdu'r Rahman-b-A'uf was sick and how he was this morning. " a disputation arose between me and Abu Bakr. Apostle of God. and he repented and said to me. ' ! " the Apostle of hath begun the day fasting ?" Omar replied not purpose to myself. one of the Companions. efficacious.§ that he said. 63. and Omar knew that he should never purpose to do a good work but Abu Bakr would be before him in it. The mother at of Ibn Masa'ud." call He answered Thou * shalt say it or I shall up against thee. words are these. that he said " I was in the mosque praying when there entered the Apostle of God. Eabii'h-b-Kaa'b-b-Malik al Aslami Hijazi. and thus I have risen fasting. and with him Abu Bakr and Omar and he found me praying and he said. when he said to me a word which I disliked. Ibn Hajr. " I entered the mosque when." The mere act of atstaining from food during tlie day. among you. we have not gone forth from here. . settled at Medina and died Harrah in A. applied lo all of a tribe indisoriminately without reference to consanguinity. Eamadhan pre-supposed and need not be daily renewed. so that there " may be retaliation." Then the prophet said " Hath any among you visited the sick to-day ?" and Omar replied. and have not gone I went round that way to him. must precede the abstention the intention is to make it During the long is. I did thus I have become fast." I replied " I shall not do so. the Apostle of God." Abu Ya'la records from Ibn Masa'iid." then he spoke a word which comforted Omar. to see forth. does not constitute a fast Tlie intention to fast. t The term brother t § aa is weU-kuown." then he said " whosoever wishes to read the Kuran in a fresh and joyous manner. then caine Omar and he found Abu Bakr going forth. " ask it shall be ! — granted unto you." Then he said " hath any one among you fed the poor to-day ?" and Omar replied " we have been praying."* and Abu Bakr said " but I purposed to myself during the night to fast." and he said. to this Apostle of God. morning as one who hath broken his fast. and I found a piece of barley bread in the hand of Abdu'r Rahman and I took it and gave it to him. behold there came a beggar." but Abu Bakr said." J Then I returned to my house and i(j^u Baki: came to me and me the good tidings regarding what the prophet had said . fast of the religiously speaking. let him read it with the reading of the son of Umm gave A'bd. " Eejoice with the good tidings of paradise .

t These words " from Ibn Abbas'" are omitted in the printed edition but suppKed by the MS. Ibn Omar. what hath happened between thee and as Siddik ?" I replied. A." to the Apostle of : ' Al Tirmidi records and approves a tradition on the authority of Ibn Omar. do not return it. " know ye not who is Abu Bakr as Siddik ? he is the " second of the two" and he is the grey beard of the Muslims look to yourselves I said. He and his father were both at the Ohud when his father was accidentally killed by his own side. H. He was engaged in the campaign of Nahawand and commanded the troops at the capture of Hamaddn. Abu as Siddik as * Salsata. then he said to me." Then the Apostle of God said " good.Ahmad from Ibn A'bbas." Eabii'h. a bird in he Abu Bakr "it is then delicate of flavour. but I found therein my name." and some men of the tribe of ! — — . that the Apostle of God said to Abu Bakr " Thou shalt be my Companion at the Pool. and Rabii'h Abu Bakr departed and I followed him alone until he came God and he related to him the story as it occurred then the prophet lifted up his head towards me and said.[ 56 ] Abu Bakr departed and there came Aslam and they said to me. he being the one that hath said to 'thee what he hath said ?" replied. T. but say the Lord have mercy upon thee. but the same has been handed down in the tradition of Ibn A'bbas. so that there may be a retaliation. " O Apostle of God such and suoh a thing happened and he said to me a word which I disliked.* as thou wert my Companion in the Cave and . A'bdu'llah-b. " who eateth of of them :" them them and thou shalt be of those who shall eat and Abu Ya'la from Abu Hurayrah. An Nawawi. Anas. Muhammad the Apostle of God and Abu Bakr said. the fountain in paradise where the prophet is believed to give drink ta the faithful who are thirsty. 36. O Apostle of God" —he replied. " speak to me as I have spoken. " may Grod have mercy upon Abu Bakr for what reason hath he called up against thee the proAnd I phet." and and the Lord be wrathful on account of the anger of those two. Eay and Dinawar. Omai made him governor of Madain where he died. in A. He was much trusted by Muhammad and employed on secret and important negotiatioua." al is Bayhaki said. " I my vicegerent. that the Apostle of God shall enjoy was borne towards the heavens. "I will -not do so. O Abu Bakr :' " then I said "the Lord have mercy upon thee O Abu Bakr. that he turn not and see ye abetting me against him." Its authorities are weak. t battle of Abu A'bdu'Uah Hudayfah-b-u'l Tamdn. ." and from HudayfahJ that the Apostle of God said " verily there paradise whose flesh taffeth like that o/Bactrian Camels . lest he be angered his anger." and I refused. and the Apostle of God come and be wroth on account of perish . and I passed no heaven. " Abu Bakr was my Companion and my Comforter in the cave .tthat the Apostle of God said. forty days after the assassination of Omur.

but in uninterrupted succession from Ibn A'bbas. he died at Fayd. H." speakest truly. and the last hours of Hajjaj were said to have been tormented by his He was victim's apparition. and sumamed Ibn Abi' d Dunya. composed works on ascetic and other subjects. He was preceptor to some of the Abbaside family and one of hia pupils was al Mua'tadhid." (noble qualities) and Ibn A'sakir. 8 . of the !^uraysh. (A. a town midway between Mecca and Kiifah A. 894). 714) and was followed in t Abu Sufiyan Wakii'-b-u'l Jarrah. H. 281. was the Imam Ibn Abi Mulaykah but it is irregular in transmission and narrated but by one authority. K. but supporting each other Abu Abi Hatim and Abu J^ua'ym record on the authority of Sa'id-bJubayr* that he said. H." Wakii'f has followed him on the authority of A'bdu'l Jabbar-b-u'l Ward. d Darda with weak ascriptions." he adds. " I was reading this verse before the prophet " Oh thou soul which art at rest. § A Tabi'i and one of the seven great jurisconsults of Medina and a traditionist of repute. the same year by that of his murderer. 129 an eminent jurisHe studied under Abu Hanifah and used to decide points of law. according to the ascription of Sadakah-b-Maymiin al Karashi." (Kur. He made the pilgrimage 70 times and on returning from the last. De Slane. " and every man swam Apostle of God and Abu Bakr. I remark that at Tabarani has recorded it in the " Kabir" and Ibn Shahin in the " Sunnat" in a different manner. 197 (A. I. He learnt his traditions He was an emifrom Ibn Omar and Ibn put to death by Hajjaj-b-Yusuf for his revolt against Abdu'l Malik-bMarwan. when Abu Bakr said " O — Apostle of God surely this is a good saying. saying. and was a traditionist. didst and he replied " thou thou command me to slay myself. Died A. (states Ibn is trustworthy. D. slay yourAbu Bakr said. " were until there were left the Apostle of is I to choose an intimate friend until such time as I saw the Lord face to face. D. verily. D. He received a pension of fifteen dinars a month. but he my Companion. " the Apostle of God and his Companions went into a pool and he com- manded that every man should swim towards his friend. died A. An Nawawi. verily I would take Abu Bakr." replied. X Abu Bakr A'bdu'Uah-b-Muhammad-b-U'bayd a member by adoption. " yea. 95 Ibn Khali. the angel shall say it to thee at the And Ibn Abi Hatim from that A'amir-b-Abdi'llah-b-i'z Zubayr that he said.) and Abdu'l Jabbar * Abu client A'bdu'Uah. " and selves. IV) was revealed. (A. " Apostle of God. A'bbas. De Slane.§ A'sdkir. nent Tabi'i and a native of Kufab. IbnJ Abi'd Dunya records in the " Makarimu'l Akhlak. 812-3). consult and traditionist. we had commanded them. if when the verse. and his master." (Kur. H. K.'" and the Apostle of God time of thy death.[ 57 1 Sa'id and Abu' reciprocally. and the God swam towards Abu Bakr and embraced him and said. from Sulayman-b-Yasar. His death took place in A. H. I would do so. bornatKufah A. LXXXIX). I." And Abu'l Kasim al Baghawi from Ibn Abi Mulaykah. 103. or Muhammad Sa'id-lD-Ju'bayr-'b-Hisham al Asadi was a black and a by enfranoMsement to tbe tribe of "Waliba-b-u'l Harith.

when God good servant." And al Bayhaki in the " Shaa'b u'l fman'' (people of the faith) from Omar. he sat down on that seat. * According to Abu'l Mahdsin Talliah. from his father." On what has been handed down of the sayings of the Companions early and pious Muslims* regarding his merit. direct from the prophet." and Ahu Bakr said " have I any of these He replied. Othman az Zubayr." A'sakir. but the seat of Abu Bakr among them was vacant. that he said. and the prophet turned his face towards him and directed to him his discourse. and when Abu Bakr came. Ibn A'sakir records from A'li that he went to Abu Bakr and found that he was reciting the praises of God. . clustered together. and gratitude towards him is incumbent upon every one of my people. and he said " no one shall look — . i-ftl-Jl is particularly applied to Ayosha. Omar.Ahmad in the Zawaid uz Zuhd (Profusions of Piety) from Omar that he said. " there was a circle of the people round the Apostle of God. he creates in him one of these qualities through which." Apostle of God is there in me one of them ?" He Abu Bakr said " And Ibn A'sakir according to replied. Abu A'a? Bakr. so that they were as walls around him. " verily Abu Bakr was ever foremost and conspicuous verily I would I were a hair on the breast of Abu Bakr" (Musaddad in his Musnad) and " I would wish to be in paradise that I might behold Abu Bakr" (Ibn Abi'd Dunya and Ibn A'sakir) and " the fragrance of Abu Bakr is sweeter than the fragrance of musk" (Abu Nua'ym). And Ibn " all of them are in thee." And he records the same from the tradition of Sahl-b-Saa'd. " Yes. . " virtuous qualities are ?" three hundred and sixty ." Bakr were weighed against the faith of mankind. he may gain admission to paradise. the sum of them all. " And from Anas that the Apostle of God the love of Abu Bakr.: [ 58 ] that the Apostle of God said. said. " virtuous qualities are three hundred and desires a and sixty in mmber . O Abu Bakr. Lane. " weigh them. who said. therefore I give thee joy. " all men shall be judged excepting Abu Bakr. that Omar-b-u'l KhatAbu Bakr is our prince. " if the faith of Abu tab said. and no one among the people sought to take it." another ascription through Sad'akah from some other. And from Ayesha. " and the people listened. it would surely outAnd Ibn Abi Khaythamah and A'bdu'llah-b. Al Bukhdri records on the authority of Jabir. according to the ascription of Mujamma'-b-Yakiib the Auxiliary. Mu'awiyah and A'mr-b-u'l Jl.«aJ| t_ftLJ| ig applied to the first chief persona of the Tiibi'is.

are Abu Bakr and Omar never shall there be joined together love of me and hatred towards Abu Bakr and Omar in the heart of a true believer. Ittihafu'n . " there was never begotten of Adam among his progeny." and from said. " the best of men after the Apostle of God. that it is written in the Primeval Eecord." And from Az Zuhri. by Ahmad-b-Mardan ad Dinauri of the MaUki Nabala. that Abu Bakr was named the Compassionate on account of his benignity and clemency. that A'li — in the " Kabir" from A'mr. " told me that he never attempted to precede Omar. Bakr as Siddik. page 40. Kakha'i is from of Madhij in Taman. it doeth good. 113." Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Ibrahimf an Nakha'i.* who is dearer to me A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Abi Bakr God said. they will not give thee the lie. I never sought to be foreany good action.his life. the most High God hath * It is the Muhammadan lielief that at the last day." as Siddik that the Apostle of Ms And from hand. they will not lie to thou speakest with them.[ 59 ] upon God. most in before him in it.J " Abu Bakr is like unto rain which wherever it falleth. Ibn Khali. that he never doubted concerning God a single moment ?" And from az Zubayr-b-Bakkar. every man shall stand before the judgment seat holding in his hand the record of his actions inscribed in it by the " Katibayn" or the two attendant angels who are with each man durino. t Abu I'mran Ibrahim-b-Yazid Imam and doctor."|| and Ibn A'sakir from as Shaa'bi. " the most pure. " three among the Kuraysh are the most comely of the Kuraysh in face. H. that he said." And from Abu Hasin. any more eminent than Abu Bakr. after the prophets and Apostles. and if if they converse with thee. " Mujalisat. with extracts from poetical authors school A work partly on tradition." And at Tabardni in his Ausat from A'li "by Him in whose hand is my life. with the record of his deeds in than this praiser of the Lord. the best of them in disposition. " among the virtues of Abu Bakr was this. but Abu Bakr anticipated me in it. Hasan Khan of Bhopal. Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah and Othman-b-A'ffan. all &^=^ ^j^ the Guarded Tablet. partly historical." Ad Dinauri records in the that he said. 713-4) aged 49. by Sadik." Also that ar Eabii' said " I looked among the Companions of the prophet. " I heard several of the learned say that the preachers among the Companions of the Apostle of God were Abu Bakr and A'li. Abu . but Abu Bakr was that he said. And Ibn A'sakir from ar Eabii'-b-Anas. existing before time in which inscribed everything destined to occur. the most constant in heart thee. D. See note f. the son of al Khattab hath Abu Bakr in a goOd deed. and verily Abu Bakr on the day of Apostasy§ stood up as a prophet among the prophets. but I found not a prophet that had a Companion like unto Abu Bakr as Siddik. He died A. who died A. H. 95 Nakha' a great branch of the % Called also is § 11 tribe an Nakha'i native of Kufah and celebrated as an or 96 (A." And Juhayfah.

Ibn called " Kitab u'l Masabih (the Book of u'l He Masdhif" which must be t His father's name must be pronounced Musayyab. D. " Follow these two after me. handed it down and indeed the explanation of this book. says Ibn KhallakAn. by which He hath distinguished the Witness to the Truth. hath already it is stated gone before in the beginning of near upon the time of his choice. ." In the " Sahihayn" regarding the preceding tradition. 41. died A. 928). that when the prophet was preaching death and said. ' there shall be little twelve Caliphs succeeding me. and he was the Companion in the Cave with the Apostle of God. and al Hakim likewise. " God hath given his servant a and at the but it shall be closed save the door of end of the tradition^ " there shall not remain a door Abu Bakr. the and the Apostle of God commanded him to Muslims being witnesses." And Abu'I ]Kasim al Baghawi on good authority from A'bda'Uah-b-Omar. 316 (A. al Hakim from Ibn u'l Musayyab. and he was the second to embrace Islam. confirm- on the authority of Hudayfah that the Apostle of God said. J and the Apostle of God never gave precedence of him to any one. (as beiag the passive participle of the verb Sayab) but it is said that Sa'id pronounced it Musayyib (active participle) because he had said " may God reward (sayab) him who pronounces X § my father's name Musayyib. H. And the secret converse of Gabriel with the prophet but did not see him.' " There is unanimity part of this tradition." and in another reading first * Abu Bakr A'bdu'llali-b-AM Daulid was a Hafidh of the eminence at Bagh- dad." is His tomb at Medina See p. ' : ' and in read the prayers. and the second in his sepulchre. Abu Bakr and Omar. for he used to consult him in all his affairs. first while. the Apostle of " I heard God say." And Ibn Abi Dauud* the Kitabu'l Masabih from Abu Jaa'far.' he named him none other among men (as Siddik) and hath named The Witness to the Truth' none other besides him. Khallakan says that he composed a work Lanterns). the second in the shed on the day of Badr. Both the printed text and MS. have " Kitab an error. and the second in the Cave and On the tradition of Ahu £ahr and the and the verses of the Kurdn indicative of the Caliphate sayings of the doctors thereon. m At Tirmidi ing it " records with approval.t 60 ] distihguished Abu Bakr by four qualities. between the tomb of the prophet and that of Omar. son of the great traditionist Abu Dauud. but Abu Bakr shall tarry but a regarding the correctness of the in several lines of ascription. that Abu Bakr used to hear his associate in his flight.t that Abu Bakr stood to the prophet in the place of a Wazir.

but the wiolset of Abu of his Caliphate. except the door of Abu Bakr. and he said unto A'sakir from Ibn Abbas that he said. after his death ?' ' ask him — to whom must we give our poor-rate ' and I went to him and asked him. Eaudhat u's Safa. not.' then he said." It was answered "Omar." successor. if he said to her had appointed one next after after : she replied They said to her " "whom whom Abu Bakr ?" she Omar ?" She replied (descended]' from Mustalik-t-A'mr-'b-Eal)u'-b-Kharijali) Kudayd." The two Shaykhs record on the authority of Jubayr-b-Mu'tim that he said. she said." and its words are Indeed this reading has come down in the tradition of Anas these. if thou findest me not. To save her reputation was the object . leave would have named as a "Abu Bakr. so it. H.' She replied not?' (referring to his death). Mu^ammad-b-Khawand Shih. ' " the Apostle of God said to me in his last illness call to me thy father and thy brother that I may write a testament.' " And ' Apostle of God. this tribe rebelled against Muhammad. saying.' " And Ibn ' another time. verily I fear lest the covetous should covet and speak. saying. left asleep by the aide of the road and discovered next morning * The Banu Mustalik district of dwelt in the by Safwan-b-u'l Mua'ttal and brought of the 24th Chapter of the Kuran. God " forbid that the true believers should be at strife regarding Abu Bakr. " I most worthy. He said ' if Muslim from Ayesha. that I may write a testament in favour of may oppose him after me . 5. suppose I come and find thee not ?' (as . but were brought to obedience by his marching against them in person.' " believers will reject all save am the Abu others record the same from her with other ascriptions according to one of them. between Mecca and Medina near tKe sea coast. then go to Abu Bakr. ' nay. He answered. It was on his return from the expedition that Ayesha was by an accident. for verily he shall be Caliph after me. " the Banti Mustalik* sent me to the Apostle of God. " a woman went to the prophet to ask something and he said to her come again Abu Bakr. " the Apostle of God in call to me A'bdu'r Eahman the his illness of which he died. said to me. then go to Abu if I come and find thee thou comest and findest me Bakr. that she was asked whom the Apostle of God son of Abu Bakr. And Ahmad^and : ' that none Abu Bakr.' but God and the true Bakr.' " Al Hdkim records and verifies the tradition on the ' authority of Anas that he said.[ 61 ] of those two authorities. " Close ye these doors leading into the mosque. " a woman went to the prophet. and he commanded her to come to him another time she said. In A. for. for he used to go forth through Bakr." the learned assert that this was indicitive it to prayer with the Muslims. with Omar and defeating them. to camp.' And Muslim from Ayesha. " there shall not remain a wicket in the mosque. ' if she spoke of his death).

command Abu Bakr to and he said. and printed edition have (y^l for {^\ Lane gives the tradition with lyj^l t Here follows a list of other authorities for this tradition which to avoid the tedious repetition of names. that : the most learned of them in the Kuran and verily the Companions themselves were convinced that he was the most deserving of the Caliphate. H. and died in A. Al Asha'ri says.' Ayesha Apostle of God. and the most deserving of the Caliphate among them and the best of them in the ofiice of Imam. : iiji ' ' pray before the people the lifetime Apostle went to him himself. by his words. and the Thus he prayed before the people during In one of the traditions from of the Apostle of God. and Abu Bakr was not present. Omar. D. God from naming And in the tradition of Ibn Zama'a if is recorded. then the Apostle of God cried out. Othman and A'li. ' he shall stand as Imam before the people who is the best read of them is in the Book of God. but Omar came forth and prayed. The few whom these could interest are not likely to look for them in an English translation." The MS. " the prophet fell and his sickness increased. Again he exclaimed. " it is indeed undoubtedly ascertained that the Apostle of God commanded as Siddik to pray before the people in the presence of the Fugitives and the Auxiliaries. that the God ordered them to read the prayers. verily he is a man of soft heart when he rises up thy place. and that I saw that no it one would stand in his place but the people would take therefore I hoped that that might tm-n the Apostle of as an ill omen. the reading Apostle of that it " I frequently returned to this subject with the God and nothing induced me come into to this frequent recurrence.' but she only repeated what she had said." And according to the tradition of Ibn Omar. 670-1)." Apostle of — — — ' proof that as Siddik was the most eminent of the Companions absolutely." And the two Shaykhs from ill Abu Musa* al Asha'ri that he said. Abu Bakr.' This proves that he was the best read. he will be unable to pray before the people. command Abu Bakr to read prayers before the people.' Then he said. command Abu Bakr to pray before the people. Abu Musa — He was the arbitrator (see page 10) at t Meaning " entioers to evil." such is his name given by Ibn Hajr. and among these was Omar (and the words of Omar will follow in the Sfection on the covenant of allegiance) and * A'bdu'llah-T3-!^flays among them was also al Asha'ri Siflfin A'li. . on the part of A'li. 60 (A. He had served as governor under Muhammad. ' ' answered. " Omar recited the Takbir and raised his head angrily and said where is the son of Abu Kuhafah ?' " The learned say that in this tradition is the clearest Abu Bakr.[ 62 ] " Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah. I have omitted. but did not my mind that the people would ever be satisfied that any man should stand in his place after him."J verily ye are the mistressesf of Joseph' is. Ibn Khali. — — Ayesha. " No no no God and the Muslims will not sufEer any but Abu Bakr to pray before the people.

that he if might make peace between them. that there was concerns. ' He replied the vicegerent of the Apostle. I never cease to see myself men:" he replied. thou gavest precedence to Abu Bakr :" he replied.tJiem :" he added. and he cast his eyes upon a man. A. Abu Bakr afterwards excused himself to Omar ty saying that his knowledge of his master's predilection for Hafsah." and mand Abu Bakr when the time for after- noon prayers came. " in vision treading in the courtyards of Apostle of God. mentioning this circumstance to Muhammad. And Ahmad and Abu for the Dauud and others record on the authority of Sahl-b-Saa'd. " when thou wert ill. : The daughter of Omar-h-u'l Khattab her first hushand was Hasan-h-Hudafah at Badr and died at Medina she was then offered hy her father to Abu Bakr and Othman successively who both declined the proposal. that Abu Bakr said. but God who preferred him.[• 63 ] Ibn A'sakir records on his authority that he said. and I was not absent and was suffering from no illness . 354. " I went to Omar and there were some people engaged in eating in his presence." Hasan. tion of the author's Shaykhs. - traditions. " — the time of prayers should be at hand and I come not. " One shall marry Hafsah who is greater than Othman (meaning himself) and one shall marry Othman who is greater than Hafsah" (meaning his own daughter Umm Kulthum). " It was not 1 who And Ibn Saa'd from al preferred him. Ibn Hajr. and said."§ Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Abu Bakr that he said. Bilal announced the prayers and then commanded Abu Bakr. " verily the prophet commanded Abu Bakr and indeed I was present. He died in A." He replied " those are and I see on my breast what two years. Ittihafu'l Nubala. will be his witness readest ?' to the truth' " (Siddik)." a feud in the tribe of A'mr-b-A'uf and the prophet arrived and went to them Bilal after midday. " thou shalt be among men as a road/b/. who taught the 404. Omar. Abu Bakr as Shafi'if records in the " Ghilaniyat" and Ibn A'sakir from HafsahJ that she said to the Apostle of God. he replied. I who fought — was the cause of § his declining. otherwise he would gladly marry her.* and we accepted for our temporal affairs what the prophet had approved for our spiritual to pray before the people The learned say that Abu Bakr was recognised for his fitness Imdmate during the time of the prophet. And from Muhammad-b-u'z Zubayr. H. " are like unto two spots. t Ahu Bakr Muhammad-h-A'bdu'llah-h-Ihrahiin known as al Bazzar. . ' " Omar-b-Abdi'l A'zfz sent me to al Hasan of Basrah. It received its name probahly from Ahu Talih Miiham- mad-h-Muljammad-b-Ibrahim-h-Ghilan. then comto pray before the people . and he prayed. and what dost thou find of events before thy time in the books thou said. that he said. The Grhilaniyat is a collection of traditions written from the dictadied. H. Signifying that they were prophetic of the duration of his Caliphate. as Shafi'i. to ask him concern- * That is to say that he was an eye-witness in the full possession of his senses. the hindmost of the number.

that he supply his place said. J " He O prince of the faithful. " O prince of the faithful. for when the Arabs Abu Bakr and his Companions waged war with them. even though He had not commanded him therehis successor ?" and al ! And Ibn A'di records from Abu Bakr-b-A'yyashf that be narrates. that signifietk apostatized.' He command Abu Bakr to pray before the people and Abu Bakr prayed before the people during the eight days. ' said. Thus al Bayhaki records from true believers. Yea. " can such a thing be in doubt thou hast no father. A. God will certainly bring other people to will love whom He by Allah. to avoid breaks in the narrative and references to footnotes." And Yunas-b-Bukayr. " God will certainly bring other people to supply his place. Ibn KhaU. and the divine inspiration continued to descend wpon on account of the of the silence the Apostle of God was silent and the Faithful were silent on account this pleased him and he said of the Apostle of God May Muhammad. saying Slay yourselves or depart from your would not have done it. but . " Satirfy me regarding that in which people difEer did the Apostle of God name Abu Bakr — Hasan who was seated." I said. Ibn Ayyash died at Kufah. by that God than whom there is no other Godj verily he named him his successor. who to pray before the people ?' ." Eur. " from the Hasan of Basrah whoever of you apostatizeth al from his religion. stood erect and said. " to relate the expedition of when the prophet died the Arabs apostatized. H. 193 (809J at the age of ninety-eight. " this. Abu Bakr and his Companions. and the true believers were silent. till he brought them back to Islam."* " ar Eashid said to me. reg'arding the divine words. " and we used to declare that this verse was revealed regarding Abu Bakr and his Companions. silent and his apostle was silent. In similar instances in future t The text has " he said" meaning the narrator. ' Apostle of God." and I went to him and said to him. . from Katadah. IV. will love and who Him" (Kur. t Abu Bakr Salim-b-A'yyash an eminent Traditionist and native of Kufah." then he goes on Abu Bakr against them till he says. O Abu Bakr how did the people come to appoint Abu Bakr as Siddik successor ?" I said. God was unto. he said. silence of the Lord. thou hast but increased my anxiety. Eighteen days after the death of ax Eashid. — ' God " bless thee. V). inasmuch as he would have died for its sake. the prophet fell ill during eight days and BUal went in to is him and replied." replied. for he was undoubtedly the most learned in divine knowledge and the most devout towards Him and the most steadfast in His fear.L «* J in" certain things. ' * " If we had commanded them houseSj' they the English idiom will be followed. " By Allah.' Some of the learned have deduced the Caliphate of as Siddik verses of the Kuran.

of his belief in freewill and the creation of the Imuran in the mosque at Basrah and His works are 55 in number. Ibn Kathir says. He was author of very numerous works on a variety of subjects." He conof the right of the succession of Abu Bakr to him. Ibn Khali." And Ihn Ahi Hatim." he adds. He was bom in Basrah." (Kur. God promiseth unto such them to succeed Ibn Kathir. of you as the is v/ribe- lievers in the earth" ble to the Caliphate of * rival. " for the learned are agreed there were no wars to which the people were sum- moned except tinues " this is those wherein to the reduction of the apostates demonstrative and the duty of allegiance turneth away from it " shall be punished with a grievous punishment. A. H. XLVIII). since God has declared that he who who interpret the word it ' nation' as being the was as Siddik who fitted out an army against them. was a grammarian and taught traditions in Baghdad. 415. H. and those who refused tribute. from desert Jiiaybar. " and do good works that he will cause . He was at first a MotaziUte but made a public renunciation wrote in refutation of that school. " say unto the Arabs of the left behind. 330 and 34fl. al Asha'ri drew his descent from Abu Musa one of the pro- He was an able defender of the Simnite doctrines and the founder of the sect called Asha'ris. whereas in reality Sale. § That is " the Arabs who were left behind" mentioned in the above verse. XLVIII). H 270 (884). GcTceoks. 213. His father was a native of Marw but he himself was bom at Baghdad. 270 (883-4) and died at Baghdad between A.[ 65 ] whom He who were fah." this verse. stayed behind and excused themsaying that their families must suffer in their absence. or as some say at Kufah. t Abu'l Hasan Ali phet's Companions. These were the attend selves tribes of Aslam. p. Abu Bakr al Bakilani was a great supporter of his peculiar views. A. p. Juhaynah. Abu Bakr summoned them§ and the people. t Abu Muhammad He ." believe The Most High (Kur. Muzaynah and G-hifar who being summoned to Muhammad in by the expedition of Hudaybiyah. says. philologer of eminence. (828-9). says applica- Ibn Abi Hatim records in his Comwere the followers of Muaaylama Muhammad's They inhabited al Yamamah and Sale. H. " they Vetsisns dcaA. Ibn KhaU. that he said. A'bdu'Uah-b-Muslim-b-Kutaybah. (941-52)."* will love and who will love Him. XXIV) Abu Bakr. they wanted firmness in the faith and courage to face the Kiuaysk 414 9 . died A. and the final settlement of their affairs was left in the hands of Omar and Othman. for those two were but branches of for them it is sufficient that as Siddik. regarding the divine words. ye shall be called forth against a mighty and a war- like nation (Kur. The Shaykh Abu'l Hasan al Asha'riJ relates " I heard Abu'l A'bbds-b-u's Shurayh say. that the Caliphate of Abu Bakr is predicted in this verse of the Kuran that after its revelation . " these were the Banu HunayIbn Abi Hatim and Ibn Kutaybahf say that this verse is a proof of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as Siddik for it was he who summoned the people to fight against them.

I 66 ] mentary on the authority of Abdu'r Eahman-b-Abdi'l Hamid al Mahdi." He therefore whom God calls " truthful" cannot lie and the Companions used to address him " vicegerent of the Apostle of God. 80 (699). who have been dispossessed of and their substance. died derived from az Za'faraniyah (the saffron field) a is called after this doctor who lived in it. that Abu Bakr Apostle of as Siddlk is mentioned in the Kuran as the successor of the God. as skilled in tho ait of physiognomy. and they never judged a thing to be pernicious.) Wherefore part Muhammad no part t distributed those spoils among the Muhajerin (Fugitives) only and gave to the Auxiliaries. but they found not beneath the expanse of heaven a better than Abu Bakr. Mu'4wiyah died A." And al Khatib from Abu Bakr-b-A'yyash. LIX. (excellencies) records on the authority of M'uawiyah-b-Kurrahf that he said. that he will cause them to succeed the 'unbelievers in the earth. " * Abu Sufyan§-b-Harb went how is it that "A their houses assisting also telongeth to the poor Muhajerin. but it was pernicious in the sight of the Lord. ^ lyas. to his word " these are men of veracity. was one of as eminent rank as a doctor of law and tradition. Ibn Khali. These are men of veracity" (Kui. " the Companions of the Apostle of God never doubted that Abu Bakr was the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. p. § Abu Sufydn §a:^hr-b-Harb-b-Umayya of the Kuraysh. 445. " God promiseth unto each of you as believe and do good works. the father of the Caliph Mu'awiyah. Sale." And al Hakim. Ka'dhi of Basrah." Al Hakim records and confirms it that he said. The street of this name in the city as Sabbah. and they in no case concurred in what was false or erroneous. and verily all the Companions concurred in appointing Abu Bakr successor. seeking favour from God." Al Bayhaki records on the authority : of az Za'faranif that he relates. and his good will and God and his Apostle. to whom Hariri alludes in his 7th MaUmah. He was the father of the celebrated ?:4dhi % Mu'awiyai. " the people concurred in the Caliphate of perplexity after the death of Abu Bakr and that was. and they placed him in authority over them. records. for the Most High God says.God according to the word of God. He attained an A. th^t the jurisdiction of Abu Bakr and Omar is to he found in the Book o£ . but on the authority of Ibn Masa'M it was good in the sight of the Lord. az Zu'far&ni. Abu A'li al ^asan-b-Mu^ammad-b Shafi'i's disciples. " I heard as Shafi'i say.. 260 (874). . ad Dahabi verifying it on the authority of Murrah-b-u'1-Tayyib to A'li and said. because men were in the Apostle of God. "the Muslims never approved a thing to be good. H. H. and they never called him anything but vicegerent of the Apostle of God. Za'farani is village near Baghdad. " that he said." Asad u's Sunnah in his Fadhail. see his life in Ibn KhaUakan.b-Kurrah-b-Iyfa-b-Hilal. except only to three of them who were in necessitous circumstances. " to the poor Fugi- tives"* &c.

He was the Damascus. the brother of the historian in the Kitab u'n Nihaya a treatise on the obscure Muham. " by Allah. The two Shaykhs record that Omar-b-u'l Khattab addressed the people on his return from the pilgrimage and said in his exhortation " It hath eome to my knowledge that a certain one among you sayeth." and we went on till we came up to them in the porch of the Banu Sai'dah ^and lo they were assembled and in the middle of them was a man muffled up in his garments and I said " who is this ?" And they said " Saa'd-b-U'badah"J and I said " what is the matter with ye do not approach them. we fijid Abu Bakr worthy On his covenant of altegicmce. gives it the meaning I have rendered. . p. but that hurts of the Caliphate. II." u'l Athir. Leben A'bd'ur Eahman-b-A'H as Sbaybani in the Taysirul Wusul interAnd Ibn prets it. done and said " whither are ye going. horse and foot. He died in Hawran A. —although." said. yet the Lord prevented the evil consequences thereof and there not one among ye to-day behind whom the necks of competitors stop short. Kuraysh in insignificance. A'li replied " verily it is long O Abu Sufyan. Verily he was the best verily A'li among us when the Apostle of and aa Zubayr and they that were with them. Abu Thabit Saa'd-b-TJ'badah b-Dulaym of the Banu Sa'i'dah. ye men of Then I said. ye men of the Fugitives ?" I " we seek our brethren of the Auxiliaries. " Oweim-b-Saidah and Ma'an-b-A'di." — ! — * " Vor dem man sioh melir teugte" is Weil's translation of tlis passage. native of Medina standard bearer of the Auxiliaries in their expeditions." They answered. 16 and was buried Mizzah near An Nawawi. until O Abu Bakr come and we went. "before whom the neots of riding camels are cut off or stop short. and the by Allah I would like to pour the Kwaysh upon it him. terms of the traditions. . was even is so.[ 67 1 this authority is with the least of the meanest of them ? (that is Abu Bakr) . t These two were according to Zuhri. but the Fugitives.* like unto Abu died. 352 . remained behind in the house of Tatimah and all the Auxiliaries tarried behind us in the porch of the Banu Sai'dah." not at all ." WeU-Leb-Mnham. X Vol." since that thou hast been hostile to Islam. He adds. and the Fugitives gathered round God And with us to our brethren the to them. and I said to him. Bakr. " Auxiliaries . " see. ' were Omar to die. that settle your affairs yov/rselves.' let not any man deceive — — himself so as to say that fealty to it Abu Bakr was hastily given. betaking ourselves we met two worthy menf who told us what the people had Abu Bakr. we will go to them . 350. Ma' an was one of those kiUed fighting at Yemamah against Musaylamah. I would swear allegiance to such a one. H. He was at distin- guished for his liberality.

they might conclude a covenant after our departure counsel people seek relieff • . " and now." Then he took my hand and the hand of Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah. whence discord would arise." and he stretched out his hand. he did not omit — a word of what had so pleased me in its composition. or to oppose them." as And when we were seated." and I was loth to anger him for he was wiser than I. it would be more pleasing to me than that I should rule a people among whom was Abu Bakr. crime of mine. and I took the oath of fealty to him. II. and. Vol. while ye. And he said. and the Fugitives swore allegiance to him then the Auxiliaries swore allegiance to him. I say that we are the Auxiliaries of the Lord and the said." Then the confusion increased and voices rose high until I feared a tumult.* for he was calmer than I and more sedate Then Abu Bakr said.& . " He is in pain. which I intended to speak in presence of Abu Bakr. pleased I sought to speak. but he spoke it himself unpremeditatedly and surpassed it. Then a speaker of the Auxiliaries said. and their preacher arose and " and now. 361. are but a handful and verily a party among you have sallied forth seeking that ye may uproot us and exclude us from power. as to what ye have said of good regarding yourselves. either have to hold to a covenant with them which we did it not approve. by descent and tribe. — so that we should Nasai. glorified God army of Islam. I was not displeased with what he otherwise said. men of the Kuraysh. «. See Lane's Lex art J j. verifying on the Auxi- authority of Ibn Masa'lid. the • "Weil ioh an ihm etwas Sot&fe vemiisste. that when the Apostle of God died. p. were I brought out that thou shouldst strike off my head. " I am of those by means of whose it befell though me through no let there he a ruler from among us and a ruler from among ye. and I have a family that wUl aid and defend me. but by Allah. and verily I had embellished a discourse which amongst me." And when he was silent. us. " stretch out thy hand O Abu Bakr. men of the Fugitives. in regard to that for which we assembled. and by Allah. from the concourse and no covenant were taken.. so I am suoh a post for ye. t Literally " I am their muoh-rutbed little rubbing-post and their propped little palm tree loaded with fruit" i. as mangy camels seek relief by rubbing themselves against a post. so that I was speechless. by Allah. Weil-Iieten Muham. indeed ye are worthy of it." An Abu Ya'la and al Hakim record.— [ 68 ] him ?" They answered. and the Arabs do not recognise this authority except in this tribe of the Kuraysh —'they are the noblest of the Arabs and verily I approve for ye one of these two men whichever ye please. " Softly with thee. and verily I feared the want of some severity on his part. we could find nothing more fitting than to swear fealty to Abu Bakr ^we feared that if we separated. and I said. was befitting unto Him.

know ye not that the Apostle of God commanded Abu we should al Bakr to lead the people in prayer ? now which of ye preferreth himself forbid that toAbuBakr?" from Abu The Auxiliaries exclaimed "God of take precedence of Abu Bakr. he Bakr aijd joined unto him one of us . Then you God and magnified Him. dost thou wish to break the staff of the Muslims?" Az Zubayr replied " no blame be laid on thee. and from among ye a whereupon Omar-b-u'l Khattdb went to them and said " ye men — of the Auxiliaries. He therefore summoned az Zubayr and he came and he said. He therefore summoned him and he came then he : said " thou callest thyself the son of the uncle of the Apostle of God. and died." a general allegiance after the spoke and praised And the people swore unto Abu Bakr Abu Bakr allegiance of the Porch." verily the Lord hath centred your authority on the best among you. related unto him through the Muslims ?" He and thou wish to break the staff of replied " no blame be laid on thee. verily I have received authority . " do ye not know that the Apostle of God was of the Fugitives.C liaries said. 69 ] ruler. And he praised God and magnified him and then said . over "and now. then continued. and one from we think therefore that two men. the Companion of the Apostle of God. and Omar rose and spoke before Abu Bakr. Then Zayd-b-Thdbit arose and said. and " the second of the two when they two were in the cave. whenever the Apostle of God appointed one from among you to any authority. and he saw not A'li. but beheld not az Zubayr. vicegerent of the Apostle of God !" and he rose and swore allegiance to him. should assume this authority . O vicegerent of his daughter. as we were his Auxiliaries." " let there 5e a ruler from among us. and he looked among the chiefs of the people. Bayhaki Sa'id al Khudri. one from among us. Then Abu Bakr looked among the chiefs of the people.CF'badah and among them were Abu Omar. ye people. and Abu Bakr agcended the pulpit. " thou sayest that thou art the son of the aunt of the Apostle of God. and his disciple." Ibn Ishak records on his " Sirat " (record) from Anas-b-Malik that after Abu Bakr had received the covenant of allegiance in the porch of God the Banu Sai'dah." Then he took Abu Bakr by the hand and said " this is your master. al Hakim. he seated himself at the pulpit. and the preachers of the Auxiliaries arose and a man among them began to speak saying." therefore arise and swear allegiance unto him. and we were the Auxiliaries of the Apostle of God. therefore are we the Auxiliaries of his vicegerent. " the Apostle God and the people assembled in the house of Saa'd-b." Then Omar and afterwards the Fugitives and the Auxiliaries swore allegiance to him. among you. " O ye men of the Fugitives. dost the Apostle of !" and he swore him allegiance." And Ibn Saa'd." and the preachers of the Auxiliaries followed each other after the same manner. when the morrow came.

but Omar said. " by Allah. but he smiteth them with ignominy. I have no office. verifying it on the authority of A'bdu'r-Eahman-b-A'uf that Abu Bakr preached and spoke saying. save by the assistance of God. " never before this have I seen ! in thee weakness of thou swear allegiance to the second of the two ?" thou hast embraced Islam." And Ibn Saa'd from Fbrahim at Taymi* that he said " when the Apostle of God died. and the Apostle of " stretch out thy hand. that Abu Bakr said to Omar." is never Abu Mdsa-b-U'kbah in his 'Maghazi' (Battles) records." Then Ali and az Zubayr said. and warring in the cause of the Lord. Verily I am invested with a mighty the power and capacity for which are not in me. verily I will swear thee allegiance. Kiss up to your prayers—may the Lord have mercy upon you. According That ho survived Muljsun- . if it please' before me. for verily I will swear thee allegiance for thou art the trusted one of this God. Truth is a sacred trust and if I incline to evil. mad is all ho and his father wero among the Fugitives. but He afflicteth them and his Apostle. and Abu Bakr was with some of the people of Medina. then obedience ta and when I turn aside me shall not be obligatory upon you. that we were put aside from the consultation. likewise al Hakim. and he that is strong among you is weak. yet me aright. I was never covetous of this authority. of the Kuraysh." but Omar said to him "thou art more meritorious than L" Abu Bakrreplied." And Abu U'baydah replied mind since people according to the word of the Apostle of to Omar. but I was in fear of sedition. iniquity made manifest among a people. assist me. direct He that is weak among you." and he swore allegiance to him. repose in this authority. to al Bukhari. is strong and falsehood is a betrayal. with misfortune. A people abstaineth not from that which is due from him if it please God. " stretch out thy hand. What wilt me when there is among you as Si'ddik. and he And from Muhammad. " then verily thou hast my firmness together with thy merit. " we were not incensed but for this. as I shall restore unto him his due. that is known of him by Ibn Hajr. nor desirous of it.[ 70 T if I do well. " the Apostle of God died. yet we think Abu Bakr the most deserving of that authority/ among men. and verily God while he was yet alive commanded him to pray before the people. for he was the Companion in the we indeed recognise his superiority and his excellence. And Ahmad from Hamid-b-A'bdi'r Eahman-b-A'uf. inasmuch inasmuch as I shall take God. and he came • Ibrahim-'b-u'l Hfaith-b-Klialid-b-Sakhr at Taymi." thou art firmer than I" and again he repeated it. though I be not the best among you. Obey me as long as I obey the Lord from the Lord and his Apostle. Omar went to Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah" and said Cave. neither by day nor by night. nor asked it of God either in secret or openly.

" what brought thee to take upon thyself the government of the people. desert for his X The text has A'abid. he saw some dissatisfaction among the peomen ? am not I the most deservple and he said." And Ibn Ishak and Ibn A'aidJ in his Maghazi. who used to allow him to sleep on his own bedding and gave him some of his own clothes to wear and acted as his spiritual director. The author's real name is Abu A'bdu'Uah like Muhammad-b-A'aid of the the author of a Maghazi. nor of what the Apostle of God had said concerning them. verily I And Ahmad from as Siddik about a was seated by Abu Bakr month after the death of the Apostle of God and he was • Saa'd-b-Ubadah." Then Saa'd said to him " thou hast spoken truly we are the ministers and ye are the princes. for I feared lest discord should arise and apostasy follow it. And Ahmad Eafi't u'l Tai that he said.' from the same. t Eafl'-b-A'mr-b-Jabir-b-Haiith at Ta'i. and when he became a convert he became a guide for the Muslims in their expeditions. ple to ' verily ye Icnow that the Apostle of God said. and the Auxiliaries marched in another valley. " were the peo- march in one valley.5"™ysh. and the wicked will follow the wicked among them. that he said to Abu Bakr. Ibn Hajr. " Abu Bakr told me of the allegiance sworn to him and what the Auxiliaries and what Omar had said to him and he added " then they swore allegiance to me and I accepted it from them. He died at the close of the Caliphate of Omar." and verily thou knowest Saa'd. " the Kuraysh are the masters of this authority and the good men will follow them that are good. Ibn Ishak . for A'aid." Kays-b-Abi Hazim.[ 71 it ] and uncovered his mother he a ransom death ! face and kissed and said ' May my father and my for thee ? how sweet wert thou in Lord of the Kaabah " and he repeated the tradition" he adds " Abu Bakr and Omar departed leading each other along until they came to the Auxiliaries and Abu Bakr spake and did not Muhammad is dead—by the — life and art in — omit a thing of what had been revealed regarding the Auxiliaries. but he mentioned it - and exclaimed.* that the Apostle of God said when thou wert seated by. " what keeps you back ing of this authority among you ? was not I the first to embrace Islam ? was not I this and that ?" and he mentioned his qualifications. In the time of ignorance he lived as a robber and used to fill ostrich eggs with water and hide them in various places in the own use. He had made a particular friend of Abu Bakr at the engagement of Dat SalasU. tribe of . when verily thou hadst forbidden me to rule over two of them ?" He replied " I found no way of avoiding it I feared dissensions among the those of — — ' people of Muhammad. a native of Damascus and Kashfu'd Dhunun. I would march in the valley of the Auxiliaries ." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Abu Sa'id al Khudri that when homage was paid to Abu Bakr.

" Mdlik says." " It is a momentous thing. command of your prophet. he stood up and preached saying." Mandf and the Banu'l Mughirah consent to this ?" They answered " yes. and Abu Euhafah noticed it and They said. though I am averse from and by Allah. no one ever becomes Imam except upon this condition. inasmuch as I shall take for him what is due to him and the weakest among you before me is he that is strong inasmuch as I shall take from him that which is due by him O men. and inspiration descended upon him from heaven. avoid me." He ansaid "what is this. And know that I have a devil that seizes upon me. fore when you me enraged. thereset me aright. and verily the strongest among you before me is he that is weak. verily I have been .' Al Hakim records in his Mustadrak (supplement) from Abu Hurayrah that when the Apostle of God died." And Ibn Saa'd and al Khatib. verily I am a follower and not an innovator. and know. aid me. I cannot be influenced by your counsels or your glad salutations. " will the Banu A'bd after him ?" They said. he preached to the people and he and magnified Him and said. for at that time. when the summons to prayer went forth among people assembled together and he ascended the pulpit the people. then obey me. verily I have been placed in this authority. " O men." Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of al Hasan of Basrah that when allegiance was sworn to Abu Bakr. I now. that piety is the most solid goodness. and may God have mercy upon me and upon you. who then hath risen up in authority swered. and the and said.[ 72 ] it. direct me aright. for tlie prophet was indeed preserved from the deceits of the evil one. and if I turn aside. God. O men. I could not undertake it. " there is no overthrower of that which hath been exalted." Al Wdkidi records with . that when Abu Bakr assumed praised God the supreme power. and instructed us and we learnt of him . made to rule over you though I am not the most worthy among you but the Kuran was revealed and the prophet declared the law. " and now. and when you see that I tui'n asidiSi from tJie right path. He replied. I have spoken. exalter of that and no which hath been humbled. I would have been pleased if any of you had sufficed for it in my stead. and surely I am a mortal and am not better than any one of you —therefore watch over me —and when you see see that I am steadfast. " thy son. Mecca was convulsed by an earthquake. " and for this in my stead. for the Apostle of God was a servant whom the Lord honored with His inspiration and preserved him thereby from error. and the vilest of what is vile is vice. therefore when I do well. according to the narration of Malik from U'rwah. I would indeed have been glad if another had sufficed relating the account of and though you have taken me according to the am not capable of ferfarming its duties. " the Apostle of God is dead. but if you charge me to act unto you as did the Apostle of it." ' : ' He exclaimed.

a knowledge of the law and tradition. until after he had passed to the Lord. 371 (982) aged 94. such as the despatch of the army of TTsamah.— [ 73 ] Ibn Omar. 440. H. and the Arabs apostatized and the Auxiliaries turned away and if • " TJInfin Mahomed mourut un samedi. Monday* the 12th of Rabii' u'l Awwal. 1005-6) aged 63. some of the Arabs fell from the faith and they we will perform the prayers.' " Omar adds. studied under his father and became Shaykh of the Shafi'is in Jurjan." (Useful Observations) and Ibn A' sakir record from Ayesha that she said. famous for his t Ahu Bakr Ahmad-b-Ibrahim al Isma'Ui. (A. conciliate the people and be indulgent to them for they are but on a level with brute beasts:' replied. And at TabarAni in his Ausat from Ibn Omar. Sa'id-b-u'l Mussayyab and others. in the 11th year of the Hijrah. H." in many of their difficulties were made easy to me when And Abu'l Kasim al Baghawi. " when the Apostle of God died. ' Al Isma'ilif records on the authority of Omar that he said. 10 . and he governed the affairs of the people with justice — ^thus to rule them. Ibn Khali. but we said. that he said. His son Ahu Saa'd. the slaughter of the apostates and those who refused the poor rate. the Apostle of said. hypocrisy raised its head. " Abu Bakr never seated himself in the place of the Apostle of God in the pulpit. died A. Musaylamah the liar and the collection of the Kurdn. p. I will do battle with them as long as can grasp a sword in my hand. D. ' will not pay the poor rate :' I went to Abu Bakr and and he O vicegerent of the Apostle of God. ascriptions to Ayesha. called tradition. " when God died. ' I hoped for thy help and thou hast come to me withholding thy aid meanspirited in Islam verses thou wert haughty in the time of ignorance and art —wherefore ? ! then should I conciliate them by lying ! and deceitful eloquence inspiration I is Alas alas ! the prophet is dead and divine withheld By Allah. See Vie de Mahomed. and Abu Bakr as I came Shafi'i his " Fawaid. great Shafi'i doctor. that allegiance was sworn to Abu Bakr on the day of the death of the Apostle of God. He was the author of numerous works on He died in Rajah A." On what occurred during Ms Oaliphate and the chief events that tooh placer during his time." I know not on what authority BoulainviUiers makes j^xi" 5ll /•_jJ ("the second day") to he Saturday. and Omar never sat in the seat of Abu Bakr nor Othman in that of Omar until they had passed to the Lord. De Slanc. "I found him in this business more energetic and determined than myself. also al Isma'fli. 396. second jour de la semaine ohfez les Musulmaus dans le moi Eabie premier. even if they deny me the worth of a camel's halter.








father had fallen upon the




and the Companions never disputed a single point, but he was prompt with its advantages and its merits. They said ' where is the prophet to be buried ?' and we found no one who had any knowledge
have crushed them but Abu Bakr exclaimed, I heard the Apostle of God say, no prophet died but he was buried under the bed in which be expired.' " Aysha adds, " they disputed regarding his inheritance, and they found no one who had any information on this point but Abu Bakr exclaimed, I heard
regarding this



the Apostle of

ed of

— that

God say, " we, which we leave is



of the prophets are not inherit-

the portion of the poor."

Some of the learned say that this was the first disagreement that occurred among the Companions, for some of them said, " let us bury him
was born," and others said, " nay, in his mosque," and others " nay, in the cemetery of Medina," and others " nay in
in Mecca, the city wherein he

Jerusalem, the Sepulchre of the prophets," until

Abu Bakr informed them
Siddik was the single

what he knew.

Ibn Zunjawayh

says, that


Auxiliaries, and they had recourse to him for it. Al Bayhaki and Ibn A'sakir record on the authority of Abu Hurayrah, that he said, " by Him, than whom there is no other God, if Abu Bakr had not been appointed Caliph, God would not have been worshipped," this he said a second, and again a third time

authority for this tradition

among the Fugitives and


then they said to him, " how

and he said, " verily the Apostle of God sent Usamah-b-Zayd at the head of seven hundred men to Syria and when they reached Dii Khushub* the prophet died, and the Arabs round about Medina apostatized, and the Companions of the

Aba Hurayrah


God gathered about Abu Baler and they said, " recall these you send these against the Greeks while the Arabs around Medina have apostatized ?" but he said, " by Him, than whom there is no other
Apostle of

God, were dogs to drag the wives of the prophet by their feet, I would not recall an army despatched by the Apostle of God, nor would I dismount a standard that he had bound." He therefore despatched TJsamah, who so acted that he never passed in his march by a tribe inclined to apostatize but they
said, " were there no strength in them, such as these would not have gone forth from among them, but let us leave them to encounter the Greeks;" and they encountered them and defeated them and slew them and

returned in safety whereupon those others remained steadfast in Islam." And from U'rwah, " the Apostle of God kept saying in his illness,


patch the army of Usamah.'
" Jurf,"t




out until he reached

for verily the Apostle of

and the prophet's wife Patimah sent to him saying, " hasten not, God is grievously sick," and he did not proceed

A valley about ono march from Medina. Ya^:tit, M. B. t Three miles from Medina on the road to Syria,




until the Apostle of

God died and when he was dead, Usamah returned to Abu. Bakr and said, " verily the Apostle of God sent me forth but we were
under different circumstances to what you are now

verily I fear lest


Arabs apostatize and


they apostatize, they should be the

to be'

attacked, and if they do not apostatize I will set





the chiefs of the people and the most distinguished amongst them."


Abu Bakr preached to the people and said, " by Allah, were* a bird of prey to carry me off, it would be more pleasing to me than that I should set about anything before the command of the Apostle of God: he therefore
despatched him."

Dahabi says that when the death of the Apostle of God became about, many of the Arab tribes apostatized from Islam and refused the payment of the poor rate, and Abu Bakr as Siddik set out to attack them, but Omar and others counselled him to abstain from attacking them, but he said, " by Allah, if they deny me so much as a camel's halter or a kid which they used to pay to the Apostle of God, I will war against them for the refusal of it ;" then Omar said, " how canst thou war against the people, when verily the Apostle of God said, " I have been commanded to do battle against men until they confess that there is no God but God, and verily Muhammad is the Apostle of God, and whoever confesseth it his property and life are safe from me, save in the claim and account of God therein." Abu Bakr replied, " by Allah, I will surely oppose by force those who distinguish between prayers and the poor rate, for the poor rate is a due from


known round

property and verily ^Ae j^j-qpAei! said " save in the claim therein." Omar says, " then, by Allah, I saw it was nothing else than that God had dis-

posed the heart of

Abu Bakr


combat them and I knew that


was just."

And on

the authority of U'rwah, "

Abu Bakr

set out

with the Fugitives

and Auxiliaries until they reached Naka'a over against Najd, and the Arabs fled with their families and the people addressed Abu Bakr, saying, " return to Medina and to the children and women, and set a man in command
of the army," and they did not desist until he returned and appointed Khalid-b-u'l Walid and said to him, " when they shall have embraced the

and paid the poor




any among you who so wishes,

return," and he went back to Medina.

Darakutni records on the authority of Ibn Omar, that when Abu Bakr set forth and was mounted upon his camel, A'li-b-Abi Talib took it Vicegerent of the Apostle of by the bridle and said, " whither goest thou, God ? I say unto thee that which the Apostle of God said unto thee on the


day of Ohud, sheath thy sword and make us not anxious for thy person' and turn back to Medina, for, by Allah, if we suffer loss in thee, Islam will

* MeanLng were he carrion and a feast for birds of prey.




And from Handhalak-b-A'li-al Laythi, tliat Abu Bakr despatched Khalid and commanded him to war against men for five whosoever refused any one of these, he should attack him as he objects
never be set in order."

would attack any who had refused all the five, viz., the confession of faith " verily there is no God, but God and verily Muhammad is his servant and
his apostle

the institution of prayers

— —the donation of the poor



Khalid and those who were with him, then went forth fast of Eamadhan, in Jumada' '1 Akhir and he attacked the Banu Asad and Ghatfan and slew whom he slew, and captured whom he captured, and the rest returned to

and of the Companions who were slain in this affair were U'kashah*b-Mihsan and Thdbit-b-Akram. In Eamadhan of this year, died Tatimah daughter of the Apostle God, the chief of women upon earth, her age being four and twenty. of Ad Dahabi says that the Apostle of God had no descendants but by her,

for the posterity of his daughter

Zaynabf became
died a



says az

Zubayr-b-Bakkar) and

Umm AymanJ


before her.

In the month of Shawwal died A'bdu'Uah the son of Abu Bakr as After this Khalid set out with his army for Tamama to attack Musaylamah the liar towards the end of the year. The armies met and the investment§ lasted some days. At length Musaylamah the liar, God curse
him, was

—Wahshi the

slayer of


killed him.


the Companions that

fell in this

engagement were

Abu Huday-

fah-b-U'tbah, Salim his freedman, ShuJaa'-b-Wahab, Zayd-b-u'l KhattabA'bdu'llah-b-Sahl, Malik-b-A'mr Tufayl-b-A'mr a'd Dausi, Yazid-b-Kays,

A'amir-b-Bukayr, A'bdu'Uah-b-Makhramah, Saib-b Othman-b-Madha'un,


Simak-b-Harb, and others amounting to seventy.

Abu Dujanah Musaylamah on the

At Badr his sword hroke and Muhammad gave him a dried palm hranoh which became in his hand a sword with a white blade and a firm handle with which he returned to the battle.


of the Companions held in


hy Muhammad.

He was

one of the 70 to

being held regarding them.

whom Muhammad promised paradise without the judgment He was 44 years old when Muhammad died. An Nawawi.
Afai-b-i'r Eabii' al A'bshami.

t She married her aunt's son A'bu'l

Ibn Hajr.

X His foster-mother Barakah, an Abyssinian slave girl who tended Muhammad on the death of his father A'bdu'Uah, and continued in the capacity of his nurse after

the death of his mother Amina.

She married Zayd-b-Haritha. Tbn Hajr. The followers of Musaylamah retired into a garden called the " Hadfkatu'l A'bdi'r Eahman, and afterwards Hadikatu'l Mawt, or the garden of death, and there defended themselves to the last. According to the account of Wahshi quoted in the Eaudhat u's Safa he allows Ibn Am&ra a share in the death of Musaylamah as they both attacked him at the same time. Hamzah the uncle of Muljammad was slain at the

battle of


These were only the principal

men among

the fallen, for says iQilbon " in the




day he was


was a hundred and*


years old, his birth Tiaving tahen

place before that of A'bdu'llah the father of the prophet.

In the year 12 A. H. as Siddik sent al A'la-b-u'l Hadhrami to Bahrayn where they had apostatized, and the armies met at Jawatha, and the Muslims were victorious. Then he sent A'kramah-b-Abi Jahl to A'mman where they had also fallen from the faith, and he despatched al Muhajir-b-Abi Umayyah, against the people of Nujayr who likewise had apostatized, and Ziyad-b-Labid the Auxiliary, against another body of the



year died Abu'l A'asi-b-u'r Eabii' the husband of Zaynab

daughter of the Apostle of God, and as Saa'd-b-Jaththamah

Laythi and

Abu Marthad



sent Khalid-b-u'l

In this year likewise, after the reduction of the apostates as Siddik Walid to the land of Basrah, who attacked Ubulla and


partly by force.

and took Mad&in Kisra, the one in Irak, partly by treaty and During the same, Abu Bakr undertook the pilgrimage and despatched A'mar-b-u'l A'as and the army to Syria and there occurred the battle of Ajnadayn in the month of the first Jumada A. H. 13, and
the Muslims were victorious and

Abu Bakr

received the good tidings of it

when he was dying.

In this

battle, there fell

A'krahmah-b-Abi Jahl and

Hisham-b-u'l A'asi and others. In the same year took place the engagement of Marju's Suffar,t where the infidels were defeated and al Fadhlb-u'l A'bbas



were kiUed.



of the Kttrdn.

Al Bukhari records on the authority of Zayd-b-Thabit that he

Abu Bakr sent for me at the time of the slaughter of the people at Tamama, Omar being with him and said verily Omar hath come to me saying, " the slaughter of the men at Yamama was great and I fear lest
action thy were repulsed with a loss of twelve himdred men their defeat was avenged by the slaughter of 1000 infidels and Museilama himself was pierced, by an Ethiopian slave with the same javelin which had mortally wounded the uncle of Mafirst


Decline and Fall.

was but a short time before his death beauty and manliness of his person. After his death she resided with the Taghlabites and was converted in the Caliphate of Mu'awiyah. Abu'l Feda Annales, p. 212.
* This must be a great exaggeration as

that the prophetess Sajah

in love with


for the

t Close to Damascus. Several skirmishes took place before Damascus, during the siege, little to the credit of the warriors of the Cross. For a detailed account of
this period, consult the interesting pages of Ockley.




the loss in action of the readers of the



the provinces become
lost unless

and therefore much of the Kuran may be

they collect

Kurdn should be collected." Abu Bakr went on, " and I replied to Omar, how shall I do the thing which the Apostle of God hath not done" ? Omar answered " by AUah, it is a good
together, and verily I think that the

work," and he did not cease to persist with


in this

matter until


mind concerning it, and I have come to think as Omar thinks." Zayd adds, " Omar, was meanwhile seated by him not speaking then Abu Bakr said, " thou art an intelligent youth and I have no
doubts regarding thee, and verily thou wert he
tions of the Apostle of God, search therefore for the


And by Allah, from among the mountains, it would not have been weightier upon me than that which he commanded me in the collection of the Kuran, and I said, " how can you two undertake a thing which the Apostle of God hath not donej'" and Abu Bakr said, "by Allah, it is a good work," a»d I did not

who recorded the revelaKuran and collect had he charged me with the carrying away of a hill

discussing it

with him, until

God enlightened my mind
collected it

in that

towards which he had already disposed the minds of

Abu Bakr and Omar.


I searched for the

Kuran and

from scraps of paper and

shoulder-blades* and leafless palm branches, and the minds of

I found from the Sura of Eepentanee (IX) two verses in the possession of

Khuzaymah-b-Thabit which I found with no one else viz., " now hath an Apostle come to you of your own nation" (Kur. IX), to the end. Tlie pages in which the Kuran was collected remained with Abu Bakr until the Lord took him to Himself, then with Omar until the Lord took him
to Himself, and afterwards with Hafsah daughter of Omar.



records on the authority of A'li that he said,

" the greatest

among men


meriting reward for the volumes of the Kuran is Abu Bakr, for he first collected the Kuran between two boards."


Among these
collect the

the things in which he was foremost.

are, that

he was the


to embrace Islam,




Kuran, the


who named

Mushaf,' (the Book) the proof

of which has been advanced,

and he was the


records on the authority of

first who was called Caliph. Abu Bakr-b-Abi Mulaykah, that he said,

Abu Bakr was

once addressed "

Vicegerent of God."



"I am

On oompariBg

ence in the reading in various places
fer to read

the passage with the Sahilj of al Bukhari I find a slight differfor shoulder-hlades' (Jlifi or as I should pre:



has thin whitish stones.




the Vicegerent of the Apostle of

God and

with this I


content." yet alive,


was the

and the first Caliph for whom his subjects appointed a stipend. Al Bubhari records from Ayesha that she narrates, " when Abu Bakr was appointed


ruled the Caliphate while his father was

Caliph he said,


for the provision of

my people know that my profession* is my family, but I am busied with the
will soon

not insuiBcienfc

of the

Muslims and the family of Abu Bakr


this property



Saa'd from A'ta-bu's Saibf that he said, "after allegiance had been sworn unto Abu Bakr, next

while he

labouring for the Muslims."

And Ibn

morning he arose and was going to the market place with some mantles upon his arm, when Omar said to him, " whither art thou going ?" He
replied, " to the

market place :" Omar said, " dost thou do this although thou hast been given to rule over the Muslims ?" He answered, " whence,

then shall


family be fed?"

shall provide for thee :"

Omar replied, "Come! A'bu U'baydah and they went to Abu U'baydah and he said " I will

set apart for 'thee, the allowance for

assigned to the best, nor to the meanest

man of the Fugitives — neither that among them, and a garment for


when thou hast worn a thing out thou canst Then he assigned unto him every day, half And from a sheep and the wherewith to cover his head and his person. Maymlin, " when Abu Bakr became Caliph, they assigned to him two thousand dirhams, and he said, " increase the sum for me for I have a family, and you have employed me on other work than my own trade" ; so they gave him an increase of five hundred dirhams." At Tabarani records in his Musnad on the authority of al Hasan-b-A'Iib-Abi Talib that he said, " when Abu Bakr was near unto death, he said, " O Ayesha, behold the camel, the milk of which we have drank, and the platter in which we prepared our food, and the garments we have worn verily we made use of them when wo governed the affairs of the Muslims. When I die, give them to Omar." When therefore Abu Bakr died, she sent them to Omar, and he said, " the Lord have mercy upon thee, Abu Bakr, for verily thou hast afilicted him who cometh after thee." And Ibn Abi'd Dunya, from Abu Bakr-b-Hafs that he said, " Abu Bakr, when he was near unto death, said to Ayesha, " daughter we have governed the affairs of the Muslims and have not taken for ourselves either a dinar or a dirham, but we have
winter and for summer

and take another."


eaten the


of our bellies with the coarse flour of their food, and clothed

our backs with their rough garments and there doth not remain with us of the booty taken by the Muslims, save this Nubian slave and this camel
* He was by trade a oloth-merohant. t Atu's Saib A'ta-bu's Saib-b-Maiik a member of the tribe of Thakif and a native of Kfifah, a traditionist of good authority, died A, H, 136 (753-4). De Slane, I. K.




for drawing water, and this coarse garment, but


I die, send

them to



was the


also, to establish a public


Ibn Saa'd

records on the authority of Sahl-b-Abi

Khaythamah and

others that


Bakr had the

Sunh,* over which no one kept guard. ?" It was said to him " wilt thou not place over it some one to guard it He replied, " there is a lock upon it" and he used to give away what was
public treasury at

in it

till it

was empty.

But when he removed

into the city he transferred

and the revenue came in to him, and he used He to distribute it amongst the poor and divide it equally amongst them. used also to purchase camels and horses and arms and give them away for the service of God and he used to buy garments that were brought in and placed
in his house

from the

desert tracts

and distribute them amongst the widows of Medina.
died and was buried,

When Abu Bakr

Omar summoned

the trustees

amongst them being A'bdu'r Eahman-b -A'uf and Othman-b-A'ffan, and and they opened the entered with them into the treasury of Abu Bakr
treasury, but they did not find a thing in

neither a dinar nor a dirham.

I observe that this tradition refutes the remark of al A'skari in his Awayil (Beginnings) that the first who instituted a public treasury was Omar, and that neither the prophet possessed a public treasury nor Abu Bakr. Indeed I have refuted this in the work which I composed on the




have observed that

al A'skari

himself adverted to


in another part of his book, for he says that





the public treasury was

Abu U'baydah

b-u'l Jarrah

on the part of

Abu Bakr.

Al Hakim says that the
Bakr, Atik.

surname in Islam, was the surname of Aba
of Jabir that the Apostle of

The two Shaykhs record on the authorii^

God said to Mm, " when the tribute comes from Bahrayn I will give thee so much and so much," but when the tribute from Bahrayn came in after the death of the Apostle of God, Abu Bakr said " he who hath a claim against the Apostle of God or a promise ^om 7i»OT, let him come to us,"

and I went and informed him and he said " take," and I took and found
that the promise was for five hundred dirhams, but he gave

me two





* In one of the euburbs of Medina about a mile distant from the house of



Ya^ut, M, B.




On some

examples of Ms gentleness and humility.

Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Anisah,* that she said, " Abu settled amongst us three years before he was appointed Caliph, and one

year after he became

so, and the girls of the tribe used to go to him with and he used to milk them for them." And Ahmad in th& " Zuhd" from Maymlin-b-Mihran that he said, " a man went to Abu Bakr




plied "

who among

Salih al

Vicegerent of the Apostle of God.' " He reis he ?" And Ibn A'sakir from Abu Ghifari, that Omar-b-u'l Khattab was in the habit of ministering
peace be to thee,
these assembled

at night to an aged blind


in one of the suburbs of the city,

and he

used to give her to drink and
to her and found another

assist her,




to pass that he


who was


him with her and who did what

He went again another time that he might not be anticipated in attendance on her, and lay in wait for him and behold it was Abu Bakr who was going to her, he being at that time Caliph, and Omar
she required.

exclaimed " by my life, thou art the man I" And Abu Nna'ym and others from A'bdu'r Bahmdn al Ispahani that al Hasan the son of A'li went to Abu Bakr, who was then on the pulpit of the Apostle of Grod, and said " come down from the seat of my father," and he answered, " thou speakest truly for this is thy father's seat" and he put him on his lap and wept and A'li said, " by Allah, this was not said by my command," and Abu Bakr said, "thou speakest the truth by Allah, I did not suspect thee." Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Ibn Omar that he said, " the prophet appointed Abu Bakr to lead the pilgrimage in the first pilgrimage
; ;

that took place in Islam


then the Apostle of

God performed



the following year, and

when the Apostle



Aba Bakr


Caliph, he appointed Omar-b-u'l


Khattab to lead the pilgrimao-e and himself the year following, and when Abu Bakr died and Omar

became Caliph, he appointed A'bdu'r Eahman-b-A'uf over the pilgrimao-e. Subsequently Omar failed not to perform it himself each year till his death

Othman succeeded

to the Caliphate, and he

appointed A'bdu'r Eah-

man-b-Auf over the pilgrimage."


his illness, death


last testament and. the Oaliphate

of Omar.

Sayf and

cause of the death of

Hakim record on the authority of Ibn Omar that th e Abu Bakr was through excessive grief for the death
and related

* Daughter of Khutayb-b-Yasaf, one of the Auxiliaries.

^lammad in some of

his pilgrimages

from him.

She accompanied MuIhn Hajr.





of the Apostle of God, his body continuing to waste


until he died.

And Ibn Saa'd and al Hakim on good authorities from Ibn Shihab, that Abu Bakr and al Harith-b-Kaladah* were eating broth which had been sent as a present to Abu Bakr, when al Harith said to Abu Bakr, " with-; draw thy hand, O Vicegerent of the Apostle of God, for by Allah, there is
poison in

that will do its worTc in a year, and I and thou shall both die

on the same day."

And he withdrew

his hand,

and these two did not


sicken until they died on the same day about the close of the year. And al Hakim from Shaa'bi that he said, " what can we expect from this

world when even the Apostle of God was poisoned and poisoned was Abu Bakr ?" And al Wakidi and al Hakim from Ayesha that the beginning of the sickness of Abu Bakr, was that he bathed, on Monday the 7th of Jumada'l

Akhirah, and the day was cold and he took fever for


days and did

not come forth to prayers and died on Tuesday the 22nd of Jumada'l

Akhirah in the thirteenth year of the Hijrah being sixty-three years old (23rd August, 634)Ibn Saa'd and Ibn Abi 'd Dunya record on the authority of Abu's Safar
that the Companions went in unto

Abu Bakr



sickness and


Vicegerent of the Apostle of God, shall we caU unto thee a physician that he may look to thee ?" He replied, " verily he hath already seen





they answered " what did he say ?"


said, " verily

I effect

that which I please."t



Wakidi on

different authorities, that


Abu Bakr sickened, he summoned me of Omar-b-u'l Khattab." He

A'bdu'r Eahmdn-b'-Auf and said, " tell replied " thou canst not ask me concerning anything but thou art better acquainted with it than I." Abu Bakr said " well, even so." A'bdu'r Eahmdn answered, " by Allah, he is even
better than thy opinion of him." Then he summoned Othman-b-A'ffan and said, "tell me of Omar-b-u'l Khattab" and he answered, "thou knowest more of him than I." Abu Bakr replied, " Be it so." The

other replied, " verily,


my knowledge of him is that his inward disposition than his outward appearance, and indeed there is not his like


One of Muhammad's Companions— of the tribe of Thakif, and a judge of the His wife was al Farigha daughter to Hammam-b-tT'rwai, going into her

apartment one morning he found her picking her teeth on which he sent her a sentence of divorce for said he " if you have breakfasted before your time, you arc a glutton and if you have passed the night with particles of meat between your teeth, you are a slut." To this she replied that it was neither one nor the other, but that she was removing the fragment of a toothpick. She afterwards married Yusnf-b-tJ'^ayl to whom she bore the tyrant at Hajjdj. Ibn Khali.

t Taken with a slight alteration from the Kur, chapters






amongst us." Abu Bakr consulted together with those two, Sa'id-b-Zayd, and Usayd-b-u'l Hudhayr, and others from among the Fugitives and Auxiliaries, and Usayd said, " verily, I think him the best after thee he approves what merits approval, and is indignant with what deserves wrath what he conceals is better than what he suffers to appear, and no one can sway this authority more vigorously than he." Some of the Companions went unto Abu Bakr and one of them spake to him saying, " what wilt thou say to thy Lord, when He asketh of thee regarding the appointment and Abu of Omar over us, and verily thou seest his asperity of temper"



" by Allah, dost thou think to terrify



I shall say
Tell others


I have given the best of thy people to rule over them.

me what

Then he summoned Othman and said, " write In I have said," name of God the most merciful and compassionate. This is the testament made by Abu Bakr the son of Abu Kuhafah at the close of his life in
the world as he

about to leave


and at the beginning of

his life in the

next, being about to enter

a time


the infidel believeth and the

sinner gaineth certitude, and the liar speaketh the truth.

I have


Caliph over you after me, Omar-b-u'l Khattab

—therefore hear and obey

him, and verily I have not been wanting in

my duty to God and His and His religion and myself and you: if therefore he acteth then will my opinion regarding him and my knowledge of him be


he doeth the contrary, then every action receiveth that which it hath earned, and I have intended what is good and know not what and they who act unjustly shall know hereafter with what is hidden,

treatment they shall be treated'
the mercy of


God and His


XXVI) and peace be to you and He then ordered that they should
Othman who went

the document.

After this he commanded

and the people swore allegiance and approved it. Then Abu Bakr summoned Omar in private and charged him with what he charged him and Omar left him. Then Abu Bakr lifted up his hands and said, " O God I have wished in this but their good, and I feared discord
with the document

amongst them, therefore have I done regarding them that which thou knowest and exerted my faculties for them to the utmost and I have appointed to rule over them the best among them and the most vigorous, and the most zealous of them for that which directeth them aright and

thy commands, I have remembered, therefore put another in my place over them, for they are thy servants and Lord, their rulers and Instruct, their forelocks* are in thy hands.

what I have



make him whom


appointest, to be one of the Orthodox

Caliphs and

render his subjects righteous towards him."


" forelocks''


be also signified the oMefs of the nation.




Ibn Saa'd and al Hakim record on the authority of Ibn Masa'iid that he said, " the most sagacious of mankind were three Abu Bakr when he appointed Omar as Caliph,—the wife of Moses when she said, " Hire him for certain* wages" (Kur. XXVIII) and the minister ofJEcft/ptf when he dis-

cerned the character of Joseph from his physiognomy and said to his wife
" use him honorably" (Eur. XII). And Ibn A'sakir from Yasar-b-Hamzah that he said, " when Abu Bakr was grievously sick, he stood up over the

people from a window and said
therefore consent ye to it



ye men, verily I have made a covenant,

and the people





of the Apostle of



then A'li stood up and


I shall not consent

be for Omar,' and " what day

Abu Bakr




fir Omar.'

And Ahmad from Ayesha
unto death

that she said,


Bakr, when he was nigh



They answered 'Monday:' J he


I die to-night delay not for

me my

itlrial until

to-morrow, for

verily the dearest to


of all days

and nights

that which

nearest of


to ihe time of

death of the Apostle of God.'
to her

And Malik from

Ayesha, that
death, he said,

Abu Bakr gave

twenty camel-loads of fruit-cuttings

of the palms from his property at Ghabah,§ and


daughter, by Allah, there

when he was nigh unto not one among the people

whose richness is more pleasing to me than thine, and none whose poverty would be more distressing to me after my death, and verily I had given to thee twenty camel-loads of the fruit-cuttings of my palms if thou badst cut them and taken them, they would have been thine, but now they are the property of my heirs, who are verily thy two brothers and thy two


— then
' '





according to the book of God.'




even had

been so that

I had

cut them, I would have

them, but surely


sister is

Asma, who then

the other sister


the child that

is in



of the daughter of Kharijah,


I think


Ibn Saa'd records this tradition and at the end of

adds, 'the child in the


of the daughter of Kharijah,
it is


verily it hath

been put into


heart that

a girl therefore take charge of her with

and from her was born



* For this story see Kuran XXVIII and Sale's notes, p. 319. t His name was Kitfir or Itflr (a corruption of Potiphar) and he was man of great consideration, heing superintendent of the royal treasury {al Baydawi). Sale, p. 189. t According to a tradition attested hy an Nawawi and others,

hammad was

on a Monday Muon a Monday he fled from Mecca, on a Monday, he arrived at His first revelation was made to him on a Monday, and on a Mondav ho

Twelve miles from Medina on the road to Syria. Khdrijah-h-Zayd-h-Ahi Znhayr one of the Auxiliaries, of the Abu Bakr married his daughter whom he left pregnant at his

tribe of


Khazrai Ibn Hajr.




his property

Ibn Saa'd records from U'rwah* that Abu Bakr left away a fifth of and said, " take of my good that which God taketh of the booty of the Muslims."t And by a different ascription from the same, that Abu Bakr said, " that I should bequeath a fiftb is preferable to me
than that I should bequeath a fourth, and to bequeath a fourth
ble to





I bequeathed a third, for he

who bequeaths

a third, leaves

And Saa'd-b-Man§tir in his Sunnan (Traditions) from ad DhahAbu Bakr and A'li bequeathed a fifth of their property to such among their relations as did not legally inherit from them.

hak,J that

A'bdu'Uah-b-Ahmad records in the Zawaid u'z Zuhd from Ayesha that by Allah, Abu Bakr did not leave a dinar nor a dirham stamjied with the name of God." And Ibn Saa'd and others from Ayesha, " when
she said, "

Abu Bakr was

grievously sick, I recited this verse appositely,






of no avail to a




the day

when the

in his throat


his breast

contracted by


and Abu Bakr uncovered his face and said, it is not so, but say and the agony of death shall come in truth this O man, is what thou soughtest to avoid' (Kur. L) behold these my two garments wash them and shroud me in them, for the living is more in want of new ones than the dead." And Abu Ya'la from Ayesha, " I went to Abu Bakr when he was at the point of death and I said



whose weeping ceaseth not when he
it shall




Verily at some time

flow forth.'

* TJ'rwah, was

tlie son of Ayesta's siater Asma who received from Muhammad of Diltu'n Nitakayn " wearer of the two girdles," for having torn her veil in

two, with one half of -which she tied up the wallet of provisions aad the water which

Muhammad and Ahu Bakr

took with them in mother of the Caliph A'bdu'Uah-h-uz Zuhayr.

their flight to Medina.

She was

also the

Ibn Hajr.


t By the Muhammadan law, a testator whom he chooses, the other two-thirds

can leave away one-third of his property

going to his heirs.

Abu Bakr

appeared to

consider that to leave
to his heirs.


away the utmost the law allowed would have been ungenerous fifth of the spoils taken in war by the Muslims became the property

of the Caliph for the use of the State.


Dhahhak-b-Sufyan-b-Kaa'b-b-A'bdi'llah of the Banu Kilab.

the Companions and was counted for his prowess equal to a hundred horsemen.

He was one of An

states that it is a glari ng error to call htm the son of !^ays, as some authoriThere were two generals, bearing the name of Dhahhak-b-Kays, mentioned byDeSlane (I. K. Vol. IV, p. 212). He was placed by Muhammad at the head of
tias do.



was equal

Banu Salim who numbered at to a hundred men was well

that time 900 men, saying to able to

them that one who


a thousand.

Muljammad diagram of their position in Burton's Pilgrimage.Abi Bakr should help her. . and when he died. and the fourth by the salutation of dismissal " peace be to you" &o. that he should be buried by the side of the Apostle of God.' I answered he said. they dug a grave for him and laid his head on a level with the shoulder of the Apostle of God." then he said on a Monday' on what day did the Apostle of God die. the second time by those of Muhammad." as his last commands that Bakr between the tomb and the pulpit of Muhammad and recited the " Takbir. head of Abu Bakr's grave rests on a line with see a is the graves in the shoulder of II. And Ahmad from Ayesha. • In prayers for the dead. he said to Ayesha. that when Abu Bakr was nigh unto death. Vol. O man."* four times. that Omar read prayers over Abu stripping.: : : [ 86 ] said. out into the side of the grave The iijsr' or niche and the body rests therein. And Ibn Saa'd from Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. eohellon. t Muhammad. ' ' Tuesday and was buried before the day broke.' and he died on And he ' ' ' . that she recited appositely this verse when Abu Bakr was And Abu Bakr as understood ' the Lord hath said dying. is what thou soughtest to avoid. but say " And the agony of death shall come in truth this. either robed in the best of garments or stripped by an ignoble And Ibn Abi 'd Dunya from Abu Mulaykah. 74. that Abu Bakr left his wife Asma the daughter of U'mays. but it is and the agony of death shall come' " &c. And from U'rwah and al Kasim-b-Muhammad. Ayesha seated herself near his in the Zawaidu'z head and said. is is the saying " Allahu Akbar" God by the recital of the praises of God. do not say that. that Omar.f And from Ibn Omar. that when Abu Bakr was nigh unto death. " it is not so. " And one so unsullied in honor that the cloud draweth moisture from his face The protection of orphans. that Abu Bakr left as his last instructions to Ayesha. the third time by prayers for the living and the dead. for verily thy father shall be one of two men. do his camels return And who so spoileth. I hope for death between this and the night . and that A'bdu'r Eahman-b. for water it and said. the "takbir."' that followed the first time. so that the : Abu Bakr and Omar lie side by side at Medina. the defence of widows." And A'bdu'llahb-Ahmad in the Zawaid u'z Zuhd from U'bada-b-Kays." And Abu Bakr said " that must be the Apostle of God. Othman and A'bdu'r "S is great. " wash me these two gar- ments and shroud me in them. O daughter. God. and the niche of his grave touched the grave of the Apostle of Talhah. Unto every possessor of camels." And A'bdu'llah-b-Ahmad Zuhd on the authority of Bakr-b-A'bdillah al Muzani. should bathe him. that of p. shall himself be despoiled.

Ibn Hajr. who gave her to his son U'mayr. " It is a terrible calamity who has arisen in authority after him ?" they replied " Omar . a descendant of Imtil Kays generally known as She was a captive in the possession latter beidg his mother's name." And from Mujahid that Abu Kuhafah returned what he had inherited. — dying in Muharram A. " what is that ?" they answered. ii is stated with the ascription thereof on the authority of al Asma'i. and Abu Kuhafah said.t nor one that wears the Eida. as Caliph. apart and solitary upon the earth. at the age of ninety-seven. The goods men are but as a trust of Borrowed on the condition repayment : And a man strives. garment worn over the upper part of the body. but there for The eye mourneth one who lieth in wait for him him and the ardour of the voice. 14. there shall not attain unto the excellence of his days : Neither the youth that wears the Mizar. and conquest of Mecca where 'he carried the standard of the Banu Salim. from Abu Bakr to the son of Abu Bakr and Abu Kuhafah survived Abu Bakr only six months and some days. Tell every living thing that there is no permanence for is it And for the whole universe. . And from Ibn u'l Musayyab that when Abu Bakr died.: : : : > [ 87 1 Eahman the son o£ Abu Bakr descended into the grave of Abu Bakr. that he was buried at night. rbn Nudbah. The learned say that none but Abu Bakr ruled the Caliphate during the lifetime of his father. covers the lower part of the body." He said. of his grandfather Harith. mourning Abu Bakr. and the father of none but of Abu Bakr inherited from his son Al Hakim records on the authority of Ibn Omar that Abu Bakr ruled two years and seven months and in the history of Ibn A'sakir. is He groweth old. that Khufaf *-bNudbah as Salami said. while the Eida is a . or subdued Sickness that hath no remedy maketh him to lataent. t The Mizar or drawers. He was present at the battle of Hunayn." he exclaimed " He was his companion. of its decree destruction. or is slain. the * Khufaf-b-U'inayr-b-al Harith. " thy son is dead. Mecca was convulsed by an earthquake. And he records likewise on several lines of ascription. Verily Abu Bakr was as the rain What time Orion causeth not the herbage to grow with moisture. H. . at the who had by her Khufaf. He who strives to attain is unto the excellence of his days : Earnestly. By Allah. He shared with Durayd the honor of being the two greatest poets of the Arab chivalry died in the CaUphate of Omar.

I 88 ] On the traditions related on his authority ascribed to Muhammad." 4. " that Abu Bakr did not omit a thing of what had been revealed regarding the what the Apostle of God had said concerning them. which I no profit in transcribing. and I purpose to follow them out with their God. though neither the MS. The tradition 2%e two Shaykhs and others. The tradition. printed text have t Here follows a see of those who have related traditions on his authority. the eating of which zar." the Apostle of God. and collecting and preserving them. to make identical with Omar's words in the tradition quoted. wearing a single garment.) 6. ." The tradition.t and I have thought briefly his traditions. of the Plight. " The last prayers the prophet prayed. He who is rejoiced to read the Kuran freshly. The tradition. " The waters of the sea are a means of purifying. a cause of approbation to the Lord. if it so please 1. consecutively but mentioning after each tradition the authorities that aseriptiong^ have recorded it. which I may say in my prayers. " teach me he replied. him read it according to the reading of Ibu Umm " A'bd.) The tradition that he said to a prayer. An Nawawi small says in his Tahdib — is " and forty-two traditions from the Apostle of God. but he mentioned it" and this is the most complete proof of the extent of his Auxiliaries nor : memory of the traditions. Let none of you perform ablution on account of is lawful unto him. let as it was revealed.) a sheep and then prayed without performing ablution.) 2. to eat. the- dead are lawful 3. its tradition. he prayed at prayer." (Ahmad. " food that he hath eaten. and the amplitude of his knowledge of the it ]^uran. As Siddik has narrated one hundred The reason of the number of his narrations that his death preceded the spreading abroad of the traditions and the solicitude of the Tabi'is in listening to them." I observe that Omar has mentioned in the tradition regarding the oath of allegiance* preceding. (the in a collected form. The tradition that the Apostle of God eat from a shoulder o_f (Al Bazzar and Abu Ya'la. (Darakutni.) " The tooth-stick is mouth. behind me. a means of purifying (Ahmad. expedient to inscribe here." (Al Baz- The tradition. 9. the Apostle of Go^ forbade the beating of those who were 7- (Abu Ya'la and al Bazzar. " O God I have — • See page 71 it —the word list Ui should be inserted hetween S and iiSi .) 5. nor it." 8.) The tradition.

Bukhari and others. No prophet ever died. people had stood before 12.) 10." (Ahmad. Hia hook on tradition is counted horn A.) ] 8. The tradition. " The Apostle of God commanded Asma the 19. He is the author of a conunentary on the ^iiran and a history of Kazwin. The tradition." (Al 17. 12 . The tradition. for verily it maketh straight the crooked. but He forgiveth him." (Ahmad and the authors of the Four Sunans.) The tradition. that the Arabs used to charge their families to weep and wail for them.)* 11. is under the protection of God. 273 collections) Ihn Khali. " The obligation of alms-deeds in full. " He who prayeth in the morning. and upon his face in hell fire." (At Tirmidi. him The tradition.) " No man committeth a sin." (Abu Ya'la. " Verily a dead bodyf is sprinkled with hot water by reason of the lamentations of the living.) The tradition. H." (Abu Ta'la." they said to him " why — — — command us^to give it to thee. (Al Bukhari and Muslim. " my friend the Apostle of God commanded me to ask nothing of men. therefore pardon me in Thy clemency. 13. H. punished for the profitless lamentations of the living another tradition says." (Ibn Majah. and efEecteth for the hungry what it doth for him who is full. TJie tradition from Ibn Abi Mulaykah. . : | AJLc aIaj *ISjj uiiju) the reason of which Lane thinks to be. and then performeth " as and then prayeth with two bowings of the head and body. and he who slayeth him.) 15. 209 (82i-5) died A. who doth so^ God will summon him and prostrate him sins. though it be but for half 16. and none but Thou forgiveth have mercy on me. and preventeth a wicked death. to bathe herself and invoke the name of God." didst thou not * Albu A'tdu'Ilali Muhammad-b-Tazid-'b-Majah al Kazwini a celebrated Hafidh ia the author of a -work in tradition entitled Kitab us Sunan. until one among his Imam in prayer. " verily the dead will he punished for his family's weeping for him. a date. The tradition. of U'mays when she brought forth Muhammad the son of Abu daughter Bakr. and Ibn Hahan. who said " Often times the bridle would fall from the hand of Abu Bakr and he would strike the foreleg of his camel and make it kneel down. The tradition. for Thou Clement and the Merciful. ( o»a*J ul one of the six Sahihs (authentic (887)." The tradition. therefore seek ye not to violate the promise of God." He replied.) his ablution so /that it be valid.) 14. " God curse the Jews and the Christians — ^take ye the sepulchres of their prophets as mosques.[ «9 ] wronged art the my own soul with a great wronging. " God hath never taken from life a prophet save in the place wherein he desireth to be buried. t That ia." (Al Bazzar. " Beware of hell fire. and asketh pardon of God. and the dead are obnoxious to punishment for having done this.

&c. and the first who is obedient to God and obedi(Al ent to his master.) The tradition of Muhammad's going (Abu Ya'la. of the Kaaha naked.' and the shedding of the blood of the victims Iroughtfor sacrifice. degree. Kashf u'd t See page 74. with like. who ruleth evilly. nor the betrayer.) like to the house Abu with Haytham-b-u'l Tayyihan. (124S) Muhammad-b-Abdi'l "Wdhid al Mukaddasi al Hanbali. see Burton's Pilgrimage. Vol. I not that I have. though in a trifling 31. is impiety towards God.) 23. it The tradition. " were would not have kissed thee 22. The tradition. —That he kissed the Blach Stone and God kiss thee. Tlie MS. (At Tirmidi." 27. p." 26. 6S. gold. II.) The tradition. u'ddi'n DMA died 643 A. " Between my dwelling and my pulpit is a garden of the gardens of paradise. .[ 90 ] 20. (Ahmad. and the fountains of* paradise. " al Bazzar. Ya'la.) subsistence to a prophet. The tradition that the Apostle of God sent to the people of idolater should Mecca an ordinance that no year. Dhiaf is Mukaddasi in the Mukhtirah. silver like with but who giveth or asketh over and above shall be in hell fire. silver.J erroneously. (Ad Ddrakutni)." 30. " Evading family descent. For variations of t Hafidh Dhuntin. in 25. make circuit the pilgrimage after that and that no one should make the (Ahmad." 28." (Abu DauM. my pulpit is upon a fountain of of (Abu full. The Apostle of God was asked " which are the most excellent actions of the pilgrimage ?" He replied.) The tradition. H. that which we leave the portion. The tradition. has the correct reading.) The tradition. He continueth it unto him who cometh after him. The tradition.) The Cursed be he who doeth injury to a true believer or defraudeth him. " the raising of the voice in the talbiyat. inherits of him. "Verily when the Lord ansigneth a means of life. He who freeth a slave. nor he that shall enter paradise is man shall not enter paradise. al . The Mukhtdrah (chosen) is a work on tradition." (Al Bazzdr. The tradition " Gold with like." 24. and afterwards taketh his * The text here has icu for &«. " WeJ are not inherited of 29. of the poor.) " The avaricious the servant nor the deceiver. this tradition.) The tradition. (Al Bukhari. (A'bu Ya'la and tradition.) ' 21. seen the Apostle of said." (At Tirmidi and Ibn Majah.

Darakutni in the Hal (Defects impairing the validity. " &c. of traditions. al Bukhari." (Ahmad. " The sun hath never risen upon a better " man than Omar. shall be the curse of God. The tradition that Muhammad (At Tabarani. at Tirmidi. upon him. He and a Sword of the Swords of God which hath drawn against the infidels and hypocrites. people than the creeping of an ant. upon shall be the him Lord shall not accept from him either artifice or ransom until He maketh him to enter hell. Ad 45." (At Tirmidi." ' (Abu Ya'la. God will preserve them from hell Si. The The tradition. Abu Daadd and .) held a council of war. He whose feet become dusty in the service of fire. Abu Bakr nance. his kindred is Khalid-b-u'l Walid. Ibn Haban and " Verily ye read this verse true believers. of whom maketh the third ?" (The two Shaykhs. " What is thy opinion of two people. 43.) 36. (Abu Ya'la and others." 33. verily violateth unlawfully what is reserved to God. (Ahmad..) [ 91 ] 32." (The two Shaykhs and others.) — (At Tirmidi. V. " 44." 37.. tilence. " An excellent servant of God and a brother to 35. and he who giveth to any one what is reserved for the Lord. " He doeth not amiss who asketh pardon thought 39. (Al Bazzar.) The tradition.) The tradition. " Infidelity moves more stealthily among 46. curse of God—the — he return 40.) (Ahmad and the authors of the Four take care of your souls' 42.) The tradition. t The first four of the six 6rreat Masters of Tradition.) 38. " I was commanded to war with men.'' God. (Kur.) The tradition.t and Ibn Haban. e. IV) revealed " whoso doeth evil shall be requited for it" etcetera. (At Tirmidi. Muslim. The tradition. therefore.) il. traiiiion. He who hath swayed authority over the Mus- lims and hath appointed over them a governor out of favour. one of the Compaaiions was stoned on account of adultery. " he " Thou and thy goods belong to thy father. " The Siira of Hud hath made me grey. ' Q Sunans. to Ms fault seventy times a day.) The tradition. The tradition when there was (Kur. The tradition." meant by that only what regards necessary mainte^ " (Al Bayhaki.) * Mai'z-b Malik al Aslami.) The tradition. i. God God let us not die by spear-thrusts or pesThe tradition." The tradition the story of Mai'z* and his stoning. The said.) tradition. others.'' my &e." &c.

a'la. The tradition. no God " There is no escape from this thing" &c. Muatazalites are by some comprehended under this denomination.. O Apostle of God. 123. ' He who dise confesseth that 'there . there is no God but God. " I said.) The tradition.) in The tradition. and obedience with iofldelity profiteth not. Preliminary discourse. The tradition when there was revealed " lift not up your yoices above the voice of the prophet"* I said " O Apostle of God. is that o/"" there 53. deferred t These teach that the judgment of every Muslim guilty of grievous sin will be till the rosurreotion.' no God but God." (As Sirar)." 51. consult Sale. that Sale. but God " (Ahmad and others. (Abu Ya'la. the p. 115. I destroy them through their passions for they ' ' Haytham b-Kulayb in his ascription of Abu Hurayrah.[ 92 ] 47. into four species. 50. and they destroy me by saying there is no God but God.) 55.) . " Ask safety of God. and the asking of pardon. This sect is subdivided For the origin of the name and their further doctrines.) tradition. The The tradition. Nasai and Ibn Majah who gives many * Km. I will not address thee save in the voice of one al Bazzar. thing that I should say in the (Al from the to say. Musnad. shall surely dwell in a chamber is (Abu Y. who is decrepid. They also hold that disobedience with faith hurteth not. XLIX.) The tradition." ascriptions of it. (Ahmad." 52. This verse is said to have 'been occasioned by a dispute between Abu Bakr and Omar concerning the appointment of a governor of a certain place in which they raised their voices so it high in Muhammad's presence. and when I see that. . it was thought necessary to forbid for the future." (Ahmad.' shall assuredly possess Para- preserved from the tradition of thority from the tradition of 54.' and to ask pardon of Him. The Kadarians deny absolute predestination. " He who lieth towards me of set purpose or refuseth a thing that I have of hell." (Abu Ya'la. See Sale p. " is Go forth and call out to the people.) (Al Darakutni in the Hal Defeats invalidating traditions. and I went forth and Omar met me &c. commanded. and also at Tirmidi and others think themselves to be rightly guided-" 49. " Be careful 48. " Every one obtains that which is created for him. for Satan bath said I destroy men by sin. " There are two classes of my people that shall not enter paradise —the Murgiansf and the Kadarians.) The tradition. and this is Abu Hurayrah ^recorded by only one au- — Abu Bakr. instruct me in somemorning time and 'in the evening" &c. for which reason they pass no sentence on him in this world either of absolution or condemnation. The tradition.

) [ 93 ] 56. gave a charge regarding the 66.) The tradition. " 58. When the Apostle of God desired anything. The tradition. Auxiliaries at the time of his death. "Were the people to march in one valley and the Auxiliaries marched in another' valley. The tradition. take for me. " The Kuraysh are the masters of this authority.) The tradition that Muhammad. " receive those of them that do good. hell fire proper portion" — and in another reading "there is shall not enter Paradise a body that hath been fed on what " There is forbidden to it. (Al Bazzdr and al Hakim.) 61.) 62. and the wicked among them will follow the wicked among them. Tlie tradition.) enter Paradise without judgment being taken of them. and pardon those of them that do evil. they would not assail him with arrows or with stones. The tradition. I would march in the valley of the Auxiliaries.) 67. The tradition: " I have been given seventy thousand who shall (Ahmad.* (Aljmad.." &o.) he hath a likeness to the prophet. is its " Every body that is nourished with forbidden things. (Abu Ya'la." (At Tirmidi and Ibn Majah. God wTio art The tradition.) The tradition. and there shall follow him peoples whose faces are like two-fold shields. people will run from prophet to prophet praying for their interceesion. " I know a land called TJ'man whose shores the Were my messenger to go among them. he God. (Al Bazzar and at 60.) 57. The tradition of Intercessioij in full concerning the running to and fro of people from prophet to prophet.) The tradition." (Al Darakutni.) ' would say." — — Tabarani. and in it pardoneth every mortal except an infidel." (Ahmad. " Verily Bajjal shall come forth from the East from a land called Khurasan. " this comes under the class of uninter- * The belief being that on the Day of Judgment." (At Tirreidi. " by my sea washes in it there is — a tribe of Arabs. The tradition that Abu Bakr passed by al Hasan who was 68. no part of the body that complaineth (Abu Ya'la. not of the sharpness of the tongue. 65.) 64." 59. and the man in whose heart is hatred. the dispeller of grief " &c. and said. " The prayer of submission is. choose for me." (Ahmad. The tradition." (Ahmad and Abu Ya'la. and hath no likeness to A'li. " The Lord descehdeth on the night in the middle of the month of Shaa'ban. (Al Bukhari. the good among them will follow the good among them. . and said." Ibn Kathir says. father. 63. playing with some boys and lifted him on to his neck.

those traditions traced uninterruptedly to the omitted others which I follow up to complete the number mentioned by an NawawLt 73." 74. " Verily the heat of hell to my people shall be a& for thee. that of a hot bath. and when a man of my people prayeth. for lying is an estrangement u'l from the 79. the thief loses his foot for the second." (Ad DArakutni in the " Afrad" left Traditions recorded but by one authority. The tradition.) 70. and I did not see what apostle of God. moment prayed The tradition. and. is Paradise. I said.) " tradition. the angel sayeth to me. " what ! wilt thou not have me ?" ' " (Al Bazzar. 77.* 71. announced the tidings of To every one who hath fought at Badr." (Ibn Lai in the Makarim " Akhlak (noble qualities).as Suydti gives but one hundred and four. &c. " Kill a tike wherever you " Eeflect ! may find it among- men. hand for the first offence." 78." visit The tradition that the prophet used to TJmm Ayman. The ingenuity that could contrive a fifth theft under these disadvantages would seom to deserve commendation rather than death. of the narrative of Ohud (at Tayalisi and at Tabardni. faith. occurreth until (Ad Daylami. He replied the world wearied me and I said " away with thee. behold I 72.' " atonement." and it ' ' said to me.) and in the whose are the houses ye dwell in 1 path of whom do ye walk !" (Ad The tradition. and ablution on a Friday is an (Al U'kayli in the Dhua'fa {weak authorities). whose the land ye inhabit Daylami. what is it thou art driving away ?' thing it was.) The tradition. his right Ms right hand for the third and his left foot for the fourth.) * According to the law. " The thief must be put to death for the fifth (Abu Ta'la and ad Daylami. Beware of lying. (At Tabarani.) prophet.) tradition. theft". The tradition.) The tradition. " While I was with the apostle of God.[ 94 ] rupted ascriptions. I am grateful for the omission. The The tradition.) The Friday prayer is an atonement for all that the next Friday prayer. t An Nawawi mentions one hundred and forty-two. " Be frequent in your prayers over me. The T7ie tradition. . al Hasan. (Muslim. for the 75. saw him driving away something from himself. Lord hath stationed an angel above my grave. but he has Thus much has Ibn Kathir recorded (if in the ascriptions of as Siddik. (At Tabarani in the Ausat. as it is a confirmation of his remark that the Apostle of God resembled 69. ' verily such a one the son of such a one hath this 76.

nor the root of a tree cut.agony. &c. because he was bom on the road to Mecca (rah in Persian signifying road and wayh found.' " (Ibn Shahinin the "Targhib. This chapter said to hare several other titles given to by Mu- hammad and particularly that of the heart of the Imuran. God and His spear upon earth. says Ibn Khallakdn was a name given to his father. (At Tabarani in the Ausat. (ad The Sura Y.— [ 95 is ] 80. Were the inhabitants of Paradise to trade. but by reason of their infrequency in praising God. for one cover The tradition. for another. Othman. as Shahjan was equally distinguished for knowledge of law and tradition as for his piety. Ibn Kutayb. and every night and day shall be placed to his account the good works of sixty just men." 86. " No game is ever pursued. (Ibn Eahwayhf in his Musnad. J Abu Bakr. " A monarch just and humble. is the shadow of 82. S* is called the " Commonalty" (the Daylami and al Bayhaki in the Shaa'b u'l Imin—people of the Faith.) The tradition. Im£m among the Muslims and an eminent jurisconsult. 161 (A. The tradition." reeordeth on (Ad Daylami Samadan ?) " 89. H. 87. "J tradition. It is read to persons in their dying.) The tradition." (Incentive) ' ' and ad Daylami. throat). while stuffs. The The tradition. Sale.) This word is also pronounced Edhuya. and the angels and the whole people.) tradition. " He who rebelleth claiming either for himself or an Imam ruleth the people." (Abu'l Shaykh al U'kayli in the Dhua'fa and Ibn Haban in the " Kitab u't Thawab" Beoord of recompense.) 84. H. that they stand for it Ya insan (0 man). Omar would surely have been sent" &c. " Eeligion ?" (Ad Daylami. of these letters is is unknown acme pretend . a native of Marw. " God ! strengthen Islam in Omar b-u'l Khat- tab. f all^^h A'bdur Ea^iman-b-A'uf were all cloth-merchants. Ibn Hanbal considered him an. Ibn Khallakan's philology is not always safe to follow. He who my authority a doctrine or a tradition.. His Musnad is well-known. (Ad Daylami. The tradition. in the History of — therefore slay him. + Abu Takub Ishak.) " tradition. i . the reward thereof shall not cease to be placed to his account * The meaning himself. they would trade in 88. The The The " Had I not been sent unto you. 238 (853).) 83. is tradition." 85. nor a thorny tree lopped. I). 777-8) and died at Naysabiir A. He was bom A. it able to sustain 81. Rahhis ' wayh.) the weighty banner of God who . upon him is the curse of God. " Moses said to his Lord What is the reward who consoleth the bereaved mother ?' He replied God will him with His shadow.

" (At Tabardni in the Ausat. " I asked of the apostle of God regarding the ' nether garment. God will him a mansion in Paradise. let him not be obligatory 91. God will not ask of He who walketh barefoot in the service of God. Ibn Haban and ad Daylami. cause of the Lord." (AdDaylami. TTie tradition. " He who hath eaten of this unclean* herb.) "My palm and the palm of A'li equal. God will write (At Tabarani in the Ausat. The tradition.' lower. O ' it I said." (Al Hakim in the History of the doctors of Naysahur. and I said increase the length for me. and he touched the muscle of his leg. The tradition. X%e tradition." worship God.) 96. him on the Day of Judgment regarding what was " upon him. God says " if ye desire my mercy. " Neglect not to invoke God against Satan." ascription." (Abu'l Shaykh. "A slanderer shall not enter Paradise. even though he sinneth against Him.) The tradition.) The tradition. thou wilt be safe. The tradition of the lifting up of the hands in the beginning of * Garlic. this prohibition." (Ibn Lai in the in the " Makdrim 92. but He hath included them in one common punishment.' then he touched the lower part he replied. be guided aright. ' of the muscle. Thawab" to Mecompense.) 101. let 100.' " The tradition. " Despise not any of the Muslims. for the mean95.) The tradition. onions are included in These will be found in the life of Omar in that work. and I said apostle of God increase the length for ' me ." (Ad 94. Daylami but without ascription. and take the middle course. but merciful unto them.") 90.) 99." (At Tabardhi in the Ausat. In two traditions given in the Kitdb u'l IktifA. ' O apostle of God we are Abu Bakr. " Whoso would be glad that God should protect him from the heat of hell and bring him under His own shadow." (Ad Daylami but without 98. he is not heedless of ye.) The " He who riseth in the morning purposing down to him the recompense of his day.) The tradition. (Abu Nua'ym in the Huliyah.) 102.' it would not be good to have undone :' he answered. him not approach our temple. are exactly (Ad Daylami and Ibn A'sdkir. The tradition. " He who buildeth a temple unto God." (At Tabarani in the Ausat.[ 96 ] while that doctrine or tradition continueth." (Ad Daylami.) build for The tradition. . " No people hath abstained from warring in the 93. be merciful unto my people.) 97. for if ye do not regard him. est of the Muslims is great before God. u'l Akhlak and Abu'l Shaykh and Ibn Haban tradition. harsh with the true believers.

but if it be faulty I think it to mean lacking it Cometh from me and from the Evil One. LXXX) what sky would overshadow me and what earth would sustain me. The tradition. the in the howings and prostrations.'' Zamalcshari in 2. Abu Bakr was asked regarding a verse of the Kuran and he sky would overshadow me. AJ^lwi translated by Sale it —" a : distant relation. and they who believe and clothe not their faith with injustice' •XLI) (Kur." (Ibn A'sakir. IV. Commentary gives One who has neither son nor father aUve. Shafi"i school alone adopting it lifting up the hands is the universal practice. it is from God." placed upon it He is.— — [ — 97 J prayer. The tradition." Abu Nua'ym records in his Huliyah from al Aswad-b-Hilal. his great 1. " what earth would sustain me and what regarding the saying of the Most High. al Abu'l Kasim that Baghawi records on the authority of Ibn Mulaykah said. nor through his own children. that Abu and he said. he said. I forbear from setting aside a thing that Abu Bakr hath spoken. and who behave uprightly. " Give a Camel to Abu Jahl. " Bakr said to the Companions. parent and offspring . that Abu Bakr was asked . t The uncle of Muhammad. " ye have say a meaning which it will not bear . One who has neither father living nor any issue.' that is. " grapes and clover" (Kur. ^ho diO ' — ' ' not sin and do not clothe their faith with sin."t (Al Isma'ili in Mua'jam alphabetical Dictionary of the Traditionists.) 104. replied." And al BayBaki and others from Abu Bakr that he was asked regarding the meaning of " al Kalalah. 13 . " said.) the On what hath ieen handed down of as Siddik in comment on the Kurdn. One who has no living relative in the direct paternal three meanings line." And Abn TJ'baydah from Ibrahim at Taymi.) 103. They replied." then he " Who our Lord is God and who behave uprightly" that who do not incline * In the beginning of prayers. As for those who say our Lord is God and who behave uprightly' (Kur.* (Al Bayhaki in the Sunan. did I speak regarding the book of God that which 1 know not. VI). " verily. % Kur."J and he answered " I will presently give an opinion regarding it and if it be just. " Looking upon A'U is worship. and in prostration. 3. " What say ye concerning these two verses. in the bowing of the head." and when Omar became CaKph. were I to speak that concerning the book of God which God hath not intended.

" And Abu Dauu'd in his Sunan from Abu Abdu'llah as Sunabihi.t that he once prayed behind Abii Bakr at evening prayers. that when Abu Bakr was engaged in condoling with a man he used to say." And Ibn Abi Shaybah and ad Darakutni from SAlim-b-U'bayd§ who was a Companion. and Abu Bakr read during the first two bowings of the head. t Abu A'bdiillali A'bdiir the latter is a branch of Banu Mur4d. Ma'kal. cause not our hearts to swerve from truth after thou hast directed us" (Kur III. " Verily the people say this. regarding the saying of the Most High. the freedman of Companion." that he said. one of the most eminent of the Companions and Omar thought so highly of him. his Al Lalakai* records in a man went to Abu Bakr and man is predestined?" it He Sunnat on the authority of Ibn Omar that said. decisions. discourses and prayers. were a man by me. that at hia death he is reported to have Abu Nua'ym denies this pedigree. but he who dieth according to iYas precept. " O Lord. receive a most excellent reward and a superabundant addition" (Kur. He Auxiliaries. God other than their faith with infidelity Jarir " from Abu Bakr as They who do right shall X). that he said it signified the looking upon the face of the Lord . many divisions Abu A'bdu'llah Salim-b-"D'bayd-b-Eabii'h. I would command him to bring thee to reason. thou son of an uncircumcised woman. " dost thou think that fornication in a answered. your sorrow will be lessened and may God increase your reward. " Those who say our Lord is God and who behave uprightly. according to the moat correct opinion and so called because of the chapters. will He punish me for it ?" He replied " yes." Then he said. and more severe than that which cometh after it remember the death of the apostle of God. "if God hath predestined concerning me. and by Allah. " Abu Bakr * Atu'l KAsim Hibatu'Uah-t-5asan-'b-Mausur ar Eazi." And Ibn Siddik. the first chapter of the Kuran and a Sura of the shorter sections. and who do not clothe by associating others with Him. Rahman-b-Aaalat as Sunabijji. that he said." On what has leen handed of estallished traditions from as Siddik on the subject of his words. and re- garding the words of the Most High.: to a Him. i The Mufassal between § its is that portion of the Kuran from the XLIXth Chapter to the end. . "Tes. Abu Hudayfeh the and others assert him to be the son of was of Persian origin. he it is who behaveth uprightly.) And Ibn Abi Khaythamah and Ibn A'sakir from Ibn U'aynah.^ and he read in the third bowing. " there is no harm in patience and no profit in lamentation death is easier to bear than : that which precedeth it.

a grandfabher stands in the place of the father. " her breath and fragrance Abu Bakr and kindness are better al for thee (A'asim) than thine (Omar). and Omar having a quarrel with the mother. 42. And Bukhari. and the grand- son in place of the son." And Bayhaki from ^ays-b-Abi Hazim. Abu Bakr as And as Shafi'iJ al "eat of only Aa'm (Universal) from Abu Bakr that he was averse to the sale of flesh in exchange for a live animal. alive.' Kasim.[ 99 ] used to say to me. ' verily Abu Bakr and Omar and what with the intention that Siddik in the they did in the early part the example of the forenoon. " shut the door that we may eat our morning meal. elect for the ing it with the stamps of his arms after his hands had been hewn off. that he said. § A'asim was then a child. and his goods have forsaken this Thy servant. that in his in regard to inheriting. H.' " authority of Omar. and his sin was grievous but Thou that art merciful and compassionate. those two said. there be no other than he. And ' Ibn Abi Shaybah Musannaf. that he said. from Abu if Bakr. . that a man was brought before Abu Bakr. An Nawawi. According to Ibn Haban. Ibn Hajr. Consult Ibn KhaUakan. becomes unlawful to him who fasta. that a man went to Abu Bakr he would not have named a Council of Consultation to Salim fought at Badr and Ohud and the hattle of the Ditch and was killed at Yamamah where he carried the standard of the Muslims embracsaid that had Salim heen Caliphate. 150 (707—8). and everything would be broken. and in his head." And al Bayhaki and Abu Batr-b-Ziyad of Naysabur." as Siddik. The boy became- which fasting — the grandfather of Omar-b-Abdi'l A'ziz the Caliph. that once when Abu said. t Hudayfah-b-Usayd one of the Companions present at Hu^aybyah and was one of those who swore to bo faithful to Muhammad when he was seated under the lote tree. H. ' Stand between aie and the dawn that I may eat my morning meal. Sa'id-b-Mansur records in his Sunan on the decided the case of A'asim. X Bom A. he died A. wished to remove the Ipoy from her control. he and his kindred God ! his people. ' And from al who had been dis- owned by for Satan is his father. ' Bakr prayed over a dead man. saying. in the Kafcab I observed of u'l Ziyaddt from Hudayfahf-b-Usayd.' And Abu Dauud from Ibn said.' Abu Bakr said smite him on the head And from Ibn Abi Malik. but Abu Bakr decided against it.'* ' ' And from Abu Kilabab and Abd's Safar that they said. that he placed the grandfather in the same is. died A.§ the son of Omar-b-u'l Khattab in favour of the mother of A'a^'im. 204 (820) and buried in the leaser Karafah cemeteiy at old Cairo near Mount Mukattam. H. might be 'I testify followed. known to dispense with an account of them here. Abu Bakr as Siddik used to say. degree as the father. by * After the rise of the true dawn (jiUaJi^^' the day begins. His life and teaching are well enough. A'bbds that he fishes those that ' that swim. if there be no father but he.

" Abu Bakr was enraged with a man and became violent. nor an aged man. one of the moat distinguished of tho Tabi'is the accuracy of whose tradi- tions is much praised by al Bukhari. in A great many distinguished Traditionists relate on and his reputation is high amongst them for aoouraoy. t There are two of this name. " I commend to thee ten precepts.' Sayf in the Kitab u'l Futiih. I would have ordered thee to put her to death. and conceal not plunder and be not faint of heart. his authority Abu Itrahim A'mr-b-Shua'yb-b-Muhaimnad-lj. that he is in need of the whole of it. for punishment in regard to the prophets is not as other punish- ments * —he among the Muslims. and lay not waste a cultivated country. the other had sung deriding the Muslims. a freedman in retaliation for a slave. the hair and turban will conceal the disgrace of And al Bayhaki and others from Abu Imam al Juni. one the sou of Abu Jahl. who doeth such a thing is an point of time next to the Tabi'ia. " Surely that only of his property is thine which is sufficient for thy sustenance . An Nawawi. "my father desireth to take my property. did not the Apostle of God say. his anger and I said. and Abu Dauud and an Nasai record on the authority of Abu al Aslami. that Abu Bakr it. saying. An Nawawi." he answered.said. ' I have heard what thou hast done to her hand and pulled out her teeth the woman who sang not been beforehand with in contumely of the prophet. woe unto thee —that is not lawful for any one after the Apostle of God. and if thou hadst me in it. and lop not a date tree nor burn ' it. that he said. and Abu Bakr And Ibn Abi Shaybah and al Bayhaki suffered it to pass with impunity.* that Abu Bakr al Bukhari from the grandfather of Ibn Abi Mulaykah. and he cut . and destroy not a sheep. that a man had bitten the hand of another who in return knocked out his teeth. ' O Yicegerent of the Apostle ' God shall I cut off his head He replied.' sent troops to Syria arid appointed over them Yazid-b-Abi Sufyan and ' said. H. and he cut off her hand and pulled out her teeth • and Abu Bakr wrote to him. therefore. " O Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. fifteen camels And from A'krimahf that Abu Bakr adjudged the loss of a. saying. save for food. nor a camel. that two female singers were brought before Muhajir Ibn Abi (Jmayyah who was ruler of And Yamamah. . but he meant by that only maintenance.A'tdi'Uah of the l^uraysh. ' thou and thy goods belong to thy father necessary !' He replied. ear to he repaid by and said. 104. to ?' him." " Barzah of Ahmad." and Abu Bakr said to his father. (Beoord of Conquests) on the authority of his Shaykhs. Slay not a woman nor a child. one off of whom had sung in contumely of the prophet. he died A. ' Yes. and the other the freedman of Ibn A'bbas.' And Ahmad from used not to kill the grandfather of A'mr-b-Shu'ayb. and cut not down a tree that beareth fruit.[ 100 1 and.

and beware thou is of mutilating men. and the man went round with them searching and sayGod with thee he retribution upon him who hath plundered ! by night the people Afterwards. " I do not find that anything can he done to thee save what hath been adjudged regarding thee by the Apostle of God. were she among those who profess Islam then correction and deprivation of suisiance without mutilation would have been sufficient.f for verily he had knowledge of thee. then by my life. daughter Abu and man seduced a slave a and confessed to scourged he was and Abu Bakr passed order on him. letters to the . it. and banished to Fadak. more grievous for him than his theft. Abu Salih that when the people of Yaman came J in the time of Abu Bakr and heard the Kuran." And ad Darakutai from Anas that Abu Bakr ordered amputation for And Abu Nua'ym the theft of a. that a man of the people of Yaman. thee in the like of I would assuredly have afflicted her sorely. and Abu Bakr passed an order upon him and his left hand was amputated. when Abu Bakr meditated the conquest of Syria and sent chiefs of Arabia Telis summoning them with their followers. and Abu Bakr said. it but were she a tributary subject. thy night is not like unto the night of a thief. was proved against him. and afterwards our hearts became hardened. t See page 94. girl. the wife of ing. the value of which was five dirhams. " Abu Bakr.[ 101 ] apostate. " By Allah. to me.' Malik the virgin. And Malik from al Kasim-b." After a little time they lost an ornament belonging to Asma. her infidelity. they began to weep. or being a tributary subject. on the day that he commanded thy death. daughter of Umays. and had I been beforehand with this. shield. X That is. they found the of this just house. and of ad Ddrakutni U'bayd." Abu Nua'ym adds " that is. and tranquil in his Huliyah. record that on a the authority of Safiyah. if I forgave would be a great mercy.Muhammad. for " a sin and a thing to be avoided save in retaliation. " by thy Muhammad-b-Hatib father. and Abu Bakr said. whose hand and foot had b'een cut off for theft came and abode with Abu Bakr and complained to him that the governor of Yaman had treated him unjustly (and the man used to pray during the night). strengthened. his imprecation upon himself was. and his feet and hands had been cut ofE and Abu Bakr said to him.* And Abu Ya'la from that a man was brought before Abu Bakr who had committed theft. and Abu Bakr said " Thus were we. ." and he ordered him to be put to death. on the authority of — * A village in Hijaz two days journey from Medina. note. but it rather choose thou clemency." ornament with a goldsmith who afiirmed that the mutilated man had Then the mutilated man either confessed or it brought it to him. is a treacherous enemy : but she who sang deriding the Muslims.

of nothing for thee in the traditions of the "was any other with thee ?" whereupon Muhammad-b-Maslamah arose and said the same that al Mughirah had spoken. the tradition of the wife of Eufaa'h who was divorced from him and married afterwards A'bdur Rahman-b-u'z Zubayr who was unable to consummate his marriage. and she desired to return to Rufaa'h. And Abdur Eazzak in his Musannaf records on the authority of Ayesha. would not be inherited of ?"§ so he divided between the two. but the Apostle of God said. not tiU your marriage be consummated . An Nawawi. and died at Kufah A. He is died at Mecca in A. Omar gave him the government of Ba?rah and afterwards of Ivufah wherein I he was confirmed by Otbman and subsequently deposed." that And al Bukhaid from Ibn Omar his Abu Bakr said. H. literature. and I know prophet of God. t Kabi?ab-b-Puayb one of the Tdbi'is. And Abu U'bayd* in " behold. born in the year of the conquest of Mecca and died in the Caliphate of A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwan under whom he acted in the capacity of Secretary. " O if vicegerent of the apostle of God dost thou bestow it it upon her who. and was an associate of the Banu Harith said to him. Muhammad in the people of said." the Gharib from Abu Bakr that he is. House. The book alluded to in the text also expressions occurring in the Traditions). the that two mother of a mother and the mother of a father and he accorded the inheriThereupon A'bdur Bahman-b-Sahl the tance to the mother of the mother. was bom at Herat and was Kadhi of Tarsus for He was conspicuous for bis piety and learning in various branches of and his traditions are received as authentic. therefore come back another time. one of the Companions. from al Kasim-b-Muhammad. she died. § According to the Muljammadan law a grandson does not inherit from his mater- nal grandmother. It is said that he married three hundred women. He was present at nearly all the expeditions and actions that took place iu his time. so that I may inquire of the people. grandmothers went to Abu Bakr demanding their inheritance. Abu A'bdu'Uah-b-Shu'bah of the tribe of Thakif a native of Kufah. the Wee for her." and Abu Bakr said.) Ibn Khali. and Abu Bakr ordered And Malik and Darakutni. and he inquired of the people and al MughirahJ-b-Shu'bah said " I was present when he gave such as her one sixth . but again re-instated by Mu'awiyah. " happy was he who died remaining in his abode. He Gharib u'l Hadith (obscure wrote a work called " Gharib u'l Musannaf." that before the breaking out of sedition." * eigbteen years. An Nawawi. (original collection of rare expressions. and some say. " No. 224 according to al BukbSri. that a grandmother in the beginning of Islam The Four Traditionists and Malik record on the authority of Kabisahf went to Abu Bakr as Siddik inquiring of him regarding said.[ 103 ] with the knowledge of the Most High. a thousand. her inheritance and he "nothing is due to thee according to the book of God. Auxiliary who had fought at Badr. H. Abu U'bayd al Kasim-b-Saliam. . 60.

58. ' dost thon * The Muhammadan law on consummation of the marriage with the second husband. and he said.' — 103 [ ] this much is in the Sahih. and continued as Omar's lieutenant in that country till his death of carried the news of the taking of and returned to Syria in the plague A. of which Abu Bakr insists eat. An Nawawi. 18. and the tlie slave said to him. died before Kays arrived. he expressed his disap- and U'kbah said to him. How long be our continuance in this holy rule ?' which God hath brought continuance in it since the time of Ignorance as long as He replied. H.' He said to her. this is one of the practices of the time of Ignorance ' and she spoke and said who art thou?' ?' and he said ' the Fugitives he replied. He Damascus to Omar and reached Medina in seven days two and a half through the help of his ravocationa at Muhammad's tomb. her marriage would ' not be consummated for the second time :"* then she went to Abu Bakr and Omar during their Caliphate but they prohibited her. verily if were thus with her that she returned to Eufaa'h. 'and what are the Imams?' tribe. ' He answered 'Are there not in thy and leaders who govern them and yes'. ' speak ! for this :' is not lawful. and he observed that she did not speak. do those two follow the example of the Persians and Greeks ? let no head be brought to me for ' verily letters and news are sufficient. t One of the Companions. 81. it to him and informed him that he had touched but he forbade her to return to her first husband and said.' 'One of the Fugitives. and he one day brought him a thing. And al Bay- haki from TJ'kbah-b-A'amirt that A'mr-b-u'l A'as and Shurahbil-b-Hasanahj sent him as a messenger to Abu Bakr with the head of Bannan the Syrian general. " then she tarried some time and then went her. at the age of sixty-seven. H.' she said. Ibid. He was bom before the propagation of Islam and set out He was to pay his homage to Mu^iammad who. H. and when he came to proval. your shall be your Imams act uprightly. § Ibid. and A'hdu'r Eazzak adds. they do the same with us. a resident of Ktifah and died A. ' then they are those men. she has made the pilgrimage and is under ' ' a vow of silence. hefore the first can receive the divorced wife hack.§ that Abu Bakr went to a woman of the tribe of Ahmas called Zaynab. of what family ' of the Kuraysh He said. distinguished for his manner of reading the Kuran he governed Egypt for Mu4wiyah-b-Ahi Sufyan and died there in A. 'which of She asked. ' ' verily thou art very inquisitive shall —I am Abu ' Bakr. O Vicegerent of the Apostle of God.' She ^id.' and he replied.' And al Biukhari from Kays-IbnHazim. . One of the Tabiis. ?' of the Kuraysh. He replied.' whom the tribe obey?' She And from Ayesha. X He was appointed by Abu Bakr and subsequently by Omar to the command of the army in Syria.of this impost. chiefs said.' She said. why doth she not speak ?' They replied. that Abu Bakr had a slave who used to pay him an impost on his earnings and Abu Bakr used to eat of the fruits . ' Abu Bakr. however.

good act is acceptable to God. are the hearing Islam after the pro- and obeying those is whom God hath apthose pointed to rule over ye. and an admonisher and a shining light that Word to the unbelievers and he — who obeyeth God and his prophet. given for your : guidance.' what he replied. and verily he enjoin goodness and prohibit what who obeyeth God and his obligations . for verily the whole of the precepts of fession of faith. and fear the prayer of the oppressed. verily hath erred with a manifest erring I commend unto ye devotion to God. for my hour and yours are approaching no copartner and that Muthat there is no God but God above who hath hammad is His servant. " speak not in anger with thy neighboiir for that remaineth but men pass away from thee. " this it is that hath brought me to that to which I have come. and he who hath sinned against those two.f ter death.[ 104 ' ] is it ?' know what this is ?' the fortune of a Abu Bakr said. that Omar thou hast eaten beheld Abu Bakr who seized hold of his own tongue and said. man in the time of . and ask His mercy in what cometh and I bear witness a. whom He hath sent in the Truth fy Him — as a messenger of he may warn the living and certify the good tidings. for what pride belongeth him who is made of earth. and His prophet. " I do not know any one who sought to reject the food that he had eaten except Abu Bakr. and yourselves comprehend. verily he hath followed the right way." from Abu Bakr. Act uprightly for a to . for verily he prospereth who is preserved from and greed and anger : beware ye of pride. that Abu Bakr as Siddlk was once preaching. and be heedful . and adherence to the commands of God which He hath laid down for ye and. and be ye watchful. ' I once told Ignorance. . and teach ye. but he met me and gave me this." And A'bu U'bayd ia the " Gharib. of which whereupon Abu Bakr put his hand in his throat and reiected everything that was in his stomach. and he said." and he related the story. and number yourselves among the dead and be ye patient for every work is accomplished through patience. and refrain from the things against which : the Lord hath warned ye under pain of His wrath and vie ye with one another in hastening to obtain the things which the Lord bath promised ye in His mercy . And an Nasai from Aslam. that he passed by A'bdu'r Rahman-b-A'uf who was quarrelling with a neighbour and he said to him." And Ibn A'saldr from Musa-b-U'kbah. who unlawful hath prospered and hath performed what lust is incumbent upon him of aTid and beware ye of following vain desire. and who afterwards returneth to earth and then the worm devoureth him ? for to-day he is alive and to-morrow he is dead therefore act ye uprightly from day to day and from hour to hour. for watchfulness is profitable. " Praise be to God the Lord of created things I glori- — and implore His assistance. and my divination was not just inasmuch as I deceived him." Ahmad records in the " Zuhd" from Ibn Sirin that he said.

" These strove to excel in good works and called upon us with Therelove and with fear and humbled themselves before us" (Kur. : and there that in your works in which ye no power nor strength but in the Lord. * " And wten thy Lord drew forth thy posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam.[ 105 ] and in He He fear. that ye may make satisfaction for those who have gone before ye. for verily there is no good in the good after which cometh hell-fire. know. I say unto ye these words. nor its wonders end fore. " Abu Bakr as Siddik preached to us and he glorified God and praised Him as befitted Him. in exchange for eternal abundance and this Book of God is among ye. answered. stroked Adam's hack and extracted from his loins his whole posterity and assembled them in the shape of ants. and may God have mercy upon me and ye. and abide them and are settled in misery or happiness in the state that and no evil in the evil after which cometh heaven. and after they had. . I commend unto ye piety to God and that ye praise Him as befitteth Him. and what ye have done over and above what enjoined for your faith. Kur. for the Lord God praised Zachariah and the people of his ' house. and those He abhorreth is I will not be wanting to you — and God He and verily by my soul. VII. whose light cannot be therefore seek ye illumination from extinguished. keep before ye as religious merits. have been sincere with God." Al Hakim and al Bayhaki record on the authority of A'bdu'llah-bTJ'kaym that he said. ye then is obeyed God. and took them to witness against themselves. for verily the Lord hath declared unto ye the things for which hath destroyed those that were before ye. and preserved your portion of excellence. and hath taken your compacts* regarding it. and then said. whose assistance is implored. for they have attained to the works that they sent before them. in the presence of the angels. and that ye mingle desire with fear. and attained unto your desire. and said. 14 . and the things through which hath delivered those whom He delivered before ye. Verily the Lord hath no copartner. and make your charitable donations even at — the time of your poverty and self-need of them. we do bear witness. vants of God Then bethink ye — O — of your brethren and your companions those that have departed.) O servants of God. confessed their dependence on Him. verily. ser- by cometh after death. And know ye. and hath purchased of ye a little that is perishable. is for what . that the Lord hath your lives as a pledge due to Him. XXI. and between Him and any of His creatures there is no mediatory influence that can bestow good upon him or avert from him evil save in His worship and obedience to His commands. saying. Verily He hath manifested unto ye in His Book His commands and His prohibitions and the works He is approveth. and bless ye the prophet and peace be upon Him and the mercy of God and His blessing. they were returned to the loins of Adam. See Sale. am I not your Lord ? They The commentators say that God Tea.

* that he said. went to Abu Bakr and said. gotir actions O servants of God writing who know that which ye do. but. Consult an Nawawi.[ its light. lest they cast com- ye upon the evillest of your works . one the freedmaa of Muljammad. " the good shall be taken away. and Ahmad in the ' Zuhd' and Abu Nua'ym in the Bakr used to say in his countenance built cities Huliyah' from Yahya-b-Abi Kathir. until there remain the dregs of the people. the best. and the other Salmdn-b-A'imir. for verily He hath created ye for His worship and hath iippointed for ye gua/rdian angels " honourable in the sight down know. and know that there shall shortly be victories. beautiful of exulting in their youth? Where are the monarchs who and entrenched them round about ? Where are they who gave ? victory on fields of battle verily their pillars were overthrown when Fortune betrayed them. a by birth." (Kvpf. verily he is under a covenant with God. and they went down into the darkness of the grave. LXXXII). and the best of my days the day of Thy meeting. like the husk of dates and of barley the Lord shall not take heed of them. and walketh under the protection of the Most High therefore slay not any of the people of God's covenant. and the best of my deeds the last. then so act ye. of what thou may mayest put into thy belly or cast upon thy back. " God verily I ask of Thee that which may be in the ! Man?ur • the best for me in the end — God ! vouchsafe that the last good that Thou native oi Persia * There are two Companions of the name. but this ye cannot do save with the permission of the Lord. lest thou betray God in His covenant and five : the Lord throw thee prostrate on thy face in hell fire. " leave me an injunction. that the appointed periods be fulfilled while ye are engaged in the works of the Lord. there some who have made over the obligations of their appointed times on and have taken no heed of themselves. fear God. Salman." And Sa'id-b- — Sunan from Mu'dwiyah-b-Kurrah that Abu Bakr as Siddik used to say in his prayers. know. the knowledge of which. 106 ] and accept counsel from His Book and seek light from it in the day of darkness. " Lord render thou the best of my life its close. therefore I forbid ye to be like unto them. And of God that ye proceed and draw nigh unto an appointed is time." and he replied. therefore if ye are able so to do. verily. that he who prayeth the I " appointed times of prayer.' And Ibn ' Ab'id Dunya." And Ahmad in the Zuhd from al Hasan. that Abu discourse. ! ! ! ! pursuer —swift of — deed. Vie ye with one another in fulfilling the alligation of your appointed times before your appointed periods are pleted. and. haste ' ! Haste I flee ! flee !' And Ahmad in the Zuhd from Salman. hidden from ye. " I heard that Abu Bakr used to say in his prayers. followed by the next in merit. Then haste haste flee flee for behind ye is a nimble are others. but I know not what may be thy portion among them." And from Aba Bakr that he said. 'where are the comely. . verily.

make me better than they think me. "the true believer it. that Abu Bakr say that the pray«r of a And A'bdu'Uah in the Zawaid he went to Abu Bakr and repeated this verse " Is not every thing but God unprofitable?" He " replied. An Nawawi. he will find it by his side. " the Abu Bakr on the two that are red — gold and safEron. " Thou hast spoken truly. he died A. that and seekest shelter beneath them. and call me not to account for what account that * A'rfajali-'b-Asa'd-b-Safwaii. even in his — for. 100-1. one of the Companions." On Ms sayings wliich manifest the greatness of his fear of his God." and A'bdu'Uah-b-Ahmad in the Zawaid u'z. that is the love of gold and perfnmes. He was distinguished for his knowledge of jurisprudence. H. " Lord. he said " Someis times a poet speaketh words of wisdom." —there with God a — and when Labid had gone. i A'bu A'bdu'lla MusUm-b-Yasar of Ba?rah. " happy art thou. there was a ringdove in the shade of a tree. Abu Ahmad al Hakim records on the authority of Mu'ad-b-. be of delight. t These are said to destroy women. behold. " no game is hunted and no tree is felled save it hath neglected the praises of God.J in affliction sleeve. Thou knowest more of me than I myself. and the loftiest places in the gardens And from A'rfajah* that Abu Bakr said. rewarded in everything. kSome say he was the fireedman of Othmln. or some should he lose and be in fear for it. or if not. And on Zuhd from u'z as Sunabihi. he said. " thou hast spoken joy jbhat never passeth away." weep let Thy approbation. " he who is able to him weep." Abu Bakr exclaimed. and.Tabal that Abu Bakr entered a garden." And Labid falsely continued : And every joy is surely fleeting. others of Talhah." And al Bukhari in the " Adab.— [ 107 1 bestowest upon me. let him endeavour to weep. and he turned it over and said." And from the authority of A'rzah. and formyself than they — give me that which they know not. and 1 know more concerning God. of the Banu Tamm. eatest of the trees bird." the authority of Maymlln-b-Mihran that a raven with large wings was brought to Abu Bakr. . and he heaved a deep sigh and said. that he heard brother for his brothers in God is accepted." And Ibn A'sakir from al Asma'i that when Abu Bakr was once praised." Zuhd from Labid the poet."t is most deadly of things are And on the authority of trifle Muslim-b-Tas^r. in the breaking of a shoe-latehet. and art not Abu Bakr were like unto thee. as —would called to flesh meat and wine called also 01^4-^51 ' are said to destroy men.

" we saw thy son looking towards a cushion."* And from Thabit al Bunani that Abn Bakr applied this verse by way of similitude. Then Abu Bakr struck one hand upon the other. The identical word t*J| is employed by him to express this meaning. nor a knew tradition regarding it in the Sunnat. and he could not find its exemplar in the Book of God. ' Thou shalt not cease to announce the death of a friend until thou art as he is And verily the it- youth eherisheth a hope. and when a case came before Abu Bakr. they said to Abu Bakr." On what has been handed down of Mm regarding the interpretation of dreams. Sa'id-b-Mansur records on the authority of Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab that he said." Kur IX. then from God. there Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Ibn Sirin. than Abu Bakr. that Ibn u'z Zubayr when he rose to prayers was as a stock of wood in abasement. he of would it is say. " I from Katadah that he said.' " And from Dhamrah-b-Habib that a son of Abu Bakr's was near unto death." And Ahmad Bakr as Siddik said. their treasures shall be intensely heated in the fire in his of hell. and mine. and their forehead and their sides and backs shall." they say. three Bay of Judgment. be stigmatized therewith. and dieth without attaining of the prophet.' O such a one." And from Mujahid. after the death was no one more apprehensive on account of what he not. and uttered the two professions of faith. and erroneous. that Abn would I were a hair in the side of a servant. then it is may God pardon me. and the youth kept looking towards a cushion. that. " I will act to the best if my judgment. and I have been told that Abu Bakr was the same. and no one after Abu Bakr more apprehensive on account of what he knew not. " it has been related to me that Abu Bakr said ' I would that I were pasture that cattle might eat me. verily I would I were this tree which is eaten of and felled. and when he was dead. As Suyuti Commentary (Tafsir u'l Jaldlayn) says on this passage. how greatly doth thy body desire that it should be amplified for this. a true believer. And from al Hasan that Abu Bakr said. ." and they moved him from the cushion and they found underneath it five or six dinars.[ 108 ] in the Zuhd from Abu I'mran al Jfini. and if it be just. than Omar. " Ayesha dreamed that there * " On tlie came down into her house. and kept saying verily we belong to God and urito Him shall we return. that the bodies of these reprobates will be inflated and extended in order to become capable of receiving the brand of each coin that they have treasured. " by And Allah.

and there approached me black sheep and behind them grey sheep . but I The am older than thou. but for his knowledge of wars this therefore Cometh from him.t that the prophet said to Khalifah-b-Khayyat and Ahmad-b-Hanbal. . " I dreamed I was at a well drawing from it.[ 109 ] moons. as for the black sheep.i t Atu A'uf Yazid-b-u'l Asamm a died there A. this is the best of thy moons.. " the most learned in interpretation of this people after their prophet And from Ibn Shihab." And Abu Bakr said. and I preceded He replied. native of Kdfah and a Tabi'i. Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Sirin that he said. that the apostle of God had a is Abu Bakr. A'mr commanded that they should not light fires. " I dreamed as it were that I said. so that the black could not be seen among them. " the apostle of God hath not placed him* over thee. among them being. and when they arrived at the field of war. "suffer and thou were vying with each other in mounting a thee by two steps and a half. " so the angel interpreted it this morning. He said. verily they signified the Arabs who shall embrace the faith. and she related in interpretation it to Abu Bakr who was one of the most learned among men. and Ibn A'sakir record on the authority of Tazid-b-u'l Abu Bakr " Am * I the greater or thou ?" He replied " thou art the greater and nois bler. " O apostle of God. — " I dreamed that I drove before me some black sheep. then I drove after them white sheep. He was the son of the sister of Maymuna Muhammad and the traditions related by him are considered authentic. who may be vigilant of eye and clear-sighted in war." and Abu Bakr tradition is also also ascribed to me to interpret it" and he continued as above. 103. " Ayesha. He dwelt at wife of Eakkah and H." Asamm." The apostle of God replied.'' And from Omar-b-Shurhabil. three of the best of mankind. and Omar was wroth and purposed going to him. Abu Bakr and Omar. An Nawawi. " apostle of God." dream and related it to Abu Bakr and said. " verily thy dream hath spoken truly there shall be buried verily in thy house." shall live after thee two years and a thority u'l Al 'Bayhaki records in the Proofs on the au- of A'bdu'Uah-b-Buraydah that the apostle of God sent A'mr-b- A'as at the head of a body of troops." And from an ascription of Abu Ma'shar that the •apostle of the best God said " verily I shall appoint a man over the people who is among them. saying. and increase in numbersi and the white sheep are the barbarians who shall be converted until the Arabs shall not be seen among them by reason of their numbers. he said. that the apostle of God said. but Abu Bakr prevented him and explained to him. for al»i>jl«." This tradition interrupted in trans- printed text has jUJjtJi'xj." will take thee ladder." A him from Ibn Abi Laylah that the apostle of God said." And when the prophet died. the Lord unto His forgiveness and mercy and I half.

The explanation however. the present months of the Muhammadan were named by KUdb-b-Murrah. IX). this answer should be accounted as a proof of his sagacity and reverence . These months were lunar. with a view of adopting their year to the solar. which they called vJj""*'! at the end of every three years. there would be a fixity of recurrence. though so immaterial a point scarcely deserves it. the Arabs added a month. " I know their dignity but I am loth to defile them with the Abu Nua'ym And Ahmad in the Zuhd from Isma'il-b-Muhammad. that the Apostle of God said to him. in the tenth year of the Flight." And Ibn Mandah and Ibn A'sakir from Ayesha. save these four. so orthodox a believer did not comply with the indispensable duty of fasting during that month." hensive. but this reply is commonly ascribed to A'bbds. or nearly so. but verily the superiority of these* lies in their spiritual rewards. the men of Badr. and his son Abdu'r Bahman and Abu A'tik son of A'bdu'r Eahman whose name was Muhammad. but I am the elder. and the best sufficiency is that which is most compreworld. save the parents of Abu Bakr. until they were forbidden to do so by Kuran (Ch. and break his And Ibn Sa'ad from Hayyan the goldsmith that the fastf in winter. " verily the world is a sufficiency. — Ibn Saa'd and al Bazzar * That is. of the months in the same seasons. Abu Kuhafah and his son Abu Bakr as Siddik. but if it were substantiated. The The abolition of the intercalation U)l}X!/a. about two centuries before Islam. t This would seem to imply that even when the Ramadhan fell in winter. year." impression on the signet ring of Aba Bakr was. an ancestor of Muhammad.[ no ] mission and narrated but by one authority. that they were called after th« seasons in which they fell. wilt thou not employ in service those who fought at Badr ?" apostle of He replied. According to Lane. and Omar said to him. and thus Abu Bakr might well have fasted in summer frequently enough to account for the tradition. that the parents of none among the Tugitives Ahmad records in the he said. is perhaps as follows. . And the same is ascribed to Sa'id-b-Yarbiin (recorded by at Tabarani) and its reading. " which of us is the greater ?" he replied." Zuhd on the authority of Abu Bakr-b-Hafs that Abu Bakr used to fast in summer." was said to Abu Bakr. " I do not know four people who attained with their sons to the time of the prophet. (from is'^J signifying vehement heat) occurred between the middle of July and the middle of August : whUe the years were yet adapted to the solar. " O vicegerent of the God. that Abu Bakr divided the spoil into portions and divided it. equally among the people. " dost thou apportion it equally among the men of Badr and the rest of the people ?" Abu Bakr replied. " excellent is the omnipotent God !" At Tabarani records on the authority of Musa-b-U'kbah that he said. was proclaimed by Muhammad at the pilgrimage It is obvious from the derivations of the Arabic names of the months. "thou art greater and better than records that it I. and' from this period. " I have heard that — — — embraced Islam.

al Kalbi in narrations from the Kuran. Muhammadb-Nasr al Marwazi in reconciling the contradictory meanings of traditions. Ibn A'bbaa comment on the Kuran. Wahb-b-Munabbih in Kuran. al Khatib al Baghdadi in quickness in reading the Km'an. Abu'l Kasim at scholastic theology. in the law of inheritance. Zayd-b-Thabit. Fudhayl-b-I'yadh in devotion. Abu Bakr as Siddik in genealogy. Abu'l Faraj al Isbahani in debate. He repeated it then a second time. Ibn interpretation of the Kuran. Bayhalji records in the " Proofs" on the authority of Asma Abu Bakr that she said. in medicine. Ibn Nubatah in preaching. Abu Ma'shar in astrology. Mausili in vocal music. but no one answered him. no one answered him. Mukatil in expounding obscurities. in Abu U'baydah-b-u'l Jarrah in honesty. — commands of God. Othman-b-A"ffan in modesty. Ibn Sirin in interpretation of dreams. Omar-b-u'l Khat^ab in steadfastness in the judicial decision. Malik in science. Ibn Hazm in the literal al Hasan al Bakri in lying. authorities. life of A'ta-b-Abi ' Eabah Aslam Mufti of Mecca. A'li-b-Hilal in calligraphy. Madini in defects invalidating Abu Tammam in poetry. Khalid-b-u'l Walid in courage.[ 111 ] record on good autborities from Anas that the oldest in years of the compa- nions of the apostle of God were Abu Bakr as Siddilj and Subayl-b-A'mr- b-Baydhd. the names of those who were unequalled in their time. * rbn KhaUakam gives the a devout ascetic. in their special qualifications. Ibn Ishak in accounts of military expeditions. a daughter of Abu ^^uhafah went forth and some horsemen met her. al Mutanabbi in poetry. traditions. A'ta as Salimi* in fear. " In the year of the conquest of Mecca. Then he exclaimed. Abu it from her neck. there is little honesty ' — ' among men now-a-days. Tabarani on traditions of the highest authority. and upon her neck was a necklace of gold pieces. al Junayd in mysticism. Nafi' in reading the Hanifah in jurisprudence. Abu'l his discourses. al Khalil in prosody. Note —Al daughter of Bakr stood up and said I call upon God and Islam for the necklace of my sister' and by Allah. and a man wrenched And when the apostle of God entered the mosque. Hariri in al Mandah in extent of travel. al Bukhari in discrimination of traditions. sister reckon upon a reward of God for thy necklace. A'li-b-u'l Abu Tahya-b-Ma'in in traditional Ahmad-b-Hanbal in the Sunnah. al Hasan al Basri in admonition. " ' Note I have seen in the handwriting of the Hafidh ad Dahabi. in interpreting obscure words occurrirtg in traditions. Abu U'baydah. al Ashari in Muhammad-b-Zakariya ar Eazi. A'li in Ubayy-b-Kaa'b in reading the Kuran. for by Allah. Sibawayh in grammar. Ibrahim al Kirmani in interpretation of dreams. and The ' fear' may therefore signify the fear of God' if this be the in- . as Shafai in knowledge of tradition. al Jubbai in expounding the tenets of the Mua'tazalites. narration. Abu Darr in truthfulness of speech. as Suli in chess.

* — — observations of note connected with his biography. al A'dwi.three women. or between themselves and others. and one of the just Caliphs. and one of the fathers-in-law of the Apostle of God. {the Discriminator) embraced Islam in the twenty years of age (ad Dahabi). Ma'bid in singing. and Abu Sa'id al Khudri. . al Faruk. * The year of the defeat of Ahraha-h-u'l Sahah sumamed al Ashram or the slit. and Abu Darr. Asma'i in singular anecdotes. by some of the tribe of Kenanah. and A'mr-b-u'l A'as. nosed-Mng or viceroy of Yaman. the Prince of the Faithful. used to send him as envoy. He had no sooner embraced Islam. and twenty. dividual meant. and one of the ten to whom Paradise was promised. they would send him to vie and to contend in their name. and Ibn liz Zubayr. See the story in Sale and his comments thereon. sixth year of the prophetic mission being seven and Abu Hafs.[ al 112 al ] Kadhi al FMhil. and his son A'bdu'Uah. Omar-b-n'l Khattdb. wherein were several elephants. and al Baraa-b-A'azib. that is as a representative. whenever a war took place among themselves. and whenever a challenger would contend against their honor. andAbuHurayrah. for the Kuraysh. to avenge the profanation of the ChristiEin Church at Sanda. b-KTufayl-b-A'bdu'l A'za. An Nawawi says that Omar was born thirteen years after He was one of the chiefs of the Kuraysh and was charged with the duties of an envoy in the time of Ignorance . who marched against Mecca at the head of an ai-my. and Ibn A'bbas. and others of the Companions and some besides them. and Abu Musa al Asha'ri. OMAE-B-U'L KHATTi^B. forty -five men and eleven women. after thirty-nine men. and others. and one of the most learned and most Five hundred and thirty-nine traditions direct ascetic of the Companions. and Anas. that I will here devote some chapters to the principal the year of the elephant. that he was one of the converts. from the Apostle of God are ascribed to him. and Omar-b-A'basah. I remark. al Kurayshi. or a boaster contest their glory. Avicenna in philosophy. Traditions are related on his authority by Othman-b-A'fian by A'li and Talhah and Saa'd. An Nawawi adds. b-Eiyah-b-Kurt-b- Eazah-b-A'di-b-Kaa'b-b-Luayy. than he openly declared his faith at Mecca and the Muslims rejoiced at it. In year Mu\iammad was bom. I can discover no other name bearing any resemblance with that in the text. and Ibn A'uf and Ibn Masa'dd. His fate and that of his army this is well-known. in composition. He embraced the faith early after the conversion of forty men and ten women or as some say. Asha'b in covetousness.

And I heard a thing the like of which I had not heard before." * Ch. his mother to the 15 .om Omar that he said. and the prophet came and entered the enclosure and upon him were two garments. entitled " the InfalliMe" one of the epithets Day of Judgment.. glorify Islam by Omar the son of al Khattab in particular. " No. of the He . " whither art thou going. This is the discourse of an honorable and not the discourse of a poet how little do ye believe. if thou shouldst slay Muhammad ?" J that thou hast changed thy faith.' ' — And the true faith entered into my heart with sion. but I found that he had preceded me to the mosque. as I proclaimed my infidelity. " how wilt thou be secure from the Banu Hashim and the Banu Zuhin the " Proofs" on the authority of Anas. and I went forth from the house and entered the precincts of the Kaa'bah. Omar the son of al Khattab or Jahl the son of Hishdm. " records on the authority of Ibn Omar. and he went forth and I followed him and he said.[ 113 ] On the accounts which have been handed down regarding his conversion. " God. that there is no God but God. as the Then he read. (LXIX).' &c. by Allah. pointed as the objective instead of the nomi- X latter. " I testify Apostle of God." then he said.'' And Ibn Saa'd. " I cannot but think answered. " Omar. " shall I not assure thee the original words is LXIX. that his sword rah. of labour seized a full posses- beginning of ' the painsf my sister in the night. "the the conversion of Omar was thus as Omar hath related. " O Omar wilt thou not leave me night or day ?" and I feared lest he should curse me.'* ' And up behind him and he I began to wonder at Kuraysh apostle Kuran and I said. say. glorify Islam by the most endeared to Thee of these two men. and he prayed to God for that which God willed and then departed." He Omar went forth girt with and a man of the Banu Zuhrah met him and said." I replied. and al Hakim and al Bayhaki and I said. " who is that ?" and I replied. He replied." the other said." And Ahmad f]. " I went forth to hinder the Apostle' of God. I will surely proclaim it. this is a poet. " I intend to slay Muhammad . and that thou art the answered " keep this secret. The father of Muhammad belonged to the former tribe. that the prophet said. by Him who sent thee in the truth. (jol'sr*' jg t In the text the word native case." And al Hakim from Ibn A'bbas. At Tirmidi said. that the prophet O God. and I stood ' sought to expound the Surah the composition of the al Hakkah. and Abu Ya'la. O Omar ?" and he replied." And Ibn Abi Shaybah from Jabir that he said.

The meaning of the letters is un- certain. An Nawawi describes him in his biography. but after Khabbab's death and by his example. of the Imuran is so entitled. for verily.— [ 114 ] of a strange thing. glorify Islam by Omar." Then Omar exclaimed. the custom was abolished. H. as Abu Jahli^the given to enemy of God. " give me the book which you have. Omar suppose the truth were in another religion than thine !" whereon Omar sprang upon him and trampled him heavily under foot his sister then came to push him aside from her ' . " The Apostle of God was at the time in ' the original house^f which stands at the foot of as Saf a. " and suppose the truth were in another religion than verily I testify that there is no God but God. the son al Khattab. him by Muhammad fell Pharaoh of this people" this latter epithet was as he gazed upon his dead body after the battle of Badr " the — where ho fighting against the new faith. he (Kur. Then Omar said. H. one of the . but he struck her a blow with his hand. t The XXth Oh. and • Sa'id-b-Zayd. II the Arabs begins at sunset. " it is they were reading the T. It had been the custom in Kufah for people to be buried at the doors of their houses." O Omar. He had been taken prisoner in the time of Ignorance and sold as a slave at Mecca. H." said. 37 in the Caliphate of A'li and was buried outside the city at his special request. Eejoice with good tidings. § The day of Wednesday night. and the dead were buried outside the confederate of the ioty." prayers in remembrance of me to Muhammad XX). ' — there is no God besides . husband. God. and her face bled thine is : then being angry she said.* and thy sister have changed their faith and to those two with abandoned thy religion ?" Then Omar departed and went whom was Khabbabjf and when he heard the sound of Omar said. . And Omar entered and "what is this and they selves. He died at KAfah A." AndOmar rose and made his ablutions and took the book and read the T. me Me" . " then perhaps you two have changed your religion. the night of Thursday is therefore our This was Abu Jahl's name. " verily thouart unclean ! and none shall touch it except those who are clean' (Kur. I trust that the prayer of the Apostle of God on Wednesday nightf may be when he said. He is said to have been a freedman of Anmar daughter of Sabaa' of the tribe of Khuzaa'h Banu Zuhrah. ' or A'mr|| the son of Hisham.)J nothing but a discourse we were holding among our- muttering" — (for He said." His sister said. V The house aUuded to belonged to Arlj^am of the Banu Makhzdm. 0. and that Muhammad His servant and His Apostle. that thy brother-in-law. LVI) ^therefore rise and bathe or perform ablution. Omar went t Atu Abdu'llah Khafbab-b-u'l Aratt was one of the earliest converts. until he came to " Verily I am God . wherefore worship Me and perform tliy came forth and for thee said. that I may read it.. approaching he hid himself in the house." and his brother-in-law replied to him. " direct and when Ehabbab heard the words of Omar.

continued. except those who but I did not desist until she gave and was a favourite styled. resort of Muhammad's. 118. and I said. 21. out of pride. " t One of the scoffers" alluded to in Kur. they had been reading a paper before them which they had left and forgotten. and said wilt thou Omar. he had been one of the prisoners of Yaman— others say that he was an Abyssinian. ' They asked.'f And Omar said I testify that there is no God.' my Omar sat ' — ' fied from uncleanness. sit lightly And Hamzah and said. who there ?' I and verily. p. do. ' ! Omar.[ 115 ] on until he reached the house. 'and what is He replied. the head of it cut a vein in his heel. X The freedman of Omar-b-u'l Khattab. From the converts made therein." and Bayhaki in the " Dalail" record on the authority of Aslam J that he : narrates " Omar said to me —I was the most violent in said. II. * The printed edition is here in error.' Then they hastened away and hid from me. According to some. ch. and while I was one sultry day the noontide heat in ' one of the streets of Mecca. Sale spells the name Mugheirah. it. at the door of whieh were Hamzah and Talhah and others.Muir. and I opened earliest converts to the faith. to me..' I said. that thou thinkest that thou art this and that while verily an event has occurred at thy house. give it to me' for verily I have changed faith. one them hitched in his garment. O ?' son of al Klattab. the house of Islam. and at Tabarani and Abu Nua'ym in the " Htdiyah. not stooping to take it off. and he came forth and went to clasped Omar and ' him round all his garments and his sword belt. there should be no which is the 4th form of ^jy apocopated by the particle ^yi. if " this is Omar . but I can find no authority for An Nawawi is clear upon its pronunciation. XT. until God sendeth upon thee calamity and chastisement such as He sent upon al WaUd-b-u'l Mughirah.' " not cease. See the tragic end of the other of four in Sale. replied. .4. hast thou changed thy faith ?' and I struck her upon the head with a thing that was in my hand arid the blood flowed and O son of al Khattab what thou soughtest to do. Vol. it was according to al Wakidi. ' enemy of thyself. and he. " the prophet was then within. Then my sister arose and opened the door." The narrator adds. and are clean. ' tashdid' over this verb. ' thy sister hath embraced Islam' —Then ' that I turned back in is wrath until I knocked at the door. p. and I looked upon the paper and said. and he bled to death. what is that ? thou art not worthy of it for thou art not purishe said. " ' this book " none shall touch it it. An Nawawi. Bee. Passing by some arrows. ' al Al Bazzar. but God and that thou art the servant of God and His Apostle. of men against the Apostle of God. if God desireth* he will be converted. his death will upon us. aad I went in and upon a bedstead. a man met me and I wonder at thee. He desireth otherwise. his good. she wept and said. under the divine inspiration.

stand off from him. Then I made the profession of faith. they knew my two men seized my arm. ' verily the son of al Khattdb hath changed his The Arabic idiom here.' He replied Hast thou really done so ?' I said yes. rejoice with good tidings. glorify Thy faith by the most endeared to Thee of two men. and I* never wished to see a man. and no one was bold enough to open the lence door until Muhammad said. until the prophet came to me and said. and he come forth to me and I addressed him in the same words as to my uncle. ' open for him. verily and say to him that which to be between thee I have changed my faith. and he was a man of high consideration. and he replied to me. saying.' Then he cried out ' ' ' at the top of his voice. and behold ! there was in it ' whatever in the heavens and the earth terrified. beating or being beaten.' and those who had fled away. Omar means to say. his position as a chief of the !^uraysh secured him from all insult. Thereupon the Muslims magnified God. do it not. .' and they opened for me and the son of al Khattab.' and I went on to a man of the chiefs of the Kuraysh. either Abu Jahl the son of Hisham or Believe in ' Omar is it. ' in the precincts of the Kaabah.' Then he caught me round my garment and drew me to him God direct him aright. came forth to me and magnified God and said.' And I went when the people had assembled in the enclosure. verily. as my uncle had replied. And and they directed me to the prophet to the house at the foot of I went on until I knocked at the door.' !" ' as Saf a. and I knocked at his door and he said.' Then I exclaimed. who ' ' vioI replied against the Apostle of God. into English. is so difficult to transfer with any closeness of translation. and I was and I read unto ' God and his Apostle. for the Apostle of God prayed on Monday and said. that I fear I have sacrificed iateUigibility to a desire to be literal. O son of al Khattab. Abu Jahl.. and he went in and shut the door upon me and I said. and verily I have changed my and he said. with a takbir' that was heard in the defiles of Mecca. They had hitherto sought concealment.' the son of al Khattab. I testify that there is no God but God.' ' (LVII). the son of Hisham. verily I have changed my faith. and I said. who is ' ' ! ' ' religion.' and. that either before his conversion. " God. this is nothing . go to a certain when the people assemble man who cannot keep a and him.' Then he went within and shut the door upon me. singeth praise unto God. ' ' ' ' this is nothing ! shall the ' Muslims be beaten and yes. be converted. Then I went to my maternal uncle.' and said. and they said. and I mentioned what was to be between me and him. for it is rare that he can conceal a secret. and called out to him.' I not be beaten ?' Then man said to me. be known ?' and a secret dost thou wish that thy being converted to Islam. should ' I said He is replied. but I beheld him while nothing of this could befall me.[ 116 1 is it. or before it was made known. that ?' I replied. viz.

The MS.' than I said one hath done so likewise who hath a greater claim upon thee and who is that ?' He answered. 'if I have done so.'* my uncle and said thy protection is returned to thee' and I did not cease from beating and being beaten until God ' exalted Islam. hast thou turned away from the faith of thy fathers and followed the faith of Muhammad ?' and he replied." Abu Nua'ym rity of al in the " Dalail.' and I heard a low whispering. and Abu Jahl Ibn Abbas that he ? " I asked of Omar. ?' Pdruk {the discriminator) ' Hamzah was informed of mosque towards a group of the Kuraysh in which was Abu Jahl.' then they fell upon me. and Abu Jahl saw that mischief was in his countenance. a have already noted in a preceding page. I went forth when behold there came a certain man of the tribe of the Banu Makhzum. until I took my brother-in-law by the head ' And I departed and reached the house. thy sister as well as — ' ' thy brother-in-law. This passage similar to the one I His zeal as a convert and his natural pugnacity would not permit him to behold a Muslim being beaten without wishing to share in the unpopularity of the new faith. what is this ?' and words did not cease to pass between us. ' Omar hath changed his faith. and I said." Then Omar continued. and smote him and covered him with blood. why art thou called and he said. what is this gathering ?' they said to him. fearing mischief. verily I my protection the son of my sister. he returned as freely as he received them. perchance ' may befall me. with the difference." and Ibn A'sdkir record on the authosaid. has j^JL^ for the is i>. Three days afterwards. and I went to the mosque. and Hamzah went away and embraced Islam. while the people gathered round me. it so he took his bow and went to the ' ! Arkam the son of A'bu'l Arkam al Makhziimi. whereupon the Kuraysh adjusted the matter amicably. and I entered and said. however. Hamzah embraced Islam three days before me. and I did not cease to beat them. nor they to beat me. it but I would see him and say.' Then he stood up take under in the enclosure and waved his sleeve saying. now descrihing t His surname : it was also that of al Bara-b-A'azib —the Companion.' and he said. and . the house of ! ' then verily. Hia fervour would not be content with anything but hard knocks which. but * That is. But I did not like to see one of the ' Muslims beating or being beaten.j of the printed edition which makes the sense clearer. that he is state of feeling arrived at since his conversion had heen made puhlic.' and they gave way from me. my sister rose against me I hope it may hefall me. I.[ 117 ] faith . . " the Apostle of God was at that time concealed in hastened to the prophet and reviled him. what is the matter with thee O Abu U'marah ?'t and Hamzah lifted up his bow and struck him with it upon the two cupping-veins of the neck and cut them. and the blood flowed. and I went to this is nothing. and he leaned upon his bow over against Abu Jahl and regarded him. ' Then my uncle ' said.

it is Omar' he replied. yes. * There are seven of this name mentioned by Ibn Hajr. and if he cometh to us amicably. we will receive him. verily the dwellers in heaven Gabriel descended and said. ' Apostle of God. what Omar open the door to him. • ' .' and the Apostle of God heard that. from that day. who named Omar. I at the head of one of them and Hamzah. is embraced Islam and said. " wlien Omar embraced Islam. are we not in the Truth ?' he replied. the Discriminator ?" she replied. good and holy'). Beida. who verifies it on the authority of Ibn A'bbas.' and I went and knocked at the door it ' •with what is it and the people gathered together and Hamzah said to them. of the other. fell upon them. aJi The one referred to in the text is probably the freedman of t Some say this passage was revealed in a plain called and Medina during the expedition of Budr. and he came forth and Omar made the profession of faith. and al Hakim. announce with rejoicing the conversion of Omar. ' And there arose in my heart a great awe and I said. " we continued increasing in honour from the time when Omar was converted. H. the sect have avenged prophet God is thy supthemselves upon us. that he said.' And ' ' I arose and bathed. and they brought out to me a paper which was (and I said In the name of God. that when Omar ' was converted.t " ! and such of the true believers that have followed thee" (Kur.' I said. and a great grief therefore. " verily. and the Kuraysh looked upon me and upon Hamzah. the idolaters said.[ 118 ] and seized my head and said. to-day. ' writing. because Islam was made manifest and truth distinguished from falsehood. Muhammad. XX). hetween Mecca . ' then wherefore this concealment ?' So we came forth in two ranks.' And I me this in was ashamed when I saw the blood and I sat ' down and it said. we have not sent dowh the should'st be Kuran unto thee that thou words ' unhappy and I read on to His most excellent names' (Kur. ' ! ! Then the people by the dwellers of the house magnified in Mecca. T. none shall touch except those show who are clean. the most merciful and Compassionate' names. ' verily that hath been done in spite of thee. tSale." And Ibn Majah and al Hakim from Ibn A'bbds. Huljammad.' " Al Bazzar records. " the prophet. and if he turneth away from us we shall slay him . ' verily he is in from this the Kuraysh have fled ?' and I where is the Apostle of God ?' She replied the house of Arkam. until we entered the mosque. VIII). ye ?' They said." and the Lord revealed. ' God with a ' takbir' that was heard I said.' but she replied. " the conversion of Omar port." Ibn Saa'd records from Dakwan* that he narrates. that he said. " I said to Ayesha." And Ibn Saa'd and at Tabarani from Ibn Masa'ud. The Apostle of God named me the Discriminator. And al Bukhari from Ibn Masa'M that he said.

his flight* a victory. one by one. and avenged ourselves on those who had oppressed us." And Ibn Saa'd from Aslam. "the first man who came to us. and verily. His mother's name Banu Makhzdm. Islam was declared and the people openly invited to it. and went to each. and used to ofaoiate as Imam at public prayers when Muhammad was absent § Some say his his expeditions. Islam was as a man advancing who doth not progress without slain. one of the Auxiliaries of Medina. let him meet me behind this valley' but no one followed him. may the faces be foul ' of such as desire that his mother be bereaved of him and his child be left an orphan and his wife a widow.J — that he said. and when Omar was first Islam was as a man retreating. . a single act of standing in prayer. and two prostrations." On Ms FliffM. " Omar was converted in the month of Du'l Hijjah in the sixth year of the prophetic mission. then Ibn * Umm Maktiim. He resided at Medina after Badr. that he said. " the who openly manifested Isldm was Omar-bexcellent. except Omar-bu'l Khattdb. followed six of the hy an inclination of the head. and he went round about seven times. who doth u'l not progress without receding." Ibn Saa'd and al Hdkim record from Hudayfah. and on his sword and slung over him his bow and went to the Kaa'bah where in its it quadrangle were the chiefs of the Kuraysh. Kutaybah. in their circle and said. and if there he such a one. and he was then six and twenty years old. and his Imamate a divine mercy. for he. " when Omar was converted.§ then Omar-bu'l Khattab with To Medina with t t A rakaa'h is the prophet. he fought with them until they left us alone and we prayed therein." And from al Bara. " when Omar was converted." His authorities are trustworthy and And Ibn Saa'd from Suhayb. being then was A'atikah of the in blind. others A'mr-h-Kays. then prayed two rakaa'hsf at the station of Abraham. that he said. and we sat in a circle round the temple and went in procession round the temple. and returned back upon them somewhat of that which they had brought upon us. we said that we were unable to pray in the House of Ood until Omar was converted. when he resolved on flight.[ 119 ] was a conquest. of the Tugitives was Musaa'b-b-U'mayr." And at Tabarani from Ibn A'bbas. and when Omar was converted. A'warifu'l Ma'arif of Ibn. approaching. its girt grasped in his hand arrows. Itn Hair gives name— the reference in the text is prohahly to al Bara-b-A'azib. the freedman of Omar. name was A'tdu'Uah. that he said. " I never knew any one flee unless secretly. Khattab. Ibn A'satir records on the authority of A'li.

Apostle of God!' He answered 'it was 'how dost thou interpret it. " while I was asleep." said. al God !" He Khudri. ' the Apostle of me . I saw myself in Paradise. " should I be Apostle of God !" And from Ibn Omar that the Apostle jealous of thee. And al Bukhari from Ibn Hurayrah. and we he cometh after replied. viz. ' whilst I was sleeping." said one thing regarding * Al Bard." And Omar wept and said. after the manner that Omar had said. and heheld there was a woman performing her ablutions by the side of a house I said. that the Apostle of God among those who have gone before ye men inspired. Apostle of Sa'id." answered." God said. and they and Omar another. Ibn Masa'ud and Bilal. milk) so that I saw the stream issuing from my nails.' Then I recollected thy jealousy and I turned back. come upon the people."* An Nawawi all his expeditions. and upon " O son of al Khaftdb —by Him in whose hand is my life. And from Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas. the devil hath never met thee walking in a road. but he hath taken a road other than thy road. and Omar was presented to me and upon him a garment which he was dragging along. Apostle of The two Shaylihs record on the authority of Ahu Hurayrah that the God said.' They said." says. whose is this house ?' they replied Omar's. regarding his merit. " verily there have been son of al Khattab and upon his heart. religion. whilst I was asleep. says that and was of those Omar was present with the Apostle of God in who remained steadfast to him on the day of Ohud." And from Abu heard the Apostle of God say. They " it said. On the traditions handed down. Ibn Omar . [ 1 twenty horsemen. places four others between Ibn Umm Maktdm and Omar.. and if there be such a one among my And at Tirmidi from Ibn Omar. it is Omar. " I was knowledge. and I gave it to ' ' '' Omar. that the Apostle of people. some of them reaching to the breast and some of them reaching below it. I saw the people pre- them were garments. I dreamt that I drank (meaning of God said.' then then Apostle of God doing ?' He God arrived and with him Ahu Bakr.— 120 what is .' " sented to me. as quotedl Ijy an Nawawi. ' said. that the Apostle of God said. but the Kur^n revealed it And at Tirmidi and al Hakim. other than what has preceded in the life of Abu Bakr. " how dost thou interpret it. " verily God hath placed truth upon the tongue of Omar the among the nations. A'mm4r-b-Yiisir Saa'd-b-Ati \Vakka?. " never did a thing it.

' this is the there shall and he pointed with his hand to Omar bolt against discord' not cease to be between you and discord.' And Ibn Manii' in his Musnad from which God He speaketh." " And said. ill J/ai ^Jl^^l V^ ) '^7 Ibrahim-h-Ahdu'Ua.' said. 62. that the Apostle of it God said. consult Burton. An Nawawi.' At Tabarani records in the A'usat from Ibn A'bbas. He related 164 u'l Iktifa given differently hy different authorities. a gate strongly bolted. as Shafi'i— God vied Vith "the angels vied with them.' ' A'li. " verily I behold the evil spirits among Genii and men. 9th of Du'l Hijjah—for its Lane is the 16 . that the Apostle of God' said. ' we the Companions God of Muhammad Omar is did not doubt that the divine presence spake by the tongue of Omar." And at Tirmidi. that the Apostle of in Paradise. command. that he said." the ascription of Buraydah. that the Apostle of God said. but he revereth Ayesha. " the first with whom Truth joineth hands. A. record." * The text and MS. al Yamani. that Gabriel came to the prophet and said. " I heard the Apostle of Lord hath placed truth upon the tongue of Omar. have 'unole' which appears to be an error. H. In the Kitah is t This ( lilsr'i**). ' the lamp of the dwellers And from Kudamah-b-Madhu'iin on the authority of his Othman-b-Madhu'dn. ' And from Abu Darr verily the taketh by the hand and entereth Paradise. " greet Omar with a salutation and tell him that And Ibn A'sakir from his anger is glory and his approval. that the Apostle of God said." And at Tabarani in the Ausa't from Abu Hurayrah that the Apostle of God said. and the were to be a prophet after me. as long as brother. t Ahu A'bdu'llah Buraydah where he died afterwards at Basrah and removed suhsecLuently to Marw at Medina. " there is not an angel in heaven. " verily Omar !" and Ibn A'sakir from Ibn A'bbas that Satan avoideth thee." The day of A'rafah gives another reading. fleeing from before Omar.t that the prophet said. from Ayesha.* — — ' he liveth among you. that the prophet Ahmad on • Omar and not a demon on earth but he fleeth from Omar. by And Ahmad and al Bazzar from Abu Hurayrah that the Apostle of God said. " if there would be Omar the son of al Khattab. after me Omar may be.t 121 ] who has verified it from U'kbah-b-A 'amir. verily the Lord hath placed truth upon the tongue of Omar and upon his heart.' And al Bazzar from Ibn Omar. one of the Companions." And Ibn Majah anH al Hakim from Ubayy-b-Kaa'b. al Wasabi. his angels regarding men on the day of A'rafah." say. and the first it is Omar." And at Tabarani and al Daylami from al is Fadhl with b-u'l A'bbas that the Apostle of wherever he God said. ceremonies. " verily God gloried regarding the pilgrims of A'rafahJ in general and Omar in particular. that he narrates. He resided h-u'l IJusayh. " verily Satan avoideth Omar. the Apostle of God said. first it blesseth. traditions from Muhammad. "the Truth.

then quick and mention Omar we used to say not without reason that the divine presence speaketh by the tongue of Omar. verily Islam will weep at the death of Omar." They angeb speak by his tongue. how inspired ?" He replied. and the numerous con- quests and triumphs of Islam during the time of Omar. and he who loveth Omar.) And Ibn Omar said. * The freedwoman of Htaf?ah. and there was feebleneas in his drawing and may God have mercy upon him.[ 122 ] The two Shaykhs record on the authority of Ibn Omar and Abu Hurayrah that the Apostle of God said. It was said to Abu Bakr in his illness. but there was among his people one And in the inspired. the daughter of Omar.) mentioned. records on the authority of Sadisah. and I drew up from it what God willed then«Abu Bakr took it and he drew up a bucket-full or two. so that the people satisfied their thirst and abode at is the water. and I have not seen a chief of the people do his wonderful deeds.) And Ibn Masa'dd " if the : Auxiliaries.' " Ausat from Abu Sa'id al Khudri. upon which was a bucket. Ibn Hajr. that the Apostle of God said.* that the Apostle of At Tabarani said. " I never saw any one after the Apostle of God. " I will say to Him 'I have appointed over them the best of them. I saw myself by a well. " whilst I was sleeping.) On man the sayings of the Companions and tlie early Muslims regarding him. and verily.) A'li said." said. " what wilt thou say to thy God. God " verily Satan hath never met prostrate on his face." " there is not upon the face of the earth a (Ibn A'sakir. the Lord gloried regarding the people on the evening of the day of A'rafah in general. changed into a large bucket. hath hated me. " the Omar. from the time that he died." ? An Nawawi says in his Tahdib. now that thou hast appointed Omar to rule ?" He replied. " he who hateth Omar. that the learned assert that this an indication of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Omar. and if there be such a one among my people. « when the righteous are Abu Bakr as Siddik said. and the bucket became . She belonged to the . " Gabriel said to Omar since his conversion but he hath fallen And from Ubayy-b-Kaa'b that the Apostle of God ' me." (At Tabarani in the Ausat. hath loved me. and rejoiced over Omar in particular. Then came Omar and he sought to draw." (Ibn Saa'd." (Ibn Saa'd." (His authorities are good. dearer to me than Omar. more vehement and yet more beneficent than Omar. and the Lord hath never sent a prophet. it is said " Apostle of God.

* " thy description to iron ?" what description of me dost thou find ?" "I find be a horn of iron. According to the A Jew who embraced Islam that Caliph. and he said. " he was like a wary bird that seeth a snare in every path."t he said. that of the guardian angels. At Tabarani records on the authority of U'mayr-b-Eabii'. and he said. the Muntaha 1' Arab. " he was full of resolution and vigilance and wisdom and dignity" (recorded in the Tuyuriyat)." upon the earth Hudayfah— " it is as if the wisdom of mankind lay hidden in the bosom of Omar . and the most profoundly versed in the religious ordi- — nances of the Most High. and he said " he was like goodness itself . the son of al Khattab." Omar said. the world sought though he sought it not. al Ahb&r is incorrect—it should be Hibr. (Az Zubayr-b-Bakkar in the Maukifiyat. " a resolute prince whom the reproof of the censurer in what relateth to the service of God. 11." and. that Omar said to Kaa'b al Ahbar." and he was' questioned about A'li." .[ 1^3 1 wisdom of Omar were placed in the scale of a balance.) was asked regarding Abu Bakr. doth not touch. " by Allah I know not a man whom the reproof of the censurer in what relateth to the service of Omar." Ibn A'bbas (At Tabarani and al Hakim. " may Omar when he was God be upon thee! -there is no would be more pleasing to at prayers and one with the to meet God. and verily people used to think that he bore away nine(At Tabardni in the Kabir and al Hakim. " Omar. among them. while we are plunged in it up to the affairs. " Abu Bakr sought not the world and it sought not him. " and what is a horn of He replied." Masa'ud that he said. God." and he was asked regarding Omar. " then what ?" He answered. was distinguished above men. And Masa'tid has said. for four things * : in the time of Omar and a constant companion of D'Herbelot gives the name to a hook in which are recorded many. then quick and mention Omar verily Omar was the most learned of us in the book of God. record of whose actions (after the it me Companionship of the prophet) than this performer of prayers. " then shall faction shall slay." (Al Hdkim). the wisdom of Omar would outweigh them. t Kings xxii. singly middle." And Ahmad and al Bazzar and at Tabarani from Ibn follow calamity. doth not touch." And Ayesha speaking of Omar said. signifies a . he was active in undertaking their management. and the wisdom of living things in the other scale. but " by Allah.) the mercy of Jabir relates that A'li went to said. " then what ?" He replied " there shall come after thee a Caliph whom a cruel He asked. " when the righteous are mentioned.' but Omar. (/4^) which Jewish or Christian doctor of science. is unknown and his work contains many Christian traditions.) And tenths of wisdom. to take it ." And al Mu'awiyah. fabulous stories of Islam. The author he adds.

" And from Salim-b-A'bdi'UahJ that he said. . that he narrates. p. (Kur. 146. and his evidence is therefore adduced in proof of the superiority. H. H. And Sharik^f has * For an account of this. (Kur. 161 (777-8).' 4. " his voice in favour of Abu Bakr. 349. VIII). SufyAu was born A. H.* whom ordered to be put to death. " news Abu Musa. than Abu Bakr or Omar. Omar. he being the first allegiance to him. and died at Basrah A. 713-4). at Thauri-b-Sa'id-b-MasrIik Abu A'bdu'llah Sufyan of the highest authority in traditions and other sciences. A.. possessed by a ' ' nostrils.' then " God revealed. hath ascribed blame to Abu Bakr. ' unless a revelation he had been previously delivered from God. t Consult Sale. . and Gabriel speaketh by his that tongue. D. O God strengthen Islam by to swear Omar.' &c. was a native of Kufah and He was made Kadhi of Ktifah by al Mahdi.' and when ye ask of the propJiefs wives. us.. &c. girt round with a garment smearing with pitch the public camels. 95 (A. and he said. and he went to a woman and he asked her about him and she said.' Sufyan || al -Thauri says " whosoever thinketh Ali had more right to the Caliphate." [ 124 ] 1. and yet the divine inspiration descends within our house." Ibn A'sakir records from Mujahid. — 1 The printed edition has Shurayk.f He commanded the wives of the ' prophet that they should be veiled and Zaynab said to him.' By By the prayer of the prophet. but he fled and concealed himself to avoid the honour and its heavy responsibility an amusing account of this is given by Ibn Khallikan. consult Sale. the Fugitives and the Auxiliaries. stay till my demon cometh. p. ' what ye may have occasion 3. found him asleep among the beggars on . 105-8. There is no one of any note bearing that name. after Sufyfa at Thauri s flight. but this is an error. " we used to say that the devils were chained during the rule of Omar. 2. the veil. § life." says Gihhon " were not inferior to the : virtues of Abu Batr his food consisted of barley-bread or dates : his drink was water he preached in a gown that was torn or tattered in twelve places. the angel is before his eyes. no devil seeth but he falleth upon his of Omar was long in reaching devil. and were unloosed when he perished. " In the affair of the prisoners on the day of Badr. the steps of the mosque of Medina. X The grandson of Omar distinguished for the piety and austerity of his died at Medina. thou art against O son of al Khattab. for. while Abu A'bdu'llah Sharik an Nakha'i was the person who was appointed Kddlii of KHfah. " The abstinence and humility of Omar.' and he came and she asked of him regarding Omar. § and that man. and a Persian satrap who paid his homage to the conqueror." II Decline and Fall. V). I left him. He was a strong upholder of All's merits. and " In the affair of God revealed.

' And Abu Usamah says do ye know who were Abu Bakr and Omar ? those two men were the father of Islam and its mother. H. H. an ascription reaching to the prophet. however. prohibition of wine. " verily there are in the Kuran some judgments after the judgment of Omar .' (Kur. 148 (766). 125 ] no oiie who hath goodness in him. ' ' — And Jaa'far as Sddik. " the people never spake regarding a thing. of Abu I can. was in accordance with my —^regarding the veiling — regarding the prisoners Abraham. Thus universally acknowledged. placeth A'li before Abu Bakr and Omar. al Hasan son of " How rich a tomb. if he divorce you. find in Ibn Khalli. and I strongly suspect that as Suyuti's citation not to be trusted. 80 (A. And Ibn Asakir from Ali. born A. kan no hint of Shank's assertion of the pre-eminence of Abu Bakr and Omar —the is evidence seems quite the other way. Apostle of prayer.' quit of any one " who mentioneth Abu Bakr On the coincidences of the sayings of Omar with the Kuran wMcTi some of the learned compute at more than twenty. observed. likewise having spoken regarding it." says Ibn Khallikan "ia generosity and nobility !" A'li. take the and I said. * The Imam Abu A'bdu'llah Jaa'far as Sadik (the Veracious) foiuih iu descent from Ali-b-Abi Talib. D. " I was in accordance with my Lord in three things I said ' ." And the two Shaykhs from Omar that he said. God if we were to take the station of and there was revealed. 699). regarding the prisoners of Badr the veiling —the station of Abraham and the Bakr and Omar.* or Omar otherwise than ' I am favorably." " I from Omar that he things station of said. his grandfather A'li Zayn u'l A'abidin and his grandfather's uncle. that he said. and did thou but command then Was revealed the verse regarding the veiling them to be veiled and the vrives of the prophet assembled in indignation and I said. Omar but the Kurdn was revealed after the manner that Omar had spoken. there go prayers' (Kur." and from Ibn Omar. The same tomb contains the bodies of his father Muhammad al Bakir. the Kuran was re- vealed coincidently with his judgment. . LXVI) and the like unto that was revealed. died and buried at Medina A.— [ ." : of And Muslim Lord in three Badr and the — Therefore in this tradition there is a fourth in- stance again according to the Tahdib of an Nawawi. Apostle of God. II) unto thy women the righteous and the sinner. his Lord can easily give him in exchange better wives than place of : Abraham for a place of station of Abraham for a ' !' — ' you. Ibn Mardawayh records on the authority of MujAhid that Omar would form a judgment and the Kuran would reveal it.

a distinct declaration God then revealed its bition. consult Sale. ' are but one single instance. IX). " faction.— [ 126 ] a fifth instance is added. Wherei blessed be God. and he stood over him. manifest regarding wine. —and by Allah. t These words are ascribed by Sale to A'bdu'Uah-b-Saa'd. 159.* Ibn Abi Hatim records in his Commentary on the authority of Anas that Omar said. When said. See Sale's %mc. the tradition regarding which of al is ' in the Sunan prohi- and the Mustadrak unto Tis Hakim. and for the tradition there another line of ascrip'tion which I have adduced in the Tafsir u'l Musnad. we formerly created man in a finer sort wherefore. " I was in accordance with my Lord in four things the following verse was revealed. I said. I remark that these two with the verse from the Sura of the Table' (IV) and the three are in the preceding tradition. vance to Badr. J will ask thee concerning 8th. the most excellent Creator. its tradition is in the Sahih on the authority of Omar who " when A'bdu'llah-b- Ubayy ' died. Muhammad's amanuensis. and there came the Lord brought thee forth from thy house. 10th.'f ' ' ' sixth instance is is thus added in this tradition. the Apostle of God was ! invited to read prayers over him. VIII). XXIII) and when it was revealed. 11). LXIII). the most excellent Creator. " The story of A'bdu'Uah-b-Ubayy. I observe that at Tabarani has recorded this on the authority of Ibn A'bb^s." I observe that said. .hj AhxL A'bdu'Ilah as Shaybani. as * In Chs. but a little while after there came shall die" &c.' (Kur. of clay' &c.' then God revealed It shall be equal unto them. the son of Ubayy ! who said one day such and such a thing.' and then came down. p. Apostle of God what over the enemy of God. that Omar was in accordance with his Lord in one and twenty instances. but I arose and advanced until I was abreast of him and said.' ' O true believers. the Apostle of it God was frequent Omar ' shall be equal ' 11th. p. XXIII). 9th. 108. (Kur. &c. Ill and V.' said. whether thou ask pardon for them' (Kur. He mentions these six and adds 7th. X For the story. that he . in asking pardon for a unto them . (Kur. are drunk' (IV). Again I have seen in the work ' Tadhail u'l Imamayn' {Distin- guishing merits of tlie two 'Lmkxa%). " When Muhammad consulted the Companions regarding the addown • Omar counselled the advance. O God.. " " ' They wine &c. A fore blessed be God. namely.' down " Neither do thou pray over any of them who " Kur. come not to prayers when ye (Kur.

and the man against whom he had decided. &c. To dare to slay a true believer. II) " The words of the Most High. IV).. this is a The account concerning him . I note that Ahmad has recorded this in his Musnad. (Kur. " When he consulted the said. ' .' He answered ' I should not have thought that ' Omar would Then God revealed. whosoever is an enemy to God. said. I observe that Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Mardawayh have recorded the story of this. in the matter of the fast when waking from sleep. or his Apostles. in unto his wife after ' Omar went 14th. while * The asking permission to enter.' " The words of the Most High whoever is an enemy ' to Gabriel. who said. " deceit grievous calumny. &c. II). 16th. but he exclaimed let us appeal to Omar . let ns appeal to Omar.e that Ibn u'z Zubayr'and others have recorded this with numerous lines of ascription and the nearest of these to coincidence with the Kurdn is that recorded by Ibn Abi viz. or his angels. that a ' . ' affair of the of Falsehood. it is lawful for you on the night of the fast. and by Thus the blood of the man was made lawful and Omar was absolved from the guilt of his death. verily Gabriel. is an enemy to us .' (Kur. " stay where ye are until I come out unto you.' (Kur.' (Kur.[ 127 ] 12th. (Kur. and the other maxi said. and this was because his God forbid ha was sleeping. and that was forbidden in the beginning of Islam and there was revealed. see Sale.' and slew Apostle of God Omar hath him and the other went back and said. upon thee regarding her ? God forbid XXIV). p." Then Omar said. and the like was revealed.' &c. verily God is an enemy to the unbelievers. ' ! their The imputations against the conduct of Ayesha when she was accidentally left behind on the return march to Medina after the expedition againat the Banu Mustalik." and he went out to them grasping his sword. II).* Omar replied who gave her to thee in marriage.o men carried their dispute for decision before the prophet. and he smote him who had said.' Thus it was revealed by the tongue of Omar.' and Omar saidto him." and they went to him. " was it so ?" He replied " yes." and Omar said. Hakim on the authority of ' A'bdu'r Rahman-b-Abi Laylah. Apostle God ?' He Allah' — Omar dost thou then think that thy ! Lord would put a 13th. on the authority of Abu'l Aswad. this tradition there is also concurrent testimony which I have adduced in slave the Tafsir u'l Musnad. ' ' Companions regarding the said. &c. "the Apostle of God has judged in my favour against this man. he whom your master speaketh of.. tw. and he judged between them.' ' ' ' ! slain my Companion. And by thy Lord. I not. " let us appeal to Omar the son of al Khattab. Jew met Omar and said. " vrent in to him.. and he said. or to Gabriel or Michael. 288^ . they will not perfectly believe. 15th.' thy Lord they will noi perfectly belieye.

' years when they commit " adultery. Al Bayhaki and Abu Nua'ym have both of them recorded in the of prophecy. And. It is not quoting^ at the same time this verse which was revealed but never written. ' ' Verily they are a people not seeing the right course.' " On Ms miracles. Tigris fifteen parasangs distant £pom i Dayr u'l A'dktil is a town situated on the Baghdad. but him. Muhammad Omar God .' and there'Vas revealed the verse regarding the asking permis- sion (Kur. when Abu Sufyan called out. on the authority of Jabir-bA'bdu'Uah and it is in the Asbab u'n Nuzul (Reasons of Revelation). but retains all the authority of the written ordinances.there shall be many of the former and many of the latter. not answer him." As which Othman-b-Sa'id a'd Darami in the work Shayhomi continues. The traditionist here alluded to is probably Yahya Abdu'l Karim-b-u'l Haytham who died in A. XXXVI) I note that Ibn A'sakir has recorded the story of this in his history.) "His words concerning the Jews. and al Ldlakai in the proofti Dayr§ A'akuli in his commentary on the Tradition. replied ' ' save unto him who is calleth himself to account.' and Omar fell worshipping. and Ibn al Aa'r4bi|| in the " Miracles * This refers to Kur. Takii( M. verily it is in the Pentateuch thou hast indeed said according to it. that Kaa'b al Ahbar said. XXIV.' and the Apostle of God say as the Apostle of hath spoken. a genealogist and philologar of the highest II . a certain one ' has recorded this in his Musnad. " The words of the Most High. and ad observations. " He adduced the citationf The man and woman of advanced 19th. B. % A sect of the l^adaris who deny absolute predestination." I have also seen in the Kamil of Ibn A'di on the authority of Ibn Omar that Bilal used to call out.' and Kaa'b by Him in whose hand my life.' (Kur. H.— [ 128 ] entrance . when he summoned to prayers. I note that Ahmad 20th. ' woe unto the king of earth from the king of heaven . Abu Abdu'llah Muhammad-b-Ziyad. do. " say at the end of it. ' On the day of Ohud. " and there should be added to this.' and Omar exclaimed. II.' and the Apostle of God acted conformably to his counsel. 278. to be found in the KurAn.'* 18th.' &c.'J has recorded from Salim-b-A'bd'illah. 17th. j*^ ^S^^ '=**^ + A case of this kind was brought before Omar. " I testify that there _is no God. that The Refutation of the ' Jahmiyah. is there among the people ?' his saying." and Omar is said to I testify that said. God ' —come ye ' to prayers. and he directed them to be stoned.

' Sariyah. and they were being attacked ! their could not help exclaiming " 0. Sariyah the hill. is by Nahawand in Persian Irak. who verily were passing by a hill. " Abu Nua'ym records in the "Proofs" from A'mr-b-u'l Harith* that he while Omar was preaching on a Friday.' Whereon A'bdu'r Ea^man-b'verily he raveth — A'uf who had confidence in him. 160 (767) and died at Sarraman-raa A.' ' we inclined towards and God gave us the . O rived a messenger from the army. " verily thou didst call out so. the hill!" —what it verily.continued. we heard reputation a list of his works is given by Ibn Khali.' He adds they said to Omar. and he . went to him and said 'thou givest them occasion to speak against thee. and Omar questioned him and he said. and if they inclined towards it.' And when he ceased. enemy met us upon a Friday.aaid.and said that they had heard ." three times. H. 231 (846). for whilst thou wert preaching. H. they asked of him. An Nawawi. " hill. 17 .' He adds that a messenger arrived a month afterwards. ' O Sariyah :' ! the hill to keep guard. we thought that the infidels had routed our brethren. and I that they might gain And they tarried until the messenger of Sariyah arrived with his despatch. prince of the faithful. * A'mr-b-u'l Harith b-Abi Dhirar. the voice of :the hill Omar on that day. . and some who were present exclaimed surely he is mad. we were being routed. a native of Kufah and a Companion. saying. and we fought when the hour of congregating for prayer arrived. He was ." This hill near Ibn Mardawayh to which Sariyah was. stayed our backs against the — ' when he uttered vague words he who asketh of the wolf in his discourse saying. " Omar had despatohed an army at the head of which was a man called Sariyah." ! [ 129 ] of the saints. " the them until. He was hom A." meaneth this?' He I saw them fighting front and rear. and while Omar was one day preaching Sdriyah the hill !' three times. and if they passed heyond it they would be destroyed then there went forth from me what ye thought ye heard. by Allah. so we and the Lord put them to flight. " Omar was preaching on a Friday. victory. Sdiriyah ! the hill." and al Khatib in the Traditionists of Malik. on the authority of Ibn Omar. the brother of Juayriyah one of Muljammad's wives and of the Banu Mustali^. they would have to fight ' on one front only. I could not restrain in ! near a hill. and while we were thus. and then proceeded with his preaching. lo! ' ! ' we heard a voice calling out.' the hill. and A'li said to them. let and the people him explain what he hath said.' " records from Ibn Omar that he said. that he said. doth wrong ' looked one upon the other. and he replied. After this arhe hegan to call out. lo he abruptly checked his discourse and exclaimed — ! ' Sariyah ! the hill !' twice or three times. behold ! — thou didst cry out " replied.

He asked. if thou own power. " man alone. saying. and the Nile said to — And rose neither little nor much. ' hill and we continued slew them. that when Egypt was conquered. " go to thy family replied for verily they have been burnt. a virgin. the One. we seek a girl." slip of slip of verily. concerning rightly in it. " The son of whom ?" He answered. " at which of them ?" He " of Dat Ladha" (filaeing). the Conqueror. and throw her into this Nile. a day beforef the Festival of the Cross. Abu'l Shaykh records in the Kitab u'l A'dhamat {Booh of greatness) on the authority of Ifays-b-u'l Hajjdj. the Prince of the Faithful. " From the servant Omar of God. the t Abu'l Mahfisin has fj^J vHS^-" This date." And when A'mr saw that. living with her parents. for verily he is in collusion with him. " Jamrah" {a live coal). I have sent thee a slip of paper' within my letter. " the son of Shihab" {flame). "where is thy dwelling?" he answered. g. but if the Lord caused thee to rise !" then I implore the Lord. which cast into the And when paper and opened reached A'mr-b-u'l A' as. for he sent a Nile. and we gained the said." He asked " and what is that ?" They said.nd Omar replied to him. And when they entered upon the next morning." ' to prevail over our enemy until the Lord defeated them and leave this Then those that had reproached Omar." And the man returned and found that his people had been burnt to death. " verily thou hast acted what thou hast done.' Abu'l giasim-b-Bishran in his Fawaid records on the authority of Ibn Omar. to a man. according to the (ji Calendars of the Eastern and Western Churches. Isldm destroyeth what preceded and paper within his the letter of it. " verily our Nile hath an observance without which it will not rise. and we robe her with garments and ornaments. the best that can be had. that Omar b-u'l Khattab said. to make thee And he cast the slip of paper into the Nile. letter. He asked. " verily. and wrote to A'mr. He said. and we obtain the consent of her parents. Then Omar said. is. He said. to the Nile of didst rise of thy rise. is the 14th September. • Abu'l Mahaein determines this to be the Oopldo month of Bunah.[ 130 !' ] one calling out ' Sariyah ! the hill twice. who had it from one who related it to him. there was in it. he wrote to Omar-b-u'l Khattab it. "what is thy name?" He replied. " at al Harrah" {warmth). " when eleven nights of this month* have elapsed. "of what tribe?" he replied. " al Hurkah" IJieat)." A'mr them " this can never be in Islam for verily Islam destroyeth what preceded it." They therefore departed. saying. and the Jieople said to him. so that they meditated leaving their country. Egypt—Now. "^ ^ . that Syrian month of Huzayr&ii or our June approximately. then rise not. Nujum uz Zahirah.. A'mr-b-u'l A'As arrived on a certain day of one of the Coptic months. he took the and behold.

withhold this also. man spoke with Omar in conversation and told him a falsehood. 155 (A. he would say. He was the first !^adhi who made it his duty to be present when watch was kept for the new moon in Eamadhan but this custom was discontinued under the Fatimite dynasty and re-established by Salah ud Dm. Ibn Khali. he said. but was distracted in his prayers. God. of Islam.[ 131 ] verily the Lord had caused it to rise sixteen. H. " Omar was informed that the people of Irak had pelted with stones their governor. ' withhold this. Tarik b-Shihab the Companion. H. Hs was chief of his tribe and held high rank among the Xabi'is and possessed a great Abu .' and the man would say to him. thus the Lord put an end to this custom' among day.' And from al Hasan that he said. we wefe seated at Omar's door. evildoers. t Abu A'bdu'r Eahmau A'bda'llah-b-Lahia'h al of Ad. and not pardoning their this. H. He died at Old Cairo A. 170. 83. Ibn Lahia'hf says that at that time Hajjaj was not born. 164. a native of Egypt was a narrator of traditions and historical narratives and pieces in prose and verse but weak memory and of little repute. the people of Egypt up to this Ibn A'sdkir records on the authority of Tarik-b-Shihab* that he said. Nawawi.' " Al Bayhaki records in the Proofs on the authority of Abu Hudbah al Him§i that he said. ho would say. H. if there was a man who knew a " if a * ' ' falsehood when it was spoken. On some particulars of " his character. was generally known as al Ahnaf or the Clubfoot. aged eighty-one. al ' Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of said. not receiving with favour the beneficent among them.' "' I observe that he referred by al to al Hajjaj.' then as he continued the conversation. when there passed by a slave * Abu A'bdu'Uah. 174 (790) or some say A. it was Omar-b-u'l Khattab. and when he came to the salutation. H. Ahnaf-b-u'l KaysJ that he girl. and he wenj} forth in a violent anger and prayed. except what thou didst command me to withhold. He was a native of Kufah and died there in A. D. Ghafiki. and fought in about thirty or forty expeditions under He was bom before the risa Abu Bakr and Omar. therefore put thou confusion upon them. all that I said to thee was the truth. 772) and removed from ofSoe A. He was appointed Kadhi of Old Cairo by Jaa'far al Manjur A. cubits in a single night . and place over them a youth of the Banu Thaklf who may rule over them after the manner of the rule of ' the time of Ignorance. verily they have put confusion upon me. i Abu Bakr ad Dahhak-b-Kays (a different person from the one who fell at Marj Kahit) surnamed at Tamimi.

'shaU I eat of good things during my life in this world. against the needy. and seek enjoyment in them. " whereon Yarfa§ reputation for aouteness. as he were angered.E 132 1 and tliey said. but I have left my two Companions upon a road. Beyond it this I mah-b-Thabitt says. " yes. 67. % § An Nawawi." A'krimah-b-Khalid and others narrate. that. that am but a man among the Muslims. • /. was one of the Auxiliaries." Al Hasan states that Omar went in to his son A'asim who' was eating flesh meat. and my sustenance and that of my family is like to the Lord. what then is lawful to him of the property of the Most High God ?' He replied." fish Aslam mentions that man that he should eat all Omar said. it would confirm thee in maintaining the truth:" he exclaimed. that he should not ride a fine him and make nor eat conditional palfrey. and at SifFin whore he himself was killed A. she not a concubine of the Prince of the Faithful and is not lawful to him. " a craving for fresh mounted his hath come upon me. learning and prudence. used for the benefit of all the Muslims. and what may enable him to perform the pilgrimage and the religious visitations. " I understand your counsel. nor close his doors ." He continues. delicacies. verily she is the property of the Lord. H. verily punishment would come upon him." He replied. but unto that of a man of the Kuraysh. nothing is lawful to Omar of what belongeth ' ' two garments. and was present with A'U at the fight of the Medina. neither butter nor fat. " if thou wert to eat good food." Omar retorted. I shall not find them at the journey's end.The notice of his life in Ibn Khali will repay perusal.' is And Omar exclaimed. H. if Kufah about A. " and a dearth fell upon the people. " are ye all of this opinion ?" They said. His daughter (wife of Muljammad) The frecdman of Omar. that HafsahJ and A'bdu'llah and some others expostalated with Omar and said. neither the richest nor the poorest of them. and he exclaimed.' Khuzaywhen Omar appointed a ruler. The State Treasury. " what is this ?" He replied. 37. " I had a great craving for it. Camel. He died him. he had one hundred thousand of to share his anger without asking him the reason of it. + Abu TJ'm&ah Khuzaymah-b-Thabit. for if he should do this.'* Then we said. and a native of Surnamed also Khatmah. Mu'iwiyah's at sister said of the tribe of Tamim Hia influence was such. be would write to upon him. and if I depart from their road." He adds. from his once smiting a man on the nose (/th^) He fought al Badr and other battles." Ibn Abi Mulaykah narrates that U'kbah-b-Farkad spoke to Omar about his food. " dost thou eat everything thou hast i craving for ? It would be sufficiently immoderate in a that he desired. ' she ' is the concubine of the Prince of the Faithful. a garment for winter and a garment for summer. his son. and he eat that year. e. "fie on thee. verily. and he exclaimed. : A'bdu'Uah was . nor clothe himself in garments.

He died A. " the stomach of Omar used to rumble from eating * About 80 lbs." [ 133 ] camel and rode four miles on and four miles back and purcliased a basketful of a miktal weight. and he ! this straw O ! ! — ' ' own property. ' would that I were would that I were nothing would that my mother had not borne me !' " And U'baydu'Uah-b-Omar-b-Hafs. " I entered an enclosure and I heard between him there was a wall" " Omar.* and brought it it.' Omar —no. " upon the face of Omar were two dark furrows worn from weeping. son of al Khattab. ' camel and washed down and repaired to Omar who it ' come." was Caliph. a kinsman of Omar's went to him and it. that I may see the camel. and his father was a Companion of note." And al Hasan. son of al Khattab.t " I made the pil- grimage with Omar. and I wished to abase garding it. that Omar when he was Caliph." And an Nakha'i. that they with leather. used to wear a garment of woollen stuff patched partly with leather. H. t Descended from A'nz the son of "Wail and a confederate of al Khattab the father of Omar. or ! ! — Omar say — and between me and He will surely punish thee !" And A'bdu'llah-b-Aamir-b-Eabii'h. four patches in his shirt. and then betook himself to his said. " I And might make use of them. and mat of dressed skin upon a bush — and seek shelter beneath it. 85. An animal hath been punished to serve the appetite of of thy basket. " Omar-b-u'l Khattab carried upon his neck a skin of water. and would wander through the streets with a scourge over his shoulders with which he chastised the people. An Nawawi.' besought him to make him a grant from the public treasury." And Anas. nor one of wool he would throw his cloak. and he said And Muhammad-b-Sirin. Omar shall not taste Katddah says. but Omar reproved him and said. he would gather them up and throw them says. ' . " I saw upon Omar a nether garment patched into the houses of people. prince ?' and he bestowed upon him ten thousand dirhams from his Omar take up a straw from the ground.' and he looked upon is gotten to cleanse this sweat that and exclaimed." And A'bdu'llah-b-Isa. Anas saw between the shoulders of Omar. by Allah. thou must fear God. and would fall down in a faint so that it would be some days before he recovered. He was born four years before Muhammad's death. thou hast forunder its ear. " Omar used to carry on trade while he And Anas. and people expostulated with him remy spirit made me vain." And A'bdu'llah-b-A'amir-b-Eabii'h. and he erected neither a tent of goat's hair. " I saw said. and passing by bits of rag and dates. " Omar would come to a verse of the Kuran of his daily recitation. dost thou wish that I should meet God a faithless. Prince of the Faithful good by Allah." Abu Othman an Nahdi.

tall. when verily. a member of the tribo of Asad and a native of Kufah. and with^ the other hand holding his own ear. but he restrained himself ' ' from what he sought to do when God was mentioned to him or the fear Bilal of God put into him.' And Ibn Omar. until the people have the ' means of living. al Hakim record on the authority of Zirr." Ibn Saa'd states on the it authority of Ibn Omar that the latter was describing Omar and said.[ 134 ] oli^re oil in the year of destruction.f that ha went forth with the people of Medina on a festival day. if thou art by him when he is angry. " he was a man fair of complexion. D 701). bald. but he refused to eat them and said they are both delica' ' ' ' Ibn Saa'd gives all these details and records on the authority of al Hasan that Omar said." * The 17th year of the Flight in which men and cattle perished in great numhera.' and Eilal said. I saw Omar the son of al Khattab take a horse by the ear. — was that Zirr saw him in the year of destruction." And from Salimah-b-u'l Akwaa'. in a passion." Al Wakidi observes. The word comes from ^Ujj ashes heing thus called. tall and towering over the people. " Omar was ambidexter. and he tapped his stomach with his finger and said verily there is nothing else for us but that. and I saw Omar walking barefoot he was advanced in years. that some flesh-meat was brought to Omar dressed with butter. what do you think of Omar ?' He replied.' Aslam says. bald and grey. Lane. a ruddy tint prevailing. or a man read him a verse of the Kuran. Ho died at a very advanced age A. " it was not known to us that Omar was tawny coloured. is he who discovers to me my faults. that is. Hubaysh-b-Hubdsa. leap upon the back of the horse." And from U'bayd-b-U'mayr " Omar used to overtop the people in height. his colour might have altered while he eat olive oil. Do K.' Al Ahwas-b-Hakim narrates on the authority of his father. it is a fearful thing. The simple way by which I govern the people" is that I frequently change their rulers.' ' On Ms Ibn Saa'd and said. the most beloved of men to me. . . Ho was a great master in the art of reading the i^urdu and celebrated as a philologiSr. " I appearance. thou hast but to read the Kuran to him until his ^anger departs.' And Sufyan-b-U'aynah narrates that Omar said. unless . that he could use both his hands equally well. he is the best of men. I. I never saw Omar.' cies. Slano.' said to Aslam. — t Probably Abu Miriam Zirr. but when he is angry. H.* and verilj he had forbidden himself the ' use of butter. hecause the earth became like ashes by reason of the drought. of a tawny colour a left-handed man. 82 (A.

% Hieromax. p. and that was in the in month of Safar. Omar assembled the people for the prayers called at Tarawiht (al A'skari in the Awail). stout. Damascus was taken. it is recorded with various ascriptions. . his moustache large. See an Nawawi. Omar. H. 21. and victories : In the year 15 A. which loses itself in the Jordan below the lake of Tiberias. H.) the same. says Yakut. was Hantamah. the whole of the country of the Jordan was subdued by force of arms. § Ibn Abi Wakkas. a stream formed by the springs of Mount Hermon. partly by convention. In the year 16 A.[ 135 ] Ibn A'sakir records from Abu Eaja al U'taridi that he said. Art. and this was the first congregation assembled in Irak. Ms OalipTiate. very bald. of Jumada'l Akhirah. no less than a hundred thousand it is said. H. occurred the battles of Yermuk J and Kadisiyyah. the thirteenth year of the Plight. tall. partly by force Emessa and Baa'lbek* by convention. Omar was on the day of the death of Abu Bakr and that was on Tuesday. H. from the excessive \ (JU. both by force. D. t See ETote. with scanty hair on the it cheeks. elected to the Vicegerency were numerous during his time. In the same year was the battle of Jalula^ of Khusrau was defeated and fled to Eai . save Tiberias which was taken by convention and in (Ibn Jarir. having fallen. Az Zuhri says that A. the daughter of Hisham b-u'l Mughirah. the 22nd. In the same year. and in the latter. " Omar was a man. and assigned allowances according to priority of merit. He assumed the Caliphate according to the bequest of Abu Bakr in A. which Tezdajird grandson captured and Takrit was • According to Taktit." In the history of Ibn A'sdkir. al || Ahwaz was taken and al Maddin.) number of the slain. very ruddy. H A river that flows through Ba'kuba. Saa'd held the Friday prayers in the hall of Khusrau. Juraada'l Akhirah. and Basrah and UbuUah. and where the Persians were defeated with great slaughter. (recorded by He directed the government with the most complete success al Hdkim). and Omar established stipends for . The river II took its name of Jallila. the pronunciation of this is »-*^"^ — Ba'lubakka. uncle. that the mother of Omar-b-u'l Khattab. 13. On. 634. During the same Saa'd§ founded Kdfah. and sister of Abu Jahl-b-Hisham thus Abu Jahl was his maternal . In the year 14 A. and the ends of reddish. the soldiers and instituted the registers.

and Kirkisiyah by treaty. Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Niyar al Aslami. H. Ya^tit. J This word in the original should be spelt with a (j° instead of a jj» § Gibhon places the complete conquest seven years later under Othmto. 7. '^\sxB. and Harran and Nagibin and a part of Mesopotamia by force (though some say by convention). took_place A. Jundaysabdr was occupied by convention. and Omar expelled the Jews from Khaybar and Najran and apportioned Khaybar and Elura among those who had been present at the eacpedition. Egypt was conquered by force of arms. by is Muhammad Yalfut.[ 136 ] Omar marched and took Jerusalem. districts. and lifted up and . H. CsesareaJ was overpowered. and Mosal and its adjacent . the amanuensis of II Muhammad. ' God Thy send prophet. and preached at al Jabiyah* And in the same Kinnasrin was taken by force of discourse. and Aleppo and Antioch. his famous arms. A. In the year 17 A. H. Ali-b-Eab4h says that the whole of Mauritania was won by force of arms. t The freedman of MiBwar-t-Makhramah. and ! Omar I implore down rain upon us and the heavens poured down rain upon them for days. the Companion. The expedition directed lands. 638.' said. and a famine occurred in Hijaz and it was called the year of destruction and Omar through the merits of A'bbas prayed for rain for the people. For the apportionment of the my authority . that with the exception of Alexandria which was taken. H. And from Ibn A'unf it that he said. this the Persians were unable to muster an army also Barkah : and other places. f "Wadi u'l between Tayma and Khaybar. 227.. is The present Shiister in EJiuzistSn. Omar ejoJairged the mosque of the prophet. that Thou wilt cause this took the hand of Thee by the uncle of drought to pass away from us. the conduct of the invasion being entrusted to the foster-brother of the Caliph." year al and they did not quit the place till it rained.§ Tustar|| was also taken possession of. H. A pestilence also occurred at Emaus Edessa and Sumaysat were taken by force. In the year 19 A. A'bdu'Uah-b-Saa'd. * In the province of Jaydlir in Palestine — Omar's discourse will be found in the Futuhu's Shiim of al Azdi. the Era of the Flight was adopted by the advice of A'li. 17. A. H. that forth to pray for rain he appeared with the mantle of the Apostle of when Omar went God upon him. " Abbds. though it is In the year 20 also said. and Nahdwand. p. In the year 18 A. and Manbij by treaty andSanij by force. During the same Ahwaz was taken by treaty. D. Alexandria was taken by storm. A.''^ Wadi u'l and after In the year 21 A. and Hulwan by force. the whole of Egypt surrendered under convention. In the month of Kabii' u'l Awwal. In : the same died the Eoman Emperor {Seraclius).. H.

for he was a blacksmith. whom when he died. He. " how Abu Salih as Sammanf can martyrdom be mine.[ 137 ] In the year 22 A." and the month of Du'l Hijjah did not elapse before he was slain. K. a youth. then the is to be determined by consultation among those six with the Apostle of God. De is. wrote to him and mentioned to him that he had with him. and Dinaur. others say A. " I beheld a Omar said." (al Bukhari). and indeed the Lord will not neglect J Vicegerency His faith and His Vicegerency.* he made his camel kneel in the watercourse and throwing himself backwards. and Hamaddn cap. and asked his permission that he might enter Medina. take me therefore to thyself while as yet I have not fallen short of duty nor exceeded due bounds . and Makrdn of the mountainous districts. a cunning workman. And some who enjoin me to name a successor. (al my Hakim) (3rd November 6di4). was a Medina A. t ia Abu Salih as Samman named I. went to Omar called * The return from Mina to Mecca during the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. and exclaimed. Towards the after his return close of the year occurred the death of our prince Omarj from the pilgrimage. tured. 22. and grant that my death may be in the city of Thy Apostle. Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab says that when Omar returned from Mina. aSCJI+jI fA/iJ. he being martyred. give me for my portion. II. martyrdom in thy cause. lifted up his hands to heaven. approved"- (al Hakim)." He replied. and added that he was a master of several trades profitable to the people. to enter Medina. Az used not to suffer a captive who had reached the age of puberty. " vision as if a fowl had struck me with its beak one or two blows. and al Mughirah put a tax§ upon him of one hundred dirhams a month. H. i^\ ^Ji l-oj that ho was to pay that sum to his master from his earnings. surrendered under convention. That II.. H. narrates that Kaa'b u'l Ahbar said to Omar. and my zeal dissipated . Maa'dan-b-Abi Talhah narrates that Omar preached and said. died at Mawla X § of the tribe of Ghatfan and an eminent az Zaiyat. D. Omar therefore gave him permission to send him to Medina. and Tripoli in Morocco and Eai and A'skar and Kumas. " I find in the Pentateuch that thou wilt be martyred. but if anything overtake me. that . Masabddn. and Ispahan and its dependencies. and verily there are verily I see in it but my approaching death. however. 18 . In the year 23 A.' Compare Kur. 642-3. also Dhakwan and sumamed Traditionist. 101 (719-20). but al Mughirah-b-Shuu'bah. Slane. I being in the land of Arabia ?" And Aslam. Sajistdn. jALdarbijdn was subdued by force. an Nafr or the Flight. H.A. "O God I am advanced in years and my ! strength has failed. being in Zuhri states that Omar Kufah. God. took place the conquest of Kirman. an engraver and a carpenter.

" verily I will retired. and while Omar was exclaiming. t There are several of this name. But the other grew angry and took a dagger and sharpened " the justice of Omar is extended unto the people. evening. "act well towards thy master. and Omar fell." After a little. " there is no harm to thee" and he answered. verily al Mughirah hath been hard upon me. The one referred to is prohahly the freedman of Muhammad. The physician who was called' in. Abu Eafi'. " get ye into your ranks. D. " the slave but now : threatened me. of whom six died. Some say he died before Othman's murder. and he drank of it and it came out of his wound. Ibn Hajr and an Nawawi. He had heen given by A'bbds to Muhammad who gave him his liberty on hearing of the conversion of A'bbas. " was not I informed thou wouldst thou art able to make a mill that that thou sayest. that Abu LuMah the slave of al Mughirah. and he met Omar and said. H. (Ibn Saa'd. was not excessive A. waited some days and then sent for him and if said. the slave of al Mughirah. save unto me." and he answered. and complained of the severity of the tax." it He therefore purposed his death.[ 138 1 A. and al Mughirah tasked him daily with an impost of four dirhams. during the Caliphate of A'li. therefore.) A'mr-b-Maymdn the Auxiliary narrates. They brought Omar date-wine. make a said mill for thee that Omar its to men shall talk about. others.t states. al Mughirah regarding it. departed indignantly murmuring. he stabbed him with three blows. of whom six died. . before the takbir is said. having haft in the middle." the slave and poisoned went and stood over against Omar in the rank and smote him in the shoulder and in the side. and remained there until rousing the people to prayers. told him he could not live till the > . was decisive in regard to the woimd being mortal. and it. and when he was suffocating in it. hut Omar replied that the tax Omar he. and he wounded thirteen men with him. 643. 23. that will grind by means of the wind ?" He looked upon Omar sullenly and said. struck Omar with his doublebladed dagger. and and all it was the intention of Omar to speak to said. Abu Lliliiah* took a double-bladed dagger. but it could not be distinguished ^rgm ike blood. " if there be harmj in being slain. and it came out of his wound. that Abu Luliiah. and hid in a corner of one of the^recesses of Omar came forth when he drew near him." The people then began to * The slave's name. and they said. used to make miUs." the mosque before day-break. and a man of Irak threw a garment over him. therefore speak to him. and wounded together with him twelve men. why then I am slain. A'bdu'r Kahman-b-A'uf read prayers before the people from the two shortest Suras. t In other narrations given in the Kitab u'l Iktifa on the authority of A'mr-bMayytin the outflow of the milk from the wound. and the sun being about to rise. Omar was carried to his family. he slew himself." when he those that were about him. they therefore gave him milk. " O Prince of the Faithful.

23. see what debts I owe . see Lane ^U. X This is made clear from the Kitab u'l Iktifa." "make a testament. nothing due by of me nor to me." but lie said " yet. they were to enter and slay them. A'bd'ur Eahman-b-A'uf. and if by that time their deliberations were not satisfactorily concluded. and appoint a successor.'' and they computed and found them to be eighty-six thousand Mrhams. . Omar asketh leave -that he may be buried with his two Companions.' then Omar praised the Most High God.t and verily. assuredly I would ransom myself therewith from the terror of the day of resurrection. ) »ih^\ but art.. " let A'bdu'Uah the son of affair. otherwise ask of the Banu A'di." ' ' ' and he named the six. H. then pay it from their goods. Omar ordered the father of Talhah to take fifty men and no one post themselves at the door of the house where the six were to deliberate. was content. nor the third day to elapse without the election being concluded. Go to Ayesha. and if their goods be not sufficient.* A.[ 139 ] praise him. " tliou wert such and such. Ibn A'bbas says that Abu Lultiah was a Magian. or about that. but he must have no part in the * IjlflS" iy(^ i. and that the Companionship of the Apostle God were said — a security unto me. A. saying. A'mr-b Maymdn narrates that Omar said. when he died. then ask of the Kuraysh. Omar and if be the present with them. verily she hath given permisThey said also to him sion . and to suffer to enter. I wished it (meaning the place) for myself. " A'bdu'Uah. He answered. And he said. and say. in two traditions from Simak-bHarb and Anas respectively. that he hath not caused my death by the hand of a man who professeth Isldm. may be taken as a noun of time and applied to the day of judgment.' And A'bdullah went to her and she said." Then Ibn A'bbas praised him. An effectual method of quickening the most hesitating judgment. by Allah." And he commanded Suhayb to pray before the people. the Mother of the Faithful. J This is the reading of the same tradition on the same The ^Ji referring to the praises which were being the made of him. I would that I might escape from judgment with these as a sufficiency. I have made ihe election to. it lit. prince of the Faithful.' And A'bduUah went hack and said.iJ'i lii| CDiiJ authority. A'li." Then he said to his son. and ap- pointed for the six a term of three days J wherein to deliberate (al Hakim). " if the property of the family of Omar be sufficient. D. and Saa'd. According to the former tradition. 643. but now I shall assuredly give him the preference over myself. " the place whence one will look down on day of resurrection. the Oaliphate to be determined in con- sultation by Othman. az Zubayr. in the Kitab u'l Iktifa. He added. but be " if the fulness of the earth in gold were mine. " praise be to God. the Ansars were directed to confine the six for three days in a house. Talhah. " I do not see any one more entitled to this authority than those men with whom the Apostle of God.

[ 140 ] A. on acoovint of his and oppression. " I give my authority to A'bdu'r Rahman. " yes. seek his assistance. thou do justice." and Ayesha replied " bring him in . H. died. and I commend to him the welfare of the people of the provinces. in the 35th yew of the injustice * The Flight. Musnad of It is recorded in the that he said. and I commend to him the Fugitives and the Auxiliaries. and if I put another over thee. I appoint him my death overtake me. " I commend to the Caliph after me." and Saa'd said. 23. " Omar desireth permission." and Talhah said. 'every prophet hath one in whom he confides. and people of Kdfah complained to the Caliph against Saa'd. " then those three went apart and A'bdu'r Rahman said." The narrator continues." Then az Zubayr said. I do not desire it' at a foot-pace ' we went forth with him —now which Rahmdn of you two will be quit of this affair ? and we will put it to him (and God be his witness and Islam) to consider the best among the Muslims in his own judgment. then let 643. and the Lord be my witness." Then he retired apart swore vrith the other and said the same to him." Then the two Shaykhs A'li and Othman were silent. that if God as thou well knowest."* He went on to say. fall to Saa'd. " give the choice unto me. the Lord be thy vrilt I give thee the authority. And when he and A'bdu'Uah the son of Omar. and when he received their promises. D-. " if Ahmad Omar me. but if not. and if my Lord enquireth of be yet alive. and Abu U'baydah my successor. he swore allegiance to Othman. and they had returned. " I give my authority to A'li. saluted and said. " thou hast the priority in Islam and kinship with the Apostle of witness. thou wilt hear and obey !" He said. for verily I did not remove him either for incapacity or treachery." with other similar charges. and Chnar removed him from his government and appointed in his place A'mm&r-h-Y4sir. I shall answer that I heard the Apostle of God say that he as successor Mu'adL the son of Jabal. I shall answer that I heard the Apostle of God say. I appoint . and my trusted one is Abu U'baydah the son of al Jarrdh but if my death overtake me and Abu U'baydah be dead." and he was taken in and placed there with his Companions. then let him be the man. ." The two agreed and he retired apart with A'li and said. I shall not fail ye in choosing the best of ye. Ibn Athir. government •A. "delegate your authority unto three among you. and his unorthodox manner of reading prayers. and A'bdu'r Kahman-b-A'uf said. When his burial was over. whereon A'bdu'r said. and to strive for the welfare of the people. and A'U likewise on the authority of Mm allegiance. OoUey asorilnes the removal of Saa'd to Othm&. the fear of God. whichever of ye be" named to rule. those of the Council assembled. if my Lord enquire of me why I appointed him. " I give my authority to Othman.

was a disciple of the Imam as He was of most austere life. and others fifty- which al Again. a little apart. 23. first Al A'skari says that he was the Faithful. *Ul«J| § The MS. he was and to the mosque. that Umm on the day that Omar was slain. He died at Mi?r A. I would trust him. " verily. according to some." And from A'bdu'r Ealiman-b-Yasar. and the first who went the rounds at night. — some say he was Wakidi prefers. and a Shafi'i and a native of Egypt.. H. note §."* of resurrection in front of the doctors of A. others. that Omar when dying was spoken to regarding the appointment of a successor. Salimf the freedman of Abu Hudayfab. and I could make over this authority to him. A. a Mujtahid. H. profound thinker. tpl^ iyj A^a-*! fyi i'** t Salim was slain at Tam&mah. " Yas&r" with (Bushdr) in brackets.[ 141 ] would be raised up on the day science. nine." At Tabarani records on the authority of Tdrik-b-Shibab. Muzani signifies belonging to Muzayna a well-known tribe named after Muzayna. and the first who was called Prince of the first who adopted the Era of the Flight. and the marriage limited to a term.J the impression on the signet Omar was said " Death is a sufficient admonisher. has Busbar." Ayman On the things in which he was foremost. Subayb prayed over him in According to the Tahdib of ring of al Muzani. viz. p. and if one of two men were attainable to me. Ibn KhaU. He was the author of many works. See.§ " I witnessed the death of Omar and the (His authorities are trustworthy. 98. in I can find no notice of the individual alluded any works to which I have access. daughter of Kalb. I have seen among my Companions an evil covetousness. and the * Acoording to an (i^AJ first who prohibited first who forbade the sale of female Nawawi the tradition makes the distance a bow shot. " Islam is to-day rent. sixty-six. and the and the first who instituted the prayers {at TardwiK) of the month of Kamadhan. and some sixty -one. C43. and the first who punished lampooning. and the first who who establis-hed a public treasury. and he said. the printed edition. 264 (878). to. However they both died during bis Caliphate. and Abu TJ'baydah-b-u'l Jarrab.) sun was eclipsed on that day. D. gave eighty stripes for indulgence in wine." Omar was stabbed on Wednesday the 26th of Du'l Hijjah and was buried on Sunday the first of the Sacred month of Muharram being sixtythree years old sixty. . fifty-five or fifty-four. In the same Musnad it is stated on the authority of Abu Eafi'. J Abu Ibrahim Isma'fl'-b-Tahya al Muzani. the most celebrated being the Mukhta§aru'l Mukhta?ar (Abridgement abridged) a treatise on the legal doctrines of the Shdfiites.

that he said." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Ism&'il-b-Ziyad. Cousult also Lane {jjc . " he was the first who established Kddhis in the provinces. exclaimed. * The paiticularsof this survey will be found in Yakut ait. Egypt and Mosal. the people . said it to A'li) . it having before adjoined the Temple. slaves who had borne children to their masters.[ 143 ] A. Syria. and the first who assembled first A. and what might relieve those unable to continue be necessary to aid the disabled traveller." (he and the first who said. and dates and currants.t and the religious service. and the of inheritances." used to be said afterwards " verily the scourge of Omar is more He continues. what would their mosque of the prophet and It was he who expelled the Jews from Hijaz to Syria. " may the Lord illumine Omar in his grave as he hath illumined for us our mosques. and placed within flour and parched barley-meal.* and the first who brought corn from Egypt by the bay of Aylah (Akaba) to Medina. where it now stands. constituted the poor-rate in Islam to be used unaliehably for the service of God. and transferred the people of Najrdn to K6fah. Ibn Saa'd states this in his Tabakat." (he first said it to A'li). D. first An Nawawi that it mentions in his Tahdfb. and he stored along the road be- tween Mecca and Medina. 23. and the first who founded the cities of Basrah and Klifah. He also put back the praying station of Abraham. as it is too lengthy to transcribe here. that he was the who adopted the use of the scourge. and placed in a flowrishing condition Mesopotamia. likewise demolished the it He increased and enlarged and floored it with pebbles. i^y^. and the first who who instituted the public register. to the place journey. and the and the first who made conquests.to prayers over the dead with four Takbirs. H. refer the reader to the t For the explanation of the term ^y^ I must Muham- madan Law art." them Ibn Saa'd says that Omar established raeal-houses. " may God lengthen thy life. that A'li. of Inheritance. and adds terrible than your swords. " may God strengthen thee. This is the end of al A'skari's narration. 643. passing by the mosques in the month of Ramadhan in which lamps were burning. who adopted the deviation by excess in the division first who instituted the dedication of horses for and the first who said. and made a survey o£ the Sawad.

but Omar said. by AUah. not so. and found A'mr-b-u'l ' A'as. from the prince of the Faithful?" He answered. and it is some say. " it used to be written. that Omar wished to write . " how was it in the time of Abu Bakr that it used to be written. that al Mughirah-b-Shuu'bah called him by Again asserted that Omar .' in to him and exclaimed. records in the Awail. they wished to address him Vicegerent of the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. and they said. saying.' and afterwards Omar used at first to write From the Vicegerent of Abu Bakr ?' Who then first wrote. Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. ask permission for us to see the prince of the Faith' A'mr replied. by the advice of A'li. called in his Tahdib says that A'di-b-Hatim. From the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. of Abu Bakr-b-Sulaymdn b-Abi Hathmah.' They answered." An Nawawi Babii'h. "as Shifa who was one of the Fugitive women. ' yea — ye are the Faithful and I am u'l your prince. and Labid-bto him by that name when they went you him from it.' Thus it came to be Al Bukhari records in first written. Irak. From Abu Bakr. but we have made thee to rule over us and thou ' ' ' art our prince. told me that Abu Bakr used to write. From the Vicegerent of the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. and al Tabarani in the Kabir. ' ' ' people thereof. and al A. Hdkim on the ascription of Ibn Shihab that Omar-b-A'bdil A'ziz inquired A." his history on the authority of Ibn Mu- sayyab that the who adopted the usage of dating was Omar-b-u'l Khattab two years and a half after his accession to the Caliphate. peace be to thee said how hast thou come by this name ? verily thou must explain what thou hast said. but they gave up that phrase on account of its length. ye have hit his name.' Then the other informed him of what had happened and ' ' said 'thou art the prince and we. the Faithful. D. H.' and Omar used to write. whom he might question regarding Irak and the ' 643." your prince and I am he was therefore called prince of the Faithful.' arrived at and he sent him Labid-b-Eabii'h and A'di-b-Hatim.' And A'mr went He prince of the Faithful.' until Omar wrote to the prefect of Irak to send him two sturdy men.' and when Omar-b-u'l Khattab ruled. Pyince of the Faithful. From the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God. As Silafi in the Tuyyuriyat records from Ibn Omar.' He said. " are the Faithful. They ful. this is too long.[ 143 ] On some Al A'skari accounts of Mm and Ms decisions. and he dated from the 16th year of the Flight. and before said to the people. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Mu'awiyah-b-Kurrah that he said. Medina and entered the mosque. 23. that he was addressed as Vicegerent of the Vicegerent of the Apostle of God.' Thus the letters have continued to be so inscribed up to this day.

and he was told that a bottle of it was in the public treasury. 23. but sometimes his stipend would be due.J that Omar went forth one day. Some say he died at once. and was a native of Medina. and he was often in distress. " is still to be seen outside the Gate of Mercy. and honey was recommended to him. I refrain and when I am again in good circumstances. H. others after great suffering. good circumstances. a month. but he lived much at Jerusalem and died there A. His tomb. that Omar would put his hand into the saddle gall of his camel and say. I take of it with moderation. but I doubled his punish- It has been related to me from another source. who used to write books. and complained of a sickness. and if I am in distress. that he said. as he was frequently in the habit of * He refers to the Jews and Christians." And Ibn Saa'd and Sa'id-b-Manslir and others from Omar. verily I am rough temper. and ask a loan of him. that Omar went forth one night wandering about Medina. therefore make me generous. in the position of a guardian of an orphan's property. " verily I know not any one who hath done ment. " sentence that Omar in when he ascended the God.[ 144 ] A. and verily I am weak. and he said." uttered And Ibn Saa'd from Shaddad. would go to the Superintendent of the public treasury. " verily I fear lest I may be brought to account for what hath befallen thee. and they gave themselves up to it. and the Superintendent of the treasury would go to him to exact the debt and press him. I will take it. and Omar would be evasive with him. 58. And from Ibn u'l Bara-bMa'rlir. was." And from Ibn Omar. H. If I am in from touching it. . and neglected the Book of first God. And from Salim-b-A'bdi'llah. when he was in need. an Ansdr of the tribe of Ehazraj He was present at Akabah. otherwise it is unlawful for me. " verily I remember a people* who were before ye. " I place me. therefore strengthen am avaricious." and they gave him permission. says an Nawawi. aged 75. 643. and he prayed for the blessing of God for A. that when Omar desired to hinder the people from anything. but after a little he said. D. I repay it. and he arose one morning determined upon it. He helonged to the tribe of the Najjar. therefore soften me. and he would pay the debt. t Shaddad-h-Aus the Companion." Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Ibn Omar that Omar-b-u'l Khattab. and verily I myself with regard to the property of the Lord." a thing which I have forbidden.t that the pulpit. he would go to his family and say. " if ye permit me. a record of memorable actions. X Bishr-b-u'l Bara-b-Ma'rlir the Companion. An Nawawi. Badr and Ohud and died at Khaybar from eating of the sheep of which Muhammad partook and which the Jews are said to have poisoned." one of the twenty gates of the great Masjid.

let not the Commanders of armies and divisions inflict upon any one the scourging ordained by law until he severity without haughtiness arriveth at Darbf. and his garment fell back from his and they thigh. the chief mountainous pass from the Lane. art such. t The ancient Derbe near the direction of the countries occupied Cilioian gates. thou art a monarch and not a Caliph. 23. " He said." is am A a Caliph or a monarch. till the day of judgment. into it. " this is Najran saw upon find in our his thigh a dark mole to turn al he whom we books that he is us forth from our land. and Omar was silent. and putteth them to " am unlawful use. I a monarch or a Caliph ?" and Salman answered him. ^- " °*^' This night whose stars wander in their nightly journey. too worthy of honor that his place should be taken. when lie whose door was bolted upon passed by the house of one of the her. but a monarch oppresseth the people. " I And from in^ Saa'd al Jari that Kaa'b Ahbar find thee verily the Book of God. and the people of said. "what is it?" He replied. "by Allah. women of the Arabs ^. Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Salman that Omar said to him. nor give save where it is due. posted at one of the it. by Allah. and when thou they will continue to rush headlong. a difference between the two. it is a prince of the Faithful. and taketh from this and giveth to that :". ' and thou. for I have none with whom I may And. I know not whether terrible thing. who keepeth ward : Over our souls. and she was saying. to his He therefore wrote prefects in the field that no one should be for . and whose recorder never is negligent. : fear of the And my Lord and shame hindereth me husband. ' this authority cannot be rightly conducted except by and leniency without weakness. thanks be to God. " if thou tax the land of the Muslims in dirhams." " a Caliph doth not take save lawfully.! [ 145 ] doing. were there no God whose issues were to be feared I fear a Watcher. hindering the people from falling into diest. detained on military service against the enemy more than four months. " now. gates of hell. lest rage inspired ly Satan induce him to desert to the * Hakam-'b-H'mayr al Thamali.* that Omar wrote. " my Shaykhs told me that Omar said. that Omar Omar took warning said. is wearisome be merry. And But The keeps me sleepless.' " Ibn Abi Shaybah records in the Musannaf on the authority of Hakamb-TJ'mayr. by the Arabs into the Greek Empire. that he narrates. less or more. there speaker said to him. And from I Sufyan-b-Abi'l A'rja. Thamalah is a branch of tlie tribe of Azd Ibn Hajr has little to say of bim but that he was present at Badi and that his traditions are not to be relied upon. 19 ." and by it.H." said to Omar." And from Abu Maa'shar. if I be a monarch. And from Ibn Masaiid that Omar was riding a horse.

" And from Ibn Omar.' and Omar accordingly took that.de the pilgrimage and spent during his pilgrimage sixteen dinars." A'bdu'r EazzakJ records in his Musannaf on the authority of Katadah and as Shaa'bi. then it green like the green emerald. the prince of the Faithful. 23. into the most delicious honey-cake that is eaten. saying. Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Ibn Omar that Omar issued an among them being Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas.' " &c. and a store for the traveller .H. pretend that thou hast with thee its a tree. And from as Shaa'bi. t Prohahly A'hdu'r Eazzak as Sandni one of the most celebrated traditionists of People travelled to Yaman from all parts to hear him." Whereupon Omar wrote to him. that wrote down the amount of his property. and he sent to the Companions of the Apostle of God and took counsel of them and said. It sproijteth like asses' ears. like a red ruby. . that the messengers Roman Emperor wrote to Omar saying. the same which the ' in the sight of dust. and in accordance therewith they wrote the amount of the property in their possession and Omar shared their property with them. " verily my who come to me from thee. besides God. order to his prefects. I.t 4. verily I have diligently employed myself in this authority. effrontery of the Arah are only to he matched hy the mendacity of the narrator. 211 his age. it put forth leaves and The stupidity of the Eoman and the fruit'that she might gather and eat. Died A. I have been wasteful of this money. which in nature has none of the qualities of a tree. and he said to Ms son " O A'bdu'Uah. Omar ma. now if my messengers have spoken truly then I cannot think this tree to be other than one of the trees of paradise. ' morning and evening that food. (826-7). God is as the likeness of Adam : He created him out of the (Kur. and though a withered trunk. what therefore Hunayf t ' do I deserve from it ?' And A'li said. K. for. and and turneth. XIX. III). Next it drieth up and becometh becometh becom. H. " From the servant of God. infidels. thy messengers have spoken Lord caused to Therefore fear God and sprout* for Mary when she bore Jesus her Son. as Shaa'bi. verily the likeness of Jesus verily Eoman Emperor is — This tree which we possess. " Omar remained some time without supporting himself from the public treasury until poverty thus came upon him.eth the preservation of the dweller in his house. next it then it turneth ruddy ripeneth and cometh to maturity. D. that a woman went to Omar and said. then it openeth put like a pearl. assume not Jesus to be God." 146 in his 1 Ibn Abi Hatim records Commentary on the authority of A. De Slane. 643. t to One of the Companions helonging to the AnsSrs. Omar when he employed a prefect And from Abu Imamah-b-Sahl-b- that he said. and took half and gave them half. to Caesar the truly.. " my husband rises * This was a certain palm tree which the Muhammadan tradition supposes Mary have leaned upon for support. Kur.

t therefore put up with what she does And from A'krimah as long as thou seest no unsoundness in her faith. J Bom A.' b-Khalid. and Omar smote him with his scourge until he made him cry. and call not a road Sikkah. ' give not as names al Hakam or A'bdu'l Hakam. told me that while Omar was wandering ' about Medina." And from Ibn Jurayh* that he said. so much when I ask for anything I want. said." that she has not her share of " then if her husband's society. and wrote that the troops should not be kept on service more than four months. A'bdu'l Malik-b-Jurayj. pTior for a woman amongst the unpolished sons of the desert.' and he sent for him.' And from Layth-b-Abi Salim that a certain tribe. 643.' "J * The MS. 23." slie complains of him !" and Omar said " verily thou hast A. ' thou goest only after the Thereupon A'bdu'Uah-bupon whom be peace. ' God whose And Omar thou hast sent him. and A. the Lord hath permitted to him four wiyes.— 147 ] [ in tbe night to pray and praised thy husband highly. hast thou not heard that Abraham. books. and to her of every four days. like there is not !' were there no fear of exclaimed. for verily. that a son of Omar's went to him. t Meaning that she was crooked by nature and hard. " one whom I can believe.' ' Musa'dd said to him. 149 (766). and I pine for ?' He said. judge between them. And Omar said. ' God forbid !' Then he for restrain thyself. husband on service for some months. and of every four nights one night." And from Jabir-b-A'bdi'Uah that he went to Omar complaining to him of the treatment he had met with from so that his women. dost thou desire to do evil She replied. ' ' Omar is said. He was a native of Mecca and a member by adoption ' H. H. I find the same. and put on fine garments. I saw that his spirit had made him vain. has Jurayj and not Jurayh as in the printed text of Jurayh. 80 (699-70). complained to the Lord of the temper of Sarah. H. " how ?" He replied. A crooked rib' is a meta- The only reason I can suggest for this prohibition is the tradition c*«k. and Omar girls said " verily. and he had anointed and combed his hair. he heard a is woman say The night it wearisome and its bounds gloomy And And ' hath kept me sleepless while I have no friend with whom to be merry. — find for his learning and it is said that he was the first after the promulgation of lalim of the who composed Kiiraysh. and Haf sah said to him. I can no mentioit. according to Ibn Khallakan was celehrated . strike him ?' and I wished to abase it within him." He said. of my wife says to me. Whereon Kaa'b-b-Siwar exclaimed. j U> . and it was said to him verily she was made from a rib. a messenger shall go to him. " but A. prince of thou thinkest that." He answered. D. why dost thou He answered.' my ' ' what is the matter with thee ?' She replied. " she means fasts all day. one day. watching for them. " the Faithful. for the Lord the only ruler (Hakam).

andthat I were not a mortal man. " it is the pulpit who hath counselled thee to no one counselled him to this of thy father.* that Omar Ibn u'l Khattab was preaching from the pulpit. for he hath said truly that authorities are trustworthy. that at the first discourse that Omar preached." said.'l "The ploughshare enters not the abode of a people. * Abu'l Bakhtari Wahb-b-Wahh of the Kuraysh and a native of Medina: he removed from Medina to Baghdad under the Caliphate of Harun ar Rashid. and may the Lord have mercy upon rith that me and ye. " verily they will never agree. men of power and him • increase of benefits. " verily I am tried with^e and ye are tried with me. " Omar replied. and he who doeth well. and that I were not a mortal man. and as to those who are away from us. and then said. D. 200 (815-16) under the Caliphate of al Mdmtin. I would I were a tree by the wayside." And Omar said. And Ibn Saa'd from al Hasan. he praised God and glorified Him. but notorious as a fabricator of traditions and Ibn l^anbal ctilUi him a liar. but they become abased " The same word signifying. when a looker on exclaimed. not the pulpit of this ?" my father. " come down from the pulpit of my father !" and Al Bayhaki records in the Shaa'b u'l Dhahhak that Abu Bakr said. " a ploughshare'' and " a road. . son) I vsriU assuredly " hurt not the son of my brother. " by Allah. so that when I became as fat as could be. we will give and whoso doeth evil. trust. —but (turning to Ms and Omar it is make thee smart. that with the introduction of agriculture begins the extortion of orulers." Omar might have held its use as of ill-augury to his people. 23. The real meaning of the tradition however is. and eat me. O traitor. Fmain on the authority of ad by Allah." And from Jubayr-b-u'l Huwayis Omar took counsel of the Muslims regarding the establishing of registers and A'li said to him. we will punish. and they might kill me for them. '' would that I were a ram. bhat my people might fatten me as it appeared goad to them. regarding it.) the pulpit of his father. that Omar and Othman were disputing on a certain point among Al Khatib themselves. we have appointed over them as rulers. and I have followed as Vicegerent among ye after my two Companions^ As to those who are with us. then cast me forth as ordure. when al Husayn the son of A'li stood up against him and said." in his (The Euwat (narrators') records on the authority of Abu Salamah-b-A'bdi'r Eahman and S'aid-b-u'l Mussayyab. He died at Baghdad A. He wasappointed Kadlji of Medina and afterwards removed." but they did not separate except upon the best and most admirable agreement. that camels might pass by me and seize me and take me in their mouths and chew me and swallow me. H. we have undertaken their affairs in person. He was liberal with his purse. Ibn Khali. A. H.[ 148 ] A." And Ibn A'sakir from Abu'l Bakhtari. " divide every year the revenue that lyi ill (>*j'ii ^^-". those whom they loved might visit them. and make part of me roast and part of me dried flesh. Then A'li rose and said. 643.

" Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Jubayr-b-Muti'm. " I A. that he said Omar was standing'upon the mount of A'rafah. Ill. and he said.* he heard a man call Caliph." And Othman and if said. saying. and when Omar looked into after it. " it verily the booty which God hath given unto them. 238-282. (and out and say. And from al Hasan." Thereupon Omar wrote to him. " dost Lord of the Kaa'bah that Omar shall never again stand in this station " And lo it was he who had called out a. belongeth not to divide Omar nor to the family of Omar.have established registers and organized armies.• [ collected for thee 149 ] and keep not back anything. the nearest the nearest. among us the day before. and the thing weighed heavily upon me. D. the great one of the three piUars stoned during the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. and I have seen that its princes. " O Caliph. that man from the mount say.Muslim who were the most skilled genealogists of the Kuraysh. or as it is vulgarly termed. they were taking provisions for the way) and said " what is the matter with thee may Allah cleave thy uvula. then Omar and his people." Musayyab. " verily I have done so and a large sum is And from over. that Omar established the registers in the month of Muharraija the 20th year of the Flight." and he replied." among down and they wrote beginning with Banu Hashim." And way and heard a ! — when there came Then I turned thou know. then followed them up with Abu Bakr and his people. verily I have been to Syria. "at the time of the last pilgrimage which Omar performed with the mothers of the true believers. " begin with the kindred of the prophet.t casting stones at it a stone with force. see that there is a large revenue sufficient for the people." And another man heard him." and he took his counsel. pp. devil t Jamrat u'l A'kabah. by the from Ayesha that she said." Then al Walid-b-Hisham-b-i'l Mughirah said to him. he said. Then he summoned A'kil- b-AbiTalib andMakhramah-b-Naufal and Jubayr-b. that Omar wrote to Hudayfah. . not keep a register so that he who hath received may be distinguished prince of the from him who hath not received." Then I advanced towards the man and called out to him. " Faithful. J The wives of Muhammad. I fear that affairs will fall into confusion. 23. Shaytan al Kabir. in the Caliphate. striking violently the head of Omar. " give the men their stipends and rations. See — Burton Vol.fter this year ?" Jubayr adds." Jubayr continues " verily the next day I was " while — : standing with Omar at al Aka'bah. — among them.! when we returned * This was on the second day of the pilgrimage called the Taum A'rafah the 9th of Du'l Hijjah. H. therefore establish registers and organize troops. they do A. 6-43. until ye place Sa'id-b-u'l Omar where God hath placed him. " write the people the according to their degrees.

§ Ezeohias. men of Badr as long as then with the men of Oliud as long as one shall be of left.' And that rider moved not. and Calamities in their sleeves not yet unloosed'.§ when T recall him. ' loj al Muhassab. from A'rafah. ^hj J/t between Mecca and Miaa. Lord if Thou knewest that 1 was just he turned to his Lord and said. 23. The ^ meaning is probably that the merits acquired by Omar iu his pilgrimage are not to be f en 1' air. A'bdu'llah once attempted to put her away at a time when divorce was not signifies ' X permitted by the Muljammadan law. And Omar returned from that pilgrimag. of the ostrich : yesterday. A'bdu'Uah-b-Omar ?" He said. but there no part in for a liberated slave. " there was amongst.• [ 150 ] A. and. And he had with him a prophet who was inspired.e and was stabbed (with a dagger) and died. make thou thy covenant.* I heard a man upon his camel A. that a man Omar. Kings iv. and I heard! where was Omar here was the prince of the Faithful . D.' " The prophet therefore told him this. Whosof goeth with speed or rideth upon the wings To overtake that which thou hast sent before thee out-stripped. nor for a Muslim said to hecome so at the conquest of Mecca. " by Allah. and then with such and such. I think of Omar. never have I desired this of God man who knoweth not properly how to And from Kaa'b that he said. I prefer to read (3^^. and when Then it was the third day he fell down between the wall and the bed. 643. will be Thou hast adjudged affairs but left behind them was. nor for the son of a liberated slave. that lacerated exterior.' surpassed." one of them is is left And on the authority of Omar them it that he said. and said the prince of the Faithful!' another man ' — ' Upon such an Imam as thou be peace and bless May the hand of Grod. "J the children of Israel a king . passbg saying. xx." And from an Nakha'i. for verily thou art a dead man in three days. . opening upon the part called it. I think of him.' then he made reply. when affairs became troubled that I followed Thy Allah smite thee ! may that I should appoint as successor a ' ! * Tte Bame of tlie way tetween the mountains. for ci^W as otherwise the CT* is left without its complement. " this authority shall rest with the . and write unto me thy testament. divorce his wife. running to and fro between as Safd and al Maiwah. and when I recaU Omar. " in government.. nor was it known who he we used to say that he was a Jinn. and the Lord inspired the jirophet to say to him. " wilt thou not name as successor. so called from the pebbles in (_j**" also Lane. H. wailing. his caTnel kneel down and raised his voice.

he will straighten it upon me until my ribs interlace. that my son may A H. and praise me not for that which is not in me. 23. and during may grow up and And when Omar was ask of his Lord. and was such and such. " be moderate in the expenses of my verily if there be aught of good with God in my favour. He is regarded as a trustworthy authority." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Ibn A'bbas that " I asked of the al A'bbas said. that he would show him unto me in sleep." life fifteen years. God. " Let him who wept. be modergrave that ye dig for me. for the Lord knoweth best what I am. A. Al Hakim records on the authority of Malik-b-Dindr* that a voice was heard on the mount of Tabalahf when Omar was slain. 64i3. he exchange what is will give nie in better than it. And let no woman go forth with me. my I have been otherwise. weep for Islam : For verily they are about to be laid prostrate." and I saw him after a year and he was wiping the sweat from his forehead and I said to him. and indeed hath spoken truly. D." enfeebled nor under me to And from if but Omar were to Omar was informed of Thyself while as yet I am not —" his people be set in Sulayman-b-Yasdr. 123 or 129. and if I have been otherwise. Lord a year after Omar died. that the Jinns mourned over Omar. for verily if there be aught of good in my favour. saying. H. take reproach. ye cast from your necks an evil that ye bear. and with my mother how is it with thee ?" He replied.: [ 151 ] guidance." who was Ibn Abi Basrah. died A. " with my father mayest thou ie rcmsomed. with God in my favour. And And the world hath gone back and verily he is wearied of it 'd its good withdrawn confident in the promise." and he said. then lengthen my life. that shroud. hasten in your going. . Ha was freedman of one of the women of the Bauu Najfah. He " stabbed. ate in my and with God reach. MaKk-b-Dmar of Basrah." And the word of the Lord came to the prophet. he will widen it unto me as far as my eye can stripping. an ascetic and one of the Tabiis. t Eight days' march from Mecca and six from Tajf. for Dunya records on the authority of Yahya-b-Abi Eashid of Omar said to his son. An Jfawawi. and verily I have added to his that there is time that his son order. Kaa'b said would surely preserve him. you will speed me on and if for if there be aught of is good good. saying. this. " verily he hath said so and so. to that which Therefore when you go forth. if He will strip me and be swift in my And I have been otherwise. grow up and my people be set in order. " it — — * Abu Yahya. and their appointed time hath not been exceeded.

and much sought He died at Medina about A. perished. He replied. ! And Say unto the hopeless and the desolate. the defence against inclement fortune a champion unto the afflicted and ojDpressed. his means of support would have heen destroyed — or his dwelling would have heen demolished. The stay of Faith. and had it not God> I had perished. H. chief al at at ThS. daughter of Zama'-h — U'waym-b-Saidah — Ghilan —and others of the Companions.: — [ 152 ] A. 643.* had I not indeed ate. and one of the Tahi'is. horseman : Distinguished in the day of battle and of contumely. afflicted in the fall of a. "twelve years ssgo. — Kays-b-u's Sakan —Abu — Saa'd-b-U'badah — Suhayl-b-A'mr— Ibn Umm Maktdm the Muaddin— Ayyash-b-Abi Eabii'h—A'bdu'r Hahman brother Zubayr-b-A'wam — Kays-b-Abi Sa'saa'h one of those who lected the Kuran —Nauf Muttalib — brother Abu Sufyan — Mariyah. and theological learning. I prayed to God that he would show me Omar in Omar in sleep and he '' ' and I saw him after ten years and he was wiping the sweat from his forehead and I said. . t Ahu Usdmah Zayd-h-Aalam tho froedman of Omar. " I heard a man of the Auxiliaries say. " how hast thou done ?" he replied. a native of Medina." Al Hakim records on the authority of as Shaa'bi that A'atikah daughter of Zayd-b-A'mr b-Nufayl said. prince of the Faithful." Among Kuhafah the distinguished people who died during Omar's time were. distinguished for his piety after for his instructions and discourses.' is but now tliat I am free A. of as Siddfk of az col- al-b-u'l Harith-b-i'l his al al of al Jartid. 23.kafi * Lit. 136. An Nawawi. what hast thou been doing ?" sleep." on the authority of Salim-b-Abdi'Uah-b-Omar that he said. D. daughter Jahsh — A'yadh-b-Ghanam Abu'l Haytham-b-u't Tayyihdn— Khalid-b-u'l Walid— of the Banu Abdi'l Kays— an Nu'm^n-b-Mukarran — Katadah-b-u'n Nu'man — Akra'-b-Hdbis — Saudah." from the Judgment and Omar would have met One who is Merciful and Compassion- And from Zayd-b-Aslam.t that Abdu'llah-b-Omar-b i'l A'as saw said. mourning Omar " Eye let thy tears and weeping be abundant ! been for the mercy of my the' And weary Death hath not — over the noble me chief. mother of the Sayyid Ibrahim — Abu Ubaydah-b-u'l Jarrah Maa'd-b-Jabal —Yazid-b-AbiSufyan— Shurahbil-b-Hasanah — alFadhl-b-u'l A'bbas—Abu Jaridal-b-Suhayl — Abu Malik Asha'ri — Saf wan-b-u'l Mua'ttal— U'bayy-b-Kaa'b—Bilalthe Muaddin— U'sayd-b-u'l Hudhayr— Barab-Mdlik the brother of Anas — Zaynab." He said Ibn Saa'd records verily it is even now that I am free from Judgment. " I have but now been freed from Judgment. Thakafi — Abu Mihjan U'tbah-b-Ghazwan. die Since death hath given us to drink the cup of dissolution. " how long is it that I left jou ?" He answered. H. father al — A'la-b-u'l Hadhrami.

H. He was Vizir to Muwayyid u'd Doulah-b- u'd Dawlat-b-Buwayh and subsequently to his brother Fakhr u'd Dawlah.f Ibn Saa'd records on the testimony of A'bdu'r Eahman-b-hatib that never saw any one of the Companions of the Apostle of God. with whom. He was one of the first early converts. Ibn KhaU. the daughter of the Apostle and he was detained from Badr through permission of the Apostle of God. when the Apostle of God died he was well content. He was converted early and was one of those called to Islam by as Siddik. Abu A'bdu'llah and Abu Lay lab. gave it more completely and excellently he said. He is therefore him a portion of the numbered among those pre- sent at Badr. H. who. her sister Muslims Umm and she died in his house in the 9th year of the Hijrah. his attendance on her. naf-b-Kusayy-b-Kilab-b-Murrah-b-Kaa'b-b-Luayy-b-Ghalib. The Munt. 39) Suyuti makes it A'bbad and I'bbad. 385 (995). Rukn 20 . p. and another on the rank of Imam. D. and she died at his house on one of the nights of the fight of Badr. stating the merits of Ali and tie legitimacy of those who preceded him. and the foremost of the Fugitives and one of the Ten to whom the attainment of Paradise was testified. one on Festivals. gives A'bbad. The Apostle Kulthum of God then gave him in marriage after her. was born in ths 6th year of the Elephant. collected the Kuran. at Badr. He was the author of numerous works. among the Caliphs. and married Eukayyah. and one of the Companions who. Arab.[ 153 ] A. and the messenger arrived with the news of the victory of the on the day that they buried her at Medina. the most known being the Muhit. The learned say that no one besides him is known to have married the two daughters of a prophet. H. another on epistolary writing. Ibn Saa'd says that the Apostle of God appointed him Vicegerent at Medina during his military expeditions to Dat u'r Eik^a' and Ghatfan. collected the Kuran. Indeed Ibn A'bbad* says that none but he and al Mamlin. a work on philology. virtues * Abu'l Eaaim Isma'il-b-Abi'l Hasan A'bbad the Sahib the wonder of his age and generosity. the first to Abyssinia and the second to Medina. One hundred and forty-six traditions are related by him on the authority of the Apostle of God. 326 (938) at Istakhar and died at Eai A. 23. He took part in the two Flights. spoils of God before the prophetic mission. + Here follows a list of those who have narrated traditions on his authority which I have omitted. with the who assigned to and compensated him. Othman-b-A'fian-b-Abi'l A'as-b-Umayya-b-Abdi's Shams-b-Abd Maal Kuraysbi called also A. De Slane writes the name A'bbad but according to Meursiugo (De Interpret. 643. when he narrated a tradition. and one of the Six. al Umawi. Abu A'mr. Born A. " I for his talents. and for that. Kur. OTHMA'N-B-A'FFA'N. he has been named possessor of the two Luminaries.

and Sunan on the authority of A'bdu'llah-b-Omar-b-Aban Jua'fi that he narrates. who hath closed his door upon the two daughters of a prophet. Thus the mother prophet." He adds. daughter Abdi's Shams. {Merits of the Companions) regarding and Ibn A.' He replied. no. than Othman-b-A'ffan.' Abu Nua'ym records on the authority of al Hasan that he said. none hath ever been united to the two daughters of a prophet from the ' time that God created Adam. when Islam arose. H. " dost thou my maternal uncle Husayn al Jua'fi said to me.* of Othman was the daughter of the paternal aunt of the * Hashim A'bdu'l Muttalib A'bdu'Uah Umm Hakim Mul. twin sister of the father of the Apostle of God. D. that he received the surname of is called so Abu A'mr in the time of Ignorance. of His mother was Arwa. " man is in the court of heaven. And on them the authority of Muhammad-b-Sirin that the most learned of after in the ceremonials of the pilgrimage.iDmmad. because we know none save him. Eukayyah bore him A'b- and he received the surname (Abu A'bdw'llah) from him. save verily he were a great fear. 6-13. Aiwa. save till the resurrection cometh called Possessor of the Othman " —for that reason he hath been two Luminaries. " verily Othman was called Possessor of the two Luminaries. but du'llah. 23. ' know why Othman hath ' been called Possessor of the two Luminaries ?' I said. daughter of Abdu'l Muttalib-b-Hashim." said. Al MaKni records on a weak tion from Sahl-b-Saa'd that he " Othmdn is called Possessor of the two Luminaries because he passeth over from one station to another in Paradise and there gleameth for him two streams o4 light. man who held traditions in A. nor shall he so to pass. Possessor of two Luminaries of —he was the son-in-law of the Apostle ascrip- God through two daughters. him Ibn Omar.[ 154 ] A. that he called was asked Othman and he his said.'' Al Bayhaki records al in his was Othman.'sakir from A'li-b-Abi that Talib. . and he on that account." And Khaythamah in the Fadhail u's Sihabah. and her mother was Kurayz-b-Rabii'h-b-Habib-bal Umm Hakim Baidha.

" And Othman said. and lo there was Eukayyah seated. that the first of the Mus- emigrated with his family to Abyssinia was Othman-b-A'ffan. that the Apostle of God said. " dost thou turn from the faith of thy fathers to the religion of an innovator ? by Allah. D. 23. the most beautiful teeth of all men. and when I returned." And when al Hakam saw his steadfastness in his faith. that when the prophet married his daughter TJmm Kulthum to Othman. A H. " didst thou go in to them ?" I said " yes ." he continued." And Ibn A'di from Ayesha." * There are three families of the Eabii'h. upon his face the scars of small-pox. his paternal uncle al Hakam-b-Abi'l A'as-b-XJmayyah. I will never forsake it nor abandon it. aAd the Apostle of God said. he said to her. having his ears hair. thy forefather Abraham and thy father Muhammad. " I find a resemblance in Othman to my forefather Abraham. broad between the shoulders. " hast thou ever seen a more comely pair than those two ?" I said " no Apostle of God. neither short nor tall." And Ibn A'di and Ibn A'sakir." — Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Muhammad-b-Ibrahim-b-i'l' Harith at Taymi. Kays and ." And from Mtisa-b-Talhah. A. lims Abu who Ta'la records on the authority of Anas. which were clothed with bald. " may God protect those two. and now upon the face of Othman. for Othman was assuredly the first who emigrated with his family after Lot. took him and bound him with a cord and said. that Othiman was of middling stature. his locks falling below dyed a yellowish colour. '' verily thy-husband resembles jnost. that when Othman became a Muslim. but I have never seen man or woreian that Othman was more beautiful of face than he. fleshy in the thigh.[ 155 ] Ibn Ishak says that hb was the first to embrace Isldm after Abu Bakr.* that he said. And on the authority of A'bdu'llah-b-Hazm al Mazini. and verily he used to bind his teeth with gold wire. aspect. among men. Mazins— those of the tribes of Tamim. inclined to yellow. he released him. full bearded. And from Usamah-b-Zayd that he of said. Ibn A'sakir records on various ascriptions. He was curly -headed. " the Apostle of God sent ! me to the house of Othman with a dish meat and I entered. and Zayd-b-Harithah. " I have seen Othmdn the son of Affdn. " by Allah. the most comely of men. from Ibn Omar. I will never let thee go until thou abandonest what thou art about. large of limb. of a comely and A'li. And I began to look now upon the face of Eukayyah. the Apostle of God enquired of me and said. fair. 643. long in the forearms.

by Allah. Apostle of God I answer for one hundred and Othman exclaimed. De Slane I. that the prophet gathered together his garments when Othman entered. O :' ' Apostle of God. died A.' and Othman called out. K.* that Othman when he was besieged in his house. and the Apostle of God began turning it over. An Nawawi. 23. S'aid. that he said. whatever he may ^o life- * A'bu A'fcdu'r Eahmfin A'bdu'Ilah-b-Habib as Sulami al Kufi was bom in the time of Muhammad. " I saw the Apostle of God encouraging the army of distress. O Apostle of God I answer for three hundred camels with their housings and saddles for the sake of God. over and above what has preceded. saying. Abu 42). On the traditions lumded down regarding his merits. He was .' and I dug it?" ' — testified to the truth of what he said. records on the authority of A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Khabbab. and the sufferings of the troops procured for it this for He furnished them with 960 camels and 60 horses.[ 156 1 A. I answer for two hundred saddles I camels with their housings and And he went on encouraging the troops. for the sake of God. " Othman will not be ' — judged whatever he may do after this. A. The two Shaykhs record on the testimony of Ayesha. he who aideth ' in providing for the army of distress. " I conjure ye. An Nawawi. H. t The army of Tabuk. This expedition against the Greeks was undertaken at a time of great heat and drought. on the authority of A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Samurah§ that Othman went the prophet with a thousand dinars. saying twice.— do ye not know that the Apostle of God said. p. He fought in Khorasln in the time of Othm4n and overran Sigistdn and Kabul. Between Jurf and ZighAbah. name. 643. and I call on none but the Companions of the prophet. X § A'bdu'r Ealimfai. near Medina. son of Samurab. He learned to read tbe Kurfa under the tuition of the Caliphs Othmlji and A'li and taught the same aoienoe in the mosque of Kufah. when he was fitting out the army to of distress and poured it into his lap. D. SO or 51. H.' Then "the Apostle of God descended from the pulpit. Omar purchased it firom the Jews twenty thousand dirhams. 74 (693-4). the Companion. stood up overlooking the hesiegers and said. " it shall not harm Othman. Died at Bairah (and some say at Marv) A. He related fourteen traditions from his master. and said " shall I ?" not be bashful before the man before-whom the angels stand abashed And al Bukhari from Abu A'bdu'r Eahman as Sulami. and the God and Othman cried out.J for him is Paradise. (See note t a resident of Ba?rah. and gave it to the Muslims." verified And from Anas and al Hdkim. he who diggeth And they the well at Etimah. H. At Tirmidi ' ! camels with their housings and saddles for the sake of prophet continued encouraging the troops.t for him is Paradise' and I fitted them out ? Do ye not know that the Apostle of God said.

verily Ofchman. I would assuredly give her in marriage to him. and if the hypocrites desire to take it from thee. " verily." Al Hdkim records on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that he said. when a man passed by muffled up in his garment. and there was with me one . and the prophet said. " O Othman. "this one shall be wrongfully slain in them. and said. Othman passed me. until not one of them was left. most resembles me in disposition. sworn to him. " I heard the apostle of God speaking of troubles that he thought to. when he dug the well of Riimah.' and I went to him and lo it was Othman. and he said. the apostle of God said. The word m^J^J is used. that the prophet said. " Othman purchased Paradise from the prophet on two occasions viz. " Give your daughters in marriage to Othman if I had a third daughter. and the hand of the Apostle of God as a pledge for Othman was better than their hands for themselves. 'this man?'' at Tirmidi and al am awaiting its fulfilment. " verily the angels stand abashed before ' — At HudayWyah. and I turned my ' ! He replied 'yes..— [ 157 ] after this day. that he narrates. I would wed them with thee one after the other." At Tirmidi and al Hakim and Ibn Majah record on the authority of Murrah-b-Kaa'b that he said." And Ibn A'sakir from Abu Hurayrah. and when he fitted out the army of distress.be near at hand. XLVII. ." And at Tirmidi from Othman that he said on the day of the siege of his house. " I heard the Apostle of God say. this man to-day is in the path of salvation .'" And Hakim from Ayesha." And Ibn A'sakir from A'li. aiid the "*• "*''' Omar that the Apostle of God spoke of dissensions and said. " commanded the allegiance pleasing* to was the messenger of the Apostle of men sware allegiance. the apostle of God. " Othman among the Companions. " if I had forty daughters. and I have never wedded any to him save under inspiration." And at Tabarani from A'smah-b-Malik that he said. he shall he a martyr his people shall slay him abashed before him. — of the angels I am Omar * who said. " when the daughter of the apostle of God died under the roof of Othman. because it is employed with reference to this occasion in Kur." And from Anas that he said." And from Ibn ' when the Apostle of God God to be. that the prophet said. perchance the Lord may clothe thee with a garment. hath made a covenant with me. put it not off till thou meetest me in Paradise. Othmdn God to the people of Mecca. and I face towards ^Ae ^ro^Ae^. " I heard the apostle of God say to Othman.' and he struck one hand upon the other.' " Abu Ya'la records on the authority of Ibn that the prophet said. alluding to Othman. is employed in the requirements of God and the needs of His Apostle." And from Zayd-b-Thabit that he narrates.

native of Kufah. D. the Musnad of Ahmad on the authority of Abu Wailf • Abu A'bdu'r Eahman Miswar-b-Makhramali-b-Naufal descended from Murrah. + Abu Wdil Shakik-b-Salimah a Tabi'i of the tribe of Asad. and the law of his apostle. 613. It is recorded in. they will assemble together in a house. Othman as they stand abashed before God and his apostle. He was bom at Mecca two years after the Fligbt and was one of the moat skilled of the Companions in jurisprudence. he praised And when A'bdu'r Bahman took God and glorified him and Othman. and Fugitives and the Auxiliaries swore him allegi- Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Anas. and there was not a man of judgment who was in private with him who held any one equal to Othman. modesty would forbid him to straighten his back. " verily I see that the people reject all but (Ibn A'sakir from Miswar*-b-Makhramah). H. therefore make not a way unto the Caliphate for thyself. An Nawawi." On Ms Caliphate. and the law of the two Caliphs after him. 79. " and now O A'li I have regarded the people and I have not seen any of them equalling Othman. He was sworn allegiance to as Caliph. An Naw. when he was killed by a stone from a catapult. and the door closed upon him. and he were to put aside his clothes to pour water upon himself. died A." Then he took the hand of Othman and said. his seat for the covenant of allegiance. that Omar an hour before be died sent to the father of Talhah the Auxiliary and said. " I swear allegiance to thee according to the law of God. " if it were that he was in the middle of his house. for as I count upon Stand thou at that door with thy Companions and suffer none to go in to them and let not the third day pass with them before they give authority to one among them. three nights after is Omar was buried. account. _3. . and it related that the people at that time were gathered about A'bdu'r Eahman-b-A'uf taking counsel with him. A'sakir from al Hasan that the modesty of Othman was mentioned in his hearing." to another said in his discourse. He was a cotemporary of Muljammad but never saw him. till tlje siege by al Hajj&j. His authority as a traditiouist is acknowledged. But according he said. and he said. H. He remained at Medina till the death of Othman and then returned to Mecca. and speaking privily with him." And Ibn A. swore fealty to him. and after the death of Mu'awiyah." it. remained with Ibn az Zubayr.[ 158 ] A. " go at the head of fifty of the Auxiliaries with those men of the Council." And A'bdu'r Bah- man ance.

Othman enlarged the sacred mosque and extended and purchased the adjoining buildings for its augmentation. " when Othman was sworn allegiance to. whom if dost thou counsel to make not a covenant mp ?" he said." then I offered the same to Othmdn and he in private. and crossed the sea with his troops. Verily I began with A'li and I said. " if accepted. Near Shiraz. Othman removed al Saa'd from Kiifah and appointed Walid-b-U'k'bah-b-Abi Muayt'. has Naysabtir.' And I it is related that A'bdu'r Rahman said to Othman I make ?" not a covenant of allegiance with thee replied. pass ' how ' did ye swear A. for it it had been taken before and lost again. and Othman placed Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas in the government of Kufah. Rai was taken. Omar to Syria at the time of its con- . " Othman. and removed al Mughirah. and with him was U'badah-b-u'l Samitf * Shahpur probatly. and the law of His and the institutions of Abu Eakr. Mu'awiyah led an expedition against Cyprus." Then he summoned az Zubayr and said. During the same Sablir* was taken." In this year of his Caliphate. In the year 25. whom dost thou counsel to dost thou counsel to " me? for I and thou desire it not " and he said. morrhage.[ '' 159 ] that he narrates. "A'li or Othman. nant of allegiance according to the Book of God. Walid read morning prayers to the people four while he was intoxicated. H.n from the pilgrimage and deputed another During the same many Grecian fortresses were taken. and we were not remiss in our duty. and Omar. 23. This haemorrhage seized Othman. so j. and he looked upon them and said. : Othman. whom dost thou counsel to me ?" He replied. Ibn Saa'd and al Hakim record on the authority of Ibn Masa'iid that he said." And he replied " in as far as " I am able . In "the same. the people were attacked with a great issuing of blood from the nose. who was a Companion." and he said to A'li. it was not my A. " I will make with thee a cove- apostle. 643. and he said that most of them were for Othman. " of allegiance with thee. I said to A'bdu'r Rahman-b-A'uf. and that was the first thing with which he was reproached in that he preferred his relations to posts of authority it is : moreover related rakaa'ts. and was called the Year of the Hethat he was detained his stead." Then he summoned Saa'd and said. D." Then A'bdu'r Rahman took counsel with the chief men. allegiance fault. to Othman and over A'li?' he replied. " whom me He " A'li . In the year 27. Tlie t He was one of the Companipns sent by MS. we placed in authority the best that remained among us. that al " shall I go on for ye ?" it In the year 26. a brother of 0thman's on the motlier's side. " if I make not a covenant of allegiance with thee.

" Ibn Jarir says that Mu'awiyah proceeded against Cyprus in the time of Othman. a woman of the Auxiliaries. is town of the name it is near Nayaabur. He died at Jerusalem and some say at Eamlah another H. and died there for the faith. Jtir was taken. H. and his wife fell Umm Haram. they are drowned. I will not set a true believer upon it. so quest to teach the people the Kuran. An Nawawi. Mu'awiyah had urged upon Omar-bKhattab the expedition to Cyprus and the neeessity of reaching it by a sea voyage." And he wrote. led an expedition against hills. D. t Aooording to Ydkut. and wealth came unto him from every side. Othman enlarged the mosque of Medina and fashioned its pillars and built it of carved stone. The prophet had foretold to her this expedition and prayed that she might be one of them. aged is 72. and many towns in the land of KhuraNaysabtir was occupied by treaty. these extensive provinces were conquered. saying. it rends the heart. " When Omar read the letter. Kiimis and Juwayn. "Verily I saw a huge construction. he wrote to Mu'awiyah. NorSpain thern Africa and overran both plains and and each man of the troops received a thousand and some three thousand dinars. daug'hter of Milhan. She from her mule. by force and and Sarkhas both by treaty and likewise Marw and Bayhak. was u'l als6 subsequently conquered in this year." saying. If it inclines to one side. or as commonly written Nishapur. if it moves. it terrifies the senses. and concluded a peace with its inhabitants on condition of tribute. DfirAhjird is near Persepolis : * An aliph omitted in the printed edition. Bayha^ comprises the country hetween Naysahflr. Within it the faculties grow are like diminishing and calamities augmenting. in Those inside it. if it is stiU. 34. they are confounded. In the year 30. Tiis fifty cubits. and contains throe hundred villages. 27. and its roof its of teakwood. worms a log. of stones. During this year Arrajan (jErghdn) and Darabjird were taken . in A. upon which mounted diminutive creatures. though some say. She was buried at Cyprus. saying. abundant was the tribute unto that he established Othman. it who say.* and in the same Othman removed A'mr-b-u'l A'as from Egypt and appointed over it A'bdu'llah-b-Saa'd-b-Abi Sarh. and Omar wrote to A'mr-b-u'l A'as. An anecdote deserves mention. By Allah. 647. Persepolis was taken by force of arms and Kasa and During the same.f When . In the year 29.[ 160 ] A. and twenty-one . if it escapes. A. " describe to me the sea and its rider. and made its length one hundred and sixty cubits and breadth one hundred and san. other places.

but those I said. 21 . D. and said. It appears incredihle that in the early days of the Caliphate such extravaexisted. says that Othman ruled the Caliphate twelve years. fully tax-gatherers eri*^~*'l context seems to refer to stipends from the treasury. property of the State. ' Jill might also mean that he caused provisions and the like to poitr in plenti. and I have taken and divided (Ibn Saa'd). it among my kindred . In 83 died Iln Masa'ud.' when Othman assumed. less of their affairs." but the people disapproved of Ibn A'sakir records. from one thousand to ten thousand is dirhams. in each " badrah. some of the who forsook him are to be excused. the governCompanions disapproved of his rule. A. gance could have it hut the lavish hounty of Othman noticed by Gibbon and gained for him in return but ingratitude and discontent. A. after another account. 650. ' how was that ment. because Othman ?' He replied. but was quelled by Othmdn. for against him Omar was stern with them. and with leniency and was attached to them. For he governed without the people having anything to reproach and he was more beloved by the Kuraysh than Omar. " I said to Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. on the authority of az Zuhri that he narrates. when Othman ruled them. the year 35 took place the assassination of Othmdn. and how it was with the people and with him. the assistance to kindred which " verily Abu Bakr and Omar have lected in that matter what was incumbent upon them. canst thou tell ' me the ma. them)."t being four thousand ounces. {Annals') Yezdi- mark In 31. H. and explained the Lord had enjoined. according to jird died. In the year little to 31. The intervening years have Abu'l Fida. and lavished on it as his kindred and family the negit it. {Sere a hiatus in the MSS. and a rebellion broke out in Khurasan. and why the Companions of Muhammad forsook him ?' and Ibn u'l Musayyab replied. 30. he treated them But afterwards he became heed- to authority during the last six years. and appointed his kinsmen and the people of his house and bestowed upon Marwan a fifth of the revenues of Africa. In Az Zuhri six years .[ 161 ] for himself treasuries and gave bountiful stipends. the Companion. to Jthe —as in Omar's orders A badrah is *^ (jyil .nner of the death of Othman. Othman was slain unjustly. and he who ' slew him was a wrongdoer. tut here the t a purse containing a sum of. In 34 and 35 occurred the seditions in Kufah against the nepotism of Othmdn.* and he would order a man a hundred thousand badras.

. And the people of Egypt came complaining against the son of Abu Sarh. had a great those affection for his tribe. and Othman wrote to him a letter threatening him in it. but the son of Abu Sarh refused to submit to what Othman had forbidden him. verily they you one man in the place of another and have claimed for him ' tie revenge for blood. The people of Egypt complained and sought had occurred on the Abu Darr and A'mmar-b-Ydsir. and the Banu Makhzum were wroth with Othman on account of A'mmdr-b-Yasir. and the Banu Hudayl and the Banu Zuhrah had in their hearts what was in them on account of Ibn Masa'ud. D. and Muhammad and those with him set forth.' demand of man among them. remained over part of it some years. therefore remove him from over them and judge between them. 35.' He replied to them. nor enjoined on them the fear of God. and and spoke harsh words to Othman. behold there came up with them a black slave upon a camel striking the camel violently like to ! . for a claim stands against him. however.. verily before this. years. of the people of Egypt that had gone to Othman complaininff. and said. therefore do them justice upon him. and they alighted at the mosque at Medina. and their confederates and those that were wroth concerning Abu Darr. the Companions of Muhammad did not approve. He office ruled the Caliphate twelve A.-ajndL slew him. choose ye a man that I may appoint him over ye in his place. there And Othman a slight towards A'bdu'Uah-b-Masa'lid. the Companionship of the Apostle of Thus there were committed by his prefects those actions which Othman. Thus he appointed A'bdu'llah-b-Saa'd-b-Abi Sarh to govern Egypt and he who had not enjoyed God. of what the son of Abu Sarh had done to them. and he scourged him who had come from Othman. And he wrote him his ' place over us Muhammad the son of Abu there charge and appointed him.' Abu Bakr. ' put to death a governor. H.' And the people pointed out to him Muhammad ' the son of Bakr. 655-6. he preferred the children of his uncle and appointed them to rule. and the Banu Ghafdr. and Ayesha sent to him the Companions of Muhammad have come to thee and asked of thee the removal of this man and thou hast refused. and let none others share with them. Thereupon Talhah-b-TJ'baydredress against him. and frequently appointed to ' among the Banu Umayyah. yet this man hath i'llah arose and said.[ 162 ] A. And went forth with them a number of the Fugitives and Auxiliaries that they see what was happening between the people of Egypt and the son of Abu Sarh. Therefore do them justice against thy And A'li-b-Abi Talib went in to him and said. favoured them and did not remove them. had in their hearts what was in them. and made their complaint to the Companions at the appointed places of prayer. Then seven hundred of the people of Egypt went forth. But when might they were at the third day's stage from Medina. and during the last six years.

and read to them the letter. and he opened the letter in their presence. but with him was a ewer in which was something dried up that rustled. I am the slave of the And a sent me to the prefect of Egypt. and Muhammad Abu Bakr led against him the Banu Taym and * The usual benediction foUo-ws this name. said to liim. but found no letter upon him. and he said. thou sent ?" He replied.' the prefect of Egypt. what is thy adveijture and thy condition ' ? for verily thou A. and they shook of it that it broke the ewer when lo ! might be cast out. but it did not come out.' prince of the Faithful who hath man said to him. but he was grieved at what they had read in the the son of letter. so they there was in it a letter from Othman to the son of Abu Sarh. and increased the wrath and anger of those who were enraged on account of Ibn Masa'ud. 35. if it please God. Muliammad here referring to the son of Abu Bakr and not to the founder of Islam. Then Muhammad assembled those that were with him ! the Fugitives and Auxiliaries and others. " I " I am the slave of the prince of the Faithful. when behold there was in it : " When Muhammad and such a one and such a one reach thee. Unto whom asked. and the people Muhammad sealed the letter with the seals of who were with him." until a man recognized " him " of Othman. Then Muhammad said to him. " to the prefect of Egypt." and at another.' He replied. as the slave art am the slave of Marwan. it is not this ' Then Muhammad the son of Abu Bakr was informed regarding him. turned back to Medina. " with a letter. who caught him and brought him before him. contrive a scheme for their death." plied. art either fleeing or pursuing. and imprison such as come to me seeking redress against thee . and set and remain in thy government until my advice reach thee. . one I want. Abu Darr. verily my advice will reach thee in regard to that matter." And when they read the letter." He with what ?" He re- answered. and they Muhammad. Then proceeded to Medina and assembled Talhah and az Zubayr and A'li and Saa'd and those who were among the Companions of they reopened the letter in their presence and informed them of the story of the slave. H. and they aside his charge.' " ' this is And he said to them. And there was not one of the it people of Medina but was wroth against Othman. " He said. who art thou ?" And he began saying at one time. they were terrified and confounded. and A'mmar-b-Yasir. and the companions of Muhammad* A. but I am inclined to tbink it has been inadvertently inserted. and he sent a man in pursuit of him. " Is the letter with thee ?" He no" whereupon they searched him. and gave it to a man among them. " slave. And the people besieged Othman. And the Companions of Muhammad went to their homes there not being one among them. D. 655-6.[ 163 ] A man who pursues or ' is pursued.

" no. " yes. H. Saa'd and A'mmar and others of the Companions. and if it be Marwan that wrote it upon the suggestion of Othman. but demanded of him that he should give up to them Marwan. and to demand the son of Abu Bakr . we shall consider what we shall do concerning Marwdn. they recognised it to be the writing of Mar- wan. " is this slave. and with a letter upon thy seal. and Ali said to him. " no. " no'' then he was . others . 35." And they kept to their houses. D. " I did not write this letter. " then didst thou write this letter ?" He said. but he refused. unless he giveth up to us Marwan. saying. " yes. he therefore looked down upon the people from above and exclaimye ?" ed." He continued. nor did I ever send this slave to Egypt. thy ?" He replied. He said. Marwan being with him in the house. Then he went to the slave and the camel. but the death of Othman —no. " yes. and he said." Now as to the writing." And az Zubayr sent his son and Talhah sent his son. nor have I any knowledge of it. he sent to Talhah and az Zubayr and all of them being men Othman taking with him the A. but Othman refused to give Marwan up to them. we will depose him. " go ye with your swords until ye stand over the door of Othmdn and suffer not any one to go in to him. that interrogate- him and be learn the affairs of the letter. and a number of the Companions of Muhammad sent their sons to prevent the people the surrender of Marwan. " I did not write this letter nor command it to he written. and they doubted regarding Othman. and we may how he commanded man among the Companions of Muhammad without due Othman that vsrrote it. who had fought letter. and when A'li saw that. " is Saa'd Again he exclaimed." nor command how is and he swore by Allah. and they were in doubt regarding him for they knew that Othman would not swear falsely. " then which could thy slave go forth with thy camel. at Badr. for a number of the Banu Umayya were wounded A'li on account of the death of it until the water reached him. for he feared death for him. " verily we desire of him al MarwAn. but it the freedmen of the Banu Hashim and was nigh unto not reaching him. A'li said it to le written." silent. " and this camel. Then the Companions of Muhammad went forth from him much enraged. And when Muhammad from going into Othmdn. thou knowing not of it ?" But Othman swore by the Lord." He said. And the people besieged Othman and prevented him from obtaining the death of a cause. saying. " Othman will not be absolved in our hearts. and if it water . 655-6. was then informed that Othman was sought. " then the seal thy seal ?" He answered.[ 164 ] A." and he said to al Hasan and Husayn. " Is A'li among among ye ?" And they said. They replied." He said. thy camel ?" slave He answered. " Will not any one inform A'li that he may give us water to drink ?" Ali was then informed of this and he sent three large leathern water bottles filled with water. save that some said." is to him.

" And Muhammad entered and seized and set him by the beard. H. but her screaming was not heard by reason of the clamour in the house. and she mounted up to the people. " stay where ye are. II). for a chief necessity to us. " if the Banu Hashim arrive and see the blood upon the face of al Hasan. said. " how was the prince of the • Faithful slain and ye two at his door ?" and he raised his hand and struck al Hasan." But there was not one of the men of Badr. and Othman said to him. wan who was inside the house. Hasan was stained with blood at his door. and smote the breast of al Husayn. then see thee." him. and they repeated the ejaculation " Verily we belong to God and unto Him shall we return" thereupon his hand relaxed set him :" him and : (Kur. 35. for verily their senses left them at the news they had heard. and an arrow had reached Mar. 655-6. could thy father him. and reviled Muhanimad the son of Talhah and A'bdu'llah the son of az Zubayr. and the news reached A'li. " that belongeth not to me.A. he Vicegerent. " is of Then the people hastened to him and we swear thee with the is allegiance. until they went in to Othman and found him slain. we know none more deserving of it than thee stretch forth thy hand And they swore allegiance to that we may make a covenant with thee. for verily his wife is with come in upon him until ye slay him. Then A'li said to his two sons. and not one of those who were with him knew of it. And Muhammad and his two Companions climbed from a house of a man of the Auxiliaries until they penetrated unto Othman. then Muhammad-b-Abi Baki. so he took the hands of two men and said to them. but the two men went in to upon him until tlW slew him.[ 165 ] that. D. Then his wife screamed. thy behaviour towards me would surely be hateful to its hold. and that the people had shot arrows against Othman. so that I may enter before ye. and they set forth. " by Allah. and Talhah and az Zubayr and Saa'd and those that were in Medina. for all those that were with him were upon the tops of the houses. and then' came forth fleeing towards 'i/ whence they had entered. and Muhammad the son of Talhah was dyed with Mood and Kanbar the freedman of A'li had his head broken. and went forth in great anger until he reached his house. for with whomsoever the men of Badr content." And the people entered and found him slain. Then saw Muhammad said to the two. and said. and slay him without any one's knowing it. but come with me until we climb above him upon the house. and what we desire will miscarry. —verily are that men of Badr. and when I s6ize him. and A'li went unto the wife of Othman " — . and he was alone with his wife. hut went to A'li and said." is And Ali said. they will disperse the people from Othman. until al A.feared that the Banu Hashim might be angered at the -condition of al Hasan and al Husayn and provoke a tumult. and Marwan and his son fled. '' verily the prince of the Faithful hath been slain. wherefore stretch out thy hand.

and I off purposed to slay him. " I laid Ibn A'sdkir records on the authority of Abu Thaur al Fahami that he went in to Othman while he was besieged and he said. Ahmad records on the authority of al Mughirah-b-Shuu'bah. when he was beseiged and I place before thee three said. when I would free one and I have never committed fornication either in the time of afterwards. and the neighbourhood of the Apostle of God. for verily the people of Syria. " a man of the Kuraysh shall be buried in Mecca upon whom he shall be half the chastisement of the world" —and I shall not be — and if I betake me to Syria. Mu'awiyah." — Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Kananah the freedman of was one of the Egyptians." first the of among them But Othman said. with the Apostle of God. I cannot be those who have succeeded the Apostle of God. but I freed a slave. forth and fight them. " he hath spoken truly." * It may moan — " I nover onriclied mysolf—nor dosivod might . I went in to him. men went in to him. and I stood from him turning in repentance to God. and Muhammad said " she hath not spoken falsely — verily. D. by Allah. — [ 166 ? ] A." and the wife of Othman said. that it — into Othman. whom I do not recognize and with them was Muhammad the son of Abu Bakr. by Allah. And A'li sent for Muhammad and asked him concerning what the wife of Othman had mentioned. that he went Safinah. I did not slay him nor hold him . and others. 655-6. " I know not . a man with blue eyes and ruddy complexion that slew Othman he was called Himar." narrates." and she informed A'li and the people of what Muhammad had done. since — —and — afterwards she — I made a covenant of allegiance with never has a Friday passed over and became a Muslim. nor have I applied my right and I never courted* hand to an unworthy use. except when I had nothing in my possession. and thou art in the right and they are in the wrong it — or cut open for thyself a door. for they will not hold there. 35. other than the door over which they stand. and verily Either go now courses . me since I — rance or Islam tle of — — and verily I collected the Kuran in the time also of the Apos- God. and thee to Mecca. " I have up with my of Lord ten things — ^verily I was one of four in Islam the Apostle God gave me his daughter in marriage died and he gave me in marriage his other daughter nor sought Jier. two A. and yet there hath befallen thee what thou seest . then I cannot forsake the city of my Flight. but he bid me remember my father. choose one of them. then have I heard the Apostle of God say. Ignorance or Isldm and never have I stolen either in the time of Ignoit. " thou art verily the Imam of the people. to shed blood and if I set out for Mecca. for surely with thee are numbers and force.. H. " if I go forth and fight. and said to her. but he brought the two within. " who slew Othman " She replied. is mount thy camel and get lawful to slay thee while thou art — or betake thee to Syria.

O God. 656) and was buried on Friday night between sunset and night-fall in Hash Kaukabf in the cemetery. " O God ! verily I have not approved. Katadah says that az — — — him Zubayr read prayers over him and buried him. t A piece of ground hought hy Othman and attached to the cemetery at Medina. " the beginning of seditions of sedition will be the life. and when he heard it.* in the year 35." And from al Hasan.' and verily my * 7. the murder of Othman.[ 167 ] The assassination of Othmdn took place in the midst of the three days A. D. It is Monday slain. was slain on Friday thg 18th of Du'l Hijjah (I7th June. all Ibn A'sakir records " I have heard that is seized with insanity. next after the day of sacrifice. and if he hath not attain- ed unto his time." A'bbas. did he attain unto his time. 12th and 13th of Du'l Hijjah— these days were so called ( (hi heoauae the flesh of the victims was therein out into thin stripes and dried in Lane. " I heard A'li on the day of the Camel say. IT. and by Him in whose hand is my coming not a man shall die hav- ing in his heart a grain's weight of the desire of Othman's murder. and my spirit revolted. and he was the first buried therein. Ibn A'di and Ibn Asakir record from a tradition of Anas transmitted uninterruptedly from the prophet. that he said. 055-6. Othmdn it and when Othman be that sword shall be drawn. . \ the 11th." A'mr-b-Kaid is the sole authority for this. on the 24th of Du'l Hijjah. and some. they would have been stoned from Heaven. and on the day he was years old. e. and they came to me to swear allegiance and I exclaimed. Others say that he was slain on Wednesday. and verily guiltless before thee of the blood of ' am Othman. he exclaimed." Al Hakim has recorded and verified on the authority of Kays-b-A'bbad ' that he narrates. " if And from Ibn the people had not sought the blood-wit of Othman. and shall not be sheathed until the is day the of resurrection. the whole party that attacked on the authority of Yazid-b-Abi Habib that he Othman were said. I mind wandered on the day of the murder of Othman. he was eighty-two also said that he eighty-six— and eighty-eight or nine was eighty-one. but he would follow Dajjal." And from Hudayfah. that he said. and in the last times of Dajjal. TaWt. and he author of traditions of unacknowledged authority. Othman having charged to do that. f\iJ!Si\ the sun. " verily liveth. 35. It is also said that he A. nor abetted it. the Lord hath a sword shall sheathed in a scabbard as long as slain. " Othman was slain and A'li was absent on an estate belonging to him. that he said. and eighty -four and and ninety. verily I am ashamed to make a covenant with a people that have slain Othman. he will believe in him in his grave.

and made fast his gate : And he knew that the Lord was not heedless. Githon gives and adds. Othmanisyet unburied. God hath continued sheathed. it is feigned that the angels were mounted infidel." A'bdu'r Razzak records in his Musannaf on the authority of Hamidb-Hilal. was al slain. that A'bdu'llah-b-Saldm went to the besiegers of Othman. Othman to death. which and it shall ' will not be closed till the day of resurrection. but they have cast forth not return to them. God. I am in fear for that Then they came ' to a determination . for by Allah. " I heard A'li say.' and swore allegiance and exclaimed. it is certain that he enjoyed the benefit of their crime. saying. it as doubtful whether he was sincere in his oppositon^^to the rehela.. smite me on account of ' God. Upon which. H. that t These reiterated asseverations of his innooence have the air of conscious guilt. and his uniting the. but surely by Allah.' "* Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Abu Khaldah al Hanafi that he verily the Banu Umayyah think that I put narrates. the people re- me concerning the covenant of allegiance . 35. nay. the sword of will meet the Lord mutilated." A'bdu'r Rahman-b-Mahdi. who fought in tha Muslim ranks against the . verily I forbade it but they disobeyed And from Samurah. and will never sheathe it from ye never was a pearance of Othmdn was slain. I re- O God. D. And Hakim on from as Shaa'bi that he says. seventy thousand. but no !^by that God besides whom there is no other said. 655-6. that he the said. verily Islam was in a strong me. " slay him not. but there were slain by reason of him thousand before the people were again united.' And from Muhammad-b-Sirin. and never were the new moons until Othman was there variations in the ap- horizon of the sky was never seen until al — prophet slain. I am ashamed before God that allegiance should be sworn to me. and verily they have made in Islam a breach by their slaying of ' Othman. not a man among ye shall slay him but he And verily.' turned. people upon owe Kuran. the piebald horsesf were never missing in battles. I did not slay nor abet. while A. five and never a Caliph.[ 168 ] A. that he said.' fortress. that to and thirty And Ibn A'sakir from Othman had two merits which belonged not his self-coUectedness until he text of the Abu Bakr nor to Omar.' which hath been done against Othman. ' Then they departed and when. if ye slay him. any more beautiful than the words of Kaa'b-b-Malik ' — elegies He restrained his hands. they questioned plied. and among troops until slain. and verily it the Caliphate was with the people of Medina. the Lord will indeed draw it. " I have not heard among the Othman. prince of the Faithful ' and it was as if my heart was rent and I Othman until thou art content. viz. but there were slain on account of him. and the redness in the Husayn was murdered. without a hand.

655-6." Thou hast seen how the Lord hath poured out upon them Enmity and hatred. And Abu ISTua'ym in the " Dalail." prayers on the Eed. and the first who embellished the mosque at Medina. A. following harmony with one another. He was the first first who gave who became impeded in stipends to tCe callers to his speech in preaching. asking the people concerning their current prices and their news. that the impression on the signet ring of Othman was. in the Awail that he. " ye people. and the first who commanded the first call to prayers on the Fridays. And thou hast seen how goodness turned fleeing afterwards From the people. " if thou didst order some of thy servants. of which he died. " slay ye them not The Lord forgiveth every man that doth not contend. that Othman performed his ablutions at night himself. Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Musa-b-Talhah. that Ghifdri stood up before Othman it while he was preaching. 35." from Ibn Omar." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of A'mr the son of Othman-bA'ffan. was the first who bestowed first gifts of revenue lands. they would suffice for thee." (Kur. On AI A'skari says the thinffs in which he was foremost. and the sick among them. and the Muaddin was calling to prayers. A^Jl. and the who lowered his voice in pronouncing the Takbir." He replied. that he "I saw Othman go forth on a Friday wearing two yellow coloured garments. and seized his staff out of his hand." said. in 22 . but after to-day. and the first who committed to the discretion of the — people the payment of their poor-rates. Jahjah hath created and completely formed his creatures.[ 169 ] And he spake unto the people of the house. " I believe in Him who al LXXXVII). D. but the Lord will teach to ye after its wont (Ibn Saa'd. the night is for them that they may repose therein. before the Lord sent upon his foot a gangrene. and it was said to him. and the prayer. but the year did not pass by. whereupon he exclaimed." And from A'bdu'Uah ar Eumi. while he was conversing.) He was the first who made: the discourse precede us. and the first who set apart an enclosure in the mosque. with the jlight of hastening winds. the first mounting is a hard task. and the first who enclosed pasturage. and the first who established a constabulary. and take his station at the pulpit. and the first who governed the Caliphate during the lifetime of his mother. broke across his knee. " no. there are yet days and if I live the discourse will come for we were never preachers.

and she was the first Hashimite woman givinobirth to a Hashimi. was the flying of pigeons* and the shooting withf crossbows. Among the distinguished people who died during Othman's time. Se was called Abu'l Hasan. whose name was Shaybah. son of A'bd Manaf. which names the prophet gave him as surnames. 35. the father of Sa'id—Mu'ad-b-A'mr Jamiih — Ma'bid-b-u'I A'bbas — Mu'aykab-b-Abi Fatimah ad Dausi Lababah-b-Abdi'l — Abu — Jabbar-b-Sakhr as TJsayd Sai'di — Hatib-b-Abi Baltaa'h —As-b-u's Samit — Harith-b- Abu others of the Companions Mundir. tioned by fell al A'skari. the son of Kusayy. the son of Abdu'l Muttalib. Surakah-b-Malik-b-Ju'shum I'yadh-b-Zuhayr. 655-6. concerning the things for which they censured him I note that there remain of the things — before that they dif- fered in matters of jurisprudence but did not accuse each other of error. in which he was foremost. whose name was Zayd-b. and Abu Turab. cords Ibn A'sakir refrom Hakim-b-A'bbdd-b-Hanif that the first laxity that shewed itself in Medina when the world waxed prosperous and the fatness of men reached its height. al Mughirah. he who spake after —Labid the poet—Al Musayyab. Thus much error. Naufal death b-'il —A'hdu'Uah-b-Hudafah— Zayd-b-i^^harijah. the following. Othman appointed over this a man of the Banu Layth in the eighth year of his Caliphate. is men- A D. . and Abu Duayb the poet. His mother was Fatimah.. H. Hutayah the poet.. that he was the first of this people family for the sake of God. A'li was the son of Abu Tdlib.— [ 170 ] A. t For ^ in the printed edition the MS. and he cut the wings of the pigeons and broke the hows. that had been converted to Islam and taken part in the Flight. Nua'ym-b-u'I Masa'ud al Ashja'i and and besides the Companions. viz. as hath gone before. that the occasion in which dissension among the people. the son of Hashim. the daughter of Asad. . He adds. A'li was one oi Vne iQn io -vihom th^ attainment of VaxzAim * For wagers. A'LI-B-ABI TA'LIB. and some accused others of was in his time. the son of Hashim. of the tribe of Hudayl. and the latter's name. ' fear lest there slaould befall him what befell first Omar.Kilab-b- Murrah-b-Kaa'b-b-Luayy-b-Ghalib-b-Fikr-b-Malik-b-Nadr-b-Kananah. has 4j both forms are allowable. The name of Abu Tdlib was A'bd Mandf. Hashim's name was A'mr. and the who emigrated with his first who united the people upon one text in the reading of the Kurdn. were.

) When at the prophet fled to Medina. in order to discharge for him certain and charges and bequests which were incumbent on the prophet. " the Apostle of God was sent on his prophetic mission on Monday and I became a Muslim on the Tuesday. and others have said that he was the first who embraced Islam. .J and Abdu'r Eahmdn-b-Abi Laylah§ read under his tuition. inclining to shortness. (Ibn Saa'd. one of the earliest converts to Isldm and one of the most learned doctors of divinity and renowned heroes and famous ascetics and most cele- brated preachers. united brother. was a native. Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab It is says that A'li received on the day of Ohud sixteen wounds. Abu Ya'la records on the authority of A'li that he said. and his services in the wars are well-known. and Abu'l Aswad ad Duali. H. of middle stature. his services were conspicuous. with a very large beard white as cotton which * filled the space between the shoulders. Throughout all these operations. 45. and then join him with his family. D. Hamzah For the took Zayd-h- Harith —and Jaa'far AU's brother. " A'li was advanced in years. The accounts of his bravery. full-bellied. very hairy. for verily the prophet had appointed him his Vicegerent at Medina. he for commanded him to remain behind trusts Mecca some days. He was A. took Muad-b-Jabal. He was the first Caliph of the Banu Hdshim and the father of the two grandsons of Muhammad. and he did so and was present with the Apostle of God at Badr and Ohud and all the expeditions except Tabiik. § t A'bu'l Aswad Dhalim-b-A'mr-b-Sufyan Kadhi of Basrah of which town he He was one of the Tabi'is and the first who gave lectures on grammar." say nine. tiie each Muhammad man taking a Fugitives and Auxiliaries in the brotlierhood of Islam. rest consult Ibn Hisham. . and others.[ 171 ] was and also testified. 655-6. and very tawny-complexioned. the queen of womankind. under that. and some say that there is a consensus for this. stout. See note % p.t Abu Abdu'r Rahman as Sulami. and the prophet gave to ca/rry him the standard on many battle-fields. His age when he was converted was ten years and some Al Hasan-b-Ziiyd-b-i'l that he never worshipped idols from his infancy. and some eight." Hasan says. 156. X See note * p. 35. He embraced Islam early indeed Ibn A'bhas and Anas and Zayd-b-Arkam and Salman al Farisi. An Nawawi. Union* A. choice was Muhammad's A'U. estab- lished in the Sahihayn that the prophet gave of Khaybar and told him that victory him the standard on the day would be at his hands. bold. and the brother of the Apostle of God in the J'raternal his son-in-law through Fdtimah. it He was one of those who collected the Kurdn and read under the tuition of the Apostle of God.

that the Apostle of God left A'li-b. what hath been transmitted concerning A'li.[ 172 ] A. so that the Muslims got upon it and took the fort. save that there prophet after me ?" And from Sahl-b-Saa'd that the Apostle of God on the day of Khaybar. and verily A'li's back was covered with dust The prophet therefore began to brush the dust from his back and to say.) The two Shaykhs record on the authority of Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas. on the direct authority of the Apostle of God. but who shall be witness for Abu Uafo . The Imam Ahmad-b-Hanbal "there hath not come down to us regarding the merits of any one of the Companions of the Apostle of God." in Al Bukhari narrates was well pleased to that the dearest of his the Adab on the authority of Sahl-b-Saa'd. H. D. Ms merit. Hasan. It was the prophet alone who named him Abu Turab. one day being angry with Fatimah. and used it as a buckler to guard himself.* that he said. but it took forty men to lift it. upon his back." (Al Hakim. " I wiU surely give the standard to-morrow to a man. he went forth and lay down by the wall in the mosque. On the traditions transmitted regarding says. "art thou not content to me in the relation of Aaron to Moses. " was an eye-witnesa. and A'li said.Abi Talib behind as his Vicegerent during the expedition Apostle of God. Abu Imamah Abu Hurayrah and others of the Companions — — — — — — — — and Tabi'is." {^Abu Turab. on the authority of Abu Eafi'. the fort of Khaybar. (Ibn A'sakir. al Husayn. one who loveth God and * " Abu Eafe" says Gibbon with characteristic humour f" in relating this story. and verily I know that we eight men same gate. father of dust.) Five hundred and eighty-six traditions are ascribal ed to him. 655-6. " me shall behind be no said among be to the women and children ?" He replied. upon all of whom be the approbation of God. " sit up. until the Lord gave us the victory. and we were not able to turn it over. carried the gateA. and that because. " A'li seized a gate near the fort. Ibn A'bbas Ibn uz Zubayr Abu Musa Abu Sa'id—Zayd-b-Arkam Jabirb-Abdu'Uah. own names to A'li was Abu Turab. 35. and that he be called by it. . Jabir-b-A'bdu'llah says that A'li on the day of Khaybar. and it continued in his hand while he was fighting. dost thou leave of Tabuk.) Ibn Ishak has recorded in the Maghazi and Ibn A'sakir. and Muhammad-b-u'l Hanafiyah by Ibn Masa'ud and Ibn Omar. and the prophet came up. at whose hands the Lord will give victory. and indeed they dragged the gate afterwards. Then he cast it tried to turn over the from him. and traditions have been related on his authority by his three sons.

signify master as % ^ubshi-b-Junadah-b-Nasr-b-Imamah as Saluli.' Then there stood up before him thirty of the people. these are my and Fatimah. " and Abu Darr and Mikdad and Salman. "Let us all together. that the Apostle of God united his Companions in a fraternal union. that the Apostle of God said. each qfall of them hoping that it would be given to him. 35. and he gave him the standard. and said. our sons and your sons. they went early to the Apostle of God. H.[ 173 ] His prophet and whom God and His prophet love. that when this verse. a friend to him." and they brought him and the Apostle of God spat upon his eyes and prayed for him. A'li this addition. 655-6. " A'li assembled the people in the enclosure I ask in the name of God. name them to us." and the people passed A. A'li is also his friend. " where is A'li the son of Abu Talib ?" They said to him. 100. said. given. t that A pool near Juhfah between Mecca and Medina so called." and in a tradition of Ahmad from Abu Tufayl* the latter says. but he said." Ibn Omar. . that he said. . Muslim records on the authority of Saa'db-Abi Wakkas. " also his friend ." verily the Lord enjoined upon me the love of four men. be an enemy to him who is an enemy to A'li . " he complaineth of pain in his eyes.-'b-A'bdi'llali one lie of the Companions. Apostle and declared unto me that He loved them." He replied " then send for him . according to it received the from a dyer Zamakshari. D. one of the Companions. According to al A'skari he took part in some of A'li's battles. Ibn Hajr. that heard the Apostle of God speak on the day of Ghadir Khumm. " he whose friend and in some of the readings there is God. befriend him who is a friend to A'li and. He accompanied the Pilgrimage of Farewell and then settled at Kufah.t what he said.'' And at Tirsaid three times). on the authority of Buraydah." They said to him. and al Hasan and al Husayn. ''A'li is among them. well as friend. the night in perplexity as to the one among them to whom it would be A. he whose God. " family. the Apostle of God summoned A'li God. . Ibn Hajr. and Ibn Majah from Hubshi-b-Junadah." al Tirmidi^ is And I have been. and be an enemy to him who is his enemy.J that the Apostle And at Tirmidi from of God said. " A'li is a part of me and I of A'li.' " And at Tirnidi and al Hakim. from the prophet. and they bare witness that the Apostle of God said. befriend whomsoever is friend I have been. " ." (Kur. the last of the Companions. And when they entered upon the dawn. verified. and A'li approached with his eyes filled with tears. H. when he arose. Ill). and said." nidi. thoir interpretation of the Mawla may tradition." ' ' — * Atu Tufayl A'amir-'b-'Watliilah. Accord- ing to Muslim died A. and he was healed so that it was as if he had no pain. " He replied. of every Muslim before the mosque." (this lie of God. was revealed. The SHias and is assert that it name of Khumm was here Muhammad preached and constituted A'li his successor by his words that follow. an Nasai.

and when I was silent. God sent me to Yaman. verily the Illiterate prophet proInised me. while I his know hand and said. I do not deviate from it. among them. ' A'li." This tradition reasonably good.[ 174 ] A. Muhammad sent A'li to Yaman to summon the people to Islam.' direct him aright and confirm his tongue. " none of the Companions used to say ask ye of me. " we used to declare cial decision. whose efforts had been unsuccessful On A'li's arrival. and the whole tribe of Hamdin wore converted in a single day. was A'li." And at Tirmidi from Abii Sa'id al Khudri that he And said. " thou art my brother in this world and the next. D. Ibn u'l Athir. " whenever a trustworthy person tells me a judgmentf And from Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. not tle of made a brotherhood between me and between any one. The remainder shortly afterward." at Tirmidi and al Hdkim from A'li. thou hast united in brotherhood thy Companions. " A'li is the best of us in judiAnd from Ibn Masa'ud. that he said. H. her. that hypocrite hate me.' and by Him who hath cleft the seed. 10. that Omar said. that he said." Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Ibn Masa'ud that the most learned of the people of Medina in the law of inheritance and in judicial And from Ayesha. she said. 655-6. Ibn Jauzi and an Nawawi maintain indeed. but hast A." not the ' office of a judge and he struck my breast with . that of A'li's. " I am the city of wisdom and A'li is its gate. " we used to distinguish the hypocrites by their hatred to A'U. " verily he is the most learned in the Sunnah that is left. that the Apostle of God is said. but not perfect. has ^i^*^ instead of ^^Jt . nor fabricated as a number of others." And from Abu Hurayrah. " by Him who none but a true believer should love me. 35. Apostle of God." Omar-b-u'l Khattab used to beg God to preserve him from a perplexing case which the father of al Hasan was not present to decide . he read Muhammad's letter to the people of Yaman. II. followed their example. He had already despatched Khalid-h-u'l "Wali'd. Al Hakim records and " the Apostle of dost thou send verifies on the authority of I said. Kamil. that when A'li was mentioned to decisions was A'li. " How is it that thou hast the most traditions of any of the Companions of the Apostle of God ?" He replied. he began a discourse with me. that they said to him.* and me —and I a youth-^to judge between them. And from Ibn A'bbas. I never hesitated in my judgment between two parties. Vol. ?' O Apostle of God. ' ' ' * In A. God. as al Hakim asserts. and. of the printed edition. TI." and the AposGod replied." And Ibn Saa'd from A'li." Muslim records on the authority of A'li that he said. t The MS. " verily whenever I asked'of him he informed me." that the best j udicial authority among the people of Medina. I have explained : its position in the appendices to the Fabricated Traditions. and none but a hath cleft the seed and created the soul.' except A'li. that Omar-b-u'l Khattab said.

while under the obligation of performing a total ablution except for me and for thee. t Kur. verifying on the authority of Umm Salmah that she said. H 35. and verily the Lord hath reproved the Companions of the prophet in various places. as ." And Ahmad and Abu Ya'la according to a sound ascription from A'li that he said. and be had pre-eminence by reason of his family connections." And from Ibn Mas'ald that the prophet said." said." And Abu Ya'la from Abu Hurayrah that Omar-b-u'l Khattab said. died A." It was asked of him what they were he replied. " it is not lawful for any one to be in the mosque. Ibn Masa'dd and A'bdu'Uah. the lord and chief of them.[ 175 ] Masriik* says that the wisdom of the Companions culminated in Omar. with three qualities. 62-3. daughter of the prophet. his remaining in the mosque while that is permitted to him which is not lawful for me. nor an ache of the head." And at TabarAni records and al Hakim likewise. XXXIII ^assm. " said. and his carrying the standard on the day of Khaybar. and his knowledge of the Sunnah. but hath never mentioned A'li save with approval. and priority in Islam. A'li. that the Apostle of God said to A'li. none dared speak to him but A'li. it would ^be more precious to me than were I given high bred camels. " I have never had a disorder of . of which had I but one. the eyes. H. " to look upon A'li is devotion. since the Apostle of God. and spat upon my eyes on the day of Khaybar when he gave me the standard. At Tabarani records in the Ausat on a weak ascription from Jabir-b-A'bdi'llah. . An Uawawi. " his marriage with Fatimah." And at fabarani in the Ausat from Ibn A'bbas that he said. " verily A'li hath been endowed. " when the Apostle of God was angered. A'bdu'llah-b-Ayyash-b'iA'bi Eabii'h says that A'li had an exceedingly biting tooth for knowledge." And Abu Ya'la and al Bazzar from Saa'd-b-Abi Wak- * Abu Ayesha Masruk b-u'l Ajdaa' of Kufah one of tlie Tabi'is. drew his hand over my face. D. that the Apostle of God but I and A'li are of one stock." And Jbn Book A'sakir from Ibn A'bbas that there hath not been revealed in the hath been revealed concerning been revealed concerning A'li. A'li. " the people are of various stocks And at Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatim from Ibn A'bbas that he ' the Lord never revealed the wordsf O true believers' but that A'li was imderstood to he. A. and intrepidity in war and liberality with his wealth. 655-6. " A'li possessed eighteen eminent qualities which belonged to no other of this people. A. He is regarded an autbentio relator of traditions and was devoted to tbe aoq^uisition of knowledge. and his being the son-in-law of the Apostle of God. God regarding any one what and that three hundred verses have of Al Bazzar records on the authority of Saa'd.

and not of free accord. A'li. " complain not of somewhat rough in respect of of God. that the Apostle of God said. " I heard the Apostle of God say. that he said. that they gave by reason of me two classes Him of a dignity that He not men shall perish is the enthusiastic partizan that speaketh in extravagant praise of what and the enemy whose hatred of me bringeth him to slander me. " verily thou wilt do battle for the Kuran. that the Apostle of God said. " who grieveth A'li. grieveth me. h. ' that the Apostle of God said to A'li. preaching and exclaimed. " the people complained of A'li. . az Zuhayr. verily he hath hated the Lord. p.' " Salmah that she narrates. to that degree that they and the Nazaranes hath not. verily he hath reviled me. D. after the departed for Mecca where Ayesha was. and they took her and went forth ' with her to Basrah seeking vengeance for the blood of Othman. Abu Ta'la of God sumHis mother. and who hath hated A'li. and met at Ba§rah. ' A'li Umm Salmah is with the Kuran and the Kuran with A'li they shall not be divided until they And Ahmad and al Haarrive at the fountain of Kauihar in Paradise. A. he who hath And from Abu Sa'id al Khudri. moned me and the Jews hated verily there is in thee a similitude to Jesus slandered Him verily. In it • See Sale. and he adds that Talhah and az Zuhayr They subsequently swore allegiance unwillingly. and he who shall smite thee. This was the battle of the Camel which took place in Jumada'l Akhirah in the year 36 A. verily he hath hated me. and Ayesha and those that were with them. for by Allah." Ahmad records and al Hakim verifying it on the authority of Umm reviled A'li. g. the day murder of Othman. 35. t See Note t. and for the sake Ibn Saa'd says that allegiance was sworn to A'li as Caliph. notes/. upon this (meaning the top of his head) until this." — [ 176 ] And kas. so loved —now Him." A. C55-6. verily he hath loved me. at Medina. according to a sound ascription that the prophet said to A'li "the most miserable of mankind are two men the fair man of the tribe of Thamudf who hamstrung the camel. The man's name Was Kedar. — — — (meaning his beard) records. This he set out for Irak. " I heard the Apostle of God say. as thou hast done battle for its revelation. page 1^4.' At Tabarani records in the Ausat and Saghir* from that she narrates. "Talhah." And al Hakim on the authority of ' Abu Sa'id al Khudri. " the Apostle said. " he who hath loved Ali.'' " kim from A'mmar-b-Yasir." and al Hakim record from A'li. in me. and all those of the Companions who were there acknowledged him. H. that he said. verifying it shall be moistened with its blood. and who hath hated me. H. verily he is^ that which is due to God.' and the Apostle of God arose among us A'li. at Tabarani. reaching A'li. ' Al Bazzar. 13. according to a sound ascription from U'mm Salmah.

A'li sent to them Ibn A'bbas.[ 177 ] slain were slain Talhah and az Zubayr and others. and he contended with them and convinced them by argument. a stratagem of A'mr-b-u'l Aas. is among the slain at Nahrawan. Muhammad said that he was diabolically possessed. but some remained firm and marched to an Nahrawan and obstructed the road. A'mr-b-u'l A'as. El-Belka in Syria. and others of the Companions were present. and they said. 36. " judgment belongeth only to God. rose against him. and they appointed two arbitrators. And the people assembled at Adruh in Shaa'ban of that year. and a large body of them returned. A'mr pleading the seniority and age of Abu Mdsa. (hence his He was found Nubian in appearname) upon which were small upon the tail of the Jerboa. A'mr declared that since one of the claimants had renounced his pretensions. H. The engagement lasted for days. lived in the time of Muhammad. and -^as noted for his exceeding devotion and piety though not a Muslim. and the men of Syria lifted up the Kurans on the points of their lances demanding their rights therein contained. Then there arose against him schismatics from among his companions and those that were with him. whose real name is not given by Ibn Hajr." together three * In the men of the schismatics. so that he bit his finger with rage and belled against said. Ibn Hajr. and the news reached A'li and he marched forth and they met at Siffin in Safar of the year 37. courteously insisted on his initiating the deposition. Then there gathered A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Muljam al Mu- district t This person. and Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas and Ibn Omar. The people were thus loth to fight and clamoured together for a reconciliation. but finding him in prayer.. and among them was slain Du at Thudayyah. A'li then went out against them and overthrew them at an Nahrawan. .and they wrote between them a document to the effect that they should meet A'li appointed Adruh* and consider concerning the govThe people then separated and Mu'awiyah returned to Syria and A'li to Kiifah. thirteen thousand. forth for Kiif ah. which having been done. and he said to have resembled a ance with one breast like that of a hairs like that woman .t and that was in the year 35. 650-7. Abu Musa al Asha'ri. A'mr cunningly gave precedence of himselfj to Abu Miisa who spoke and deposed then A'mr spoke and confirmed M'uawiyah and swore allegiance to A'li him. X When the two Arbitrators met they agreed that each should depose his master." and they encamped at Hardra. and Ali thus became opposed to his at the beginning of the year al ernment of the nation. and the amounted to -^-A-. " I have been re- and Mu'awiyah is submitted to. and Mu'awiyah. After this Mu'awiyah-b-A'bi Suf yan and those that were with him in Syria. The people separated upon this. the best course to pursue was to confirm the other which was accordingly done. and then proceed to adjudicate their respective claims. withdrew. and Abu Bakr and Omar went into hia house to kill him. 23 . and A'li remained at Basrah fifteen nights and then set B. Companions.

give in exchange be- tween me and them their good to me. and Ibn Muljam arrived at Kufah. and entered into a covenant and bound themselves by a league that they would certainly slay those three. recorded on the authority of as Suddi. and free the people from them suffice for . the 17th of the month actually fell on a Sunday. the night of the 11th or the 17th of Ramadhan. thy people. and they i^et at Mecca. call the ' curse of God. 40 is generallv was wounded. t Without details regarding the manner of it. has JUwf tjla^l which is to me unintelligible." This is the whole narrative of Ibn Saa'd. D." and A'mr-b-Bukayr said. — adds. al Bastftmi. refrain from speaking" and he him with a sword.[ 178 ] A. of oppression and contention ?' and he said to me. " sufficient for my Companions. ai^^ verily he has done well in his account of this event. And A'li lingered Friday and Saturday." and al Burk it said. it is is the mention of their death. H. and A'mr-b-Bukayr at Tamimi.' Upon this Ibn u'l Nabbah the Muaddin entered. and smote head and reached his brain. He thinks it prohahle that the day of his death was ia later times confounded with that on which he was stahhed. for it is more suitable for this occasion. and al Hasan read prayers over him. side." And they pledged themselves that should be on the same night. and Ibn Muljam said. IIo explained the Muwatta of Malik to al Muwayj'ad at IbulihaU. and seized and died on Saturday night* (2lst January 661) and al Hasan. and has not amplified his narrative as others have done. upon them. " I will take Ali for ye. " I will ye for A'mr-b-u'l A'as.t that Ramadhan A. and exclaimed. for them. generknown as Suddi. " I saw in the night the Apostle of Apostle of God. and met his companions of the schismatics. and take in exchange between them and me my evil. and I said. The limbs of Ibn Muljam were cut off. 37.' and A'li crying out. Such is the only sense I can extract from the passage. and Amr-u'l A'as. i-adi. O people —to prayers —to prayers' went forth from the door and Ibn Muljam came before him. ' And A'li awoke in the morning and said to his son al Hasan. al Husayn and A'bdu'llah-b.Jaa'f a] bathed him. what have I not met at the hands of God. ' ' to prayers. but he concealed from them what they intended to do on the night of Friday the 17th of Eamadhan of the year 40. and it struck the top of his foreThen the people rushed upon him from every and bound him. A. 'O God. 657-8. " I will take Mu'awiyah for ye. stated to he the * Weil notices that thougli Friday the 17th of day on which A'li X ally Tiisi."t In the Mustadrak. Then they went each of them to the city where his man was. H. The Professor Abu Muhammad Hibat-u'UAh-b-Sahl-h-Omar.' And I said. . A'li-b-Abi Talib. and he was put into an osier basket and burnt in the fire. Muhammad has said " when my Companions are mentioned. and he was buried in the night in the palace at Klifah. The MS. Mu'awiyah-b-Abi Sufyan. and al Burk-b-A'bdi'llali at Tamimi.





Rahman-bMuljam al Muradi loved a woman of tlie Schismatics A. H. 40. Katam, and he married her and assigned for her dowry three thou- ^ D. (joi. sand dirhams and the slaying of A'li. With reference lo this al b'arazdak*

has said,
" I have not seen a

dowry sent by a generous man
!^Catam, manifest

Like unto tha dowry of

—not obscure.

Three thousand dirhams, and a slave and a maid


the smiting of A'li with a cleaving sword.

For there

no dowry be


ever so costly, costlier than A'li

And no criminal violence but is less than the violence of Ibn Muljam.f" Abu Bakr-b-A'yyash says, that the grave of A'li was kept concealed
might not dig it up, and Sharik states that Hasan carried him to Medina. Al MubarradJ states on the authority of Muhammad-b-Habib, that the first who was transferred from one grave to another was A'li. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Sa'id-b-Abdi'l A'ziz, that when A'li was slain, they took him to bury him by the apostle of God, and while they were on their road one night, lo the camel upon which he was borne, fled away and it was not known whither it went, nor could they overtake
in order that the Schismatics

his son



and for


reason the

people of I'rak say that he


in the clouds.

Others assert that the camel came into the land of Tayy, and they took A'li when he was slain was sixty-three years of the hoSy and buried it.


and some say sixty-four, and had nineteen concubines.






* Atu Fira3 Hammam-'b-GhalilD-b-Sa'sa'a, a celetrated poet of the tribe of Tamim. The anoedotes told of him are very numerous the reader should consult Ibn Khali who has a long article on his wit and adventures, the latter not very reputable. He

His surname Farazdak (lump of dough) was given him on account of his ugly face. " TJne t I do not foUow M. Barbier de Eeynard in his rendering of this passage ame, si energique quelle soit vaut-elle 1' ame d' Ibn Moldjem." Les Praiiies d 'Or.
died at Basrah A. H. 110 (728-9) at the age of nearly a hundred.

Tom. IV.

p. 428.

al Mubarrad, a distinguished gramX Abu'l A'bbas Muljammad-h-Yazid known as marian. Ha resided at Baghdad and composed numerous works on literary subjects such as al Kamil, arEoudhah and al Muktadhib. He was a contemporary of Thaa'lah

the author of the Fasih, and with them terminated the series of the great philologers.

He was horn A. H. 210 (826) and died at Baghdad A..H. 286 (899). His surname al Muharrad was given to him from his having been concealed in the wicker case of a large water jar his friend who had concealed him there to avoid an importunate visitor in search of him, called out as soon as the latter had gone, al Mubarrad, al Mu;




Who wants

cool water).

Ibn Khali.




A. H. 40. A. D. 661.

On some of the

accotmts of A'li, Ids judicial decisions and


Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of al Hasan that he said, that A'li entered Basrah there stood up before him Ibn u'l Kawwa, and 5ays-b-A'bbad, and said, " wilt thou not inform us concerning this course
of thine on

which thou goest, assuming authority over the people, involving

them in confusion ? was it a charge of the apostle of God, that he laid upon thee ? tell us for thou art firm and undeviating with regard to what thou hast heard." And he said, " as to there being on me a charge from the Apostle of God, concerning that, no by Allah surely if I was the

— —


to maintain that he spoke truth, I will not be the


to put a


upon him, and if I had received from the prophet a charge regarding that, I would not have suffered a brother* of the children of Taym the son of Murrah, nor Omar the son of al Khattab, to stand upon his pulpit, and I would surely have fought them with my own hand, even though I had not got but this my garment but the apostle of God was not slain murderously, nor did he die suddenly, but he lingered some days and nights in his illness, the Muaddin coming to him and summoning him to prayers. And he commanded Abu Bakr to pray before the people, though he knew my high consideration, and verily a woman among his wives desired to turn him from Abu Bakr, but he refused and was angered and said, " ye are the mistresses of Joseph direct Abil Bakr to pray before the people." And when the Lord took his prophet, we looked into our affairs, and chose for our temporal interests, him whom he had approved for our religious affairs, for prayers were the fundamental principle of Islam and Abd

Bakr was the

chief of the faith

and the

pillar of

the faith.

We therefore
not two of us

swore allegiance unto Abii Bakr, and he was worthy of

being at variance over him, and none of us gave testimony against another,

nor denied his privilege.

I therefore discharged unto

Abu Bakr

his due,

and acknowledged obedience to him and fought on his side in his armies and I ever accepted what he bestowed upon me and fought when he sent me to war and inflicted in his presence the prescribed castigation for
offences with



And when

he was taken away,
according to the inhis

Omar assumed






we swore

allegiance unto

Companion and what he knew of Omar, not two of us being at


vai-iance over






and none of us gave testimony against another, nor denied his privilege. A. H. 40. I therefore discharged unto Omar his due and acknowledged obedience to A. D. 661. him and fought on his side in his armies, and I ever accepted what he bestowed upon me, and fought when he sent me to war, and inflicted in his presence the prescribed


for offences





wlien he was taken away, I bethought







priority in Islam,



precedence and


merit, and I

considered that

Omar would

not hold any one equal to me, but he feared
fault but it

that the Caliph after

him would not commit a

would attach



in his grave, therefore he

withdrew from

himself and his son,


there had been any partiality on his part he

would surely have

chosen his son for it, but he threw the responsibility of it from himself on to a party of the Kuraysh, six in number, I being one of them. And


the party assembled, I thought that they would not hold any one

equal to me, and A'bdu'r Eahman-b-A'uf took our engagements that


should hear and obey whomsoever the Lord should


over our affairs.

Then he took Othman the son of A'ffan by the hand, and struck liis own hand upon his hand, and I regarded my own conduct, and lo my submission had already preceded my allegiance, and behold my engagement had been taken for another. We therefoi'e swore allegiance unto Othman, and I discharged unto him his due, and acknowledged obedience to him, and fought on his side in his armies and I ever accepted what he bestowed upon me and fought when he sent me to war, and inflicted in his presence,

the prescribed castigation for offences with
slain, I considered



And when

he was

my own





the two Vicegerents

who had

assumed the government by virtue of the command of the Apostle of God unto them to read prayers, had passed away, and this one for whom the engagement had been taken, verily, was slain, therefore the people of

Mecca and Medina and the men

of these



me — but

swore allegiance unto

there hath usurped the government, one


not like unto


and whose kinship

not as


kinship, nor his




knowledge, nor his priority in the faith like unto



and I had

more claim to


than he."

Abu Nua'ym records in the Dalail, on the authority of the father of Jaa'far-b- Muhammad, that two men having an altercation, were brouo-ht before A'li who sat himself at the foot of a wall, and a man said to him " the wall will fall down," and A'li said, " Go to — God is a sufficient
protector," and he decided between them, and arose, and then the wall

* Eajrah and Kufah.




A. H. 40.
A. D. 661.

recorded in the " Tuyuriyat" with its ascription to the same authority, that a man said to A'li, " we hear thee say in thy preaching '0 God make me righteous with that through which thou hast made

they ?"

Who then are righteous the orthodox Vicegerents, the rightly guided.' And his eyes filled with tears and he said, " they are my two
Abu Bakr and Omar, the Imams of salvation, men of the Kuraysh who are followed
the two elders of
after the Apostle

Islam, and the two
of God.

He who

followeth those two,


preserved, and

whoso goeth

after their footsteps is directed aright over the Straight Bridge ahove Hell,

and he who cleaveth unto those two he is of the company of the Lord." And A'bdu'r Bazzak records on the authority of Hujr al Madari, that he
narrates, " A'li said to me,


will it

go with thee when thou art ordered
to pass ?'



me ?'













answered then what



shall I


curse me, but do not renounce


and Muhammad-b-Yusuf, the brother of


who was governor of Yaman ordered me to curse A'li' and I said, the prince hath commanded me to curse A'li, therefore curse ye him with the
curse of God,' and no one comprehended

but one man."

At Tabarani

records in the Ausat and

Abu Nua'ym

in the Dalail on

the authority of Zaddn, that A'li was relating a tradition when a maa accused him of speaking falsely, and A'li said to him, " shall I curse thee

1 have lied?" and he said,


curse," and A'li cursed him,

quit the place

his sight left him.

And from Zirr-b-Hubaysh*

and he did not that two

men were


five loaves,

down, eating their morning meal, and one of the two had and the other three loaves, and when they had placed the meal

before them, a


passed and saluted them and they said, "
eat with them,


down and

and he


down and

and they shared equally in their

loaves, and the man arose and threw to them eight dirhams and said, " take these in exchange for what I have eaten belonging to ye two and have received of your food." They then quarrelled over it and the owner of the five loaves said, " for me are five dirhams and for thee three," and the owner of the three loaves exclaimed, " I shall not agree unless

meal the eight

the dirhams are divided equally between us ;" and they took their case
before A'li the prince of the Faithful and related to


their adventure,

and he said to the owner of the three, " verily thy companion hath offered
to thee what he hath offered, and his loaves were more than thine, therefore be content with three." But he replied, " by Allah, I will not be

with him except in


exact due."


A'li said, " in baie right

thou shouldst have only one dirham and he seven dirhams."



Aba Maryant



native of Kfifah one of the Tabi'is.

born in the time of Ignorance and died A, H.







said, "

Good God


and A'U answered, " that


The other


A. H. 40. A. D. 661.



of the grounds of this being


bare right, that I


acquiesce in it."

answered, " are there not in eight loaves, four and

twenty thirds which ye have eaten and ye are three men ? and it is not known who is the greatest eater amongst ye and who the least, you will He went on, " now thou therefore be considered in your eating as equal." eight-thirds, and verily thou hadst but nine-thirds, and thy hast eaten


eat eight-thirds,




fifteen-thirds of

which he eat


remain of



seven which the owner of the dir-


fore for thee

and he eat of what belonged to thee one out of nine. And the is one for thy one, and for him seven. "



claimed "




that a

Ibn A'bi Shaybah records in the Musannaf on the authority of A'ta man was brought before A'li and two men testified against him that he had committed theft, whereupon A'li tools up a certain case in which the people were concerned and threatened false witnesses and said, "a false witness was never brought before me but I did to him such and such

a thing."

Then he summoned the two witnesses but could not



wherefore he

the accused go.

Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of an ascription to the father of Jaa'far-b-Muhammad that the signet ring of A'li was of stamped coin, the impression on it being " excellent is the Omnipotent God." And from A'mr the son of Othman-b-A'ffan that the impression on the signet ring of A'li was, " the kingdom is the Lord's." And from al Madaini,* that when A'li entered Ktifah, one of the wise men of the Arabs went in to him and said, " by Allah, O prince of the Faithful, verily thou hast adorned the Caliphate, but it hath not adorned thee, and thou hast exalted it, but it hath not exalted thee, and it was more in need of thee than thou of it." And from Mujammi', that A'li used to sweep out the public treasury and then pray within it, in the hope that it would be testified in his favour
that he
did not keep the
state property within

withheld from the

Abu'l Kasim
the Faithful A'li
al Zajjaji

narrates in his Dictations, that he had been

told that the father of Abu'l

Aswad said, " I went in unto the prince of and found him looking down in deep thought and I said
prince of the Faithful ?"

to him " what art thou thinking over

He replied,

* Atu'l Hasan A'li-b-Muhammad a native of Madain, a client by enfranchisement (Mawla) to the family of A'bd Shams-b-A'bd Manaf. He was bom A. H. 135 (752-3) and died A. H. 225 (839-40.) He wrote upwards of twenty works on Mu hammad, and a number on the history of the §;uraysh, and the Umayyad and Abbaside Caliphs

and other




Ibn Khali.





A. H. 40.


" verily


have beard in this your city a faulty pronunciation of the

A. D. 661.

I was therefore thinking of composing a work on the principles I exclaimed, " if thou doest this thou wilt give of the Arabic language."



language will be presei-ved amongst us." Three days afterwards I went to him, and he threw me a writing in which was, " In the name of God, the most Merciful the most Compassionate. Speech consists noun is that which denotes the entirely of nouns, verbs and particles.




thing named, and a verb
particle is that


that which denotes the actiom named,
signification, being neither a

which expresses a

and a, noun nor a

said, " examine it and add to it what may occur to thee Abu'l Aswad, that objects are of three kinds, expressed, understood, and what is neither expressed nor understood, and verily the learned have vied with each other in the definition of what is neither expressed nor


Then he




Abu'l Aswad continues, " then I collected accordingly some

parts of speech and showed

governing the accusative.

them to him. Among them were particles Of these I mentioned " verily" and " that,"*

and " would that," and " perhaps" and " as if," but I did not include " but." He said to me " why hast thou omitted it ?" I replied, " I did not count it among them." He said, " yes it is among them, therefore add it
to them."


Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Eabii'h-b-Najid that A'li " be among men like the bee among birds, for there is none among

the birds but thinks





the birds

in their bellies,

they would not think thus of them.

knew what of good Mix with

the people with your tongues and persons and separate yourselves from


in deeds and in your hearts, for verily to a


be given that

which he hath earned, and he shall appear at the day of resurrection with him whom he loveth." And from A'li that he said, " give ye a more urgent
heed to the acceptance tefore
not of
account, for


of your works rather than to


works themselves, for verily an action accompanied by the fear of God

how can an

action accepted

by God, be of


estimation ?"t

And from Yahya-b-Jua'dahJ
Kuran, act ye according to

that A'li said, "


ye bearers of the

for he

a wise

man who hath

and acted according as he hath understood, and whose knowledge hath accorded with his works, and it shall come to pass that there shall be sects

The MS. has


vy' " certainly not."

t The

text of the

printed edition


here incorrect for '•^i read


and for
son of

iJ^SJ^ read clkflA^


A'li'a sister.

Of the Kuraysh descended from Mabhzum, one An Nawawi.

of the Tabi'is.

He was




carrying a knowledge that goeth not beyond their coUar-bonea, whose dis- A. H. 40.
is at variance with their exterior show, and whose works are A. D. 661. opposed to their understanding, sitting in a circle contending for superiority one with another, until a man will be wroth with his neighbour that

sit by another than himself and leave him such as these, their works in these their assemblies shall not ascend to God." And from A'li, "the grace of God is the be'st guide, a good disposition the best companion, wisdom the best friend, and good breeding the best inheritance, and there is

he should

nothing more hateful than pride."

man went

to A'li and said, " tell

gloomy road
it is



a deep sea

And on the authority of al Harith that a me what is Tate." He replied, " it is a not." He asked again, " tell me what is Fate." He enter not upon it." Again he asked, " tell me what
mystery of God's which



replied, " it is a

hidden from thee,

therefore seek not to penetrate it."


asked again, "tell

me what




exclaimed, "

hath willed,

Lord created thee for what He or what thou hath willed ?" He replied " indeed for what
questioner, hath the


hath willed."

Ali answered, "

Then He

will use thee as



He also records of the sayings of A'li.* " Misfortunes have their terminations.


any one


in misfor-

must be that it will have an end therefore man when distress cometh upon him, to submit to
complished, for verily in repeUing
is it

behoveth the wise
until its time is acits

before the fulfilment of

term, there

an increase to

its calamities."


said to A'li, "



generosity ?"


replied, " that


which the iniative proceedeth, for what cometh after a request


and munificence."

A man

went to


and praised him and spoke extravagantly, and


happened that
him, " verily I

had heard somewhat of him before

that, so he said to


not as thou sayest, yet I


above that which

in thy

heart." " The punishment of sin
of means,

is lukewarmness in devotion, and straitness and the lessening of enjoyment. A lawful appetite is not sought be gratified, but there cometh that which diminisheth it." A man said to A'li, and he secretly hated him, " may the Lord make

thee firmly established."
of Ibn Eabii'h).

A'li replied, "

upon thy heart," (on the authority



collection of

one hundred and sixty-nine moral sentences, attributed to A'li
Hist. Sar. p. 339.

given by Ockley.










A. H. 40. Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman used to versify * but A'li was tbe best A. D. 661. poet of the three. (As Shaa'bi.) He records likewise oa the authority of Nabit al Ashja'i that A'li
spoke this verse.



hearts contain despair,

And the spacious breast is stifled by what is within And cares make their abode and repose, And sorrows anchor in their habitations, And no way is seen for the dispelling of distress, And the stratagem of the cunning availeth not,

come to thee


thy despair a helper

Whom the

Answerer of prayer who

nigh, shall bring.




when they have reached their term, linked to them an approaching joy."

And on

the authority of as Shaa'bi, that A'li said to a




the society of another

man was


" Consort not with a foolish brother, beware of him
nised with

For how many a fool hath corrupted the gentle when he hath


A man is

him judged by the man with whom he consorteth

For there are comparisons and similitudes for one thing vrith The measure of a sandal is made when it is matched with it.
they meet."

the evidence of the feeling of one heart towards another



And from al Mubarrad that upon the sword " Men lust after the world and plot for it,

of A'li was inscribed

Yet its clearness is mingled for thee with impurities. They do not give thee of it thy portion, according to thy wisdom,

when it is distributed But men have their allotted

shares according to their destinies,

How many there
While a

are of the wise and sagacious nnprospered

fool hath gained his wealth


his errors.

If it could be acquired

by force and


Falcons would swoop


with the subsistence of sparrows."

And on the
speak this verse

authority of Hamzah-b-Habib az Zayyat that A'li used to


expression j**«l



he spoke poetry

is used, if

for poetry

was always
until after

spoken by the Arats in

classical times,

and seldom written

written at


the lifetime of the author.

Lane, Art






" Disclose not thy secret but to thyself,

A. H. 40.
A. D. 681.

For every confidant, hath a confidant For verily I have seen erring men,


do not aspire to a high sense o£ honour."
Sahba, that

records likewise on the authority of U'kbah-h-Abi'l

when Ibn Muljam him and A'li said,
things " wisdom

stabbed A'li, al Hasan who was weeping went in unto " my dear son, treasure in thy memory from me four and yet four.'' He said, " what are they, father ?" He replied, the richest treasure, and folly the greatest poverty, and the

most hateful of what is odious is pride, and the noblest excellence a good Al Hasan said, " and the other four ? He replied, " beware disposition." thee of the companionship of a fool, for he will desire to profit thee and will do thee harm, and beware of the friendship of a liar, for he will bring nigh unto thee what is afar off and make distant from thee what is near at hand and beware thee of the friendship of a miser, for he will withhold from thee what thou art most in need of and beware thee of the friend-

ship of a libertine for he will


thee for a trifle."

A'li that a Jew went to him and said, " when did our God and the face of A'li flushed with anger and he said, " creation was not and He was He was while yet there was no being He existed without a cause He was, having no beginning and no end -all limits fall short of him, for he is the end of all ends," and the Jew embraced Islam. Ad Darraj, in his well known work, records on an obscure ascription

And from

exist ?"



to Shurayh. the Kadhi,* that


A'li set forth to SifKn, he lost a coat of

mail belonging to him, and when the war was over, and A'li returned to Kufah the armour came into the hands of a Jew, and he said to the Jew,
" the armour

replied, " it is

my armour — I neither sold it nor gave it away." The Jew my armour and in my possession." A'li said, "let us go to

the Kadhi," and A'li preceded him and sat by the side of Shurayh and said, " were not my opponent a Jew, I would assuredly sit on a level with him
in the

but I heard the apostle of God say,



them with

ignominy, for the Lord hath treated them with ignominy.' Shurayh said, ' prince of the Faithful.' And he said, ' yes this armour proceed,



in the

hand of






— — I neither sold


nor gave


Shurayh exclaimed,

what dost thoa





Abu Umayyah Shurayh


Harith-b-^ays of the tribe of Kinda.

He was an

eminent Tabi'i


before the promulgation of Islam and appointed Kadhi of Kiifah

by Omar

a post he held with scarcely any iaterruption for seventy-five years. He was one of the four persons called the smooth-faced chiefs (as S£dat at Tula) the others He died A. H. being A'bdu'llah-b-u'z Zubayr, Kays-b-Saa'd, and al Aljnaf-b-Kays.
87, at the

age of one hundred years.

Ibn Khali.







A. D. 6G1.

my armour and in my possession.' Then Shurayh said, hast thou any proof, He said, " yes, Kanbar andal Hasan prince of the Faithful ?' Shurayh replied, 'the are witnesses that the armour is my armour.'
'it is

evidence of a son


not admissible in favour of a father


A'li exclaimed,



the evidence of one

among the

al Hasan and al Husayn are the two God say The Jew said, the chiefs of the youth among the dwellers in Paradise.' prince of the Faithful caused me to appear before the Kadhi and the Kadhi

I heard the apostle of

people of Paradise not admissible



gave judgment against him,
that there


testify that this


the Truth

I testify

no God but God, and I testify that


the apostle of

God and

that this armour

thy armour.' "


discourses of A'li in exposition of the



numerous and

are fully treated in

my commentary

supported by their ascriptions.


by Allah, a verse of the Kuran was never revealed, but I knew regarding what it was revealed and where it was revealed and concerning whom it was revealed, for my Lord hath given unto me a wise heart and an eloquent tongue." And he and others on the authority of Abii't Tufayl that A'li said, " ask
Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of A'li that he



regarding the book of God, for verily there


not a verse but I

know whether

was revealed by night or day, in the plains or on the

IBn Abi Dautid records from Muhammad-b-Sirin that he



God died, A'li Abd Bakr met him and said,
the Apostle of

delayed to swear allegiance to


Bakr, and


thou averse to


holding authority




no, but I have sworn not to put on


mantle except for prayers

until I have collected the Kuran.'

ing to the order of


they think that he wrote it accordrevelation." Muhammadb-Sirin adds, " if that book


were to be met with, there would be found in



On some of

his short sententious

maxims worthy of remark.

Precaution consists in evil opinion (recorded by Abu'l Shaykh-b-




near of kin whose kinship



though his


ship be distant,

and he




enmity hath rendered distant
nothing nearer to the body than


his kinship

be close, for there

the hand, but

when the hand is corrupted cauterised. (Abu Nua'ym.) 3. Take ye live maxims from me.

it is


and when cut





Let none of ye fear any3.

thing but his


And hope

for nothing but his Lord.

He who






not, let him not be ashamed to learn. 4. He who knoweth, let A. H. him not be ashamed when he is asked concerniug what he knoweth not, A, D. to say " God knows best." 5. Patience is to faith what the head is to the body when patience departeth, faith departeth, and when the head goeth





the body goeth.

(Ibn Mans'ur in his Sunan.) The perfect doctor of the law is he who doth not make men despair of the mercy of God and is not indulgent to them in respect of their sii)s against God and doth not proffer them immunity from the chastisement of. God and doth not willingly forsake the Kuran for other



—for there


no profit in devotion in which there


no knowledge,

and no knowledge unless accompanied by comprehension, and no proper reading of the Kurdn without meditation upon it. (Dhurays in the


(Excellencies of the Kuran.)

not, to

make it incumbent upon myself when I am asked what I know (Ibn A'sakir.) say God knoweth best. He who seeketh to do justice unto men, let him desire for them
desireth for himself.
1. 4.

what he

Seven things are of the devil. Excessive yawning. 3. sneezing.* sive the nose. 6. Clandestine discourse. t

Excessive anger.





Bleeding at

Sleeping during

Eat ye the pomegranate

for it



(A'bdu'llah-b- Ahmad

in the Zawaid u'l Musnad.)


reading the
to thee are

Kuran under the

tuition of a learned

man, and

his reading

equal in meritorioumess.





time shall come upon the people when a true believer will be



abject than a female slave.

And by Abu'l Aswad ad Duali is the following, eulogizing " And now, come to my aid eye, alas for thee
! !

weep for the prince of the Faithful And let Umm Kulthiimt weep for him


" He (Muhamis also said in a tradition v^^^''' h^. J o*'^*^l 'r*"^ ol used to like sneezing and dislike yawning," because the former is accompanied mad) by lightness of body and openness of the pores, whereas in yawning the contrary is

* It

the case, hut the Arabs used to augur


from sneezing, so that



man were journey,

ing and heard a sneeze, it prevented him from going on. With regard to yawning, it any one of you yawns, let him cover his is said, kiJii f^it!a-\ ijjIjJ lit "when

mouth," for



believed, that the devil leaps into the uncovered

yawning mouth.


^^ isy^\
of A'li


The daughter

l+JI Kur. LVIII. by Fatimah and wife






A. H. 40.

With her flowing

tears, for verily she

hath beheld death.

A. D. 6G1.


say to the schismatics wheresoever they may be the eyes of the envious never be refreshed.

In the month of the Fast have ye made us to grieve For the best of all men universally. Ye have slain the best of those that have mounted steeds And tamed them or put foot upon a vessel, Of those who wear and adjust sandals And of those who read the Kuran and its perspicuous verses.

And And


him were the noblest


the love of the Apostle of the Lord of created things.

Verily the Kuraysh

knew wheresoever they


That thou wert the best of them

in ancestry




I stood* before the face of the father of Husayn,

I saw the radiance that shone above his eyes.
before his death

we were happy,

Beholding the son-in-law of the Apostle of God among

Establishing the truth in which there was no thought of


acting equitably between enemies and kinsmen


Knowledge with him was not hidden. Nor was he created among the proud of The people became when they lost A'li
Eejoice not, Mu'awiyah, son of Sakhr


Like unto the ostrich bewildered in a country bare of herbage.


verily the continuance of the Caliphs is

with us."

Of the distinguished persons who died during the time
whether by a natural death or by violence were, Hudayfah-b-u'l

—Talhah—Zayd-b-Siihan— Salman Farisi —Khabbab-b-u'l Aratt —A'mmarb-Yasir— Sahl-b-Hanif — Suhayb-ar Kurni — Muhammad the son of Abu Bakr Siddik — Tamim ad Dari — Khawwat-b-Jubayr— Shurahbil-b-as Samt — Abu Maysarah Badri— Safwan-b-A'ssal— A'mr-b-A'nbasah Hisham-b-Hakim —Abu Kad freedman of the prophet and others.




Hind-b-Abi Halah and Uways al Kurani


* I prefer the reading of the first to the second person sing,

and in

this follow,

M. Eeynard in

the Praiiies d 'Or.

Tom. IV,

p. 436.




A. H. 40.

Al Hasan was the son of A'li, tlie son of Abu Talib, Abu grandson of the Apostle of God, and his descendant, the
Caliphs according to his prediction.*

A. D. 661.




Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of I'mran-b-Sulayman that al Hasan and al Husayn were two of the names of the dwellers in Paradise, the Arabs never having been named by those two in the time of Ignorance.

Al Hasan was born
3rd year of the Plight.

in the

middle of the month of Eamadhan in the
heard traditions from the

It is stated that he

prophet, and Ayesha and others of the Tabi'is



his son al

Hasan, and Abu'l Haura Rablah-b-Shayban.
related traditions on his authority.


Shaa'bi and

Abu Wail, have


resenibled the prophet in appear-

and the prophet named him al Hasan and slaughtered a sheep as a sacrifice for him on the seventh day, and shaved his head and ordered that the weight of his hair in silver should be given in alms, and he was the Al A'skari says that this name (al fifth of the people of the mantle. t Hasan) was not known in the time of Ignorance. Al MufadhalJ says that the Lord concealed the names of al Hasan and al Husayn until the prophet named his two sons§ by them, and al Bukhari records on the authority of Anas that no one resembled the prophet more than al Hasan the son of A'li. The two Shaykhs record on the authority of al Bara that he said, " I saw the Apostle of God, with al God verily I love him, Hasan upon his shoulder, and he was saying " And al Bukhari from Abu Bakr that he said, therefore love Thou him," " I heard the prophet, while on the pulpit with al Hasan by his side, looking now upon the people, and now upon him, exclaim, verily this son of



reported to have said, " the Caliphate shall continue after


thirty years

and then

he a kingdom."


died in the 11th year of the

Flight and J^asan's ahdioation was in the year 40 from whence it is plain, says al Bukhari that not only was Muhammad a prophet but Hasan was his rightful successor.

Ook. Hist. Sar. p. 352.


When Mulbammad

went forth

to dispute with the amhassadors

from the people

of Najran on the suhjeot of religion he took with

Hasan and al ^usayn, and some say gathered them under his mantle. See Sale, Kur. p. 44. J Ibn Khali gives two of the name, both philologers of eminence and authors of numerous works. One, Ahu Talib al Mufaddhal-b-Salama of the school of Kufah. The other Abul A'bhas al Mufaddhal-b-Muhammad-b-Ya'la, a native of Kufah author of the Mufaddhal, died A. H. 168.
A'li Fatima, al


They were always looked upon by him

in the light of his children, his


having died at an early age.




A. H. 40. A. D. 661.

mine is a prince and perchance the Lord will unite through his means, the two contending parties o£ the Muslims.'* And from Ibn Omar that the prophet said, they two are my descendants in the world meaning al

Hasan and al Husayn.' " At Tirmidi and al Hakim record on the authority of Abu Sa'id al Khudri that the Apostle of God called al Hasan and al Husayn the two And at Tirmidi from Usarnah-b-Zayd princes of the youth of Paradise. that he narrates, " I saw the prophet with al Hasan and al Husayn on these are my two sons and the sons of my either hip, and he exclaimed daughter. God, -verily I love them, wherefore love Thou them and love him who loveth them.' And from Anas that the Apostle of God was asked

which of the people of thy house are dearest to thee ?' He replied, al al Husayn.' Al Hakim records on the authority of Ibn A'bbas, that the prophet advanced, carrying upon his neck al Hasan, and
' '

Hasan and


man met him and God replied, and



an excellent steed thou

ridest, lad


the Apostle



an excellent


Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of A'bdu'llah-b-u'z Zubayr that he said, " the one most resembling the prophet of his family, and the most endeared to him of them was al Hasan the son of A'li I saw him come while Muhammad was worshipping and mount upon his neck (or, he says,

his back) and


did not

make him get down

until he himself got


— and

indeed I saw him in the act of bowing in prayer, separate his
so that he

legs for al


might pass through from the other


And from Abu


to put out his tongue towards al

saw the redness of the tongue,
preached and a

God used Hasan the son of A'li, and when the boy he would be merry with him. Al Hakim
that the Apostle of


Arkam, that al Hasan rose and Azd Shanuwwah stood up and said, " I testify verily that I saw the Apostle of God take him in his lap, saying, he who loveth me, let him surely love him, and he that is present, let him inform him who is absent,' and were it not for reverence of the Apostle of God I would have told it to no one." Al Hasan had many virtues he was a prince gentle of disposition,
records on the authority of Zubayr-b-u'l


of the tribe of


grave, reserved and dignified


generous, greatly extolled, averse



and the sword, and given much to marrying he would bestow upon one man as much as a hundred thousand dirhams. Al Hdkim records on the authority of A'bdu'Uah-b-U'bayd-b-U'mayr
that al Hasan performed the pilgrimage

on foot twenty-five times, his


The Syrians who


up Mu'awiyah, and the people of I'rdk who took the


of al IJasan.


A Tahi'i,

son of A'bdu'r Eahm4n-h-A'uf, died at Medina A,

H. aged





horses being led beside him. And Ibn Saa'd from U'mayr-b-Ishak that -A- H, 40. he said, " no one ever discoursed before me whom I more wished when A. D. 661.

he spoke that he should' not be silent, than al Hasan the son of A'li, and I never heard from him an improper word except once, when there was

a dispute between al Hasan and A'mr-b-Othmdn regarding some

Al Hasan proposed a thing which A'mr did not approve, and





nothing for


then in


opinion but to act in spite

of him."*


adds, " this was the harshest

word of impropriety that I

ever heard from him." He also said, " Marwdn was ruler over us and he used to revile A'li

every Friday from the pulpit and al Hasan used to listen without retorting

a thing.

' I swear by A'li, and by and by thee, and I find not a comparison for thee but that of a mule, which when it is asked, " who is thy father?" replies, " my mother is a mare." Al Hasan replied to him go back to him and say to him from me verily I will not blot out from thee a thing that thou hast said by reviling thee in turn, but my place of meeting and thine is before God, and if thou hast spoken the truth, the Lord will reward thee according to thy truth, and if thou hast lied, then the Lord

Then he

sent a


to say to him,

and by


and by


and by




is terrible in

vengeance.' "

Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of Euzayk-b-Sawwar that there passed words between al Hasan and Marwan and al Hasan was silent. Then Marwan blew his nose with his right hand, and al Hasan said to him, " Out upon thee dost thou not know that the right hand is for honour and the left for what is base ? Shame upon thee !" Marwan held his peace. And from Asha'th-b-Sawwar on the authority of another, that a man sat down by al Hasan, and he said, " verily thou hast sat down by me as I was about to rise wilt thou give me permission ?" And from

A'li-b-Zayd-b-Juda'an, that al Hasan gave away his property twice for the

sake of God, and three times shared his property with
donations, so that he


by religious

would give a sandal, and keep a sandal, and give a boot and keep a boot. And from A'li the son of al Husayn, that al Hasan was given to divorcing his wives, and he never separated himself from a woman but she stiU continued to love him, and he married ninety women.

And from

the father of Jaa'far-b- Muhammad that he

said, " al


used to marry and divorce

I feared that he would cause enmity

amongst the


A'li once said, "

O men


Kufah, give not your

daughters in marriage to

Hasan, for he


that divorceth fre-

and a man from Hamadan exclaimed, " by Allah, we will surely give in marriage to him and such as he approves, he may retain, and such
* Lit; that his nose should cleave to the dust,
i. e.,








A. H. 40. A. D. 661.

he dislikes, he may divorce." And from A'bdii'llah-h-Husayn, that af Hasan was a man much given to taking women in marriage, and they rarely committed a fault towards him, and it was seldom with a woman he married but she loved him and was passionately attached to him. Ihn A'sakir records on the authority of Juwayrah-b-Asma that when al Hasan died, Marwan wept over his bier, and al Husayn said to him, " dost thou weep for him and verily thou hast given him to sufier* what thou hast given him to suffer." He replied, " verily, I would have done the same to one even more forbearing than he," and he pointed with his hand to the hill.f And from al Mubarrad that it was said to al Hasan " Abti Darr sayeth poverty is dearer to me than wealth, and sickness than






may God

have mercy upon Abii Darr, but I say,

that he

confideth in the good choice of the

to be in any other condition than that which the

him, and this


Lord for him, desireth not Lord hath chosen for the highest attainment of resignation unto what Fate hath
after the assassination of his father,

Al Hasan assumed the Caliphate
according to the allegiance sworn to

sent to


during six months and some days.
the affair was left

him and

offering to

him by the people of Kufah, and Then Mu'awiyah marched in the hands of God. Then al Hasan the government to him on the condition

that the Caliphate should revert to himself after him, J and that he should not call upon any one of the people of Medina, Hijaz and I'rak for any-

thing that had happened during his father's lifetime, and that he should


his debts.


accepted his demands, and they

made peace upon

Thus was made manifest the prophetical prediction " the Lord will unite through his means, the contending


parties of the


he abdicated the Caliphate in his favour.

Al Balkini§

indeed has sought to prove from his renunciation of the Caliphate which

the highest of dignities, the lawfulness of the renunciation of

His abdication of the Caliphate took place in the year 41 in the month of Eabii' u'l Awwal, and some say in Eabii' u'l A'khir (August 661) and Jumada li'l Awwal. His Companions used to say to him, " O shame of the Muslims," and he would reply, " shame is better than hell fire." And a



to him,

" peace

to thee,

dishonourer of the Muslims."


Lit. to swallow.

t A8 fortearing

—or as self-contained—as a



a proverbial compaiison in

J This condition I find in

no other author I have consulted.

The surname of Jalflu'ddin, author of a work on the difficulties of science. His best known composition is the Muhimmat ul Muhimmat, a commentary on Asnavi tho great Jurisconsult who died A. H. 882. D'Herb. art. Ballfini.

replied, " I



am no

dishonourer of the Muslims, but I was loth to have ye A. H. 41.

slaughtered for the sake of a kingdom."

Al Hasan then removed from A. D. 661.

Kiifah to Medina and settled there.

Al Hakim records on the authority of Jubayr-b-Nufayr* that he narrates, " I said to al




Hasan, verily the people say that thou desirest the Cali" the chiefs of the Arabs were under my authority,

warring with those with
I was at peace

whom I warred,

and at peace with those with
shall I



I abandoned

seeking the favour of God, and to

spare the blood of the people of


then again


amid the despondency of the people of Hijaz ?" Al Hasan died at Medina of poison. His wife Ja'dah, daughter of al Asha'th-b-Kays poisoned him. Yazid-b-Mu'awiyah suborned her to poison him, promising that he would then marry her, and she did so. And when al Hasan was dead, she sent to Yazid claiming the fulfilment of what ha had promised, but he replied, " I did not approve thee for al Hasan, shall I then be content with thee for myself ?" His death took place in the year 49. Some say, however, it ocowrei on the 5th of Eabii' u'l Awwal in the year 50, and others in the year 51. His brother endeavoured to make him confess to him who poisoned him, but he would not inform him and said,' " the Lord is terrible in His vengeance if it be the one 1 suppose, and if not, by Allah, let not an. innocent man be put to death on my accounb." Ibn Saa'd records on the authority of I'mran-b-Abdi'llah-b-Talhah that al Hasan saw in a dream that there was as if inscribed between his eyes " Say God is One" (Kur. CXII) and he announced the good news to the people of his house, and they related it to Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab, and ha exclaimed " if his dream speak truly, little time remaineth unto his death."


he lived but a few days when he died.

Al Bayhaki and Ibn A'sakir record on a line of ascription through the father of Abu Mundir Hisham-b- Muhammad, that al Hasan was in
straitened circumstances, and they used to give

hundred thousand dirhams a year.
him, and he was in great

him an allowance One year Mu'awiyah withheld




distress. He himself narrates " I sent for an inkmight write to Mu'awiyah to remind him of me, but I refrained horn that I and I saw the Apostle of God in a dream. And he said, ' how art thou O Hasan ?' I replied, well father,' and I complained to him of my allowance being kept back from me and he said, didst thou send for an ink' ; '

horn to write to a creature answered



Apostle of
instil into



unto thyself, reminding him of it ?' I what then should I do ?' He said






and cut



hope from


beside Thee, so that I


not hope in any one save Thee,




vouchsafe unto


Lord of created things that which
« OneoftheTabi'is.








A. H. 41.

weak to reach, and
not nor doth

my striving

falleth short of, to



desire attaineth

D. 661.


supplication aspire, and which hath not passed

tongue, of what


hast bestowed of certitude

upon my upon any one of those that

have gone before, and those that have come after.' He continues, " by Allah, I did not persist with this prat/er for a week, but Mu'awiah sent me 1,500,000, dirhams, and I exclaimed, praise be to

who doth not forget him who remembereth Him and disapThen, I saw the prophet in pointeth not him that calleth upon Him.' Hasan, how art thou,' and I said, well, O a dream, and he said, Apostle of God,' and I related to him my story and he said, thus it is, my son, with him who hopeth in the Creator and hopeth not in the
the Lord
' '





stated in the Tuyyuriyat on the authority of Salim-b-I'sa, the

Kuran-reader of the people of Kdfah, that when
death, he

became affected with violent




Hasan was nigh unto Husayn said to him,

" what meaneth,

brother, this lamentation ? Verily thou goest unto the

A'li, and they two are thy fathers, and unto Khadijah and Fatimah, and they two are thy mothers, and unto al Easim 'and at Tahir, and they two are thy maternal uncles,* and imto Hamzah

Apostle of

God and unto

and they two are thy paternal uncles." Al Hasan said to him, am entering upon one of the decrees' of the Most High, upon the like of which I have not entered, and I behold a people among the creatures of God, the like of whom I have never seen." Ibn A'bdi'l Barr says, " it has been related to me in different ways, that when and

brother, verily I

verily thy father cast his eyes

Hasan was near unto death, he said to his brother " O my brother, upon this authority, but the Lord averted it from him, and Abu Bakr held it afterwards again he raised his eyes to it, but it was turned from him unto Omar then at the time of the Council, he had no doubt that it would not pass from him, but it was turned from him unto Othman, and when Othmdn was slain A'li was sworn allegiance to then it was contested until the sword was drawn, and
; ;


never rested undisturbed in his possession.



by Allah, I do

not think that the Lord will unite in us the prophetic mission and the
Caliphate, and indeed I


not with what indignity the rabble of


have not treated thee, and cast thee forth.

And verily I asked of Ayesha that
and she agreed, therefore when

1 might be buried with the Apostle of God,



dead, ask that of her, and I do not think otherwise of the people

but that they will hinder thee, and

they do

do not dispute with


And when he was
and she

dead, al

Husayn went

to Ayesha, the mother

of the Faithful,

" yes

willingly," but



Sons of Muhammad.




them, and

Husayn and those that were with him took up their arms A. H. 41. Hurayrah turned him back. Afterwards he was buried in al A. D. G61. until Abu Bakii' by the side of his mother.

Mu'awiyah, the son of Abli SufySn Sakhr-b-Harb-b-IJmayyah-bA'bdi's Shams-b-A'bd.

Manaf-b-Kusayy alUmawiy

—Abu A'bdu'r Eahman,

embraced Islam with his brother on the day of the conquest of Mecca. He was present at Hunayn,* and was of those whose hearts were coneiliatedf

by MuJiammad.


became sincerely converted to Islam, and was

one of the Secretaries to the Apostle of
related traditions on his

hundred and sixty traditions from Muhammad.
Zubayr, Abu'd Darda

had one Of the Companions who authority, were Ibn A'bbas, Ibn O'mar, Ibn u'z
It is said that he
al Bijli, Nu'man-b-Bashfr and others. Musayyab, Hamid-b-A'bdi'r Eahman Ac.

— Jarir


among the



He was

of those celebrated for acuteness and forbearance, and verily

traditions of his merit have been transmitted,

which are seldom well esta-

At Tirmidi

records on the authority of the prophet, substantia-


to Mu'awiyah, "

from A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Abi A'mirah the Companion, that he said God, make him a guide unto others and himself rightly And Ahmad in his Musnad from I'rbadh-b-Sariyah that he directed." O God, instruct Mu'awiyah in narrates, " I heard the Apostle of God say, " writing and accounts, and preserve him from eternal punishment.' Ibn Abi Shaybah records in the Musannaf, and at Tabarani in the Kabir on the authority of A'bdu'l Malik-b-TJ'mayr, that Mu'awiyah said, " I never ceased to desire the Caliphate since the Apostle of God said to


Mu'awiyah, when thou rulest, act with kindness.' " Mu'awiyah was a man, tall, fair, handsome and of awe-inspiring aspect, and Omar used to look upon him and say, " this is the Caisar of the Arabs." It is recorded of A'li that he said, " be not averse to the

rule of

Mu'awiyah, for verily when ye

lose him,

ye will see heads

fall from,

their shoulders."

Al Makburif

says, "

ye admire the sagacity of Hera-

Mecca, between
p. 161.

» This tattle was fought in 8 A. H. in the valley of Hunayn, about 3 miles from Muhammad and the tribes of Havazen and Thakif. See Sale, Kur.

his side

t These were certain Arabs of name and position whom Muhammad won over to by showing them every consideration, in order that their example might be followed by their tribes. The Muntaha'l Arab gives a list of thirty of them.



Kaysan Makburi— a Tabi'i— he was
Muntaha'l Arab.


Makburi because he lived

near a graveyard.

H. D'Herb. / In the year 43 Eukhkhajf and other places in Sijistan were captured and Waddan in Barkah and KlizaaJ of the country of the Moors. and he was prefect for twenty years and Caliph twenty years. 661. * Atu'l A'la Kabisah-b-Jabir al Asadi a native of of respeotatle authority aa a Traditioniat." Kabisah-b. or we will assuredly set thee right. unlike others who came after him. " by Allah. am unable to trace the names in Yakut. established in the caliphate from Eabii' u'l Akhir or Jumada '1 Awwal 41. for they had opponents and portions of Mu'awiyah went forth against their dominions passed out of their sway. Abul Fida. him his successor in Damascus. anxious to secure in his interest so eminent a man. He therefore became firmly against al Hasan. clius that a man . Died a little before 83 A. in much Mu'awiyah set forth with his brother Yazid-b-Abi Sufyan. for Mu'awiyah continued Caliph for twenty years. on account of the gathering of the people under one Caliph.I [ 198 3 A. Then he marched A'li as has preceded." Mu'awiyah answered " Very well said to — will act uprightly. " I was I never saw a man of more settled forbearance. and Khusrau. publicly acknowledged him as his brother by the father's oea of his family. thou must surely act uprightly Mu'dwiyah.Jabir* says. 41. The year was therefore called the year of Union. A. and ye pass over Mu'awiyah ?" He was proverbial Ibn Abi'd Dunya and Abu Bakr-b-Abi A'asim have for his forbearance. gives and Ibn ^^ Athir confirms % § it. Ibn Khali gives two of this surname— both from Nayaabur. how Mu'awiyah. and none of the princes of the earth contended with him. And in the same Mu'awiyah appointed as his lieutenant Ziyad " the son of his father. who added to his goTTernment the whole of Syria. H. Ibn A'un narrates severally composed a work solely on his forbearance. appointed." II See Ockley. D. An Nawawi which is an error." and this is the first instance in Islam in which the command of the prophet was Yiolated§ — (at Tha'alabi|| and others). " no one shall rule this people as long as Mu'awiyah. and assumed the title of Caliph. (j_yJ The MS. he replied. The MS. and Yazid dying. Abu Ishdk. but I Ziyad was the reputed son of Greek married to a According to the prophetical law the child belonged to his legal fether aide." He said. further from indolence than he — company with Mu'awiyah and and slower to folly and and when Abu Batr sent me to Syria. who abdicated in his favour. and that Kaa'b was right in what he said. but Mu'iwiyah." Ad Dahabi says that Kaa'b died before Mu'awiyah was made Caliph. Abu Sufyan by Sumayyah who was the Greek. During this year Mu'awiyah appointed Marwan-b-u'l I Hakam over Medina." with " us. and subsequently Othman. . notwithstanding the remonstran- The doubtful parentage of Ziydd gained for him the vague diatinc- tion of " the son of his father. a well . has slave. " with a stick.'' Kaa'b al Ahbar said. Omar confirmed him in this. t The printed edition has u'l ^^ Kufah and one of the TaM'is.

to take the covenant /row said. that thou in truth wouldst not wish to pass a single dark night without there being over thee during it a ruler therefore." Then he said. I warn tution of Khusrau and their children. verily. for verily I — — fear lest they anticipate me with regard to thee. and took the covenant for his son. or I will assuredly by circumvention upon thee. council of the Muslims. . the other . I will refer this matter to unsettle it a." In the year 51." whereupon and said. D. suffice to me against him in whait Thou wiliest. thy son being no better than their sons. Kuhistan 665-6. and thou dost caution so. verily there were before thee Caliphs who had sons. for Abli Bakr and Omar did not do so for any one of the people of their house. and ful hath seen first who did so while in sound health. O son of Omar. Then he sent to the son of Omar and recited the profession of faith and said. H. " now. Abu volximinous author died A. thou assuredly hast desired that I should commend thee to God in the affair of thy son. and they made a covenant with him. But Mu'awiyah said. 3fi0 (961). until I tell them in the a'z evening that thou hast sworn allegiance. In the same year Mu'awiyah invited the people of Syria to A. 629 (1035-6)." Then he sprung up and departed. engage for the succession after him of his son Yazid. " Softly. then surely I am one of them. " now. Marwdn at Medina. * Yaklit places this district between Sind and Khurasan. but. but they chose for the lims the best wheresoever they lest Mus- knew Jiim to he. may the Lord have mercy upon thee. nor for — thee that thou break not the stafE of the Muslims nor strive for the dis- turbance of their harmony. I shall not do so by Allah. but the other cut short his speech and said. Mu'awiyah performed the pilgrimage." And he said. 45^ al Kikan* was reduced and in the year 50." and the son of Omar departed. and began his discourse. ' son of a'z Zubayr — sent to the son of verily thou art a crafty fox which known Commentator on Mansur Abdu'l Malik a the Kuran -who died A. and the Afterwards he wrote to tie people. youth go not within sight of the people of Syria. but I have not been doing '' indeed I am but a man among the Muslims and when they are agreed upon a thing. " verily. yet they did not regard in their sons what thou regardest in thy son. verily thou didst say unto me. H. H." Next he Zubayr and said. me and I break the staff of the Muslims. by Allah. He was the first who made a compact for the Cali- In the year 45 conquered. phate to descend to his son." Then the son of Omar praised God and glorified Him and said. A'bdu'r Eahman the son of Abu Bakr as Siddik arose " rather according to the insti- Cffisar.— [ 199 ] A. Then he sent to the son of Abd Bakr and recited the profession of faith. " O God. " verily the prince of the Marwdn preached and Faith- fit to appoint his son Tazid as successor over ye according to the institution of Abu Bakr and Omar.

I." Al Kharaitit records in the Hawatif {Monitors) on the authority of Hamid-b-Wahb that Hind the daughter of TJ'tbah-b-Eabii'h was the kadir* that Ibn Omar said wife of al Fakah-b-u'l Mughirah." but the people said " yes". hast supported these two men and hast blown into their nostrils. " the son of Omar and the son of Abd Bakr and the son of az Zubayr have sworn allegiance. " verily. t Abu Bakr Mubammad-b-Jaa'far. IT. " great God. " no by AUah. I. " who was he that was with thee ?" She replied.Munkadir of the Kuraysh was a Ho died A. came and entered it.me concerning and the man speak truly. and bring us thy son and we will swear allegiance to him. and verily thott A. I will suborn one us will cease. De Slane. " daughter it.[ 200 ] A." And the people of Syria said. . A. and if wicked we must be patient. De K. how prompt are the people to evil against the Kuraysh ^let me not hear this speech from any of ye after to-day." The son of az God and glorified Him and said. H. whenever it cometh out of one hole goeth into another. but when he saw the woman he turned fleeing but al Fakah observed him. and went forth on some businees of his and a man of those who used to guard the house. 328 (939-40). Hast thou considered if we make a covenant for thy son together with thee. otherwise we shall smite their necks" but he said. tlio Kuraysh." Then he descended and the people said. ." Then he departed." And the people spoke concerning her. K. and he was one of the youths of enter without permission. " if he proveth good we will be content. and he went up to her and kicked her with his foot and said. and if who will will slay him and the talk about he lieth. It is stated on the authority of Ibn Mun- when the covenant was made for Tazid. and he possessed a banqueting house which the people could One day the house was empty. H. D. and hast Zubayr replied. and al Fakah Hind being within. — if verily people talk much about thee." The narrator of good authority. 671. resign it. I summon him * before certain soothsayers of Yaman. Abu Bakr Mu^ammad-'b. " I did not see any one and I did not wake arose. which of ye two we must hear and obey ? The covenant can never be made with ye two conjointly. And Mu'awiyah — ! set forth and arrived in Syria. we shall not be content until they swear allegiance to him before witnesses. whereas they have heard and obeyed him and made a covenant of allegiance with him. until thou didst wake me. al Kharaiti authority traditionist of the Mak&rim Slane. 130." But he said to her " go to thy family. wherefore her father took her apart and said to her." and the Syrians said. " by AUah. there- fore teU. 51. u'l Akhlalf and other works died at Jaffa or Askalon. " if indeed thou art weary of the government. whereupon Mu'awiyah ascended the pulpit and praised carried them against their judgment. (747-8). we have heard the sayings of certain misguided men who think that the son of Omar and the son of Abu Bakr and the son of az Zubayr have not sworn allegiance to Yazid.

J i Mu'awiyah died in the month of Eajab of the year 60 (April 6S0) and was buried between the gate of al Jabiyah. father it is not from guilt." her shoulder and a king called Mu'awiyah. but she withdrew her hand from his hand said. therefore I cannot trust him that he brand Arabs. but on account of the guilt thou feelest. and with them Hind and other women along with her in familiar intercourse. his last request that this it should be put into his mouth and and he added. O daughter. for by Allah.[ 201 ] continues." — clearer than this. verily I see the change of appearance that hath come over thee. 51." He said. the appearance of Hind was transformed and her countenance changed and her father said to her." Then al Fakah looked upon her and took her by the hand. and verily thou shalt give birth to Then he began women. D. and indeed I have concealed from thee a hidden thing that I may prove thee whereHe replied. no. and what is that. therefore summon me before certain of the soothsayers of Yaman." And U'tbah said. and the Little Gate.' me not with a stain which will be a reproach to said to her. " do and leave me alone with the Most Merciful of the Merciful.' And he whistled to his horse until he staled and he inserted a grain of wheat and bound it with a thong. little of the hair of the Apostle of God and a paring of his and enjoined as eyes. U'tbah said to him. " wheat. " I desire what is fore see what it is. striking saying " rise." — And Abu Sufyan married her and she brought forth Mu'awiyah. wherefore A. and U'tbah at the head of a party of the Banu A'bd Manaf. And they reached the soothsayer in the morning who slew a camel for them. in the time of Ignorance that he spoke falsely concerning her. It is said that he lived seventy-seven years. " tten she swore to him upon that by which they used thou hast charged to swear A H. " verily we have come to thee concerning an affair.' She replied." He answered "a grain of wheat in a colt. and he possessed a nail. " thou hast spoken truly. and when they had finished their morning meal." 26 . see into the business of these to approach each one of them. but I know that you go unto ' ' ! a mortal who may fail or prove right. and received them with honour." until he came to Hind and he struck her shoulder and said " rise thou undefiled and no adulteress. ' verily my daughter with k grave thing. " go to. ' me among the But he verily I will prove him for thee before he look into thy business.' And al Fakah went forth with a party of the Banu Makhziim. by Allah. 671- U'tbah said to al Fakah. But when they drew near the confines. I will surely endeavour that it is by another than thee.

al Mu'awiyah. used this adjective in this p. signification in Arabic. as his memory towards the close of his life failed him. and Chenery. He not died about A. Tbn Abi Sbaybah records in the Musannaf on the authority o£ Abu Sa'id-b-Jumhan that he narrates. " know.[ A." He said. H. verily the Eanu — Umayyah the first conceive that the Caliphate is among them. and his enemies searched for a fault in him but they found wherefore they went to a manf who had fought with him and battled with him." And as SUafi in the Tuyyuriyat from A'bdu'llah-b-Ahmad-b-Hanbal that he states. " Abu Bakr. § An Kawawi. and they praised him extravagantly setting a snare themselves for him. going round about the villages of the Arabs. " I said to Safinah. . unless it be for the same reason that a ship is termed Jdiiyah because it runs or flows on the sea. D. 34. Consult Lane." He replied. howling to the dogs. On some accounts of Mm. J Abu A'mr or Abu Omar A'bdu'l Malii-b-TJ'mayr was one of the Tibi'ia and a native of Kufah of which town he was K&dhi. I«. " I said to —who are the Caliphs ?" He answered. 680. I know he should have likened Jariyah to a bee. Meaning that the names themselves have that why ." Armani that he most rigorous of kings and And al Bayhaki and Ibn A'sakir narrates."§ And from al Fadhlis b-Suayd. that A'U had many it not. t Mu'fiwiyah. and the Arabs piwan. " and what art thou near to being — art thou anything but a verily. and but the diminutive of a female slave. notes to 10th aasembly of al Hariri." And Ibn A'sakir from A'bdu'l Malik-bTJ'mayr. " who art thou ?" He replied. Omar. " no one had more claim to the Caliphate in the time of A'li than A'li." and he answered. Jai'iyah likewise signifies a female slave. Mu'awiyah IT'mayyah is nothing but a bitch. enemies.. " thou art the procurator of A'li the son of Abu Talib and the kindler of fire in thy burnings. that likened me to it. " Jariyah the son of Kudamah. blue-eyed.} that Jarlyah-b-Kudamah as Saa'di went to Mu'awiyah who said to him. " dost thou not imderstand. He ia considered a good authority by Borne and doubtful by others. Ofchman I said. " and Mu'awiyah ?" Ahmad-b- and A'li. the name not bearing that meaning. and it protects itself with a sting and is bee ?" thou hast ! sweet of juice by Allah. He answered. is a confirmed enmity. which ia nesa or Kghtness of the eye employed as signifying hostility because the SS\\ blueis predominant in the Greeks and the Daylam between whom sense. 202 ] H 60. 136. Imr u'l Kays. "I asked my father concerning A'li and Mu'awiyah. that Jariyah-b-Kudamah went to Mu'awiyah who said to him." " verily the fieree-eyed sons* of the kings is lie —they He replied. and thus the bee in the air. * Lit. are the from Ibrahim-b-Suayd Hanbal. Ar Text. A.

. is faulty.ijiJj. thou didst not will fulfil ours. " no. we but if thou inclinest to the contrary." He replied. nor conquer us if but thou gavest us engagements and compacts. has ^jj^^i I would amend for j. Ibn Hajr. that he went in unto Mu'awiyah who said to him. but the scansion of both these The same MS. " Mu'awiyah —put " A'li aside A. out towards us the thumb and forefinger in treachery." He said. and never A. " then what hindered" thee. for we have never 'hated "alas for thee. 680. " thou hast no free mother. for with thee were the people of Syria ?" Mu'Awiyah replied. and sharp lances." Abu't Tufayl laughed and then exclaimed. and thou thy part to us. "but surely his claim upon them that they should aid him was imperative !" He retorted. The printed edition of as Suyuti has kSiixfiJi Ji. " may meet thee the Lord among the people." He said. " and what hindered thee from assisting him ?" He answered. Behind us are if men. " wert thou not among the slayers of 0thman ?" He replied. " but my seeking vengeance for his blood is helping him.. The latter was killed on whereupon Jariyah was sent and he besieged A'bdu'llah in his house and set it and burnt him to death. the first name should be Ja'di ^jA*^. in the Asiatic Society of Paris. Barbier de Eeynard's text of Masa'ddi gives this poet's name as Hanafi." The other replied." not multiply the like of thee of Mu'fiwiyah exclaimed." And on the authority Tuf ayl A'amir-b-Wathilah the Companion. we will with both arms reach of deceit. A'li since we loved him. but I was among those that were with him but did not assist him." He answered. In it a note is stated that according to a MS. is erroneously omitted but found in Maaa'udi's version. Masa'ddi has iSJIjIaaJJI in the text and iSULij in the above-mentioned MS. " thou and Othman are Abu 't as the poetf says for him and fire * Mu'awiyah had sent A'bdu'llai-b-u'l Hadhrami to Basrah to secure that town A'li despatched Aa'yan-b-Dhahiah for the same purpose. " the Fugitives and Auxiliaries did not aid him. In the second hemistich a is JU^ which is necessary in the scansion. we dealt sincerely with him. O Jariyah. and strong coats of mail. tall then verily. by violence." how contemptible wert thou to thy family when they named thee Jariyah. "verily thou threatenest seize us me!" fulfil He by replied. and distance between thy thou stretchest. prince of the Faithful from helping him. " verily force. " a free mother bore me not verily the hilts of the swords with which we met thee at ! SifKn are in our hands. thou wert contemptible to thy family when they called thee Mu'awiyah. The readings of the hemistich of the verse are various. acted with dissimulation towards him since He answered. after stroys the sense unless employed as a query.: [ 203 ] shedding their blood. from thee. 60. Mu'awiyah."* Jariyah replied. H. D." He said. we will abandon them. it i«lijjij)/ as the negative here de. t M.

(Ibn Abi Shaybah) and who diminished the number of the Takbirs. 680. that the penalty of the violation of their oath would be divorce of their wives and manumission of their slaves. or early companionship with the Apostle." Az Zubayr-b-Bakkdr records. «. " Mu'awiyah was the first to establish post-messengers in Islam.* Al was the first A'skari records in his book of the Awail on the authority of Sulayman-b- A'bdu'Uah-b-Maa'mar.' " — — ! thrown one over another.) Az Zuhri states that Mu'awiyah was the first who introduced the discourse before prayers on the Eed. people.) And Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab says that he was the first who introduced the call to prayers on the Eed. in the Muwaffikiydt on the authority of the son of az Zuhri's brother. and he appointed to it A'bdu'llah-b-Aus al Ghassani. sat himself down among a circle in which were. He answered. and the first who permitted the stripping of the Kaa'bah. " every work has its reward . (Abdu'r Kazzak in his Musannaf. Ibn Omar. " I said to az Zuhri who — who demanded an oath in the covenant of allegiance ?" He replied. and confided to him the Seal." and the first. D. and the first who appointed eunuchs for his personal service. A'li —A'bbfis and Abu TAlib being brothers. and the first to whom it was said hy the Muaddin." and that continued with the A'bbaside Caliphs to the end. and established the register of the Seal from that day. " And he was the first who established an enclosure in the great mosque. The reason of his instituting it was. and the first with whom his subjects jested familiarly. H.[ 204 ] A. " I have more claim to his authority than this recusant and the son of his paternal uncle. or kinship with him ?" * That t /. Ibn A'bbds and A'bdu'r Eahmdn-b-Abi Bakr. 60. and when the account was taken to Mu'awiyah. (Kecorded by Ibn Abi Shaybah. but when A'bdu'llah-bMarwan came."t And Ibn A'bbas said.. and he opened the document and made it two hundred thousand. thou didst not* furnish me with my As Shaa'bi says. but Ibn A'bbds turned fi-om him and Mu'awiyah said. . was Mu'dwiyah and that was when his flesh had increased and his stomach had grown large. O prince of the Faithful and the mercy of God and His blessing to prayers May the Lord have mercy upon thee. who established the office of the Seal. " Mu'dwiyah made them swear by God. that the first who preached seated to the • : food. he disavowed it. that he narrates. Al A'skari says in his Awail. ia. that he commanded to be given to a man one hundred thousand dirhams. and upon the stone of it was inscribed. A. that Mu'dwiyah went to Mecca or Medina and arriving at the mosque. And they wel- comed him. " why ! for priority in Islam. he made them swear upon divorce and manumission. for before that its vesture was I win surely find thee weeping for me after my death And during my life. " peace be to thee.

and I O prince of the Faithful. " then be resigned. Bakr. and Mu'awiyah men of the Auxsaid. said." He answered. give Mu'awiyah the son of Harb The prince of the Faithful." He replied. "then this one more deserveth it. and he said Now. dost thou do thus fool. " what then did he command you " he commanded us to be resigned. " * TTmayyali. because the people of Paradise wiU then overreach the people of hell by their state of enjoyment while the latter -will suffer the punishment they deserve or because the former will impute defect to the latter for preferring infidelity to faith. ^jj or the day of mutual cheating or overreaching.' " ' " Ibn Abi'd Dunya and Ibn A'sakir record on the testimony of Jabalah- b-Suhaym that he said to him. of thy paternal uncle and slew him. 1 Harb Affan Abu Sufyan Mu'dwiyah.. " verily an infidel slew his father. iliaries.— 205 ] " [ " no.' " (recited but by one authority according to Ibn A'sakir. of the Kuran is so named. you will see after me a Mu'awiyah asked. and Mu'awiyah said to him. "his father died a natural death. but for being the son of the paternal uncle of the murdered OtJiman. this message from us. " we had no riding animals. ! A'bu'l A asi . 680." A'bdu'llah-b-Muhammad-b-U'kayl says that Mu'awiyah arrived at Medina.' child."* A.' he 'be silent. Mu'awiyah answered. " I went in unto Mu'awiyah during ?' ' his Cali- phate.) Ibn Abi Shay bah records in the Musannaf on the authority of as Shaa'bi. Lane. " all the people have come unto me except ye. for it was the Muslims He retorted." After a little Abu Katadah said. . We will then be resigned and wiU await you At the day of mutualf endamaging and contention. Apostle of ' state of calamity. ' narrates. The LXIVth Chap. and there met him Abu Katadah the Auxiliary. " verily the who were wroth with the son God said to us." meaning the son of Omar." He said." This reached A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Hassdn-b-Thabit. H. " then this one has more claim to it." meaning the son of Abu A. D. He answered. Othm&i t That is tbe day of resurrection called yjliJJ. let him for I heard the Apostle of God say. " where were yo«w camels for drawing water ?" " We lamed them in the chase after thee and thy father at Badr.' to do ?" He replied. 60. " then that is the worse for thy argument. and round his neck was a rope and a child was leading him. that a youth of the Kuraysh went in to Mu'ason of wiyah and spoke harshly to him. 'he who hath a act towards him as a child." The other rejoined." Ibn A'bbas replied.

H. A. " This Abu Khubayb here. " what is it ?" Mu'awiyah said."f Mu'awiyah out with them :" and he recited to him from " I have proved Afwah al Azdi. " a people were never yet It 'is divided but the wicked prevailed over the just. save this people. and seizes with the gripe of a lion. and clemency. Mu'awiyah exclaimed " he hath spoken go on. therefore thou art the best iudge. each verse complete in its meaning. has rightly u^t^w which words are improperly inverted in the printed edition." Sulayman al Makhzumi." truly. t Lit. each verse complete in its meaning ." and he ordered him three hun- * The MS." He replied. Then A'bdu'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr rose and said. See the Muntaha'l Arab art. " complete and X sufficient." (_jjjjl The printed edition has which is incorrect." and Abu Khubayb said. my brother ! I warn thee against a king. " hast the choice. " for three hundred thousand recorded in the Tuyyuriyat on the authority of dirhams V Mu'awiyah said. for a king waxes angry with the sudden anger of a child. " verily this is disrespect towards me. "thou said. " he hath dred thousand dirhams. go on. and I wrote to him. and when the assembly had gathered together. . and we should not be if to ruin. gaymg. I heard Ma'awiyah say. " recite to me three verses by an Arab.spoken truly. he fled to Mu'Awiyah. D. saying. And have " seen none but dissemblers and praters."* but he wrote to me." And from as Shaa'bi that Ziyad said. that Mu'awiyah gave a general audience to the people. any more calamitous in fall.— [ 206 ] A." things supplication." and they were silent. said truly. " and wiU they be worth it?" He answered. J men age after age. 680. is the most eloquent and learned of the Arabs. " I appointed a man as collector and he embezzled the proceeds of the taxes and fearing that I woidd punish him. hard with them all we would confound men in for we would drive men we were to be leiniquity." And from the same. " recite ye to me three verses by an Arab. Or more Mu'awiyah " distressing than the enmity of men." He : continued And I have tasted the bitterness of all And there is no favour more bitter than Mu'dwiyah exclaimed. 60. wherefore act thou with severity and harshness and I will act with mildness. he said. " verily nor for thee to govern nient to it is : not fitting for me men by one kind of polity them all." He continued— their And I have not seen among evils." said " he hath .

and I have associated with A'mr the son of al A'as and I have never seen a man purer in ancestry and a gentler companipn than he. things. but the Apostle of God cursed Marwan and Marwan was then in his loins —therefore Marwan of the curse of God. " I have associated with Omar the son of al Khattab and I never saw a man more learned in the book of God. but the father of is full was revealed regarding such a one the son of such one. that Mu'awiyah said. therethe verao above-mentioned. Mu'awiyah. 6S0. he A. four.. Ibn Masa'iid. and I have associated with Mu'awiyah and I have never seen a man of greater forbearance or slower to folly or more extreme in gravity than he. and he said. " art thou not the son of the accursed." And Ibn A'sakir from as Shaa'bi that he said. . of him thy father whom lied. al Mughirah in swift action. " verily God hath shown the prince of the Faithful in regard to his son. and Zayd-b-Thabit and the most sagacious. 60." .) And A'bdu'r Eah- mdn said. unsolicited. being then ruler over Hijaz on the part of Mu'awiyah." never the son of Abti Talib begged of A'li and * I. Mu'awiyah. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Hamid-b-Hilal. " Fie upon you. " Marwan hath it that* was not revealed regarding A'bdu'r Eahman. for. " rather according to the institution of Heraclius and Khusrau. A'mr-b-u'l A'as. Bakr said." Ibn Abi Shaybah records in the Musannaf on the authority of U'rwah. verily then Abu Bakr and Omar named successors. " there is no forbearance without tryings of temper. Abu Bakr did not give it to any of his sons nor to any of the people of his house. XVII. that Marwdn was preaching in Medina. or more profoundly versed in the religion of God than he. and the most sagacious men and the judges were Omar." ' And Marwan ?' said." And from Kabisah-b-Jabir that he said. " I am poor and needy. he would assuredly get out by them all. and I have associated with al Mughirah the son of Shuu'bah. record with various readings. " the most sagacious of the Arabs are four. out of any gate of which one could not go forth save by cunning. A. II. that A'kil said. the Apostle of God cursed ?" but Ayesha exclaimed. an excellent counsel. A'mr-b-u'l A'as. and Ziyad in great and small The most eminent judges were four. and I have seen a man more munificent in large gifts of wealth. " art thou not he who said to his parents Fie upon you " (Kur. and Mu'awiyah hath not done this save from partiality and favour to his son. and if he appointeth him successor. by Allah. A'mr in : difficulties. and if there were a city with eight gates. D. e." (and in one reading " according to the Whereupon A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Abi institution of Abu Bakr and Omar"). and I have associated with falhah the son of U'baydu'llah. A'li.[ a07 1 Al Bukhari and an NaSai and Ibn Abi Hatim in his commentary. al Mughirah and Ziyad. than he. Mughirah-b-Shuu'bah and Ziyad but Mu'Swiyah shows it in his forbearance and gravity.

al Bajli. His tomb in a village called Born al Baalbek A. Thauban.[ 208 ] A." and Khuraym said " thy hips. al Hajabi. break these locks and take what is in the shops. Muhammad-b-Maslamah. Saa'd* " The hands of flaming Abu Lahab also shall perish and he shall perish. Zayd-b-Thabit. is Auzaa'i the chief doctor of law among . as ' ' ye. Saudah and Juayriyyah mothers of the Faithful. and his nether garment was tucked up. U'mm Habibah. Kaa'b-b-Malik.' A'kil said. A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Abi Bakr. A'bdu'Uah-b-Salamthe learn- ed doctor. He dwelt at Bayrtit Suf- y&n at with many others. Othman-b-Talhah A'mr-b-u'l A'as. Abu A'mr A'bdu'r Eahmdn-b-Tuhmid Thauri was his pupil in traditions. fore give unto me.' and he went to Mu'awiyah and begged of him. said. 88 (707) died at Bayrut. verily I tempted Ali in regard to his religion and he preferred his " religion. A'mr-b-Hassan-b-Thabit.' He replied. Fudhalah-b-U'bayd. Hantds outside the gate of Ibn Khali.' Then people I tell he mounted. Abd Katadah al Ansari. and verily I tempted Mu'awiyah in regard to his religion and he preferred me to his religion. Abu Bakrah. Sa'id-b-Zayd. Abu Aylib al Ansari. H. See Sale. " wait until will give my stipend cometh with' that of the other Muslims." Her name was TJmm Jamil. shall not profit him nor that which he hath gained. " take him by the hand and go with him to the shops of the people of the market and say. H. " if And Mu'awiyah like but those legs belonged to a woman . Jarir I'mran-b-Hasin. and he gave him a hundred thousand dirhams and said. CXI). fire He His riches shall go dovfn to be burned in and his wife Kur. . ' I shall assuredly go to Mu'awiyah. al Mughirah-b-Shuu'bah." and A'kil said.' Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of the father of Jaa'far-b-Muthat A'kil went in unto Mu'awiyah who said. Maymu- nah." He replied.—^Labid the poet. ' and dost thou wish to make me a thief that I ?' should take the property of the Muslims and give it to thee. " that is A'kil and his paternal uncle was Abd Lahab. the Syrian Muslims and the most learned in jurisprudence. she was the daughter of Harb and al sister of t Abd Sufyau. and praised God and glorified him. Usa- mah-b-Zayd. Abu Musa al Asha'ri. And hammad. D. Safiyyah. CXI. Jubayr-b-Mu'tim. "this is Mu'awiyah and his maternal aunt was the bearer of wood*" (Kur. and said. bearing wood. 60. Hakim-b-Hizam. 680. from al Auzaa'i. get up on the pulpit and mention what A'li hath given thee and what I have given thee. Safwan-b-Umayyah and Hafsah.t that Khuraym-b-F4tik went unto Mu'awiyah. thou wiliest. and not to them ' that He answered. on her neck a cord of twisted fibres of » palm tree. the city. dost thou wish to make me a ' ' thief ?' A'li retorted. and he had shapely legs." There died during the reign of Mu'awiyah among distinguished persons. prince of the Faithful." but he was importunate and A'li said to a man. A. and I unto thee with them.

-and others. and Abu Hurayrah (in tbe year 59. the covenant of alle- come ' to me — ' ' ' giance for Yazid. I have placed the foot of Mu'awiyab in the stirrup of error in which it will continue till tbe day of resurrection'. YAZrD-B-MU'AWIYAH. 680. ' when thou deposed from thy office." and his prayer was heard)-. 27 . Mu'awiyab wrote to bim. there would have been a " states that Council of election till to Mu'awiyab and said to remembrance in regard to the people of Muhammad. Tazid tbe son of Mu'aWiyab. what was that ?' He replied. and tbe people were averse to it as hath gone before.' but be delayed about it. "thou. go back to. saying.[ 209 ] b-Abi Wakkas. the Lord to thy . very corpulent and hairy His mother Maysun* was the daughter of Bahdal al Kalabi. ' and the schismatics asserted that judgment helongeth to Ood. — made bim his heir. and they are related on bis His father authority by his son Khalid and A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marw^n. and they were upraised (and Ibn u'l Kara adds. thy prefecture. D. ' 'and hast thou done ' it?' He Mu'awiyab replied. bow goes it with thee ?' He answered. for verily he was Mu'awiyah's prefect over Kufah. H. to pray " God.' And when be went put his Companions said to him. U'kbab-b-A'dmir. The lattpr says that the Bedouins never hear without screams of joy. the Uinkyyad.' not for that.A. for be used A.' He said. and readest this letter.' Al Hasan says.') and al Mugbirab-b-Shuu'bab. after thee. was bom He was stout. it and were the day of resurrection. answered ' yes' : ' ' for this reason. hast given me counsel and spoken according' Ibn Sirin " I call A'mr-b-Hazm went him.' and Mu'awiyab said. and this judgment will continue to he maintained till the day of resurrection. Mu'awiyab said to him what delayed thee ?' He replied. concerning him whom thou placest as thy successor over them. an affair which I was settling and arranging. 60. Al Hasan of Basrah says. and bis brotber U'bayd. He narrated traditions on the authority of bis father. Kutham-b-ul A'bbas. these have taken covenants of allegiance for their sons. " two men threw into confusion the affairs of the people. verily I fly to thee for protection against tbe year 60 and tbe reign of cbildren. Abu Khalid." He replied.• This Bedouin tride of Mu'flwiyah was a graceful poetess is —some of her verses are translated in Carlyle's specimens of Arabian poetry. and when be arrived. A'mr the son of al A'a? on the day he suggested to Mu'awiyab tbe lifting of tbe Kurans on the lances. in tbe year 25 or 26. known and given in Ockley and in it One song especially is well Burton's Pilgrimage. u'llab. Abu'l Tusr.

" Then he quoted appositely — " lark ! in this pasture land.and they too With regard to Ibn u'z Zubayr he made any pretension on his own account. but when Yazid was acknowledged he reverted to what had been formerly meditated."t al * Meaniog. whereupon Ibn A'bbas said to him. his brother ." and Ibn Omar said to him. then cause him to arrive at that which I have hoped. Ibn u'z Zubayr counselled him to set out. and Ibn A'bbas wept and next."* And when Ibn A'bbas saw Abdu'llah-b-u'z Zubayr." And' when Mu'awiyah died. and my son is the most deserving. of the father for his son that hath influenced me. and he chose the not do and thou shalt not obtain it" meaning the Ibn Omar upon his neck and wept and bade him adieu. the prohibition of pasturage extended. sing. It is said. one who was to take the covenant of allegiance for him. and he said " the eye of the son of az Zubayr hath become refreshed. neither swore allegiance nor determining at one time to remain and at another purposing to go to them. " O Lord." was any land he chose to take for pasture. but he did not yield to any of them and resolved upon the journey to Irak. 680. lay thy eggs and Peck at what thou wiliest to peck. used to say. he would put a dog in a — field and wherever its bark could be heard.— 210 [ 1 A. " al Husayn prevailed over us concerning his departure. he said to him. Then he sent to the people of Medina. D. and by my life. CO. but if it was indeed the love. t The verses are Kulayb Wail's of the tribe of Taghlib the most powerful chief of Najd. but as to al Husayn. A. for the Lord gave the apostle of God a choice between this world and the next. and assist him. but al Husayn and Ibn u'z Zubayr refused to acknowledge him." and Jabir-b-A'bdu'Uah and Abu Sa'id. then *tale him away before he arriveth at it. verily." A'tiah-b-Kays says that Mu'awiyah preached and said. The valley is open to thee. H. prohibiting others therefrom. " what thou hast desired hath come to pass ^this al Husayn is about to set forth and will quit thee and al Hija'z. i£ I have surely made a covenant for Yazid on account of the merit I saw in him. verily he had beheld a warning example in his father and. that he saw his own way to the Caliphate only through the death of Husayn whose march to Kiifah he had counselled. but verily there remain none but my son and their sons. went forth in the night to Mecca. but Ibn A'bbas used to say " do it. I think thou wilt be slain among thy wives and children as Othman was slain. the people of Kufah had written to him in the time of Mu'awiyah soliciting him to come to them and he had refused. The proverbial " guarded domain of Xulayb. fell world. to thy judgment. and if he be not deserving of that which I have done for him." But he did not acquiesce. " go not forth. and thou art a part of him. the people of Syria swore allegiance to Yazid. " by Allah. . and Abti Wakid al Laythi Tised to address him similarly.

" I saw upon this palace. as if flames." and then added the " The fowler is far from thee." teen men of his family. as had been their way with his father before him. but it had never been beheld coloured sheets. . and a man spake some words against al Husayn and the Lord launched at him two stars from heaven and his sight was destroyed. and they slew a camel in their army and they saw in its flesh. " the head of al Husayn the son of A'li upon a buckler. and the saffron that was in their army became ashes. upon "Pear not. D. commanded by Omar-b-Saa'd-b-Abi Wakkas. is slain -and his head was carried in a platter until was placed before Ibn Ziyad may God curse his slayer. he will take thee some day. and the sun was eclipsed on that day and The the horizon of the sty became red for six months after his death. and There were slain together with him sixverily unto Him shall we return. 680. Once when ha was walking which he said. men. H. next I saw the head of Musaa'b before A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwdn. women and children. whereupon he set forth from Mecca to I'rak A. it and he was likewise. And when al Husayn was murdered. and they cooked it and it became like the colocynth. and with him a party of his household. so be glad#-yet. thy eggs are under my protection. and when the troops came up with him he profferred submission to them and to return and go to Yazid to place his hand in the inviting And band of Yazid. was turned in Jerusalem on that day but it. It is said that not a stone fresh blood was found beneath At Thaa'labi says that historians have recounted in several ways on the authority of Abdu'l Ma^k-b-U'mayr al Laythi. I saw the head of al Mukhtar before Musaa'b-b-u'z Zubayr . his prefect in I'rak to oppose him. and the stars struck one upon the other. A. 60." and he pointed to the royal palace of Kiifah. the world stood stiU for seven days. that he said. And the people of Kiifah deserted al Husayn. sent messengers and letters to al Husayn. him among them. verse quoted which concludes thus See Ohenery's notes to 19th and. redness did not cease to be seen after that. .— [ 211 ] the people of I'rak. From this dog. place on the 10th of before. he is supposed to have received the name of Kulayb. but they refused everything bu^ his death. and he sent against him an army of four thousand men. and the sun upon the walls appeared as safEron- His murder took Muharram. on the 10th of Du'l Hijjah. a lark flew away from her eggs at his approach. and Ibn Ziyad with slain at him and Yazid He was Karbala and the narrative of his death long the mention of which the heart cannot endure. 26th sure. Then Yazid wrote to U'baydu'llah-b-Ziydd. so beware. " il^erily we belong to God. in his domain. afterwards I beheld the head of U'baydu'llah-b-Ziyad before al Mukhtar-b- Abi U'bayd again. before U'baydu'Uah-b-Ziyad ." : Assemblies of al Hariri.

but he will tell ' ' thee that he hath heard heard. D. See note § page 15. tell me regarding what hath reached me. Abu Ya'la records in his Musnad on a weak ascription to Abu TJ'bay- dah. that he narrates. with dust on his head and beard. " I went ib unto TJmm. that the Apostle of God said." Abu Nua'ym records in the Dalail from " I heard the jinns weeping for al Husayn Umm Salimah."* ." Ar Euyani records Musnad on the authority of Abu'd Dardd.' freodman of Muljammad..' and I said. thou wilt not meet with any one. with my father and ' my the mother. 60.' it.— [ 212 ] A. and lamenting over him.' and they computed the day and found that he was slain on that day. that she said. At Tirmidi records on the authority of Salmaf that she narrates. ' ' ' ' ' " I saw the Apostle of God at midday." And Thaa'lab in his Dictations from Abu Jandb al Kalabi that he narrates.' " al And when Husayn and the children of his father were slain. but when the Muslims hated him for it. the grandsire the best of grandsires. with dishevelled ' hail-. H. ' then tell me what thou hast He And And replied. ' I have heard them saying The Apostle stroked his forehead . and the people him enmity and bore him enmity with justice. what hath come to thee. he had a radiance in his checks His parents were the noblest of the KuraysL. soiled with dust and in his hand a phial of blood. this is blood of al Husayn and his Companions. I witnessed but now the murder of al apostle of God ?' Husayn. and and I related this circumstance to A'bdu'l Malik who was startled at it left the place. of Muhammad or according to others of §afiyyah-d of A'bdu'l Muttalib^Bhe married Abu Eafi. A. O He replied. 680. what is this ?' He replied. " I heard • According to Ockley. that ye hear the lamentations. he ill commanded the I castle to be demolished to arert the oinen —Maea'udi says jj"''^ (j** (ills' <. " I went to Karbala and I said to one of the Arab Chiefs. mayst thou he ransomed.' I replied.' and he said. 1^ .' " And al Bayhaki in the Dalail from Ibn A'bhas that he said. Ibn first Ziyad Sent their heads to Yazid who at repented afterwards bore rejoiced at their death.of the jinns . what makes thee weep ?' She repliedi I saw the apostle of God in a dream.s*^l (j'^l (•<*«^^l \ Freedwoman. SalimahJ and she was weeping and I said. «««. and I said. I have not ceased to gather it up from to-day . " the government of first my people shall it shall not cease to be based on justice until the be a in his that shall subvert man of the Banu Umayyah called Yazid.

the coverings of the Kaa'bah took fire roof and the two horns of the ram. the one by which Ishmael was ransomedf and which were in the roof. ' the Faithful Yazid the son of Mu'dwiyah said. " he of Medina. D.' and he exclaimed." In the year 63 belled against it reached YaziA. " when Yazid had done unto the people and induland while Medina what he had done. " I was with A. . And they set out and there took place the battle of Harrah over against the gate of Taybah. The reason of his deposition by the people of Medina was that Yazid became boundless in iniquities. and he was scourged twenty lashes. The apostle hath said. and drink wine and abandon his drinking wine public prayers. 683) and the news of his death arrived f Muslim-b-TJ'kbali. " by Allah. ^ihe And from and its sparks of their fires." the Companions and others were slain in it. and what shall make thee understand what the battle of Harrah was Al Hasan mentions it once ! and says. 680. Banu Umayyah called Yazid. It is well- known saorifloe that the Muhammadans maintain that lehmael and not Isaac waa taken for by Abraham.[ 213 ] God say. Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. that the people of Medina had re- large force and ordered him and deposed him. the commander of the troops* died on the way. H. But he appointed over them a chief to succeed him and they reached Mecca and besieged Ibn u'z Zubayr and attacked him and launched engines of war against him. with the MS. t5** for tS'<i'». and the Lord did not bless his the life army of Harrah marched to Mecca. wherefore he sent against them a it to attack them and then march to Mecca to . Ibn Khali. scarcely one of them escaped.' " Naufal-b-u'l Furat Says. " by Allah.) b-Numayr as Sakuni to succeed him. together with gence in forbidden things. ." The Lord destroyed Yazid in the middle of the month of Eabii' u'l Awwal of this year (11th November. engage Ibn u'z Zubayr." of Ad Dahabi says. I '-^ ' t The printed edition should have. Abu Jaa'far. A large number of thousand virgins violated. that A'bdu'Uah-b-Handhalah-b-i'l Ghasil said. shall and Medina was sacked and a Verily we belong to God and verily unto Him who intimidateth the people him in fear and upon him be the curse of God and his angels and of aU mankind" (Muslim relates this). he died at a place called Harsha having appointed Husayn ((^«a&. and that in Safar of the year 64. the first who will alter my law. the prince of the Apostle &f the ' GO. the people became violent against him and more than one rebelled against him. Al Wakidi records with various lines of ascription. will be one of A. we did not rebel against Yazid until we feared that we sh9uld be stoned from Heaven on account of a man who would marry slave mothers who had home children we return. art. the Lord shall put to tJieir masters and daughters and sisters. ' dost thou call him prince of the Faithful ?' and he gave orders regarding him. when a man mentioned Yazid and said.

This sorrow hath returned and drawn near. Its unintelligibility may account for ita J Muliammad-b-A'li-b-al iJusayu-b-A'U-b-Abi Talib called al Baiiir.* And my Round which the olives are ripening. 64. verily your oppressor is dead . a horn of iron. the discriminator. but -while the fighting was going on. . u'z Zubayr called out . I saw it Declining to its fall. and assumed the title of Caliph. " O and they were routed and broken and the people captured them. and Salam. Gazing upon the stars I watched them And when a planet rose It circled over until. Khalid-b-U'rfutah. and al Mahdi. from the profundity of his knowledge. Salam. is in accordance with the text but both are probably iu error. and al Amin and the prince of wrath. Ibn A'fiFan the possessor of two luminaries. And Ibn men of Syria. A village near Damascus. A. ye have well hit his name — and Omar. verily. Jarhad * al Aslatni. what time The ant eatethf of what she hath garnered.D. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of A'bdu'Uah-b-Omar that he said " Abu Bakr the witness to the truth. • all of is them states virtuous. Hath a pleasant abode and when she arriveth.the people of Syria swore allegiance to Mu'awiyah the son of Tazid. Umm Salimah the mother of the Faithful. There died of distinguished people in the reign of Yazid. Al Wakidi X first on the authority Abu Jaa'far al Bakir. Mu'awiyah and his son are kings of the Holy land. is given a double portion of divine mercy. But ." his reign ' was not long. J&hir and the prince of wrath. and Ibn u'z Zubayr invited the covenant of allegiance for himself. As SafEah. She alighteth at a temple near Damascus Under the domes in the midst of cloisters love in Matirlin. their like cannot be found.[ 214 ] A. here agrees with Yakut who gives these verses with slight variants under ait —liij^'*^! lack of ascription. H. Muntaha'l Arab. J I am unahle to explain the introduction of the names.J and aLMansiir. 683. besides those killed with al Husayn and in the battle of Harrah. and Jabir. "-^^l for t The printed edition has J^t The MS. The MS." Ad Dahabi says that this given in various ways. but no one has traced its ascription. ye have well hit his name.§ that the who covered who were the Kaa'bah with silk brocade was Yazid-b-Mu'awiyah. are all of them of the Banu Kaa'bb-Lawayy. • Among the verses t^ Tazid are. as will appear afterwards. And embittered sleep and withheld it. unjustly slain.

He was a great observer of fasting and devotions and given to long Asad-b-Abdi'l U'zza-b-Kusayy. others.* which he had first chewed and named him A'bdu'llah and gave him the surname of Abu Bakr after the name and surname of his grandfather. The duration of. was also called Abu Khubayb. were three MU'AWIYAH-B-YAZrD. He was a virtuous youth. His father was one of the ten unto whom the atiainmenf of Paradise was testified. D. paternal aunt of the Apostle of God. 64. Auxiliaries. He never came forth to the people and did not take any part in affairs.[ Jabir-b-A'tik. Abu A'bdu'r Rahman. and he was the first child born to the Fugitives after (he Flight. and his father's mother was Safiyyah.A. it was said to him. nor prayed before the people. ?"' He replied. within the first year. The Apostle of God rubbed his palate with a date. Maslamah-b-Mukhallad. and Abu point of death. " I have not enjoyed the sweets of therefore I shall not take upon myself its bitterness. He was born at Medina twenty months after the Flight. A'bdu'llah was the son of az Zubayr-b-i'l A'wwdm-b-Khuwaylad. and continued ill till he died. " wilt thou not name a successor it. his Caliphate was forty days some say two months and others three months. 215 I Burayda bu'l Husayb. son of a Companion. and it is also said. b- His surname was Abu Bakr and he. and his mother was Asma. When he was at the Layla. The number of the slain at Harrah of the Kuraysh and the hundred and six. Tazld. * A custom with a newly born child to induce it to suck. Miswar-b-Makhramah and A. a Companion. Kays an Nakha'i the doctor of law. ." A'BDU'LLAH-B-U'Z ZUBATE. H. " we have bewitched them therefore no son shall be born to them. Mu'awiyah-b-Yazid-b-Mu'awiyah. 683. daughter of Abd Bakr as Siddik. The Muslims rejoiced at his birth with an exceeding joy> for the Jews used to say. He died being one and twenty years of age. and was sufBeriug in health when appointed Caliph. Masriik. A'lkamah-b. called also Abu was acknowledged Caliph according to the covenant of his father in the month of Eabii' u'l Awwal 64i. .

and Ibn Abi Mulaykah. but lately converted from infidelity. nor was his covenant for his son legal. . were not that thy tribe have been. states that the" authority of Ibn u'z Zubayr became established even in Syria. He apportioned A. A'ta. 64. attached to his kindred and of great intrepidity. 683. renewed the building of the Kaa'bah and made for plans of Abraham. and would make two gates. « He and he fled to was one of those who refused to acknowledge Tazid-b-Mu'awiyah Mecca making no pretension to the Oalvphate for himself but refusing to swear allegiance. A'bbas-bSahl. and he besieged him. and he was publicly proclaimed from aU the pulpits of Isl4m except that of Tiberias. prayer.t but as a rebel in revolt against az Zubayr. It is most just what ad Dahabi observes that Marwan is not to be counted amongst the princes of the Faithful. 5. p. for some months and attacked him with engines of war. 194. H. remained at Mecca as Caliph until A'bdu'l Malik obtained the ascendancy who despatched al Hajjaj to oppose him at the head of forty thousand men. External to his authority were only Syria and Egypt. however. The friends of az Zubayr then deserted him and stole secretly to al Hajjaj. clearly. Tom. but his reign was not long. • it — t Weil omits Ibn u'z Zubayr and places the name of Marwan between Mu'awiyah II and A'bdu'l Malik. And Yazid was wroth against him with exceeding anger. srecwrmg nights on one night iie prayed standing till morning. p. Delhi edition. I would order the temple to be demolished. It is said that he had thirty-three traditions from and others relate the prophet. D. and his brother TJ'rwah. and what had been excluded from it I would again adjoin to it. Thdbit al Bunani. but places Marw4n after him as the 10th. " Muhammad said to Ayesha.' " The narrator adds. and included within it six it He two gates of the after the cubits enclosure when Ayesha his aunt related to him the tradition from the prophet. and when he died the people of those two countries obeyed Ibn u'z Zubayr and swore him allegiance. 206. who defeated him and slew * This tradition is thus given in al Bukhari. 1848. Ockley likewise recognises Ibn u'z Zubayr as 9th Caliph. he was acknowledged Caliph and the people of Hijaz. Yaman. that this tradition induced Ibn u'z Zubayr to demolish the temple see §aljilj. Ibn u'z Zubayr. Maea'udi however. his timq into three . after having covenanted for his son A'bdu'l Malik.[ 216 ] A. and thus fashion it after the plan of Abraham. TJ'baydah as Salmani them on his authority. on the next with body inclined.* . to the east and west. and the next worshipping on his face till the morning. but when Yazid died. where Hasan-b-MaHk held for Khffid-b-YazId— see Prairies d'Or. but the Caliphate of A'bdu'l Malik became rightful from the time that az Zubayr was slain. Then Marwdn-b-u'l Hakam rebelled and took possession of Syria and then of Egypt and remained in possession till he died in the year 65. and Mu'awiyah-b- Yazid was acknowledged in those two places. I'rak and Khurasan obeyed him.

t Abu Yazi'd Nauf-b-Pudhalah. piety or eloquence. A'mr-b-Dinar says " I never saw one at prayers more devout than Ibn u'z Zubayr. and he ^yas once praying in the enclosure of the temple when a ioltfrom a catapult struck the side of his garment. and he had a voice that when he preached resounded in the hills. And of Othman and the Discriminator. H. and verily a came and flooded the temple. but he did not heed it." and they used to think that the strength that was in him was from that blood. but — Thou didst remind us of Siddik when thou didst rule us . and was undeviating • it But in the morning returned the dark sable clouds. following Masa'udi makes it covering the 14tli— as the 14th and not the 17th was a Tuesday. 692." He replied.from Hisham-b-Urwah and Khubayb. at the time the engines were laid against it Ibn u'z Zubayr when if it a thunderbolt i^W-from heaven. whereupon he went round it swimming. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Muhammad-b-Zayd-b-A'bdi'Uah-b-Oraar that he said. A. a Tabi'i of the Banu Bikal— Mimt Arab 28 . " woe unto the people from thee. and that on Tuesday the 17th* of JutaiMa'l Awwal. this blood go with out where no one may see thee }" On his return the prophet said to him. " verily I find in the revealed book of God that the best horseman among the Caliphs is Ibn u'z Zubayr. * Weil. " A'b- and pour and when he departed he drank it.r him" 217 ] and crucified him. " there was no method of devotion which men from its hardIbn u'z Zubayr undertook it. 73. Ibn A'sakir records from U'rwah that an Nabighah al Jaa'di recited this verse regarding Ibn u'z Zubayr. and it burnt up of the people at the engine about men. " I designed it for a most secret place have put it therein. that the first who covered its the Kaa'bah with silk brocade was A'bdu'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr." claimed. " yes." Othman-b-'Talhah says that Ibn u'z Zubayr could not be matched in three things in bravery. were a red wild fifty — Abu du'llah." He said " perhaps thou hast swallowed it." He and woe unto thee from the people . Ibn u'z Zubayr was the best horseman of his time among the Kuraysh and his exploits are well attested. And thou didst administer justice equally amongst the people. "what and hast thou done ?" I He ex- replied. Ya'la records in his that the prophet was bled and Musnad on the authority when it was over. and say Jumada'l Akhirah of the year 73 (3rd October 692). And . torrent ship failed to perform. and the poor rejoiced. he said it of Ibn u'z Zubayr to him. And from Nauf ul Bikalif that he said. D. " I was standing upon the summit of the Mil of Abu Kubays. A." Mujahid says. so that I saw wheeling round as ass.

the evening. this man never turns to the world for the twinkling of an eye. but a head God at Medina. H." And al Asadi departed. " I never was until thou dost return suffice for thee them sore. And from Omar-b-Kaya A. Zubayr distinctly uttered as a child was sword. would say.' ' ' shalt have it for a day and a day and days. And I said to my companions. and its rider. that he said." and Ibn u'z Zubayr rerelief. and his father when he heard that. it is as thou sayest. verily I came to but I did not come to thee asking for a prescription the Lord curse the camel that bore me to thee ." my !" surety to thy family that to means of subsistence it would answered. having been of haircloths and dressed leather." He replied. and there is no Umayyad " I see that with in the land Among the Banu A'as or the descendants of Harb Eesplendent like the white star of a generous steed. D. that never was a head brought to the Apostle of after the battle of Badr. " He said. t . ' well. by Allah. ." thee asking for plied " He exclaimed " prince of the Faithful. to one father and mother.* and cover her with hair and ride her in the morning and He O prince of the Faithful. 73. draw nigh to my stirrup ' For I shall leave the interior of Mecca in the darkness And when I pass Dat I'rk." He replied. went to A'bdu'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr-bprince of the Faithful. plant called my camel is foot"help her by cooling her hoof and pasture her on the Subt. * Lane makes this to be a plant resem'bliiig the AUhea ojkinalis or marsh mallow. thou wilt mark that all men go back Faithful. each servant among them speaking a different tongue. and Ibn u'z Zubayr used to speak with each of them in his own tongue and when I regarded him in his worldly conduct. thou ling of an eye. ' this man never turns to God for the twink- and when I regarded him in his religious conduct. " Ibn u'z Zubayr had one hundred servants.— — [ 218 ] A. " yes. between me and thee there i'l Awwam and said. A place near Mecca -where the pilgriins from Irak put on the pilgrim's dress lefore approaching the Kaa'bah. I used to " say. not even was once taken to Abu Bakr. reciting this verse Abu Khubayb. but if thou wilt consider are at this.' " the first word my paternal uncle Ibn u'z And from Hisham-b-U'rwah. The first to whom b-u'z Zubayr.t there shall be for me No return to this son of remissness.' and he never let it out of his mouth. needs Are unsupplied.' " A'bdu'r Eazzak records in his Musannaf on the authority of az Zuliri. and he heads were taken was A'bdu'llah- disapproved of I it. that A'bdu'Uah-b-u'z Zubayr al Asadi. " O prince of the end. 692. I used to say. " is relationship through a certain female.' " And from Abu U'baydah." Ibn u'z Zubayr replied.

nor Ootley when his wives were comdead husband. The aim of al Mukhtar's ambition was to extirpate the murderers of al Husayn. 26. Neither d'Herbelot. A'bu'l Walid. ( (3''*^5" f**'^ ) is t Lane says that the "sealing of the neck" mentioned in the or imbeUvers of Kisalah Yuaufiyah thus— Omar sent Ibn Hunayf to seal the ^J^ . Ibn A'bbds. him to death — may God curse him. during the Caliphate of Ibn u'z Zubayr. Usayd-b-Dhuhayr.[ 219 ] During the reign of u'z Zubayr occurred the rebellion of al Mukhtdr.* and Ibn u'z Zubayr despatched A. ter of Baylonian Irak. an Nu'man-b-Bashir. and sealedf them in their necks and hands. Sulayman-b-Surad. he who pretended to prophecy.D. and avenge his death which he amply accomplished by killing. H. were. cannot find. 0024 an army to oppose him until he overpowered him in the year 67 and put the liar.. Marwan and Abdu'l Malik and made himself mas. of which he sickened and died. Zayd-b-Arkam. and he continued as a usurper over Egypt and Syria. nor Masaudi mention latter says that The manded hj' Musa'b to curse their • Mukhtar an infidel. adding that she would have abjured Islam likeThe other died rather than consent to the intimidations of Musa'b. Zayd-b-Khalid al Juhni. nearly fifty thousand men. During • this year. Abd Wakid al Laythi. A. according to Ockley. A'BDII'L MALIK-B-MAEWAN. but his Caliphate was not valid. Jabir-b-Samurah. and was acknowledged Caliph according to the covenant of his father.A'di-b-Hatim. Subsequently he took possession of I'rak and the adjacent provinces. from which day his Caliphate became valid and pulled . A'bdu'Uah-b-A'mr-b-i'l A'aa. till Ibn u'z Zubayr — was slain in the year 73. death and called al wise under a similar threat. two of them refused testifying to his piety and his exertions in the cause of God and his prophet and his avenging the hlood of Husayn. thereby bringing * On what ground this is asserted I it. Abti'l Aswad ad Duall and others. a'z Of the distinguished men who died during the reign of Zubayr. He was slain in the 67th year of his age after having beaten all the generals of Tazid. 73. A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwan-b-i'l Hakam-b-Abi'l A'as-b-TJ'mayyah-b-A'bd Shams-b-A'bd Manaf-b-Kusayy-b-KiMb. al Hajjaj it down the Kaa'bah and restored it to the condition in which now is he likewise suborned a man to strike Ibn Omar with a poisoned javelin. In the year 74 al Hajjaj went to Medina and began to oppress its people and humiliate the remnant of the Companions of the Apostle of <3rod therein. One of these two women subsequently relented under threat of nor Weil. was born in the year. his authority established.

in the district of Masisah. Jabir-b-A'bdi'Uah.Marwan. nor more virtuous nor more versed in the book of God than A'bdu'l Malik the son of Marwan. 73. . Ibn Saa'd says that he was pious and virtuous when at Medina before the Caliph.§ and A'bbadah-b-Lubni.00. In the year 77 Heraolea was taken.of Bardaa'h. In the year 75 the Caliph A'bdu'l Malik made the pilgrimage with the people. A'bdu'l Malik-b.0 of them in classes that is. month Shawwdl leaving seventeen Ahmad-b-A'bdi'llah al I'jli says that A'bdu'l Malik was foul of breath.* took place. D." and Abu'z Zanad observes that the jurists of Me- dina are four. * On the north frontier of Syria. tying a thong upon the neck of each and Jutting upon the knot a seal of lead. and Tahya al Ghassani mentions that A'bdu'l Malik was often in the company of Umm u'd Darda. and that he was a six months' child. " it has reached me. and Sahl-b-Soa'd as A. saying that she hoped to marry her husband again in Paradise. Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. In the year 85 the city of Ardabil was founded and the city . and he sent al Hajjaj as governor to I'rAk." Nafi' says. so called because During it began with the of women : in the same died the Caliph A'bdu'l Malik in the sons. " verily I have seen Medina and there is not in it a youth more zealous nor more learned in the law. was Sinan In the year 82 and the expedition to Armenia and Sinhajah in nothern Africa taptured. and he sealed 5. that it was said Ibn Omar. " verily ye are a body of elders.' She ended her days in great piety between Jerusalem and Damascus. but to Marwan begot a father. 692.00. Ibn Omar remarks that men beget a son. the second —the On first Zhayrah Hujaymah is here alluded to.t both by A'bdu'l A'ziz-b-Abi Hatim-b-i'n Nu'man al Bahili. and it is the pleasantest liquor I have tasted. ttem into contempt. and refused Mu'&wiyah's offer of marriage. An Nawawi. the same occurred the Pestilence of the Girls.J and she said to him on one occasion. and it will soon be that ye will : the Sawfid. demolished the principal mosque at Cairo and enlarged the fortress of it on all four sides. Saa'di-—verily we belong to God and unto God do we return. t In Adarbijdu. he marked them twelve dirhams and twenty-four and forty-eight. prince of the Faithful. such as Anas. that thou drinkest wine after all thy piety and devotion. by AUah. the year 84 Masisah was occupied and the valleys of Mauritania. U'rwah-bu'z Zubayr and Kabisa'h-b-Duayb. § Meaning one moro illustrious than himself. and A'bdu'l A'ziz-b-Marwan. H. -^ In In the year 83 the city of Wasit was founded by al Hajjaj.[ 220 ] A. J Abu 'd Darda the Companion had two wives of this name died during his lifetime." He replied " yes. her husband's death she vowed to remain a widow. In the year 86 the forts of Taulak and Akhram were taken.

that TJmmti'd Darda said to A'bdu'l Malik.[ sal ] . but I found in myself a superiority over him.* Ibn Omar and Mu'awiyah authority. after- . consult him. Yahya Ghassani "when Muslim-b-U'kbaht ' Medina. God preserve me. save A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwan. I entered the mosque of the Apostle of God and sat down by the art thou of this army ?' side of A'bdu'l Malik. page 85. " I never associated with any one. ' thy army against them arrived at " relates.A. when be was a lad went in to Abu Hurayrah Abu Hurayrah who said. .' A'bdu'l Malik had a friend who slapped him on the shoulder and said 'fear God in tliy He replied. " I never ceased thinking that this authority would come to thee since I saw thee. 86. whom then shall we consult after ye ?" He replied. J against Apostle of God rubbed with a date By Allah. D. I thy mother be childless of thee dost thou He replied may said yes.' ' fie on thee. people of this house. A'bdu'l Malik said. " I never saw any one better than to them. Khalid and others have related them on his Bakr-b-A'bdu'Uah al Muzani narrates "a Jew whose name was Tusuf embraced Islam. A. (See p. • until the black standards come from Khorasan. and verily I never related a tradition to him but he added to it." And TJ'baydahthe freedman of b-Eiyah al Ghassani. and he said to me. cJiarge of the people of Muhammad when thou rulest them." Ad Dahabi says that A'bdu'l Malik heard traditions frem Othman and Abu Hurayrah and Abu Sa'id and Umm Salimah. what hath such as I am to do with that dignity !' leave me ' ' ! fear God in what concerneth them. if ! God and against a son him whose palate the thou goest to him in the An * Barirah was the daughter of Safwan and the freedwoman of Ayesha." He replied. t He commanded the army despatched by Yazxd against Medina. 213. " this man shall govern Arabia. and never a verse of poetry but he capped me in it. and wards to engage Ibn u'z Zubayr at Mecca.' ' ' ! not know against whom thou goest ? —against the first-born in Islam and against the son of the disciple of the Apostle of of the Possessor of the two Girdles. 703.' al his shoulder and said. H. " how so ?" She answered. wan bath a son learned in the law. Nawawi. "verily Mar. and U'rwah. and he had read the scriptures. is it sent against the sanctuary of The other answered ' ' God?' and Yusuf slapped ehaU be greater.' " The narrator " Yazid despatched an army against the people of Mecca and continues.pas^ aWay. Barirah." thou art as a narrator of traditions nor one more intelligent as a listener And as Shaa'bi. and he passed by the woe to the people of Muhammad from the house of Marwan and said.) % See note •.' and I said to him for how long ?' He replied." Suhaym narrates that A'bdu'l Malik.

and the Grecian emperor wrote. " Muhammad is the Apostle of God. And Yahya-b-Bukayr narrates. devotion lieth not in much prayer and fasting.I A-. thou wilt find him praying —and the people of the earth comhine to slay him.* his foul breath. that A'bdu'l Malik was the first who wrote at the headings of letters " Say there is one God.' A. was Abdu'l Malik-b-Marwan. " Say God is One" (Kur." Mu^a'b states that Abdu'l MaUk inscribed on the dinar. that the first who was named Abdu'l Malik in Islam. " verily you have introduced in your epistles somewhat of the mention of your prophet." It is stated in the Awdil of al A'skari with its ascription. 86. the Lord will assuredly fling them headlong into And when the Caliphate we slew him. ' we could but stand and pray as those pray !' He replied. thou wilt find him fasting. if and if thou goest to him at night.' " Musa'b-b-A'bdu'Uah says. therefore abandon it." together with the mention of the prophet and the date. " I heard Yahya-b-Sa'id say the ' those who prayed in the mosque between midday and the afternoon were A'bdu'l Malik and certain youths with him —when till Imam had . he sent us with al Hajjaj until Ibn Abi Ayesha says that the announcement of the government having devolved upon him reached A'bdu'l Malik when the ?!uran was in his lap. otherwise there will reach you on our dinars the mention of what you will not like. condemning any that fanatics in early venturing to suggest to the Calipl. a particular course of conduct or lie might have adopted." and obtained the surname of the " Father of flies" Caliph therefore coined dinars for the people in the year 75. saying. a not unfrequent practice with holy times— compare wy_/*4J4 /*>* ^J (Kur. and he closed it and said. who said " forbid their money and strike for the people coins upon which shall be the praise of God and His prophet and do not forego for them that which they dislike in your epistles." and its circumference was a rim of silver. " there is no God but God ." And this pressed sorely upon A'bdu'l Malik and he sent to Khalid-b-Yazidb-Mu'awiyah and consulted him. CXII) and on the reverse." and Malik narrates. daytime. e. hell-fire. whom He hath sent as a guide unto salvation and the true faith." fell to A'bdu'l Malik. and he was named " Sweat of a stone. and the first prohibited exhortation to uprightness of conduct. who was from and the who He was the first in Islam who acted ^treacherously forbade speaking in presence of the Caliphs. first who * I." He And the first parsimonious was A'bdu'l Malik. and he inscribed outside the rim. 705. " I heard Malik say that the first who coined dinars was Abdu'l Malik and he inscribed on them a verse of the Kuran. VII.) . " this is my last time with thee . read the midday prayers they used to stand praying if the afternoon and it was said to Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. D. 232 ] H. but verily devotion consisteth in meditation on the commands of God and abstaining from the things that God hath prohibited.

They jest with the Book of God and take . I am not a weak Caliph.d named was the ! first act of treachery in Islam. his kinship was such as it was and his position such as it was he said with his head thus. Al A'skari then continues that Abdu'l Malik was the first that altered the public registers from Persian to Arabic and the first that raised up his hands on the pulpit. —now forsooth. He who is has also recorded with an ascription. And verily they slew A'mr and did not act uprightly. One has said people be not prevailed over in your judgments. D. Their desires in iniquities against the Lord. " A'bdu'l Malik preached to us in Medina after the death of Ibn u'z Zubayr. nor a Caliph weak in understanding. Ibn Abi Shaybah records with its ascription in the Musannaf on the authority of Muhammad-b-Sirin. but ye do not yourselves according to their works therefore you will add only to your punishment until the sword shall decide between me and between ye. in the year of his pilgrimage. and his assas- on the authority of A'mr-b-Sa'id-b-i'l hp. and after praising and glorifying' God. that he said. This A'mr. then records with its ascription that Marwdn-b-u'l Hakam son. I will not heal the diseases of this people save with the sword until your spears rise Ye thrust upon me the deeds of the Fugitives. no one shall do his deed. Now. to wit Othman. — verily the Caliphs before me used to consume and enjoy this property of the State erect for me. he said " now. Aas to the A. to be a means of ap- proaching him. (in which comes al Karimi suspected of falsehood) on the authority of the father of Jurayj. for verily Ye have experienced perfidy from the sons of Marwan. in sound mind That they may give children to rule over the affairs of men. but I will put it upon his shall enjoin upon me the fear of God after this " neck" then he descended. nor a Caliph a hypocrite. the year 75. 705. in . to wit Muawiyah. H. succession after his sination own Ibri u'l Ka. to wit Yazid —now. but A'bdu'l Malik slew him. Asserting treachery and fraud to be the command of God And they slay men ripe of judgment. Abdu'r Kazzak records from Ibn either A'bdu'l Malik or one of his sons. that the first who introduced the call to prayers on the festivals of Fitr and Adhha were the children of Marwan.— [ 223 ] He labi. 86. and I said with my sword thus.A. — — — I will endure anything from you but attacking a governor or raising a standard verily the collar which I put upon the neck of A'mr-b-Yazid is with me neck —by Allah. no one — —by Allah. I remark that ten innovations are thus summed rising to-day but I will smite his — my up him of which five are reprehensible.

hastening And al Asma'i. of the the father of TuBuf." proaching death. and said. I would that from the time I was born until to-day. of the Kaa'- bah more Malik sat exact. the fear of God. but verily those among ' the jurists there hath reached us who have been best acquainted with that what we know regarding the covering Yusuf-b-u'l Majishlin* says that subject. 705. and me against my subjects forverily clemency unto them is more needful for me. than that. D. The etymology is not satisfae. " be ye as sons of a virtuous mother. A. a Banu Taym. he Al Maddini says that when Abdu'l Malik was made aware of his apsaid. Ibn Khali says that Mdjish-iin signifies rose colour or tinged with red and white. say. it ' men stood at his ' head with swords. was the son of Abd Salama Tiiaix. H. and the name was given liim by Sukaynah-d-of IJusayn-b-Abi f^Hb. Another explanation is that as they were originally from Ispahan.' " Muhammad-b-Harb az he Ziyadi narrates that it was said to Abdu'l Malik " who is the best of men ?" replied.' he replied. " more than one person has told me that the first who covered the Kaa'bah with silk brocade was A'bdu'l Malik. greyness upon thee.' when Abdu'l is down to administer justice. and do not answer me regarding what — — I do not ask thee for it is a distraction from what I do ask thee. ' Jurayj that he said. " he who is humble in a lofty station. a strong man full of rage and might." And Ibn Ayesha. He spirit. I had been a porter . and be ye as Ibn A'bd Aa'la as Shaybani says Verily arrows when they are gathered together. pretended to have been ravished to heaven in with Abu Bakr and Omar at his right and tory. and as to goodness. . but if they be separated Then rupture and weakness belong to what is dispersed. H. and to have seen Muhammad hand and Omar-b-Adi'l A'ziz at his feet. A. 164 (780-1). for verily war doth not bring death before its time. and hath sought To break them. and as a beacon in doing good. They resist and cannot be broken. and do not be extravagant in do not incite my praise for I know myself better than thou. He was a Mawla of the Munkadirs. devout though in authori- ty and just though in power. 86. that Abdu'l Malik when a man from any of the remote countries came in to him.— 224 [ ] A. " by Allah. used to say. " spare me four things and say after that what thou pleasest do not lie to me for liars have no judgment. that was said to Abdu'l Malik." then he commended unto his sons. He died at Baghdad under the Caliphate of al Mahdi. and warned them against dissension and discord.' * client Abu Tusuf YaVfib. its reward and its fame endure. and be ye sweet in bitterness al and lenient in ' severity. they saluted each other when they met with " Shlirii-Shdm" and were therefore called Mdjishun. left a family of Medma. and be brave in war. and how could it be otherwise when I give forth my wlole intellect to the people every Friday.

stripes. In the history of Ibn A^sakir it is stated on the authority of Ibrahimb-A'di that he said. and thy right hand against those who oppose thee. and he who saith with his head thus say with thy sword thus. him Al Walid wept and A'bdu'l Malik said. he -went on to say " look to al Hajjaj. and he is thy sword. visit him to learn whether he shall see . the rupture between himself and the Greek Emperor. who doth not die. verily. for these alone. to the world hath come nigh me with the striking of sharp [swords. 86. for verily. for thou art more in need of him than he of thee and summon the people when I die to the covenant of allegiance. and sealed the neck of Anas and others of the Companions with a seal. bringing them into contempt and degrading them. " I saw A'bdu'l Malik at a time when four events werei announced to him during the night and he was not moved nor did alter his face| —to wit the death of U'baydu'Uah-b-Ziyad. and honour him. 705t is who hath coerced for you the pulpits. — word of any one against him. to say nothing of others besides them. then. reproach and imprisonment and verily he slew of the Companions and the greatest of the Tabi'is what is beyond count. clad in rags. H. intending thereby their humiliation. Walid. fear God in that in which I leave thee to succeed me and A. The only mention I can traditioaist. that I had never busied myself with the kingdom for a the joyous pleasures of Nor diverted myself amidst And that I had been as one For a time life.by death. and whosoever showeth himself against thee smite him on the neck. And O would moment. The following are lines of A'bdu'l Malik's By my And life. and A'bdu'l Malik recited appositely — — — — How many But a visitor hath a sich man. and he who submits shall die a natural death. I have lived a long space in the world. gird up thy loins and go forth and put on the skin of a leopard and lay thy sword upon thy shoulder. living on a little until he visited the narrowness of the tombs. the death of Hubaysh-b-p— Daljah* in Hijaz. D. That which delighted me hath gone Like a flash that hath passed among enduring remains. may God not have mercy upon him nor — — pardon him." Another relates that when A'bdu'l Malik was on the point of death^ his son al Walid went in unto him. " what is this ? dost thou whine with the whining of a slave girl ? When I am dead. « find of tliis name is in tlie Muntahal Arab where he is mentioned as a 29 . he it A." I remark that if the crimes of A'bdu'l Malik had been only the appointing of al Hajjaj over the Muslims and the Companions. therefore hear not the — .— — [ 225 ] Walid.

The most inveterate — describe intoxication to me. and who needs one for the sake of children. and for this woman remaineth one dinar. notwitha branch of the Taghlabites. " he who desireth to take a female slave for his amusement. the thing was incomprehensible to A'bdu'l Malik and he sent to as Shaa'bi and asked of him. and the poet of the Banu Umayyahis al Akhtal." * He replied.' Ibn Abi Shaybah relates in the Musannaf from Khalid-b-Muhammad of the Kuraysh. " what is thy business ?" She replied. let him have a Persian. hut the elegance and precision of his language gave him the reputation of one of the best orators of that people. Taghlib. 705. " O prince of the Faithful !" He said. A. " come now. He was summoned by al HajjAj to bird. Causain de Perceval in the Journal Asiaand. and it was said to me. last breath. tique for April His real name. He said. " slave. was Grhydth-b-Ghauth belonged to the Banu a Christian like the greater number of the tribes of Bihr£. " its beginning is pleasure and Alu Sulayman Aiytib al Hilffi. four hundred. Al Kirriyyah -which signifies ^the crop of a was given to Jamaa. to be compelled to join in the rebellion of Ibn u'l Ashath. its ascription. to cover his rival Jarir ." And in the same men never spoke init is stated on the authority of Asma'i that four correctly either in earnest or jest— as Shaa'bi. f For i5'-ft*~:! read his court He was : } Malik. — and honored so far as to be entrusted by him with a mission to A'bdu'l Malik."} Al Asma'i says that al Akhtal went A'bdu'l Malik who said. and a mother who had a sixth. one of his ancestors. and the rebellious march of A'mr-b-Sa'id to Damascus. take him by the hand. H. let him take a native of Barbary. is given by M.* As Silafi mentions in the Tuyyuriyat with that A'bdu'l Malik went forth one day and a woman met him and exclaimed. and who desireth to ' ' have one for service. and there was given to me of his this is thy due . that A'bdu'l Malik said. illsi«>J the verse will be found in the Kitab u'l Aghani. He was to standing the many seductive offers made him to abandon it for IsUm. The life ' of al Akhtal 34. al Hajjaj- b-Yusuf and Ibn u'l Kirriyyah."„" verily every tribe hath a poet. who said. " who had twenty-four. " my brother died and left six hundred dinars. one hundred. 86.[ 226 ] A. mother of Jusham. yes. He died at an advanced age recommending Faiazdal^ with his with ridicule. "Vol. A'bdu'l Malik. and a wife who had an eighth. and lead him forth and put upon him robes of honour as many as will cover him up then he said. 7.' and inheritance but one dinar. put to death afterwards in A. let him take a Greek." Abu U'baydah narrates that when al Akhtal recited to A'bdu'l Malik his verse in which he says of the TTmayyads — enemy ends by submittingf to them And they are greatest of men in meekness when they are in power. seventy-five. and Tandkh and remained attached to his faith. He was an untutored Arab of the desert. H. D. and twelve brothers. this man died and left two daughters and they had two-thirds. 84 by that tyrant for hafing allowed himself Ibn Khali.

(8th October 705." and when he entered upon the month of Shawwal and felt safe. H. others. and the Caliphate fell to me in Eamadhan.han. proverbial for Zirr-b-Hubaysh. Jabir- b-A'bdi'Uah. Abu Sa'id-b-u'l Mua'Ua. then of less account to me than the latchet of my shoe. prince of the Faithful. as Saib-b-Yazid. was brought up Elih-bparents and he grew up without ciiture." Abd'z Zinad* states * native of Medina. Aslam the freedman of Omar. daughter of as Siddik. " verily he is excusable." the grammarians. D. b-A'bdi'llah-b-Masa'ud. is prince of the Faithful. Suwayd-b-Ghaflah." plied. I'rbddh-b-Sariyah.) Of those of note who died in the reign of A'bdu'l Malik were. and weaned in Eamadhan. what dost thou think of Walid al Walid ?" He replied. Khalid-b-Yazid-b-Mu'awiyah. A'mr-b-Salimah Jirmi and AL WALrD-B-ABDI'L MALIK. 748). and sat with heard this and he rose at once and assembled ' ' them in his house for six before. he died. 705. and he said. al Abu Idris al Khaulani. 130. not describe to thee.[ its 227 ] end a headache. D. and I reached the Eamadhan. Salimah-b-u'l Akwa'. eloquence. Three goblets of bubbling wine I go forth trailing my garment behind me as if I were lord over thee. a doctor of law and one of the Tati'is. the crisis of which A. I He said " and what is its crisis ?" he re. mah-b-i'l Muhabbik' Abu Wail Tarik-b-Shih^b. . A'bdu'Uah-b-Jaa'far-b-Abi Talib. commit the governting. " I was born in of Ramadhdn. effeminately. and he was meditaZinbaa' narrates. by his " I went in one day to Abdu'l Malik. De Slane. 86. Asma. His varied information and his erudition gained him preeminence among the learned of his day. Abu al TJ'baydah- A'mr-b-Harith. When my boon Companion giveth me to drink and giveth yet again • . " verily thy kingdom. Aban-bSinan-b-Sali- Aa'sha the poet." and he versified. Al Walid-b-Abdi'l Malik. I was thinking to whom I should ment of Arabia. Mu- hammad-b-u'l Hanafiyah. and I fear lest I die in Eamadhan. saying. Ayub-b-u'l Kirriyah. and I cannot find any one. Eafi'-b-Khadij. Othman-b-A'ffan. (A. He died A. Ibn Omar. the Khadhi Shurayh. the At month Tha'alabi narrates that A'bdu'l Malik used to say.A. H. At page 220 the name ia A misspelt Zauad. and completed learning age of puberty in the JEfuran by heart in Eamad. " verily he is not well versed in grammar. and between that there -will is a moment. K. I. Abu Sa'id al Khudri. months and then came forth more ignoran't than and A'bdu'l Malik said. says as Shaa'bi.' I said. aged 66. A'bdu'Uah-b-Shaddad-b-i'l Had. Abii'l A'bbas.

XXXVIII." Kur. that al Walid said to him. records in the Huliyah from Ibn Shaudab that Omar-b" al Walid in Syria." the vocative requiring the objective t Misplacing the vowel-points again. with tyranny. . yet hath he threatened in His Book and said. XXXVIII. and the printed edition have Ir* (readers of the Kuran. he his set • It is impoBsiMe to render the error in a translation as it consista in a misplaoe- ment tion. of the diacritical points. and below the pulpit stood Omar-b-A'bdi'l Aziz and Sulayman-b-Abdi'l Malik. "O prince of the Faithful. H.nd. || Jerusalem ?" father in the Al Walid assumed the Caliphate according to thb covenant of month of Shawwal in the year 86. and assigned for them what would suffice ybr their maintenance a. al Hajjaj in I'rak. " will the Caliph be judged ai the resurrection. D.) § Al Walid. LXIX). " O that death had made an end of me. A. and he embellished the mosque of the prophet and enlarged it and settled a daily allowance on the doctors of law and the infirm and the poor and forbade their begging of the people."* Abu A'krinah ad Dhabi says that al "Walid read from the pulpit. that al Walid mispronounced to a great degree . Othman-b- HabbarahJ in Hijaz and Kurrah-b-Sharik in Egypt. have filled the earth. xegulntedi aSaiis by a thorough administration and Ibn Abi A'ylah says. by Allah. Both the MS. ?" He replied. judge therefore between thee II we have appointed thee a sovereign prince in the earth men with truth and follow not thy own lust. " by Allah.) but it David ! " verily is possible that «-> ]y^ (the poor) might have been the original word and the elision of the taken place through the error of a copyist. He said " Ya ahl u'l Medinah. " the Lord have mercy on al Walid. 86. 705. persons to attend them and for the blind those who should lead them.[ 228 ] A. " David."t (Eur. lest it cause to err from the way of God. Abu Nu'aym A'bdi'l A'ziz said. from Ibrahim-b-Abi Zuraa'h. § Medinah" instead of " Ya ahla'l case when the noun is in construe"laytu ha for " Ya Y& layta ha. has Janadah. and Sulayman exclaimed. (Kur. " O people of al Medina. and where is the like of Walid who conquered India and Spain and built the mosque of Damascus." And Ibn Abi Hatim in his Commentary." &c. and in the year 87. art him him thou more honoured of the Lord. I would it had." Walid was despotic and tyrannous. however. he exclaimed from the pulpit of the prophet's mosque. or David ? Verily the Lord united in the prophetic mission and the vicegerency. J The MS. stirred up religious wars in his time and great conquests were made under his Caliphate and withal he used to circumcise orphans and appointed teachers for them and assigned for those crippled by disease. and who used to give platters of silver of the Kurau of the mosque at which I divided among the readers — .

The MS. ment of the mosque of the prophet and its thorough construction. the same BIkand* was taken by force of arms and Bukhara. In the year 92 the whole of Spain was subdued and the cities of Armdil** and Katarbtin and in 93 Daybal and other places were conquered. India.— [ 229 1 about the building of the mosque at Damascus and ordered the enlarge. A'ziz. behold he kicked in his shroud." Among the sayings of al Walid "if God had not mentioned the family of Lot in the Oxus. On the frontiers of Masisah. 87. and Sardinia and Matmtirah. Bajah. Kimur and Fabryur. 263. 9th Of Du'l Hijjah. Samar- — — kand. * * Both these places are in Sind destroyed at this time. and Kirakh. and other towns and forts by the Caspian Sea. § II In Najd. Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz saiys. but Yakut mentions a district Tawawis. In 96. and al Baidha so called from its white citadel. In 94. taken and . .A. Farghanah. Ibn u'l Athir writes the second name Kannazbur and in some readings Firbur. is here wanting. Of Barham I can find no mention. the islands of Majorca and Minorca.asim al who commanded army in I am returned at once to Eori Bakkar and inoUned to ihink that this must be Karachi. Barham. Brahmauabad in Sind. p. In the year 88 Jurthumah§ and Tddnah|l were taken and in the year 89. Yakut places in Africa. Kirakh is written Kiraj the by Ibn Athir and Sind. that is is. D. is U Nasaf a large town between Samarkand and the Oxus. Shash and Sandarah were taken and in 95. Ad Dahabi says that religious wars were continuous throughout his reign. (23rd February 715). to the A town between Bukhara and the On the firontiers near Tarsus. to Dewal is stated by Blphinstone have been probably close to that seaport. the Day of Victims and was sore grieved thereat. Another reading is Tuways which I cannot find. as Daybal Hajjaj. gangs from Jurjan. Kdbul. hearing at he states that Muhammad-b-ul Multdn of the death of his uncle thence proceeded to Kiraj. and the ceremony of the Day of Victims on the third day. and Sughd. governor of And Omar-b-A'bdi'l Medina made the pilgrimage with the people. Bajah. north of Syria. 706. See Blph. al Baidha. the following. according Muntaha'l Arah is name of a stream. in the district of Persepolis. t the Kumaykim. and Kash is three para• . or !?. Daybal is in Sind. 10th of Du'l Hijjah. near Bukhara. and great conquests were made as in the time of Omar-b-u'l Khattab. Shiiman. where will be found a sketch of Kasim's conquests. hut it does not say where. H. tt Mukan is in Adarbijan. Tus had already been conquered in the time of Othman. In this year died the Caliph al Walid in the middle of Jumdda'l i^kkirah at the age of fifty-one. Khuwdrazm. * he struck the earth with his foot.t Kumayldm and the Persian Gulf. but Ibn Athir speaks of a place. " when I put al Walid in his grave. Tus and other places. % The Wakf or standing on Mount Arafah should take place on the second day of the pilgrimage. In the year 91 were captured Nasaf ^ and Kash. During A. and per- formed by mistake the ceremony of standingf on Mount A'rafah on. Miikantt and Darband.

and his son A'bdu'I Wahid and uz Zuhri have transmitted them from him." but the him but he died. and Abu Bakr Witness to the Truth. A'bdu'llah-b-Bashr Mazini. Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. Kuran. the Banu Umayyah having them to lapse into dilatoriness. and the Safar in the year 99 (22nd Sept. Bilal-b-Abi'd Dardd. as Saib-b-Yazid. Anas-b-Malik. and he assumed the Caliphate according t© the covenant of his father in succession to his brother. one would act thus. Sa'id-b-Jubayr martyred. Ibrahim an Nakha'i. and Yazid the Patient. A'bdu'Uah-b. the after this feat. am * Atout 11 pounds and a quarter. He was born in the year 60. Sulayman-b-A'bdi'l Malik. and he used to follow his rah of the year 96. It is to be accounted among his merits that Omar-b-Abdi'l A'ziz was as his prime minister. as Saib-b-Khallad. Sahl-bSaa'd. slain by al Hajjaj may the Lord curse him. Khubayb-b-A'bdi'llah-b-i'z Zubayr. XV. and closed it by appointing as his successor Omar-bSulayman forbade singing. Abu'l A'aliyah. and he deposed the revenue in the prisons of I'rak.^'bdi'l A'ziz. Mddwiyah the Forbearing. (VII. He was eloquent. and he was among those famed . H. " the Lord have mercy on Sulayman who inaugurated his Caliphate by the restoration of prayers to their stated times. he . fluent of speech. and A'bdu'I Malik the Administrator. Tahya al Ghassani says that Sulayman looked into a mirror and his youthf ulness and beauty surprised him. were U'tbahal Mikddm-b-Ma'di Karb. collectors of al Hajjaj and released those who were and restored public praysuffered ers to their original appointed times. a lamb. his father beneficial counsels . " Muhammad was the prophet. and fowls. a lover of war.[ aso ] A. Ibrahimb-A'bdi'r Kahman-b-A'uf. Jabir-b-Zayd. kings of the Abu Aytib. and Omar the Discriminator. XXVII. and Othman the Bashful. It is not astoniehmg that had an attack of iudigeetion which proved fatal. 715. Abu Bakr-b-A'bdi'r Eahmdn. was among the best of the Banu Umayyah. A. six and a Makkiik* of Taif currants. al A'jjaj the poet and others. for he eat at a sitting seventy pomegranates. Mutarrif. of note al who died in the reign of al Walid.." as large eaters. Abu Salimah-b-A'bdi'r Eahman. and he said. 96. and Walid the Tyrant. D.Abi Aufa. Ibn Sirin says. preferring justice. and I month in which he thus spoke did not pass over day of his death was Friday the 10th of Young King ." LXVI) I wotdd never have thought that any Of persons b-A'bdu's Sulma. in Jumada'l Akhi- He has related a few traditions on the authority of and A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Hubayrah. SULAYMAN-B-A'BDI'L MALIK.

Tabari calls it Sakalie. he said to Eajd-b-Hayat. An army of Bulgarians from the Danube at the oaU of Leo fell upon the Saracen army and slaughtered twenty -two thousand. Eaja. and Sarda. When he sickened. See Gibbon. must be an error. A'bdu'r Eahman-b-i'l Aswad an Nakha'i and others. and said. " I think that thou shouldst appoint Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz." The word city I imagine. Yakut makes as Sakalibah a (slav) district " between Bulgaria." He said. Kays-b-Abi Hazim. " who is in it ?" He answered." Thereupon he called for paper and wrote the covenant therein and gave it Eaja. and assemble the people and order them to take the oath. of Constantinople. • I do not find any fort. . and Constantinople. Neither Sarda or Shakka are given. " verily the prince o£ the make a covenant of allegiance for him wJiose name is in this document." He rejoined. Of persons of note that died during his time were. round which Maslamah wheeled his army after the passage of Abydus. and he said.'99.[ 231 ] 717). according to Gibbon. verily thou knowest thy credit with me. and Tabristan and the city of as Sakalibah." And he went to forth and said. and verily the prince of the Faithful hath done a thing and I know not what it is. D." And they Faithful hath commanded ye — swore allegiance. nor are they noticed by Ibn u'l Athir. sealed as it is. a strong unless Ch. A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Hassdn al Kandnl says.J engaged in leading an expedition. behold I met His- ham and he said to me. H. Mahmud-b-Labid. Kurayb freedman of Ibn A'bbas. He was preparing. He can find no town of that name. " who is to succeed me in this authority ? shall I appoint my son?" He replied.* A." They said. " while I was returning. " then my other son ?" He answered. " appoint it Omar. or must refer to the then capital city of the Thracian towns of the Propontis. " then whom dost thou advise ?" He replied. " I fear that my brothers will not consent." He said.f A. "go to the commander of the guards and the watch. and verily I fear that it may be that he hath put the Caliphate sucli name in YakAt. During his reign were conquered Jurjan. " It is sealed ye cannot be informed concerning the one who is in it until the Caliph dieth. " he is a child. t So likewise Ibn u'l Athir. and after him Tazid-b-A'bdi'l Malik and write a document and seal and summon them to take a covenant regarding it sealed. Eaja relates." He replied. WeU says that it should be Sakalibah -which he considers a district to the N. " vferily thou hast conceived wisely." He said." They said. " go forth unto the people and let them make a covenant regarding that which is within it. W. and N. LIL J Near Chalcis. to invest Constantinople defended by Leo the Isaurian. which was defended by Anushirwan by an iron gate." And he returned to Sulayman and informed him of it. " we will not swear allegiance. and Shakka. that Sulaymdn died at Dabik. and the Iron Portress. to lead against Constan- tinople the remaining forces of the East. al Hasan-b-i'l Husayn-b-A'li. 7l7. "he is absent. it is protaMy some local name given to Darband is meant. and he who refuses smite his neck.

" It is related that there fell some words between Marwan-b-A'bdu'l Malik* and Sulaymdn during the Caliphate of Sulaymdn. Then I met Omar-bnever be. at last Eaja said to them. who said to him " O son of an ttncircumcised woman !" and Marwan opened his mouth to answer him. He sat " do ye not stand £1 long time without speaking. when lo within was the covenant for Omarb-A'bdi'l A'ziz. " good God ! conceal a thing and shall I tell it the prince of the Faithful asked me to Shortly after Sulayman died to thee ?" ! and the document was opened." He said. but he was stupified at it. and • It must be rememhered that A'bdu'l Malik had seventeen sons. I am not one who if decideth but one who verily executeth. — sake —he is thy Imam me and thy brother and he hotter than is thy elder in years. and he said. " A'bdi'l A'ziz and he said to he hath put the to my mind concerning this man. nor one who begin- neth but one about ye. perchance I may escape from it from me. I fear lest it be that upon me and I am not equal to this position. 717. swear allegiance to him ?" Then they up to the prince of the Faithful to made the covenant with him. they returned and came to Omar and did homage to him as Caliph . and shall I tell it to thee ? that can Eaja. and ! as I live. Then " he arose and praised God and glorified Him and said. 99. and was not able to rise until they took him by the arms and brought him to the pulpit and helped him to mount it. that I may " good God the prince of the Faithful hath asked me to conceal a said." and they brought him his mule and he proceeded to his house. verily thou and he died before the Ibn A'bi'd Dunya records on the authority of Ziyad-b-Othm^n that he went in unto Sulaym4n-b-A'bdi'l Malik when his son Ayiib died. but when they heard that after him was to be Yazid the son of A'bdu'l Malik." And Marwan evening." Then he descended. who followeth —and the countries and cities round they submit as ye have submitted then I am your ruler. D. " I thought that he would soon lack strength. him the master of the horse. held his peace. but when I saw his actions in his correspondence. " I conjure thee for God's and there came to The man replied." and I while there is yet time ia the affair. when Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz stopped his mouth and said. and said." thing. and he stretched out his hand to them. " I have this?" no need of it bring me my mule." I said. A. therefore tell me Caliphate as long while there is yet time in the affair. O people. " what is "the Caliph's charger. aside from me. and the faces of the sons of A'bdu'l Malik changed. " thou hast slain me.[ 232 ] A. but if they refuse then I am not a ruler for ye. hast put vdthin that which is fire." by Allah. . H. Eaja says. I knew that he would become powerful. Then he called for an ink horn and wrote with his own hand to the prefects of the provinces. tell me if it be indeed that he hath put it see what to do . a grave thought has occurred me.

him habitu.t studying under his tuition." (Ibn A'sakir. Yahya- b-Sa'id the Auxiliary. " if thou art he of the the Banu Umayyah. let " Eahman-b-Abi Bakrah A.A.) Omar-b-u'l Khattab used to say. He died at Medina A. Othmdn." Bilal-b-A'bdi'Uah-b-Omar had a mole upon his face. A'li. a horse having kicked a boy. or as some say 63. Ibn KhaU. of which his father was governor in the year of the Flight 61. verily thou art fortunate. Muhammad-b-u'l Munkadir. Abu Ahdu'Uah Az Zuhri called him an ocean of knowledge. a village in Egypt. Eaja-b-Hayat and many more to them on his. and Omar-b-A'bdi'l Aziz (Abu Dauud). was Sufy^n at Thauri says that the five — Caliphs are Abu Bakr. 717. A'bdu'l Malik sent for him to Damascus and married him to his daughter. The opinion of his father regarding him proved true. t U'baydu'Uah-b-A'bdi'llah-'b-tl'thah.[ said. OMAR-B-A'BDI'L A'ZfZ. doing according to the works of Omar.' desireth the things that are eternal. jurisconsidts of Medina. and he used to attend U'baydu'llah-brelated science A'bdi'llah. good Caliph Abu Hafs. " we used to say that the world would not pass away man of the posterity of Omar should rule. 102 (720-1). On Omar's face was a scar. Ibn Saa'd records that Omar-b-u'l Khattab said. 30 . daughter of A'asim-b-Omar-b-i'l Khattdb. Maslamah-b-A'bdi'l Malik. it and they used to think that was he until the Lord sent Omar-b-A'bdi'l Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz related traditions on the authority of his father and Anas and others . " 233 ] prince of the Faithful. Scar of him in the forehead when he was His father wiping the blood off him said. He learnt the Kuran when he was yet a child. was one of the seven great and Omar-bAbdi'l Aziz used to saj' that an evening with Il'baydu'llah was worth a thousand pieces of gold out of the public treasury. Omar was born at Hulwan. verily A'bdu'r ' used to say he who ate himself to misfortunes. * The word ' scar' or fracture begins with that letter. H: 99. H. and az Zuhri. " would that I knew which of my posterity shall be the possessor of the letter it Shin* in filled Ms name —he who is to fill the earth with justice as hath been with tyranny. D. One of his poems is given in the Hamdsah. and his father sent him Medina to be instructed there. and A'ziz. " of my posterity there shall be a man with a scar in his face who shall fill the earth with justice" (at Tirmidi). When his father died. Omar." And from Ibn Omar until a that he said. Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz-b-Marwdn the fifth —the of the orthodox Caliphs. His mother was Umm A'asim.

" and he was firm. and was supposed to By some he is said to he Elias. Sulayman learnt this regarding him and nominated him b-A'bdi'l A'ziz objected. " I never prayed behind an Imam after the Apostle of God. over given to luxury.' " And from Abd Hashim that a man went to Omar-bA'bdi'l A'ziz and said.' He answered. Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz while he was governor of Medina. After this. rulest. is regarded as a prophet. and al Walid immured him. he made Omar governor of Medina and he ruled it from the year 86 to the year 93 when he was removed. i.' and when he had prayed and entered his house. who was the old man that was leaning on thy arm ?' He replied. When al Walid assumed the Caliphate. " ' ' ' ' — ! thou wert seated before him. and lo two men were disputing and A'ziz. verily.' ' * This person as is well known." (this tradition has several lines of ascription to Anas —record- ed by al Bayhaki and others). resembling the Apostle of God more in the manner of his praying. H. do according to the works of these two. and he went to Syria. to the succession in the Caliphate. D. and I said to myself. and he said.. unequalled and alone. I do not hold thee to be other than a virtuous man that was my brother al Khidhr* who came to me and told me that I shall rule this people. O Riyah didst thou see him ?' I said yes. I joined him and said. verily this old man is rude . "he used to dwell long in his bendings and prostrations. have been the minister of an ancient king of Persia." Maymiin-b-Mihran said that the learned in comparison with Omar A'bdi'l A'ziz were mere students. but he was interceded for after three days and they found him with his neck drooping from exhaustion. Fdtimah.> [ 234 ] A. " I saw the prophet in a dream. and an old man was leaning on his arm. Zayd-b-Aslam narrates that Anas said. and he said to thee. al Walid determined to set aside his . and by others St. 99. 717. " the covenant unto Sulayman is upon our necks. Abd Nuaym records on the authority of Eiyah-b-U'baydah by a sound ascription. with Abd Bakr on his right hand and Omar on his left. that he said. and to appoint his many of the principal men. willingly or unwillingly own son and obeyed him. brother Sulayman from the succession. than this youth. . but Omar- and said. " Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz went forth to prayers. Muhammad-b-A'li-b-i'l Husayn was asked regarding Omar-b-A'bdi'l he is the noblest of the Banu Umayyah and verily he wUl be raised up at the day of resurrection. and shortened the time of standing — and sitting. may God prosper the Amir. e." Zayd-b-Aslam adds. and shall act with justice unto them. George of England. and the envious that found fault with was him did not save for excess in luxury and haughtiness in his gait. reproach Even him before his Caliphate he walked in virtue save that he A. His aid is frequently invoked by Muljammadan story-tellers whether the knot be worthy of his untying or otherwise. of Omar when thou Abd Bakr and Omar.

and he continued in the Califive phate for two years and Bakr." Hakam-b-Omar relates. that And from A'mr-b-Muhajir and Caliph. Ibn KhalL account to the Caliph al "Walid-b-A'bdi'l Malik.' " Omar-b-Darr says. 717. but I wish to give station that I him his due without his writing to me about it or demanding it from me. H. he was stupified and authority of God. but he refused it.praised ! — one who exeouteth. and it was he who united in one collection the seven "Muallakat. sm/ing ' didst thou -^- H. "0! such a one. D." Omar unto his age and people. now verily I am not one who decideth but others. 772). to recite the . doeth not wrongno obedience due from the creature to what is sinful before the Creator. He was the month acknowledged Caliph according to the covenant of Sulayman in 99 as hath gone before. thou wilt be greater before And from Hammadf. In one sitting he recited two thousand poems by poets who flourished before Muhammad. removing grievances and establishing good laws. and I forbearing in meekness. and let any one buy them who listeth. filling months about the duration of thai ot Ahi. and put the prices of them with the property of the Lord this grey she mule sufllceth for me. 99. that when Omar returned from the funeral of Sulayman. " bring me my mule. D." verily I never asked for this him the Caliph's charger. fully fleeth from a tyrannous Imam. t Abu'l Kasim Paminad-b-AW Layla Saptir (or Maysara) a Daylamite torn at Kufah called ar Eawiyah (the narrator) because lie was able. that Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz wrote and verily a man that —surely there is to Salim-b-A'bdi'Uah* to describe to him the practice of Omar-b-u'l Khat- tab concerning the poor-rate. The master of the name. He exclaimed. " I was present with Omar-b-Abdi'l A'ziz when the equerries came demanding of him provender j^j" the horses and the stipends of their attendants.that when Omar was appointifo ed Caliph he wept and said a certom ^erso«." " why do I see thee sad ?" am in. and he wrote to him regarding what he asked telling him. —there is when Omar was appointed God and glorified him people there will be no revealed Book after the Kuran and and said." And from az Zuhri. 95 (713—4) and died in 155 (A.[ 235 ] And Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz ?' made him swear before God. the earth with justice. his freedman said to him horse brought * — He replied. He was bom A. he stood up before the people and. and said." A. " one should grieve to be in the not one of this people. When the writi. " by Allah. see this And he of Safar swore. dost * Grandaon of Omar-b-u'l Khattab. send them to the Syrian towns. " no prophet after Muhammad.ig of the covenant was read containing his said. according to his own poems of more poets than the Caliph had ever read or heard of. " verily if thou doest unto thy age and thy people according to the works of the Lord than Omar. and Omar wept." He was treated by the Umayyads with preference and honour. nor one who beginneth but one who am not better than any one of ye but I am more followeth.

thou fear on ?" my He account ?" said. fortify it purify its streets from oppression —for verily that with justice and is its restoration. and continued thus during the lifetime of it Abu Bakr and Omar. and peace be to thee. he assembled the sons of Marwan and Banu Hashim said. he said to Fatimah. and to double «fe ©aZwe. "I prefer thee to it. " no. and verily I call it no right of to what it was in the time of the Apostle of God. by Allah." She replied. and if in. think hath come into the hands of Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. for verily I am loth that I and thou and it should be in one house." He therefore gave orders and was taken away and placed in the public and when Omar died. " choose whether thou wilt give up thy jewel to the public treasury. saying. stance. and verily Fatimah asked it him and to bestow upon her and he refused." And from Mughirah. he began with his kindred and the people of called their sub- and confiscated what was in their hand. " then fear not for the Lord will assist thee. " be freq^uent have a family and an estate —wilt thou permit if me in the it remembrance of death. exactions. and Yazid succeeded to the Caliphate. H." Ibrahim as Sakuni states that Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz said. for thou be in straitened circumstances it will will enlarge them for thee. ye to witness that I have restored Now is I that a thing forbidden to Fatimah by the Apostle of God mine. or suffer me to separate from thee. " dost thou wish that I should return it . " how is thy A. the like of which had never been seen.affluence straiten it upon thee." And from al Layth. D. sayinff " verily our city is in ill condition if the prince of the Faithful thinketh fit to assign us money that we may repair it. " the most beloved of ye to me is he who spares me. his keep." Furdt-b-u'l Sdib narrates that Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz said to his wife Fatimah." ." He desii-e with regard answered. I did not care for shall I take it again after his it during his and death ?" A'bdu'l A'ziz says that one of the prefects of Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'zi'z wrote to him. that at the time Omar succeeded to the Caliphate. from which it he derived funds and supported by the children of the its and gave in marriage their orphans it by means. fore thee used to bestow gifts but thou hast forbidden them to and I to go to my estate to improve the circumstances of mj iamilj ?" He replied. " verily the Apostle of God possessed the estate of Fadak. that when Omar became his house." Then he added. Afterwards Marwdn assigned it away. " I never lied from the time that I knew that a lie was a disgrace to its utterer. 99. treasury of the Muslims it to life thee ?" she answered. and Asma-b-U'bayd narrates that A'nbasah-b-Sa'id-b-i'l A'as went in to Omar-b-A'hdi'l A'ziz and said. 717.[ 236 ] A. daughter of A'bdu'l Malik who possessed a jewel which her father had given her. Caliph. " I have He replied. to money no love for it. " O prince of the Faithful ! the Caliphs beus. " when thou readest this letter. let him do so :" and Omar wrote — — to him.

and the monk went down to him. I find him among the just Imams in the position of the month of Eajab among the sacred months . Hasan al Kassab says. the A. that the A.' and they enquired and found that he had died that night. and al Muharram. 'verily also states > my the Caliphs are three.* Omar among the Banu Umayyah is like And Maymtin-b-Mihran. injuring is good God ! a wolf among sheep apd not is answered. " I saw wolves grazing with sheep A'ziz passed in the desert during the Caliphate of ' Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz and I said. H. " on account of the merits of thy father. and if thou lefore that he will come after thee. to ask regarding him until Omar A'bdi'l A'ziz succeeded. sleep." And Miisa-b-Aa'yan. there them !' The shepherd no harm to the body. saying.' I is Abu Bakr and Omar. and the sheep and the wolf used to pasture in one place.' " Malik-b-Dinar narrates that when Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz ruled. replied." He answered. D. "if there be a guide among this people it is Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. and the stranger came to me three times in swore allegiance to him." Aytib-b-Suwayd has interpreted this to mean that the throe consecutive months Du'l Kaa'dah. Omar. Note •. Marwan Caliph arose." *' the Ibn A'un says that when Ibn Sirin was asked regarding wine." Walid-b-Muslim states that he had heard ' that a man in Khurasan ' related. " when the head said. a wolf attacked a sheep. 717* Lord used to be regardful of His people by means of a succession of prophets." He Hind al Aslami that he said. .[ 237 ] And Kays-b'Jubayr says that true believer of the family of Pharaoh. and said. but meanwhile one night. ' we know them. Omar-b-A'bdil A'ziz has forbidden its * See page 36. separate from them is Omar-bA'bdi'l A'ziz. behold. Du'l Hijjah. when he of the Scar among the is swear allegiance to him for he go and a just Imam. 99. I cannot but think that the just man is dead. but who Omar ? diest He answered. " sound. and I said. but that verily the Lord now watcheth over His people through Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz." Muhammad-b-Pudhalah narrates that A'bdu'Uah-b-Omar-b-A'bdil by the dwelling of a monk in Mesopotamia. and Eajab.' and I began whenever a sons of rules. and he had never visited any one before. are Abti Bakr. " a stranger came to me in my sleep and said. And Wahb-b-Munabbah. Imam of salvation that is. and verily Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. " we were tending sheep in Kirman during the Caliphate of Omar-bA'bdi'l A'ziz. so 1 set out and on the authority of Habib-br " Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab said to me. " knowest thou why I have come down to thee ?" He replied. he said.' I remark that Ibn u'l Musayyab died before the Caliphate of Omar. Omar and Othman. the wolves restrain themselves from our flocks. Abu livest Bakr. " no. the shepherds on account of this good man who rules the people as a just Caliph. if thou thou wilt attain to Ms time.

for the world came to him. and if fat of his stomach I had wished to count his ribs without touching them I could have done : so. the end of the world to join the Messiah in combating Antichrist and establishing one See D. " prince of the Faithful. the slave of Omar said. he was wearing a dirty shirt and I said to Fatimah the daughter of A'bdu'l Malik." And A. hast thou a dirham I may buy some grapes with it ?" She said. "and howI replied. " I went in one my mistress. Herb. dost thou not possess a dirham wherewith to buy grapes ?" He replied." Al A'un-b-u'l Maa'ramar narrates Omar went to his wife and said.. A'skari the eleventh Imdm. " every my son. " this is easier for me than to labour under manacles in hell. 99. 717. faith. that if there is a Mahdi. and he descended into a. and lo. he has no other. " His son A'bdu'l A'zfz. D. H. cistern in presence of his mother at 9 years of age. — — grava is unknown. whence he is expected to return towards A'U. Shabib.* it is Omar-band if not he." When death was approaching. " Abu Jaa'far al Manslir enquired of me. and she gave me a meal of lentils. " I went in to Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz to visit him in his illness." Maslamah-b-A'bdi'l Malik narrates.[ 238 ] A. it is well otherwise I will turn from ye elsewhere: and I went to them and they answered " were it not that we are averse to dinar. al — whereas the ascetic is Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. day to day lentils !" the eunuch. H. then there is no other than Jesus the son of Malik-b-Dinar said "people assert that Malik is an ascetic. such is the meal of thy master the she replied. and Ibn KhaU. " Four hundred dinars. he sent monastery of Sima'dn-^ to say " if ye sell me a a place for my grave." Abu Umayyah. use." And Yunas-b-Abi. the prince of the Faithful. . " no'' and added. what was the income of thy father when he succeeded to the I replied "forty thousand dinars?" died ?" Caliphate?" lived longer it much when he He asked. f In the district about Damascus a pleasant spot says Yatfit surrounded by gardens and buildings Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz was buried here but the site of his." gayvng. He was horn at Sarramanra 265 A." Hasan declared. and if he had would have been less. and he abandoned it. " dost thou not wash his shirt ?" she replied. to the people of the his leaving us — me with that that we would not consent. " I saw Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz and verily the waist-band of his drawers was hidden in the folds of I saw him again after he had become Caliph. lamentait was heard * " in his house and they enquired about twelfth and people said^ The directed" the surname of the and last Jm&ca of the race of His name was Abu'l ^asim Muliammad son of Hasan aJ. " O Fatimah. and I said." Sahl-b-Sadakah says that when tion Omar was appointed Caliph. A'bdi'l A'ziz Mary.said. " and thou. " by AUah.

therefore she that A. " was before Omar's death that a used to come to us with a considerable fit. and a man said to him. " prince of the Faithful. Ibn KhaU. H. " Fatimah the wife of Omar. U5 (733-4) at the age of 88. " I heard Omar say. Abu'l Faraj al Jouzi says that he was oaUed Taus because he -was the peacock of the ^uran readers. and she that desires that I should retain her. I should not perfect justice amogst you if — verily I desire a thing.) traditionist. a member of the Dubaia'h tribe — died A. but it is the general opinion that it was his real name. He held a high rank as a Tabi'i. De Slane.' sum of money and he continued until he had brought all his property thus Omar verily provided for the wants of the people. " verily business A. for he hath it not entirely perfected justice. told me that ' she went in to him. he used to throw himself down at his place of. was of Persian extraction. I hereby free her.' " A'ta-b-Abi Eabah J narrates." Maymdn-b-Mihran narrates. (A. J He was a Mulatto bom at al Janad and Mawla to the Fikr family at Mecca." And Juwayriyah. " I never knew any one more in of the Lord than Omar. According to his wife Patimah. Al Walid-b-Abi'l Musayyab said. " I said to Talis* ?' Omar A'bdu'l A'ziz Mahdi He man : replied. they must ' other. wearing a shirt patched at the collar in front and behind.' " Omar-b-TJsayd says.' is And the Ibrahim-b-Maysarah. then raised his head and said. but fear lest your hearts endure rest content it not. 717. say. saying. H. 99. when he entered. if he had remained with'us. " moderation most meritorious in affluence.[ a39 ] Omar had given his female slaves a choice. I therefore leave the world with that in my desire unfulfilled —wherefore with the ' your hearts are " averse to this thing. tiie muftis of Mecca. his tears streaming * Abu A'bdu'r Eahmiln Ta<is-b-Kaysan the Tabi'ls. hath come upon me that will keep me engaged from ye . . 106 (725) and the crowd at his funeral was so great that the governor had to send a guard to clear the way. and he was at his place of prayer. 173. we should have needed none after him. I. prayer and would not cease to weep and pray until the drowsiness of his eyes overpowered him and when he awoke. I will retain her though I have no need of her" and — they wept in despair at it. that wishes that I should free her. D. K. Khaulani one of the most eminent of H. al He died at Mecca A. that Omar prayed before the people on a Friday. and wert thou but to clothe thyself properly Omar looked down awhile. f The 789-90. he is a Mahdi but not the Mahdi. the daughter of A'li-b-Abi Talib. a jurisconsult and ascetic and he and al Mujahid were He died A. if I remained fifty among you years. the bouse." And Sa'id-b-Su'ayd. D. H. he would do the same thing through- out the night. ' and use this as ye think and she praised Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz and said. Ibn KhaU. verily fear God hath given unto thee. ' !" is and pardon most praiseworthy in power.t " we went in to Fatimah.

have we not kinship —have we Omar- man of the Muslims from me. " my heart given to it but it desires al Juayriyah-b-Asma.) The Caliph was always attended by three hundred guards and three hundred armed attendants. Yusuf-b-Ya'kub al is it better than —namely.' " Al Auzaa'i says that Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz was seated in his house and virith him were the chiefs of the Banu Umayyah. and I wept.• [ 240 ] A. whereupon Omar ordered him to take a dirham's worth of wood and place it in the kitchen. verily I yet verily I know it that it will fall to ruin and decay. A'bdi'l A'ziz said. heaven. (A'mr-b-Muhajir. has anything verily happened?' He 'OFitimah. that Omar-bmost covetous nothing of worldly goods is something still better. lam invested with authority over the people of Muhammad. over his beard. 717. " why. " do ye wish that I should give each one of you to rule over a province ?" and one of them said. and he said. the Arabs among them and the foreigners. and the stranger that is in prison and the venerable elder. A.) He used to light a wax-caudle for himself when engaged in the needs of the Muslims. and the oppressed that are stricken. in in the first impulse of anger. that when Omar desired to punish a man. 99. (A'td al Khurasani. D. and when I was given is And — that than which nothing in the world is greater. not wishing to be hasty b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. " do ye see this carpet of mine." Hamid narrates. and Omar ordered him a present. H." And al Auzda'i. but Omar said to the guards. save that a long journey's distance a letter addressed to And they said to him. " verily I have among ye . and the like of them in the countries of the earth and the distant provinces.—" ye and the most remote of the Muslims are my sight in this matter. and she replied. ' prince of the Faithful. " why dost thou propose to us what thou wilt not perform ?" He replied. and I felt that my Lord would ask an account of them at I feared that no defence would my avail hands on the day of resurrection. how- am loth that ye should soil with your feet —therefore can I place ye in authority over cannot be !" my administration — in authority over the property of the Muslims and their persons ? this cannot be for you it — not a claim ?" but equal in keeps that He replied. which According to A'mr-b-Muhajir the expenditure of Omar every day was two dirhams. and me. said. he kept him in confinement for three days and then punished him. and when he had finished their business. and the naked that are in distress. " al Hasan dictated to me which he employed all his powers of persuasion and lamented his needs and his larje family. Omar ordered his servant to heat some water for him and he went and heated a vessel in the public kitchen." my heart longed for that Kahili says that Omar used to wear at night a cloak of camel's hair and the lamp in his house was placed on the top of three reeds upon which was some clay. and I was meditating upon the poor that are starving and the sick that are destitute. he would extinguish it and light his own lamp. and him that hath a large family and small means.

99. I therefore acted accordingly and I did not leave Mosul until it had become one of the most orderly of cities and And Eaja-b-Hayat narrates. Hakam-b-Omar. but to us in " I never knew Omar during his Caliphate. and he struck him three stripes." When Omar discontinued to the people of his house. a present to the prophet was a present. Omar." I said. 717. truth. says Sa'id-b-U'rubah. but he said. may go to his family. yet as for this money. an apple." these days it is a bribe.1 ] Fate as a defender and Deatt as a guard shall {A.1 have ten dinars. " shall I rouse him ?" He He replied. for if justice would not make them honest. Yakut M. they murmured against it." When the niention of death was made. and how beautiful it is take and give him greeting and say to him ! " verily thy present hath pleased us very much. " I arose as Omar-bflask and According to A'bdi'l A'ziz and have returned as Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. " shall not I get up then ?" I exclaimed. " no. would tremble in all his joints. and one of the people of his house made him a present of one. and * Or Birku'l Ghamad a town at the extreme comer of Yaman. B. the special allowance which used to be issued to them." Nuaym. 31 . he is the son of thy uncle and one of thy own . least frequent in theft and house-breaking. " my property will not be enough for ye all." MakMl observes.) He also wrote to cancel such orders of al Hajjaj as were opposed to public opinion." " I was conversing one night with Omar when the lamp grew dim aod on mere accusation. Omar said.' " says Ibrahim-b-Maysarah. —he A. he wrote to me in reply that I should arrest them only on clear proof and as the law directed. " strike any one but one man who had received fie on thee — verily presents from Mu'awiyah. it O to how sweet is him who sent ' odour. " when I found theft. A. " Omar once longed for and whoso wishes its it. " fear of vainglory verily prevents me from speaking much. ! among ye who remains. or arrest clear proof them on near it was an attendant asZ«ep. Omar made me prefect of Mosul.' house. then may God not reform them. ' O prince of the Faithful. Omar's secretary. He used to assemble every night the doctors of law and converse with them on death and the resurrection." and he went to the oil trimmed the lamp and returned and said. common there than in the majority suspicion and chastise wherefore I wrote to inform him of the state of the city and asked him whether I should take men up on them and according as the law directed ." A'mr-b-Muhajir relates. your claim to it is as the claim of a man dwelling afar at-Birku'l Ghimad. and house-breaking more of cities. said."* (Al Auzaa'i.[ 24. D. " it is not man to exact service from his guest .) and he slave said. Yahya al Ghassani says. H. that I never saw any one more pious and godpolite for a fearing than Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. " if I were to swear to it I would but speak the. and verily I have heard that the prophet used to eat such presents ' he replied." I said to him.

" and his son went in to him and informed him. VI. for they were Jarirf once came and took his post for a long time at the gate of to A'un-b-A'bdi'Uah Omar who would not notice him. and take not that which better than ye and wiser. " O thou wouldst have made him heir. This 1 is thy day. if I should rebel against Lord. the punishment of the Great Day. whom ennobled. " Omar preached — — portiotfin death." opposed to them.) (Wuhayb-b-u'l Ward). 717. take ye for counsel that which those before ye approved is Omar said. and your worldly concerns will not be amiss and know that a man between whom and Adam there is no living ancestor. to us in Syria Ubaydu'llah-b- A.: — — [ 242 ] (A'ta.' " at Omar's gate and said to his son The Banu Marwan assembled A'bdu'l Malik —" say to thy father that the Caliphs before him used to make my grants to us and recognised our station. " tell them forsooth my father says to ye bited * verily I fear. whereupon he wrote who was a confidant of Omar's reader with the flowing turban. they would weep as if a bier were before them. has assuredly a heriditary ' A'yzar narrates. D. and there have been those whom it but thou bast lent a grace to it and thou art as Malik-b- Asma says " Thou addest a sweet odour to the most delicious fragance If thou but touch it where is thy like ? where ? — For lo ! the pearl gives lustre to the beauty of the face of thy face gives lustre to the pearl. he had He said.to the world to come. H. Kitabu'l Aghani— and the Journal Asiatique for April '34. (Al Auza'ai. verily if my day hath passed. but verily thy father hath prohito us that which is in his hands . " to be good. " no. from a pulpit of clay and said. . 99. t Abu Hazrah Jarir-b-A'tiyai— the poet— the great rival of Farazda^ and al Akhtal— for his history consult Ibn Khali." prince of the Faithful. t Son of A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwfin.' " (Kur. people purify your inner thoughts and your exterior conduct will be amended direct your actions with regard .) When praise lived • A'bdu'l Malik-b-Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz died. and he replied. Tell our Caliph thou meetest him am at the gate like one chained to a pillar. Bilal-b-Abi Bardah went and the Caliphate him and said. but thou hast ennobled has graced it.) When Omar succeeded congratulated to the Caliphate." He answered Lame mentions this (art tWj* ) as a tradition." But the beauty (Jdayriyah. Omar began if to him whereupon Maslamah J said. there have been those it.) A.* peace be to ye.

a town two miles distant from Kufah tecause they first assembled there and taught that government belongs only to God. D. find Sulayman him ?" but he was silent." of He said. say to him. slie after the death of her father. when aught of evil as thou hearest a word from a Muslim. says. "well now !" O villain. a consideration as a son holds in the eye of his father. and he down before her and left her no wish ungratificd. said to fear of Omar " leave me a God and the preferring — A man charge. and if ye go again beyond that. do not impute to long as thou canst find for it a good motive.died at Medina." and the Haruri repeated A'bdi'l A'ziz . He " what dost thou said again " I com- mand thee * to tell me what thou thinkest regarding him. he has ' none to help. and affliction will be withheld from thee and help will be vouchsafed to thee from> God" (Ghassan. " I commend to thee the. we might naake him favourably disposed towards us by pleasantry . said to him.) The sons of Marwan assembled together and they said. They dived so deeply. and Omar regarded him.) The daughter* sat of XJsamah-b-Zayd went in to sit Omar and he down arose before her and advanced towards her. Him above all fhings. " is it for this ye have assembled for the lowest kind o£ — and that which breeds enmities ? When ye assemble." And a Hariiri was brought before Sulay- man who say. the -well known Mawla of the prophet — tion is applied also to any who do thus. and if ye go beyond that. Omar said to me. he said. " if we went in to theprince of the Faithful. " what shall I Sulayman exclaimed " send for Omar- — and when man. betake yourselves to the Book of God." (Ju'dnah). (See page 1i) Usamah." he came." resided at the village of He answered.. think should he done to it. and some say at Wadi'l Kur4 about A. excellent " I liken " Omar to none but an workman who has no tools with which to work it —that is. then to the laws of the Apostle of God." discourse (Al Hajjaj-b-A'nbasah. son of a villain ?" The Hariiri replied.. him. Mizzah near Damascus who was despatched at the head of an army to Syria at the time the prophet was dying. art. and Omar said.. H. " listen to the speech of this said. for thou wert but now praising him. j^ ." Omar said. that there might have been a consideration in my regard towards him. and made her in his seat. " imprison them until they show repentance. They were also called Mubayyadhah because their ensigns in war were white. into matters of religion that they became heretics and hence the appella- Her name was Fatimah. 99. Lane." and they entered and one among them spake and jested.) lyas-b-Mu'awiyah-b-Kurrah. (Abu A'mr. then employ yourselves in the interpretation of the meanings o£ the traditions. " I fear A. such A. t A sect erf schismatics called after Harura. H. says Lane..' " Omar used to dissuade Sulayman-b-A'bdi'l Malik from putting the ^aruriyah sectariansf to death and he would.[ 243 ] " and why not. S4. 717. then another added his jest to the other's." And Omar-b-Hafs narrates. They consisted of Nejdeh and his Companions holding their tenets.

and Omar departed. verily I have humbled Khalid for thy sake. " if thou wert to appoint a bodyguard and to be careful in thy food and drink. but I have heard thee diligently reading the Kuran. . for verily I give al Ghassdni.) command of my guard. Omar (Ma'mar. " God if thou knowest that I fear aught except the day of resurrection believe not in my fear. " thou hast witnessed and hast not crushed them. verily — thy tribe have bound this authority knot by knot and loop by loop.1 would not be safe from their making a rupture with me in which much blood would be shed —by Allah." (Artah-b-Mundir. " yea. and I saw thee pray with devotion and and thou art one of the Auxiliaries thee the —take this sword therefore." Then he looked upon the faces of the guard. and I have seen thee praying in a place when thou didst think that none observed thee."* He replied. O people and said. by Allah. H. " O God. " O A'mr." Now when the Caliphate fell to Omar." (Yahya Shu'ayb says. and laws fallen into disuse and thou hast not revived them. and said. Gen. overtook him. anger and It was said to Omar. fear ye God. A. But Khalid the captain of the guard. " and if that he would command me to strike off thy head. . the loss of worldly goods would be easier unto me than that a cupping-glass of blood should be spilt on my account." and he commanded regarding him. 717. yet art thou not content that a single day in the world should come to thy father. Khalid came and stood up in the place of the captain of the guard and Omar said. " may the Lord have mercy upon thee and reward thee for a good son my child. g. «. 99. and were I to seek to oppose them by taking away what they possessed. how couldst thou I do not see anything for him but that say to the prince of the Faithful — ' thou shouldst revile him as he hath reviled thee ? verily I was expecting He replied." " he is covetousness " happy who is preserved from disputation." And his father answered. " Omar. except he crush a heresy therein and revive a law. wouldst thou have done it ?" He answered. D. and his head was struck off. " the matter ends not thus. for if the destined portion of any one be upon the summit of a mountain or in the depths of * Such aentenoea where the apodosjs is wanting to complete the period are common enough in the Semitic languages and may be found frequently in the Bible." he had commanded thee. verUy thou knowest that there is no kinship between me and thee save the kinship of Islam.) 'Adi-b-u'l Fadhl narrates. " O Khalid put this sword from thee" and he added. therefore raise him up never again. " I have been told that A'bdu'l Malik-b-Omar-b A'bdi'l A'ziz went in to his father and said. " I think with regard to him that thou shouldst revile him as he hath reviled thee. and he said.[ 244 ] A. " I heard Omar preaching to the people. and summoned A'mr-b-Muhajir the Auxiliary said. " hereafter heresies O prince of the Faithful what wilt thou say unto thy Lord when he questioneth thee ?" and added. Hi.) ' ! proceed with moderation in your quest of worldly goods." He replied. ii.

" and he returned it to them and did not disapprove their conduct. " and for the month. verily thy letter hath reached me. but be in the middle so that thy place may be seen and thy voice heard. and he concluded his final discourse with these verses servants section. —he who obeyeth God and His — and whoso rebelleth against God and Then he commended unto them — — apostle. " I A.' " (Abu Nuaym gives with their ascriptions in his Huliyah all that I have advanced. He records also from Ju'linah. " I was present when Omar being then Caliph. ' verily that which the apostle of God and his two companions have instituted. " verily the people of Khurasan are a race whose community is unruly and verily nothing will mend them but the sword and the scourge. saying. " the Lord be propitious unto us and unto thee P prince of the Faithful. al Hajib-b-Khalifah faith which . H heard Omar preaching on a Friday a single discourse which he kept repeating Praise he to God. D.) Ibn 'Asakir records on the authority Ibrahim-b-Abi A'ylah that he we went in to Omar on the day of the festival. verily the fear of God and continued " preach. is the who have transgressed" (Kur. the Eed u'l Eed ul Eitr the festival of the breaking of the fast after the . 7l7.[ 245 ] the earth. and there is no guide for him whom God alloweth to go astray and I testify that there is no god but one God who hath no copartner and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His God directeth.* and the people were greeting him. that the people! of mend them but * Khurasan are a community that are unruly. we glorify and beginning it with these seven sentences and we fly to God for protection Him and implore His help and His pardon. " receive graciously those among them that do good and forgive those of "them that do evil and be not the foremost among them. therefore if the prince of the Faithful see wrote. " I the people wearing a patched garment. whom against the wickedness of our passions and the evil of our deeds ' — . and for the year said. saw Omar preaching to A. my ' XXXIX) to the conclusion of the Biirjumi says." And 99. and he said in his discourse. By the term Muslims. but in truth thou hast Eed is meant one of the two principal religious festivals of the Adha (festivals of the victims) held on the 10th of Du'l Hijjah or Bamadhan. lest thou be — slain. nor yet the hindermost lest thou appear cowardly. was preaching. and saying. I remark that this is an excellent precedent for a congratulatory salutation for the day of the festival. none can misguide.' " And Azhar says. Omar will fit to permit their use to me ?" And " now. that A'bdu'l Jarrah-b-A'bdi'Uah wrote to Omar. verily he foUoweth the goeth to His apostle. Abdu'Uah-b-u'l A'la. saying.". right path astray.those we conform to and follow out and that which others besides two have established we may put aside. apostle . and that nothing the sword and the scourge. that Omar gave A'mrb-Kays as Sakiini the command of an expedition against the Greeks and said. it will reach him." And from Saib-b-Muhammad.

" ' mend them and to thee. the Tuyyuriyat that Hariz-b-Othman fifty dinars a'r Eahbi went in with his father to Omar who asked the latter regarding his son. tongue. ing others'' Ibn Abi Hatim records from Muhammad-b-Kaa'b ' al Karadhi that he narrates. " I have often times discoursed say — with Omar on until his a subject and he would get wroth and I would ' it is written in a book. thou askest summoned me and said. prince of the Faithful — verily I am a wayfarer. and made straight the errii^ of the- deviator." Omar replied " well if it be the Apostle of God.' gentle with afterwards. find Omar said to him " I nothing due to you in the book of God.' " And from Salih-b>. define justice to me. Verily I seek of thee a present bounty For the heart clings to the love of the present. recurring to the subject with me when thou A'bdu'l Hakim-b-Muhamraad al — — Verily He who sent the prophet Muhammad Hath conferred the Caliphate on a just prince." He answered. spoken falsely for justice will of the Kurayshr that he said. " and what is th& Omar replied. and) "teach him the great science. hinder thee from And from seest it Jit. but he said " indeed I am about to make mention of the Apostle of God. A. D. H. and punish men ones according to the degree of their faults and the measure of their bodily endiwance. " yes. " contentment. then mention him" and Jarlr went on. so that he would make his ablutions after eating sugar. 717. " he who considers his words as a part of his actions will be sparing of his conversation. he would say. I said. ' him let not what thou seest in me. and abstaining fromi molestgreat science ?" then said. " Omar.' regarding a momentous thing be to the little among men as their father to the great as their son to your equals among them as a brother and the same towards women." . ' well.'' " Makhzlimi that Jarir-b-u'l Khatafi went before Omar and was about to recite poetry when Omar checked him. restored extortions with exactness to their just owners Who hath Prom their unrighteousness. And from Wuhayb that Omar said.[ 246 ] A." truth —therefore spread these amongst them and peace he And from TJmayyah-b-Zayd." He therefore ordered him It is recorded in from his privy purse.' " lest — — — be Abdu'r Eazzdk records in his Musannaf from az Zuhri that Omar used to make his ablutions after eating anything that had touched the fire. 99. O a youthful king and beand he would say to m& Salih. be sure. when Omar dictated his correspondence to God I fly to thee for protection from the evil of my me.Jubayr that he said. a single blow of a scourge in anger thou exceed justice and of those who oppress. and strike not." He replied. —fear the wrath of anger departeth .

Till After thou hast been called of mature age Dost thou still snatch at the name of youth Youth is worn out and thou If thou live. H. " and cut off he be sincere. Some other author says that the Damascus for the denial of Banu TJmayyah used to Khutbah. baldness ceased to he seen the Caliphs." Omar exclaimed. who sought to make him abjure." Ghayl4n of Damascus according to Sale. 717. Daughter of a Caliph a Caliph her grandsire. that Omar-b-u'l Khattab. broached heterodox opinions concerning predestination shortly after the rise of the — phate of A'li. 99. D." To At a man from wandering Tha'alabi says in the Lataif u'l Ma'arif (Curiosities of Knowledge) A'li. life For by the of thy Lord." And his prayer concerning him took God — if effect. XVI) vilify A'li-b-Abi Talib in the this and the day. That sufficeth as an admonisher astray. will be a hostage to calamity. he said. verily in its The greyness Take warning Till of thy head and baldness Is an admonisher if thou canst as he is admonished who how long wilt thou not forbear ? how long and how long ! is wise. rest of the verse. he abolished and wrote to his prefects to discontinue it. otherwise crucify him his hands and feet. 112) together with Mabad al Juhni and Jonas al Aswari. and after that. (p. Az Zubayr-b-Bakkdr says that poet said of Patimah daughter of A'bdu'l Malik-b-Marwan and wife of Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. during the Caliphate of Omar. and he read in its place " verily God commandeth justice and the doing of good. Sister of Caliphs and her husband a Caliph. and when Omar ruled. and the reading of this has continued to this Al Kali says that in his Dictations on the authority of Ahmad-b-Ubayd Omar before his Caliphate versified. Marwan-b-u'l a Hakam and Omaramong b-A'bdi'l A'ziz were bald." (Kur. . first heresy in Isl&m. for he was seized in the Caliphate of Hisham-b-A'bdi'l Malik and his limbs were cut off and he was crucified at predestination. Othman. " verily I was in error but thou hast directed me aright. that of the Kharijites under the CaliTheir opinions were followed by Wasil-b-A'ta the founder of the Mu'atazalitea. forgive him. " Eestrain thy heart from love And from subservience to passion.! [ 247 1< Ad Dahabi says that Ghaylan* professed a denial of predestination A. wherefore A.

to save me . verse He continues " no other woman but herself can up to my time. Hisham says that when the news of Omar's death went abroad. shall If therefore He be content with me if shall be happy and escape from enduring contempt. that the Lord should chastise me with every torture save hell-fire.over there fell upon us a scroll of parchment from the the grave of Omar. besides whom there no other God. " as to this future mansion — of paradise. From Omar-b-Abdi'l " Peace be to thee is ! Verily I glorify God unto thee. lo sky in which was written." U'bayd- when Omar was on the point of death. And now. claim in her behalf this His siclcness and death." Then he said." Aziz. then ask of God." and Maslamah and Fatimah sat down by the door and they heard him saying." Yusuf-b-Mdhak says.— [ 248 1 A H. and insooth I know that I be questioned regarding the things that I have governed. thou wouldst be buried in the place of the fourth grave with the Apostle of God. 717. Immunity from God for Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz from hell: '' ! ' fire. and I am unable to hide from him a my deeds. the King of this world and the verily I taking account. " the best of men is dead :" and Khalid ar Ribi'i. " welcome these faces that are not the faces of men or genii. of tittle of me concerning it. Ayah states that it was said to Omar A'bdu'l A'ziz. D.' " him. " I find in the Pentateuch that the heavens and the earth shall weep over Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz for forty mornings. and they went in and found him dead. " by Allah. I Hiin besides whom there is no other God. he said io those present " depart from me. " if thou wert to go to Medina and w^rt to die there. 99. XXVIII) and the rest of the verse then the sound grew faint." and I add up to mine. and cure were but to touch the lobe of to raise to if my my ear or were I brought a per- fume which I had only b. to Tazid-b-A'bdi'l Mallik. " In the Ka'tadah narrates that Omar wrote to the heir who was to succeed name of God the most Merciful the Compassionate. In the name of God the most Merciful. would be preferable to me than that the Lord should conceive that I deemed myself worthy of that place. A. of woe unto me for that which 1 shall become." He replied. Hasan al Basri said.Hasan narrates that my nose. being nigh unto death shall through next my sickness. verily.'' (Kur. while we were levelling the earth. " wilt thou not get thyself a remedy ?" He answered " verily I knew the moment in which I was given to drink poison. I write to thee. the Compassionate. I would not do it." WaKd-b-Hisham says that it was said to Omar in his sickness. but He be displeased with me.

a native of Damascus. Sima' an is Simon. he being at that time thirty-nine years and six months old. " or as ' Omar ' : — ' ! — ' ' ' Among Sa'id. Another of the same name was in Mount Lebanon and a third near Antiooh. — — while." * Yakdt says Damascus it is probably somewhere between those two towns. of the house of TJmay- yah. Abu Sali]^ Zakwan died in the time of Omar and also Abu Salih Saman. and Yakut says that the convent was named. A'bdur Eahman-b-Zayd-b-Aslam life. " one of the great doctors of the Christians !" t Ibn u'l Athir. The Bahu Ummayyah hated him on account of his severity to them and his confiscating from them much that they bad plundered." the conduct of Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz neither a day o/' reckoning and there were brought to him forty Shaykhs and they testified to him. XAZrD-B-A'BDI'L MALIK. the people be thy care. says that as hath gone before. Yazid-b-A'bdi'l Malik-b-i'l Hakam.' Then be summoned one of his slaves and said alas for thee what brought thee to give me poison to drink ?' He replied. J). and Abu's Saha." (Abu Nua'ym has given all this with their ascriptions in the Huliyah). when Yazid ruled he said to the people " take as your rule of . was born in the year 71 and ruled the Caliphate in succession to Omar-b-A'bdi'l A'ziz. saying is — " for the Caliphs there nor punishment. says Busr-b-Saa'd. it is not mentioned in the Kamil. 99.' Mujahid adds that he brought them and Omar put them into the public treasury and said to him. one thousand dinars that I was given and the promise that I should be liberated. : 32 . go that no one may see thee. " Omar said to me. in the district about Emessa* on the 20th some say the 25th of Eajab of the year 101 (5th or 10th February 720). Let the fear of God be upon thee and the people A. it is supposed. what do people say about me ?' I replied they say thou art disordered in mind' He replied. ' I am not disorderd in mind verily. Abu Khalid. tion and Paradise. died at Dayr-Sima'an. after Simon Peter.— [ — S49 ] through His mercy from hell-fire and to vouchsafe unto me His approba. The name Abu's SaJba is probably wrong I have never met a name of the kind and. Busr-b- Abu Othman an Nahdi. His death was caused by poison. for verily thou will remain after me but a little . 'bring them here.t people of note who died in Omar's reign were. I knew the moment in which they gave me poMOW to drink.' Omar said. 717. Abu Imamah- b-Sahl-b-Hunayf.A H. Kharijah-b-Zayd-b-Thabit. He neglected to take precautions and they gave him poison to drink. Mujahid narrates. Salim-b-Abi'l Jaa'd. according to the covenant of his bro- ther Sulayman.

need of the Lord than I. Abii Burdah-b-Abi Miisa al Asha'ri. + By the Caliph's orders 300 Irdlian prisoners were put to death at K6fah. In the year 102 Yazid-b-u'l MuhaUab rebelled against the Caliphate. " by AUaL. A'bdur Eahman-b-Hassan-b-Thabit. and Muslamah-b-A'bdi'l Malik-b-Marwan was despatched against him. and that at A'kr* a place near Karbala. Yazid died towards the endj of Shaa'bin in the year 105 (28th January 724). these. Gesoh. Abu Kilabah al HISHA'M-B-A'BDI'L MALIK. and then abandoned it. Jarmi. Al Kalbi says. When Omar was on the point of death. on leaving Wdsit slaughtered 32 of the prisoners he had taken. Yarid's son. 720. who interpreted it to mean that four of the issue of his loins would bear sway. D. He The printed edition has A'kir which ia inooireot. 101." of Yazid exclaimed. A'di-b-Artah. Hisham-b-A'bdi'l Malik. Mujahid. and One who wUl not hold thee excused and peace he to thee !" (Sulaym -b-Bashir. CaHph. Yahya-b-Wathab the Kmin reader of Kufah. verily I do not see myself other than the example ! what I am — I commend to thee in God's name the people of Muhammad— — for verily thou wilt leave the world to one wilt go unto who wiU not praise thee. A'ta-b-Yasdr. § In the year 72 according to Ibn u'l Athir. " I was a youth when people used to say that the Banu Umayyah slaughtered religion on the day of Karbala and clemeneyf on the day of A'kr. A. ad Dhahhak-bMuzahim. Abu'l Walid was born after the year 70§ and succeeded to the Caliphate according to the covenant of his brother Yazid. Among them A'di-h-Artah and his son. " peace be to thee now. for Mu'Awiyah. he wrote to Tazid-b-A'bdi'l Malifc saying. Omar was not more and for forty days he continued to follow — Omar. The family of MuhaUab were as celebrated under the Umayyads for generosity as the Barmekides under the house of A'bbds: t On the 26th according to Ibn u'l Athir.) • [ 250 ] A. and Ibn Khali. who has a long article on Ya^id-h-Muhallah. Of people of note who died during his reign were.H. Abu'l Mutawakkil an Naji. Musaa'b az Zubayri says that A'bdu'l Malik had a dream regarding which he questioned Sa'id-b-u'l Musayyab. according to Weil. Khalid-b-Maa'dan as Shaa'bi the scholar of Irak. He enter his Hisham was the last of would never allow any money to treasury until forty people had testified upon oath that it had was discreet and wise. and others. See Weil. and Yazid was defeated and slain. This inhumanity was not however confined to one side. When Omar in died. * . (Ibn u'l Majishiin).

AjjI-^' and not *-iy'>^ as in the text. 724. and Ibn ul Athir for the year A. Of persons of note who died A'bdi'llah>b-Om:ar. p." And once he was wroth Allah. . % Yakut spells this word The printed edition and MS. In 739-al Battal was defeated in one of his expeditions and slain. In the year 112 Kharshanah|| near Malatiyah was captured. 638. it will lead thee will occasion evil speaking against thee. his due. and he said to him. and he exclaimed. in the reign of Salayman-b-Yasar. I'kramah Hisham. 1. " I never Asma'i. One of Yakfit's authorities (Ibn Butlan) asserts it to have been originally a fort built of stone Sn which was a large Christian Church built by Constantine the son of Helena. See Weil. it once addressed Hishdm abusively. To what He died in Eabii't u'l Akhir of the year 125. Yakut does not give § but tiames Khanjarah as a portion of the Grecian territory. ^aysariyah in Asia Minor J was taken by In the year 108 Khanjarah§ was taken by al Battal the famous hero. verily I intended to scourge thee !" (Al says. iBeneath the Church was a ciatem on marble piUais paved with marble and full of rain water. Talis. He built it when it during the summer. 122. t On the 6th according to WeU. were.h *i/«j signifies retaining water a dam oonstruoted for the purpose of obstructing or fort. D. his reign In the year 107 of the sword. H. Salim-bMawla of Ibn the plague desolated Syria and used to reside in * Atoiit four parasangs west of Eakkah towards the desert. grievous. but the day •Was not half spent When Hisham when there floated towards him a feather covered with blood from some part of the frontier and was borne to him. but Ibn u'l Athir and Yailfiit make it II Kharshanah. both have Hanjarah. " befit thee to revile said^ O such doth not with a man and tlie —" by thy Caliph.word ]8asaf«. " not a single day !" ' It is said that the following line is his and no other of his is recorded. H. than is on Hisham's authority that he I not one remaining of the pleasures of the world. " If thou dost not rebel against concupiscence." Eusaf ah* near Kinnisrin. The people living in its neighbourhood were mostly Bedouin Christians. Abdullah al -Battal was one of the Generals of Mu'awiyaii-b-Hisham who commanded the troops in Asia Minor. he desired to retire there for one day during which no care should approach him. shedding of blood. Haraanah in the printed edition and MS. and that to every just claimant had been given A." whom " there it. A. Vol. — hence the place was so called after the cistern in the no other water nearer than the river Euphrates being procurable.{ 251 ] been rightfully exacted. A man a one. was more hateful and upon It is recorded saw one of the Caliphs to whom it was more said. 105. but I have enjoyed save one —a friend regarding built ar whom is can dispense with the trouble of being vigilant concerning what between me and him. (6th February 743).) Sahbal-b-Muhammad Hisbam. The . it.

S.' Hisham and he said.* al Hasan al Basri. X His father was the chief of tbe Banu Tamim and a great orator.tjJ the leaf of the salam tree used 3. A'bbas. and I do not deserve that thou shouldst be angered against ' ' ' me because I refused. § Ibn This was an Nua'm4n-b-Imr u'l Kays-b-A'di descended from It KahtSn—tha palace of Khaumak built by him was for boasting that near Kufah. thou shalt assuredly take charge willingly or againsb thy will. p. De. it ? — I began—one O son of of the kings set forth on a pleasure excursion to al Khaurnak. A. " I visited Safwan. al ^aradhi signifies in tanning. No night. Makhul. Sinimm&r and finished in order of sixty years. Abu't T'ufayl A'amir-b-Wathilah the last of the Companions.[ 252 ] A. M. Ibn Shihab az Zuhri. Nafi Mawla-b-Omar. 743. . by AUah. 373. Tarazdak. and I said. and h© upon me a forbidding look and said. I speak ?' He replied.' I said. ' verily God hath spoken in His glorious Book. Kuthay tbe poet of A'zza. Among the narratives concerning Hisham. Wahab-b-Munabbih. KatMah. and this belong' ? and * Ibn of tbe text . but I declined and he grew wroth so that his countenance cast was agitated and there was a fierceness in his eye. Tbabit the Kuran reader. Abu Jaa'far al Bakir. he used to say. may till his anger had calmed down. A'ta-bAbi Eabah. was so pleasant as tbe one wherein he had dismissed his wives. al A'a'raj. Khilid was equally distinguished in his oratory and his avarice and his frequent divorces. Ibn A'amir the al Kuran reader Bunani. " we proposed the faith unto the heavens and the earth and the mountains and they refused to undertake the same &c. Jarir. . Ibn Muhayyasahf Ibn Kathir Kuran reader of Mecca. Malik-b-Dinar. say. Muhammad-b-Kasl-al Karadbi. u'l t KTot Muhayyasan as in the text.' but I restrained myself from speaking prince of the Faithful. Kutaybah K. yes." (Kur XXXIII now. whom doth ' as well as of wealth and power. The story in the text given much the same in Yakut. Sukaynah daughter of al Husayn. under the year 113 A. was designed by a Greek called The architect was thrown from its summit by is Nua'mAn by the removal of a secret part of the masonry the building would faU. See Ibn Athir for the spellings of this name. " Hisham desired to place me over the finances of Egypt. or that thou shouldst force me when what is I am unwill- ing' — and he laughed and forgave me. D. Vol. lover al Kdsim-b-Muhammad-b-Abi Bakr i's Siddik. O prince of the Faithful. Muhammad-b-Sirin. of Syria. 125. Ibn Asakir records on the authority of Ibrahim-b-Abi A'ylah that he said. He was not wroth with them when they were loth. and others. See Ibn Kball.§ and he was a man of wisdom he looked round and said to his." And from Khalid-b-SafwanJ ' that he said. courtiers — xmto. H. Mu'awiyah-b-Kurrah. H. u'l Athir writes this name Kurti (j^j*' but Ibn Khali confirms the reading a dealer in Karadh. A'tiyah al A'tifi.

D. The name of a certain king Satirun is connected it was huilt of cut stone and was of great magnificence city's early history — which is still attested. The other said. 125." And when it was morning. and the Journal Asiatique Novemher '38. according to Yakut. to thee in the morning. A. " hast thou regarded the condition in which — — thou art hjith ? is it a thing in which thou wilt continue or rather a thing which come to thee by inheritance. with this X Between Mosul and Tabrit. " yes. ?' ' favoured as I have been favoured " Now there was with him one of the most hast have ye seen any who hath been A. monarchs ? Of Eiim the Lord of no mention of them remains. " I have chosen this mountain and these solitudes and have put on my garments of sackcloth. Hadhr J when he founded as in tte text. son of Esau. " I will reflect to-night and will go." And they dwelt upon the mountain until they died — — " O A'di-b-Zayd-b-Hammad* says on this subject t thou who rejoieest at other's afiliction and scoffest At fortune art thou exempt and perfect ? ! Or hast thou a firm covenant with time ? fool Nay ! thou art an arrogant hast thou seen Whom whom Death hath suffered to endure ? ? Or who hath over him a defender to save him from being wronged Where is Khu§rau king of kings father of Sasan. for Tom.! —— ] [ 253 tbey said — ' unto the ting." He continuas it ed. son of Abraham. H. son of Isaac. it and when al Himar He his family professed tlie Christian religion. 743. " verily thou regarding a certain matter dost thou give rne leave to reply ?" The king answered." He answered. and of which account will be demanded of thee ?" The king exclaimed. and if thou wilt be my companion do not deny me. he knocked at his door and said. t Called also Banu'l A'sfar from A'sfar. II. or thou must relinquish thy kingdom and lay down thy crown and cast from thee thy worn garments and Worship thy Lord. " either thou must continue in thy sovereignty and act in obedience to God in regard to what displeaseth or gratifieth thee." He said. p. son of Rum. He and For his life consult Kitab u'l Aghani. and where Sabur before him ? — — And And * Not the fairf illustrious race. by the remnants of its ruined walls. " dost thou then pride thyself on a trifling thing which thou dost possess but for a short time and from which thou must sever for a time that will endure. was a poet of the time of Ignorance. See Lane.' He exclaimed. 18. and which shall pass from thee to another hath come to thee ?" He answered " such is the case. built It afterwards fell into the possession of a chief called Dhayzan and being under . for other derivations of this word. enquired excellent of those versed in lore and he said. "alas! then where is there a refuge and where a haven of retreat ?" and a cold shudder seized him.

When his father was on the point of death. * A river near Hirah— also <^ for a Persian king —consult Yakdt. ! — What is the happiness of And after prosperity and And The they become .* And his heart repented and he said. but I would remind him of the Most High. two daugbters to take up his couch and he secluded And his servants and his retinue went to Khalid' b-Safwan and said. who had been delicately nuituted that a crumpled myrtle leaf disturbed her sleep. it could not be taken save by the breaking of the spell. Death hath not respected him and perished Hath his kingdom. Al Walid-b-Yazid-b-A'bdi. The graves have concealed them like unto a withered leaf That the and west winds whirl away.' " AL WALrD-B-TAZrD-B-A'BDI'L MALIK. begone from me ful ? thou hast ruined his happiness.east a creature that is about to die ? empire and dominion there. Abu'l A'bbas was born in the year 90. For the so atory consult Ya^lit.' I have verily made a covenant with God.i Malik-b-Marwan-b-i'l Hakam. fy by Nu'aman the Great . and named him heir after Hisham. what hast thou desired with the prince of the FaithHe replied. have 'their nests in its pinnacles. talismanio influence. And remember the Lord of Khaurnak the day That he gazed from an eminence and be the memory a guide to thee His wealth gladdened him and the plenty That he possessed and the river lay before him and Sadir. " and his and he commanded himselft in his palace. a palace built near Khaurnak Ibn Khali says that Satirun and Dhazau were the same person. he was unable to appoint him successor as he was but a child he therefore covenanted for his brother Hishim. He assumed the government on the death of Hisham in Eabii' u'l Akhir in the year 125. that I would never be alone with — a king. has J^\ . and his gate is deserted." narrator continues. See under " art" Muljammad-b-J4bir. He vri^hed to make fligate . He was a libertine and a wine-drinker land a breaker of the divine commands.— t The Tigris anil the 254 ] He built it And now birds Khablir went back towards it strongly of marble and covered it with oement. ' Hisham wept until his beard was wet."' t For (•>' read I believe the text here to be corrupt. The heroine was the daughter of Dhazan. The MS.—the proCaliph.

licentious and slain — — and he sought to seduce me into immorality." men as well as one of the Al Walid was one of the most comely of most violent and he was among the most polished Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah az Zuhri was always reviling al Walid of poets. The most Merciful would requite thee with favour and bounty. and for that profligate WaM reason they rebelled against him. 184. the latter would have put him to death. and thy contempt for the commands of the Lord. " I have collected some particulars regarding the life of al Walid and his verses which contain the wickedness he committed through his folly and weakness of mind and the heresies he openly expressed regarding the Kuran. (Abu'z ZinM." Ad Pahabi observes that the impiety and atheism of al are not clearly established. The people abhorred him 744). H. A. " ? Have not I given unto the poor among ye ?" They we do not reproach thee for ourselves.[ 255 ] the pilgrimage in order that he might drink upon the summit of the Kaa'bah. a native of Mosul of the tribe of who studied jurisprudence under Sufyan at Thauri. the Vicegerency of God in his charge too sublime an office that He should have given it to an atheist. but we find fault with thee for thy transgressions against the prohibitions of God. and impiety towards God. D. . but he was notorious for drinking and profligacy. and the drinking of wine and marriage with the concubines of thy father who have borne children to him. K. " it is not lawful for thee to do other than put him aside. and rose up against him and A. died A." And when he was and his head was cut off and taken to Tazid an Nakis. he placed it on a spear. and if az Zuhri had lived until al Walid reigned. I have seen that thou hast planned industriously to set me * Prohably Azd. 126. He was remarkable for his learning and piety. and his brother Sulayman-b-Tazid looking upon it said " away with it I testify that he was a wine-drinker. for his profligacy. al Mu'afa-b-Imr4n. (16th April 74i4i. Abu Ma'sAd H. De Slane. he was slain on (27th) Jumada'l Akhirah of the year 126. Thou hast been ungrateful but thankful for the favours of thy benefactor —wert thou aside. but Walid and bestow the succession ijpon al Walfd said. is in the presence of al al Mahdi and man said that he was an and Mahdi replied. " have not I increased your largesses ? Have not I removed your grievances replied. It is recorded on his authority that when he was besieged he said to the people.'' but Hisham was not able to do so. I.) desired to put aside al Hisham his son. "go to." Al Mu'afa al Jariri* says. and finding fault with him to Hisham. Mention of a al Walid was once made atheist. and saying.

but which did not guide him aright ^the Pharaoh of this transitory age He wUl come at the day of resurrecof this world filled with calamities. and I will surely disburse it just claims. A supplement to this work was written by the author's son. 744.: ! — [ 256 ] A. a title that does not wrong him a path which he trod. save the family of Muhammad Save the Banu Marwdn. as he would disburse it who was to die to- come down a tradition Walid he will assuredly be more hard upon this people than Pharaoh upon his subjects. Miserable the station where they alight and hateful He hath shot arrows their place of return on that plain of assemblage. * I read -vritli the MS. a man called al . Eawiyah narrates. (ad Dhakhak-b-Othmdn). urhiuta— in twenty X It may be also translated — " hath not concealed his sinn" — according as the verb or may be taken from the root vjj^ (j^ ." As Slili records on the authority of Sa'id-b-Salim that Ibn Miyadah repeated to al Walid the verse of his in which he says " Tou have surpassed the Kuraysh. bringing them into hell-fire and delivering them over to shame.' " him who was its to live forever. ' what they have declared will not afflict nor what thou hast said. Of the word uir^ t-iJU*. verily there hath In the Musnad of Ahmad " there shall be over this people. hast commanded us. — — — at the holy Book. 'to deceive him so I said falsely "I too am learned in signs and the systems of knowledge. D. I can make no sense. I will assuredly gather in the revenue lawfully like unto the years. folios in the printed edition. upon those that remain. thou wouldst annul I behold thee working enmity among them to-day. A. al Kirmami. died 749 Haj. tion at the head of his tribe. while their frequent exclamation is O would that we had been in happier circumstances* or that thou I am as one hadst never lived. and we have found that thou wilt reign for seven years. t jIaioDI iJ^jl/ojUit ^^J^S\ Yj(g oculorum de historia prinoi- pum magnarum by Shihib-uddin Ahmad-b-Yahya-bMuhammafl.' continues Hammad. what thou has designed. (1848)." And he looked down in thought and then gathering of according to morrow.J^. lihal. and Hammad ar two astrologers came ' — verily I have looked into this and have found that thou wilt reign forty said. H. Happy for them wert thou to die from the evil thou workest If thou wert wise. a'd Dimish^i. make me over-confident.t " Al Walid was an inexorable tyrant. and hath been licentious and hath not fearedj sins. " I was one day with al Walid and we have looked into what thou in to him and said. as Shafl'i known as Ibn Fadhli'llah. 126. the eminent.. I was desirous. By AUah." Ibn Fadhli'Uah says in the Masalik (Ways).

H. D. And verily I shall say it in spite of enemies. Csesar was my grandsire my ancestor was Marwan and my grandsire was Khakan. I have been but an Lord have not mercy upon me but I for God and His religion as a summoner to His soul if the sovereignty and verily — at a time when the banners of right guidance were defaced. Muhammad. and when he had put Walid to death he stood up to preach and said. I feared that a darkness had come removed for the multitude of your transgresand I feared lest he should seduce sions and the hardness of your hearts. And this Ibn Miyadah is he who says of al Walid also in his long poem. " I see that thou hast put before us the family A. nor seeking after worldly advantage. 33 . the light of piety extinguished and a tyrant appear- ed making lawful. " I do not think it is lawful to do otherwise. He himself was a Mua'tazalite. His shoulders strong under the burdens of the Caliphate. many of the people to follow his course. He usurped the Caliphate and slew his nephew al Walid and took possession of the government." He replied. Yazid the Eetrencher. 12ft 7414. nor aiming at my own came forward out of zeal Book and the laws of his prophet." A. things that are forbidden and indulging in heretical innovations.* And when I beheld that. See Masa'udi. " now verily. " At al Tha'alabi says that he was the most noble in descent on both sides as well in regard to the monarchy as the Caliphate. and that they would consent. -of I have not rebelled out oppressor unto insolence or ingratitude.— ! [ 357 ] Al Walid of said to him. and the mother of Firlz was daughter of Shiruyah son of Khusrau. by Allah. and over ye which would not be — the Lord freed the people and the from God and there * is cities from him by the jurisdiction that is ye people no power or strength but from God. wherefore I asked of the Lord a blessing upon my purpose. al Walid the son Yazid blessed. and I summoned those of my family and under my authority who obeyed my call. and the mother of Shiruyah was daughter of Khakan the Turkish chief and the grandmother of Firdz was the daughter of the Eoman Emperor for this reason Yazid says boastingly — : "I am the son of Khusrau. " I purposed to say a true speech. Abii Khalid-b-u'l Walid-b-Abdi'l Malik was surnamed the Eetrencher because he cut down the allowances to the troops. His mother was Shahfarand daughter of Firiiz son of Yazdajird." I have seen YAZrC-AN-NAKIS-B-U'L WALI'D.

nor a stone upon a stone. increases concupiscence and destroys manliness and indeed it takes the place of wine and doth that which intoxicating liquor effects. . that Yazid said. H. J Perhaps ^atan-b-Mudrik al ]K. but if needs be that ye do it. said. and that you may all be on an equality therein. Burd-b-Sinan narrates. t According to Weil the end of that month. " I was with Yazid-b-u'l Walid when he was on the point of death. " it O Umayyah. while others assert that he did not. And on children of the authority of Abu Othman al Laythi. that I shall not lay a brick upon a brick. 126. verily I promise ye. I will transfer it to the in order that the means of subsistence may be duly provided for. allegiance to me will not be binding upon ye. plague. " I have heard as Shafi'i say that when Yazid assumed the government. and KatanJ came to him and • This disconree Atbir. 744." Ibn A'bdi'l Hakam narrates. he being thirty-five years old. nor carry away revenue from any city until I have fortified its frontier and expended for its welfare what will sufiice to make ye secure. for song is an incentive to in- continence. Ibrahim-b-u'l Walid-b-A'bdi'l Malik was acknowledged Caliph after the death of his brother Yazid an Naki? who as some say made a testament in his favor. but much from each other than either of them from the text of as Suyliti. and if I deviate ^o»8 my word. if I rule your afEairs. some say forty-six. A. If therefore ye desire to swear allegiance to me on the conditions I have proposed. Yazid did not long enjoy the Caliphate but died in the same year on the 7th of D'u'l Hijjah :t thus his Caliphate lasted not quite six months. and if city that is next to it. And if ye see any one more capable than I am for this authority. and ye desire to make a covenant with him then I will be the first to swear him allegiance and ask pardon of God for myself and for ye. D. for lessens shame. beware of singing. ' I am a messenger from those it is who are is translated ly Weil from Tabari and less so given by Ibn u'l Tbey differ slightly.iUbi governor of Ba^ah. any balance should remain." It is said he died of the IBRAHtM-B-U'L WALfD-B-A'BDI'L MALIK. he summoned the people to deny predestination and seduced them to it and honoured the followers of Ghaylan."* Othman-b-Abi'l A'atikah says that the first Caliph who came forth armed on the two festivals was Yazld-b-u'l Walid he came forth then between two ranks of armed horsemen from the gate of the fort to the : place of prayer. I am yours. then restrain your women therefrom.[ 258 ] A.

— [ 259 ] behind thy gate asking of thee in the name of God's justice appointed over their affairs thy brother Ibrahim. Yazid made no testament against entering upon. but the word O^ is often used to signify a period of twenty-four hours counted from the sunset of one day to the sunset of the next. one party acknowledging him as Caliph and another acknowledging his temporal government. is related in the history of Ibn A'sakir that Ibrahim heard tradifrom az Zuhri and narrated them on the authority of his paternal His mother uncle Hisham.' that he was dead. and Ibrahim lived after that of the the year 132 and he was killed slain in the among It those Banu Ummayyah who were • massacre perpetrated by as Saffah. nights. His deposal took place on Monday the 14th of Safar in the year 127 (23rd November 744). ' I shall not counsel thee regarding the conclusion of what I warned thee Then a faintness came over him so that I thought Then Ka^an sat down and forged a testamentary document as if from the dictation of Yazid and summoned some people and asked them to bear witness to it but no.' why thou hast A. Al Madaini says that his authority was never completely established. Verily a government must perish that hath thee for It has been said was. forth against him and received the covenant of allegiance and Ibrahim ed the government and resigned allegiance Afterwards he came and abdicat. (^^^j>\ ^^. by Allah. for Marwan-b-Muhammad it set fled. was a slave concubine. and said ' I appoint Ibrahim ?' —then he said to But he grew wroth A. — at aU. and his son Yakiib recited them from him. she can no longer he sold. 126. and is considered as married to her master though no marriage ceremony may have been performed.t and he was the brother of Marwan u'l Himar by l]is mother. t For (^^[fi\ e'^ of the text." Ibrahim continued in the Caliphate seventy days* and was then deposed. . whom dost thou think that I should appoint I replied. " Ibrahim relies by some one that the impression on upon God !" his signet ring * Lit. and another refusing tions altogether to swear him allegiance. and one of the poets of that time has We swear Ibrahim J allegiance every Friday its ruler. to Marwan and till voluntarily swore him." After she has hecome a mother. I read with Masa'udi. H. me '0 father of the ?' learned. eiguiflea a slave who has home a child to her master. t TJmm-Walad. 744. D.

returned to Syria. intrepidity. the third near the Pyramids. and they swore fealty to him. that the Arabs name every hundred years an ass. August 750. recklessness. then acknowledged Caliph and that occurred in the middle o£ thing he did was to Marwan was The Saf ar in the year 127 and his authority was firmly established. HIMAE. 744. It is a proverbial expression — " such a one more patient than an ass in war. first command the exhuming of Yazid an Nakis. the second in the Delta. but A'bdu'Uah followed Salih. He set out to engage them. and at their head A'bdu'Uah-b-A'li. 127. Marwan was born in Mesopotamia of which his father was adminisand his trator in the year 72 mother was a slave concubine. slain He and ^was famed for his horsemanship. Decline and Fall. Egypt says Gibhon tore the name of Busir or The first where Marwan was slain to the west of — the Nile in the provinoe of Fium or Arsinoe. of the him for his murder However he found little repose in the Caliphate on account year 132. Busiria. teaching the creation of the Kor&n and the denial of predestination. sums of As soon as he heard of the death of Yazid. he disbursed money and set out and fought Ibrahim and put him to flight. which was destroyed by Dioolotian. D.) * Ibn u'l Athir says that Jaa'd had the reputation of being an atheist. XII. the brother of Marwan was routed and he him and Marwan fled to Egypt. and he took him out of his grave and crucified of al Walid. the fourth. and when the rule of the Banu Umayyah was nigh upon a hundred years. is and he would mate march after march and was patient \inder the hardships of war. number of those that rose 'against him on every side up to the Then the Banii A'bbas rebelled against him. he being in Armenia. and the two armies met near Mosul. on that account. Band Umayyah. . he summoned such of the Muslims as approved him. because he was never weary of fighting those up against him. Before his Caliphate he had the government of several important prefectures and took Iconium in the year 105. the paternal uncle of as SafEah. they called. sagacity When al Walid was and the news reached him.* and the Ass. who rose Abu A'bdu'l Malik-b-Muhammad-b-Marwan-bi'l Caliphs of the Hakam was surnamed al the last of the He was Jaa'di after his preceptor al Jaa'd-b'Dirham. Another reason given is. to do him allegiance. manliness. MAEWAN AL Marwan the Ass. so t Four several places famous in Greek all fable. H. Marwan the Ass. A.[ 260 1 A." and for that reason he was so named. (5th A'bdu'Uah pursued him and they met at the village slain in of Blisirt and Marwdn was Du'l Hijjah of the same year. and he indoctrinated Marwan with his own in heresies. in the Thebuia. Chap.

than his brother Ahmad records in his Musnad on the authority of that the Apostle of God said. Caliph at Kiifah. as Suddi. that Abu Hashim A'bdu'Uah-bMuhammad-b-i'l Hanafiyah went to Syria. distinguished for piety nor more devout than they. " there shall Abu Sa'id al Khudri come forth from the people of my house. related traditions on the authority of and his His mother was Eaitah of Ibrahim-b-Mu^iammad the Imam. the Kuran reader. his when Marwan was gazed upon head was cut off and sent to A'bdu'Uah-b-A'li. Abu Jaa'far Tazid-b-i'l Ka'kaa' the Abu Aylib as Sikhtiyani. and Wasil- b-A'ta the Mua'tazalite. Isa-b-A'li related them on his. and it was removed. it. when a cat came and tore out the it . who said. was born in the year 108 (some say 104) the district of Balk. 750. Caliph of the House of A'bbds. He A'bdu'llah-b-Muhammad-b-A'li-b-A'bdi'llah-b-A'bbas-b-A'bdi'lMuttalib-b- Hashim. H. people of note who died during his reign were.' " The origin of the authority of the Banii A'bbas was that the Apostle of God told his uncle A'bbas that the Caliphate would descend to his posterity. and met Muhammad-b-A'li-bcousin. and his descendants continued in expectation of latter relates it (Ibn Jarir at Tabari). . Abii'l A'bbas. " I wish to lay before thee." U'baydu'Uah A'yshi narrates —" my father relates ' heard the Shaykhs saying nor more —by is Allah. A. Yazid-b-A'bi Habib. He was younger paternal uncle. verily I have information which A'bdi'Uah-b-A'bbas and said. a man shall called as Saffah. Shaybah-b-Nisah the u'l Munkadir. First Oaliph of the As' Saffah. Muhammad-bKurSn reader of Medina. that slain.[ 261 ] Of elder. the first Souse of AHibaB. and al it shall come to pass that his largesses of money I be by handfuls. 132. The from Eishdin-b-Kurayb. and there not upon the earth any more learned in the Kuran. verily the Caliphate hath come to the children of A'bbas. D. and there grew to manhood. it would have been sufficient for us. A'asim-b-Ahi'n Najiid. but be sure tell no one of it — ^verily this authority ." AS SAFFA'H.a. tongue and began to gnaw in the whereupon A'bdu'Uah-b-A'li " if the world had shown us none other of its wonders but the tongue of Marwan mouth of a eat. at Humaymah in He was acknowledged the tribe of Harith. Abu'z Zinad. Malik-b-Din4r. after the lapse of time and the appearance of seditions. Hammam-b-Munabbih. the A. the ascetic. Kuran reader. al Mangiir. As Siili records on the authority of Muhammad-b-Salih.

the beginning of the century." The other replied. H. wherefore And God bare He took ven- geance upon them by our hands. " praise be to God who hath chosen Islam for Himself and hath honored it and exalted it and magnified it and hath chosen it for us and strengthened it by us. He was a disciple of the Mua'tazalite doctor Ma'mar-b-u'l Ashath. its asylum and its defence to maintain and protect it. nor hath the rigour of the tyrannous turned ye from it — —for ye are the most favored people unto us and of those . and made us its people. that He might be bountiful through us upon those who are outcastf throughout the earth. He read prayers to the people on the Friday and said in his discourse. K. H. Khurasani and letters favourably." Then he went on to mention the kinship of the Banw A'bbds alluded to in the Kuran until he said. and our allies from the east shall come until their horsemen shall reach the west. 135 (762-3) and died A." Al Madaini* narrates on the authority of a number of people. t Tor tyiM>^] read Ijij^AUf . and they were tyrannous and appropriated every thing to themselves. 132. he imprisoned Ibrahim and put him to death. At that time the summoners shall summon the people in our behalf. leaving the succession to his son Ibrahim. ye people of Kiifah ye are the seat of our regard and the abiding place of our affection ^ye have not been remiss in this. shall be with you. and He. 225 (839-40). " and when the Lord took to Himself His prophet." And when were reduced. — and the rupture in Africa. others. and restored unto us our right. Tazid-b-Abi Muslim was slain in Africa and the Berbers the Muhammad Imam sent a man to Khurasan and com- manded him to invite the people to approve one of the posterity of Mu- hammad and not to name any one.[ 262 ] A. D. H. but let no one hear of it from thee. but and wrote to it came to pass that Then he despatched Abd Muslim al the principal men who received his Muhammad died. who most honour us wherefore verily I have increased your largesses by a * Atu'l Hasan A'li-b-Mulfammad al MadSini vraa a Mawla of the family of A'bd Shams-b-A'bd Manaf. I was aware of it. Ibrahim had bequeathed the succession to his brother A'bdu'Uah as Saffah and his followers gathered about him and he was acknowledged as Caliph at u'l Kufah on the 3rd Eabii' Awwal in the year 132. 750. his companions stood up in authority untU the Banu Harb and Marwan usurped it. De Slane I. which people hope for. with them for a time until they angered Him. On the news of this reaching Marwan. Ho was bom A. He wrote upwards of twenty works on Muljammad and many others biographical and historical ti-eatises. that the Imam Muhammad-b-A'li-b-A'bdi'llah-b-A'bbas said. hath ended with us as He began with us and we of the prophetical house have no grace but through God. "we have three opportunities the death of Yazid-b-Mu'awiyah. " verily A.

of the allegiance sworn to as Saffah reached Marwdn. is given in full by Ibn and sat During its delivery as Saffah -was seized with an attack of fever His uncle Dauud-b-A'li rose and continued the oration which will be found in tlie Kamil. It is rare that bounty Verily they are is given unasked but a just claim is destroyed thereby. commendable except As Sdli adds that as Saffah was the most generous of men he never made a promise and delayed its fulfilment at its appointed time. H. " fourteen men departed from their homes. — * This discourse whicli n'l Athir. 132. " As power becomes great. and after- At the ceremony of allegiance sworn to as Saffah. ness of their hearts. and there fell from his come forth in these provinces. " The laws of hospitality were violated by a. nay he never rose from his seat without performing it. is here consideratly shortened."* fsa-b-A'lif when he mentioned their setting out from HumaymahJ for Kiifah. those|| who took possession of them. as well as the entire kingdom of Spain. and had their bodies flung to the dogs. is When forbearance is mischievous. and that so conti- nued. he set forth to encounter him. As Saffah died of small-pox in Du'l Hijjah in the year 136 (9th June 754) bequeathing the succession to his brother Abd Jaa'far. the above passage 11 almost a Hteral' translation from Edrisites of Mauritania The and the Fatimites of Africa and Egypt. seeking what we sought through the greatness of their resolution. D. concupiscence grows less. 750. promiscuous massacre. but was defeated as hath gone before. Ad and all Daha'bi says that in his reign the unity of the State was dissolved between Tahart and Tubnah as far as the Soudan obedience. the board was spread over their fallen bodies and the festivity of the guests was enlivened by the music of their dying groans. for I am the justifying A. Therefore he prepared. Eegarding accounts of as Saffah. and moderation season of 'opportunity. Saffa^." The surprising accuracy of Gibbon can only be known to those who is consult his authorities. Abdu'llah-b-A'U. the steadfast- A. In the year 136 he removed to Anbar and made it the seat of government. is not one of them. and cle- mency ignoble. Though the KamU it. at the Patience praiseworthy save in what prejudices the faith or renders is sovereignty contemptible. shedder of blood and the destroying avenger. t The uncle of the Caliph al Mansur and of as down. a count- their followers were put to death were firmly settled under his authority to the furthest and his dominions number§ of the Banu Ummayyah and confines of the West. S'lili relates among his sayings. in Palestine massacred about ninety of them.[ 263 ] hundred dirhams each. to pardon is weakness." When news wards less slain. . the basest and meanest of men who account avarice prudence. used to say. J The K£mil has erroneously **j!*^ § Sulayman-b-A'li put to death a number of them at Baarah.

* jui-isconsult of Medina A'bdu'l Malik-b-U'mayr. A'bdu'llah-b-Muhammad-b-A'li-b-A'bdi'Uah-b- A'bbas (whose mother was Salamah a Berber slave concubine) was born in the year 95 and had known his grandfather but had no traditions from * Or the Eationalist. and the people were astonished. Tahya-b-Abi Ishak al Hadbrami. De Slane. « who died in his reign were Zayd-b-Aslam. and the dominions of the earth were parcelled out and on every side was a usurper.Muslim Bahili narrates that A'bdu'llah-b-Hasan went in full of the Banii Hashim and their and with him he carried the Kuran prince of the Faithful. and a mighty empire belonged to them. Mansiir- Mu'atamtr. K.' AL MANS'im. D. and he commanded him to take them with him to his house. because he drew many of his legal decisions from the fourth source of Kiyas (analogy). who was better than I am and more just. give us our right which God hath and he said. I." his has been handed down." He replied." And A'bdu'Uah departed and returned no answer. verily I Islam was dissolved. Of people of note . or Eationalists. at the reply of as Historians say ^that under the House of A'bbas the unity of SafEah. 136. As Siili says that the impression on his signet-ring was. A'bdu'Uah-b-Hasan once said to him. and he gave unto thy progenitors al Hasan and al Husayn somewhat. so called. al Sa'id-b. . Eabii' ar Eai. and afterwards the Turks. held this authority. A'bdu'llah-b-Abi Bakr-b-Hazm.[ 264 ] A. " vouchsafed unto us in this book. and if I have done have given thee thy due. it that. Abdu'Uah-b-Aslam. H. " God is the Scarcely any poetry of reliance of A'bdu'Uah and on Him he confideth. " I have heard of a million dirhams but have never seen them. but withal he was liberal with his wealth. and unto as SafEah and the assembly was followers and the chiefs of the people would be but right did I give thee the same. notes to Uabii' u'r Eai. doing violence to the people and ruling them with tyranny. and the Arab name lapsed from the registers. and Hammam-b-Munabbih. which is entitled Hai (private judgment) or This system was followed by the Hanafites who were called See Ashabu'r Eai. Abdu'l b-u'l Hamid the wellknown scribe slain with Mai'wan at Bu§ir. 754. " verily thy great-grandfather A'li." whereupon he ordered concerning them and they were brought. Al Man§dr Abu Jaa'far. and the Turks were installed in public offices and the Daylamites came into power. They say that as Saffah was quick to shed blood and his prefects in the east and west followed his example in that. and if I have done more. A. Muljammadan law. then this should not be my reward from thee.

He was polished in language. as to al Mansur. from us al Mansdr and from us al Mahdi. and then put him in prison where he died after some days. Then there was cried out. of excellent converse in science and literature and with a natural taste for jurisprudence. He was surnamed Abu'd Dawanik* on account of his scrutiny of the accounts of intendants and artificers even to fractions of dirhams and grains. iudgment and haughtiness a hoarder of wealth. He and Ibn A'sakir and others state on the ascription of Sa'id-b-Jubayr that Ibn A'bbas said. . He He narrated and his son. al tbem on the authority Mahdi. and it was not long before he became forth with a spear upon which was a black pennon measuring four cubits. the Caliphate shall come to him. his standard shall not be turned back as to as Saffah. " from us shall come as SafEah. he will lavish treasure and blood and with regard to al Mahdi. Al Khatib records on the authority of the prophet that he said. and from us al Mahdi. for governing but excessively avaricious. and it was he who scourged Abji Hanifah on account of Ms refusal to accept the office of Kddhi. D. It is also said that he despatched him by poison because he had passed a judicial sentence authorizing rebellion against him.[ 265 ] him. prudence. He put a multitude of people to death until his power was established." (ad Dahabi states this to be unacknowledged and its ascription interrupted). 'from us shill arise al Kaim. " I beheld myself as it were in the precincts of the temple and the Apostle of God was in the Kaa'bah the door of which was open and a crier cried out. of cultivated mind. 136. from us as Saffah and from us al Mahdi. from us al Man?ui'. was acknowledged Caliph according to the bequest of his brother and was the foremost among the Band A'bbas in majesty of demeanour. "I heard the apostle of God say. and during his reign not a cupping-glass of blood shall be spilt. bravery. As to al Kaim. well fitted. he shall fill the Caliphate with justice as it hath " been filled with tyranny. averse to pastime and frivolity. from Jiim. where is A'bdu'llah ?' and piy brother Abu'l A'bbas arose and stood upon the step and was taken within. of his father and A'ta-b-Tasdr . A. 754. and he invested me with authority and commended to me his people. Ibn A'sakir records from Abu Sa'id al Khudri that he narrates." The ascription of this is pronounced by ad Dahabi to be sound. Omar and Bilal. — : ' ' ! and put on my head a turban. that he said. *' from us shall arise as Saffdh and from us al Manslxr. where is A'bdu'Uah ?' And I stood upon the step and was made to ascend and lo there was the Apostle of God and Abu Bakr. the windings of which were twenty and * A Danilj ia the sixth part of a dirham.' And from al Mansur. eloquent and fluent. H. -A-.

166. 1. 149.[ 266 ] A. Abu MudhafEar al Abiwardi says that people used to say that the two sons of two Berber women ruled the world al Manslir and A'bdu'r Eahmah-b. Ma'mar. Ibn Khali. Ad Dahabi says that in the year 143 the doctors of Islam began at this period to compose works on tradition.K. 167. learned traditions from az Zuhri a native of Basrah and settled in Taman. a people believing in metempsychosis. and Ibn Lahia'h comjudghaent. The text *i*i>:!j is incorrect. native of Basrah died A. He is the author of the history of the Prophet drawn from Ibn IshfiVs work and called Sirat Ibn Hish&ca." of Khurasan. jurisprudence and the interThus Ibn Juraijf wrote at Mecca. a traditionist of the highest order. in Taman. died A. (772-3. died A. 153. For fi^ read ^>J- I § A traditionist of Abu Basrah. De Slane II I. SulamaJi Hammad-b-Salamah. died A. followers of A'bu calls the sect MuaUm and Masa'udi Khurramiyah —in one MS.) De Slane I. 138 A'bdu'r the TJmayyad entered Spain and conquered year Marwan Eahman-b'Mu'awiyah-b-Hisham-b-A'bdi'l Malik-bit. D. Al Man§ixr assumed the Caliphate in the beginning of the year The first thing he did was to put to death Abu Muslim al KhuraIn the sani. Ma'mar-b-Abi U'rwah Eashid a Mawla to the tribe of Azd. 136. H. — • 'Weil is in accordance with. 754. the author of their Call and the founder of their dynasty. Ibn u'l Athir wlio calls tiiem " Edwandiyah. H.J Hammad-b-Salamah§ and others in Basrah. Malik compretation of the Kuran. H. In the year 141 appeared the Bdwandiyah* sectaries the asserters of metempDuring the same. was conquered." for " Hushaym.|| Sufyan at Thauri in Klifah. H. of Abu'l Maljasin from which De Slauo . Ibid. until the day of resurrection. H. H. It is said he was the first in Islam to compose books. al Auzaa'i wrote in Syria. K. IT Abu Mua'wiyah. Tabaristaa sychosis and al Mansur put them to death. three and he said.) gives " Ibn Hishsim. A. De Slane in translating this passage of ad Dahabi (Introduction to Vol. Ibn Ishak drew up his Maghazi (wars of Abu Hanifah wrote treatises on law and the theory of private Islam. descended from an enfranchised slave of this Banu Tamim. (*j!'^. 183.^ al Layth.) Very soon after Hushaym. long and Spain continued in the hands of his descendants until after the This A'bd'r Bahman was a man of learning and justice. 218 I have not the work of ad Dahabi to consult : the Nujum. t Abu KhaJid A'bdu'l Malik of Mecca. 'take this unto thyself.' " 137. Hushaym the Traditionist was a. In the year 140 he laid the foundation of the city of Baghdad.Mu'awiyah. by adoption a member of the Kuraysh. He died A. posed the Muwatta at Medina. His reign was fourth century. H." Ibn Hishim's family was also of Basrah though he was born at old Cairo. Ibn Abi A'rubah. His mother was a native of Barbary. father of |^the Caliphs. died A. (766).^)and in two others ^j^ and *il'^^ YakAt places Efiwand between Kfahdn and Ispahan.

760. — ling with Muhammad against al Manstir. The provinces submitted to him and Spain alone was excluded from his sway.[ 267 ] Then followed Ibn u'l Mubarak and Abu Yusuf and A. but unsystematically arranged. the two sons of A'bdu'llah-b-Hasan-b-i'l Hasan-b-A. consjdt Ib n £! i. H. classification increased greatly and. D. his own son cites. had taken possession of it. Moreover after the words islr^ in the Nujum follows **yJy Now Eabii' was jurisconsult of Medina and Ibn Khali mentions nothing of his ever having been at Kufah whereas it was Abu Hanifah' 3 native town/ For the biographies of those authors not mentioned in the notes. and awe of him waxed great in the minds of men. at which period the collection of works of science and their A. but al Manglir defeated and slew them and a large number of the descendants of the prophetical House. In the year 147 al Man§ur removed his paternal uncle I'sa-b-Musa' from the succession to which as SafEah had appointed him after al Mansdr. accurate. tJiB has " Hisham" without any p^e&x. his posterity. In the year 148 the whole empire was firmly established under the authority of al Mansdr. (p. Isa was he who fought for him against the two brothers and defeated them and he rewarded him by setting him aside against his will and nominating al Mahdi. treatises on the Arabic language and idiom were drawn up and also on history and the encounters of the desert Arabs. xxiv) as will he seen on a reference to the original in Abul Mahasin where the name Eahii' does not occur. by puttbg them to death and scourging them and in other ways among them Abu Hanifah and A'bdu'l Hamid-b-Jaa'far. / / . of the house of Marwan. for A'bdu'r Rahman-b-Mu'awiyah." In the year 145 occurred the rebellion of the brothers Muhammad and Ibrahim. the Umayyad. Verily we belong to God and verily unto Him shall we return. ' DeSlane is incorrect in his translation of word t^lr in his Introduction!. Before this period. the learned used to discourse from memory or posed their works. Ibn Wahab. and Ibn A'jlan. but he was not called prince of the Faithful but " the prince" only and in the same way. 143. is It was said !" to him-^" upon our necks replied — " ye swore allegiance under compulsion and an oath the oath of allegiance to al Mansdr is He not binding upon one who is forced. Among those who pronounced on the legality of rebel. lectured on science from manuscripts. He persecuted many of the learned who had risen with them or counselled rebellion. Al Man^dr was the first who occasioned dissensions between the A'bbassides and the Aliites for before that they were united." In the year 146 occurred the expedition against Cyprus.'li-b-Abi Talib. was Malik-b-Anas.

His death occurred at Batnll in Du'l Hijjah (6th) (7th October 775) and he was buried between al Hajin and Bir Maymun. "Weil or Batn Mutt or Marr. Thou mayest behold them on the heads of men as if They were wine jars of the Jews covered with the bumlis.H. a poet notorious for his profligati. In the year 150. may be found in Ibn KhaUikdn. The text gives (jHS** ol*«l which Athir has " Ajsham" /. : II A native of Basrah. and the Lord was sufficient for them against his wicked purpose. and the people feared that al Mangur would put them to death when he came from the pilgrimage. D.000 warriors horse and foot. 161 (778-9).00.\ read is incorrect. In the year 153. it in besieged Ustad Sis for some time. 762. the Khurasan troops under their leader Usfcad Sis* revolted from his authority and seized the grea^ part of Khurasan. Al IJaj-dn fe a hill overlooking Mecca. II Abyssinian slave celebrated for his wit. increased and evils waxed great and affairs for the strength of the It is said that seventy thousand men were slaia and Ustad Sis was routed and he fled to the mountains. 145. and cover them with black. In the year 149 al Man^ur completed the building of Baghdad. and their heads were struck off and they were in number 14000. Khazim. His real name was Some amusing stories regarding him. He lived at Bagh. al Mansur compelled his subjects to wear tall caps— says they used to make them of reed and paper. (•j''^ ^j^ Abd Dultoah was an adventures and his talekt for poetay. five miles from Mecca. army of Khurasan amounted to 3. In the year 151 al Manstir built ar Rusafah {^of KufaK) and made it a strong and lofty construction. and calamities grew serious with al Man§ur. This name is not mentioned by Ibn Athir Masa'udi says that death overtook him at the Bustan of the Banu A' Amir on the Irdk road. Ajthamf al Marwazi engaged them in battle but he was slain and his army destroyed. * So Ibn u'l Atliir t Ibn X For § u'l and Weil. but the Lord did not suffer to reach him Mecca in health. We And desired an increase from the Imam the chosen Imam gave us an increase to our caps. and the two armies met and fought obstinately. in confinement They kept him and dismissed his troops who numbered 30. Abd Dulamah§. until he surrendered. Then they It was a famous battle.< . Then al Manslir despatched Khazimb-Khuzaymah to attack them at the head of a prodigious force that obstructed the plains. H.ma. gave orders in the following year regarding the prisoners.— J [ 268 ] A.000. The general. In the year 158 al Manslir commanded the governor of Medina to imprison Sufyan at Thauri and A'bbad-b-Kathir and they were put into confinement. his amusing He died A. Salm^ al Khdsir says. Zand. for he arrived ill and died. A. Ufe.

book of poetry or else because he squandered his patrimony. And on the authority of Eabii'-b-Yunas the chamberlain. before his Caliphate. Othman and ' al Mansur say. O ye people! and ask of Him on this glorious day in which he hath given unto ye of His ful." The man repeated for " down two dirhams. 158. — " And from Isma'il al Fihri." skilled in jurisprudence He exclaimed " loose I am a man and the law of inheritance. "loose me pay am a man versed in the book of God. Omar." He replied. witnessed them not. H. " loose me for for I am one of the Banii Hashim. he paid the two dirhams and returned and set himself to amassing money and to scrupulous niggardliness therein. the guardian seized him and said. Mua'wiyah. ." When at length the man's insistance wearied him. A'bdu'l Malik. one of the descendants of the uncle of the prophet. They witnessed the entire ceremonies while their Imam Beneath the broad Eegarding accounts of tions. said." He me replied. the Lord hath made me as a lock upon it he openeth me that I may give unto ye. Ibn A'sAkir records with its ascrip- Abu Jaa'far al Mansur used to travel for the purpose of acquir- ing knowledge. Hisham and I. Once when he was about to enter a place of resort. to perform the pilgrimage." He replied " loose me. for I am on. Abu Bakr and Omar. He fasteneth me. ' the Caliphs A'li. " I heard al Mansiir on the day of A'rafah." The man " pay down two dirhams. " I heard Abu Bakr.' ' ! : grace. ' thou hast hit it " I went in unto al ' and the kings are four." The man wentfor I "pay down two dirhams. stone. who are the most excellent of men after the apostle of God !' I replied. are four. " pay down two dirhams before thou enterest. " this day I have perfected your religion for ye and have completed my mercy upon dad and received his epithet (the loser) because he sold a copy of the Kurau to huy a. De Slaue I. and when it pleaseth Him to fasten me. He died about 186 A. And verily when He willeth to open me." He replied " pay down two dirhams. al Manstir. who narrates. until he received the nickname of Abii'd Dawanik. purposing." Mansur and he said. ye people verily I am the Lord's ruler upon His earth and I govern ye through His grace and guidance and I am His treasurer over His tribute which I divide according to His pleasure and bestow with His permission. 775. Wherefore turn ye to the Lord. And from Malik-b-Anas.' He and such is the opinion of the prince of the Faithsaid.[ 269 ] The pilgrims returned and left the son of Muhammad As a pledge at Mecca in the niched tomb. H. saying in his discourse from the pulpit at A'rafah. E. as he hath made known to ye in His Book when he saith. A. that A. D.

it was not God thou thoughtest of. " praise be unto God : I glorify iny trust in Him Him and and implore His aid. be thou mindful of Him whom thou is mighty art praising. that He vouchsafe unto me justness of conduct. ye men. p.t Have a care. H. eon He also records with various ascriptions that al Mansdr said to his al Mahdi— " O Abd A'bdu'llah. and I believe in Him and put I testify that that there is no god but one God who hath no equal. being the day of the pilgrims visiting aoimt A'rafat the last time Muljammad repaired to the temple of Mecca. welcome. ' —God forbid. aiid open me ye. " and people said *the prince of the Faithful transfers to his God the responsibility of And he records on the authority of al Asma'i •withholding his hovmty^ " and others that al Mansdr ascended the pulpit and said. I swear by Allah. but thou soughtest that it should be said he arose and spake and was punished but bore it patiently. therefore cUed the pilgrimage of Valediction. and of obedience by conciliating affection. Do not proceed with an aSair until thou hast reflected upon it. and of victory by humility and forgiveness of men." Then there arose before him a man who said.C 270 1 A. and of power by pardon. and guide m? to rectitude and inspire me with clemency unto ye and kindness towards ye. A. nor well disposeth a monarch but obedience. and Mubarak said. — from such a speaker. 775. prince presseth ' * This passage it is said wa3 revealed on Friday evening. 81. and the feeblest of men in intellect is he who opbut justice him that is beneath him. — apostle. But the thing is not worthy of notice offence. verily thou hast admonished is me by One great and put me in fear of it is said One that to him. and he adds at the end. " O prince of the Faithful. for the meditation of a wise man is a mirror which showeth him his faults aud his merits. and I have chosen for ye Islam to be your religion" (Kvir. . for he hearkeneth and granteth. and the distribution of your allowances in equity. nothing maketh a Caliph virtuous but . piety. of the like of it and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His . son. that I should an began with me and proceeded from me and thou thou speaker. that the reason of this discourse was that the people esteemed him niggardly. Verily I have pardoned it. and take this as a favourable opportunity from God. nor reformeth a people and thf best of men to pardon is he who is the most powerful of them to chastise. D.' " As Suli records this and mentions further at the beginning of it. may to be bountiful unto ye.' his pride takes it as . 158. V)*. Beware." He then returned to his discourse asflitently as though he were reading it from paper." And from Mubdrak-b-Fudhdlah that he said. seek the continuance of bounty by gratitude. Sale. t The KdmU has «!»>** il l«*^l. " we were with al Mansiir when he summoned a man and sent for a sword. " welcome. but the exhortation ! be as one who when fear God." He that answered.

" by Allah."*!. but forgiveness would be super-eminent virtue and may God preserve the prince of the Faithful from choosing for himself the less noble of two courses without being able to attain to the higher degree ." And al Manglir was silenced and commanded money to be given to him. your government and the plague. D. 144 (761-2). I. that a man was taken to al Man§iir whom he was about to punish." — to him. . " prince of the Faithful. who hath taken from ye the plague under the government of us of the prophetical house ." He replied. as " son of my brother" and therefore calls himself his uncle." with God. H." and he pardoned him." He reAl Mahdi who was present said plied. " praise God." And from A'bdu's Salam-b-Harb. with a portion of it. " verily the Lord hath given unto thee the whole earth. 158. he addresses al IMahdi. and shall cry out — arise those whose reward pardoned. thou shalt accept it. De Slaue. life in Ibn Khallikan. Al Mansur composed an elegy on his death tod praised bim as an orthodox believer and saint." And from Muhammad-b-Mansiir al Baghdadi.Al Mansiir said to Him. and remember the night which shall bring forth the day that hath no night after it. not of course meaning that there existed the remotest relationnearly all but his own sect of the Mu'atazalites of which he ship. " verily God hath not overwhelmed us with both bad dates and bad measure. And from the same. " if I needed thy money." He replied. p. " the prince of the Faithful is more able to pay the expiation of broken oaths than is thy uncle. that alMansiir met a desert Arab in Syria and said to him. a night thou hast never before so passed. redeem then thy soul. a fast for three days obligatory. I should not have admonished thee. but he said. " by AUah." [ 271 1 of the Faithful. " ask for what • This was A'mr-b-TJbayd whose mention follows in the next anecdote. vengeance is but justice. and none shall al stand up but he his way. that al Mansiir sent for A'mr-b-U'bayd who came to him. for A'mr's father acted as lieutenant to the successive chiefs of police at Ba?rah and had been one of the paupers Vol. 80 (699) and died A.' who hath And Man§ur said — let him go And from al Asma'i. t In Ibn Khallikan. and he commanded money to be given to him but he refused to accept it. and al Mansiir said. Remember the night which thou shalt pass in the grave. 775. He was liom A. I. I will not accept it. A. H. but the man said. He was a celebrated ascetic and Bcholastio theologian his devotion was proverbial though his orthodoxy is disputed was the chief. " verily the prince of the Faithful hath taken his oath. oath consists in granting freedom to a slave or in once feeding and clothing ten — if this cannot be done. Both of ihem ly are related in his . that a certain devotee* stood up before al Mansiir and said. I heard al Hasan declare that the Apostle of God said. " when the day of resurrection cometh. prisoners taken at Kabul. H. a crier of is the Lord's shall rise A. O Arab. The is expiation for breaking an K. 53.

and then summoned the said to him. he loosed his mantle and wrapped round his legs and back." Sawwdr replied to him." that al Man^tir wrote to Sawwar Kadhi of Basrah. I shall not withdraw it from the possession of the merchant except lawfully. rewards —verily commanded ten thousand dinars. and al Mangur happened to sneeze and Sawwar did not bless him. " dost go to thod know I have made this al Mahdi my heir ?" He replied. D. A." thee. has. 158. thou needest. H." and Sawwar wrote. and to do them justice but I asked to be excused." and he answered " I prayed for a blessing on thee to myself. save whom there is no God. " what prevented thee from saying a blessing ?" He replied. " because thou didst not praise God. " by Allah. may God avert from thee what may mako an thy enemy rejoice at thy is uttered. thou wilt pay none to any other." When this letter reached al Manstir. but let no one go up with me. thou shalt give it to the officer . and Muhammad-b-Imran at Talhai was holding judgment as Kadhi and I was his scribe. " I ask thee not to send for me until I and not to give unto me until I ask of thee."* Al Mansur said." * The prayer for the sneezer (-which affliction) is. when he God. He replied. Shortly after he came — forth and said to the people. in their favour against the Caliph They made their plaint and he decided and when he had finished." And from Numayr al Madani who narrates. nay. ordered me to write to him to appear. " the supreme power will come to him the day it comes to him. wherefore I wrote the summons and sealed it. " verily the prince of the Faithful saith to ye —" I have been summoned to Then he and ar the judgment-seat. and al Man§lir said. but he would not excuse me. " go back to my office. in odedience to injunction of tho prophet said *^ <W^I praise be to Lane." from another source that Sawwar was denounced to al Mansur who summoned him." Eabii' went. save whom there is no God. and Muhammad ." Wherefore I carried it to ar Eabii%rho went in imto al Mansur. he exclaimed. and I cannot withdraw Then al Mansur wrote. it from his possession except on clear evidence. and thou wilt be otherAnd from A'bdu'Uah. for verily thou payest no regard to me. " verily it was proved to me that it belonged to the merchant. . " look to the piece of land regarding which a certain officer and a certain merchant have disputed and give it to the officer ." " by Allah. " indeed I praised God to myself. no one shall go with it but thyself. art. with the best of to thee. " thou hast filled thy And office with justice and my judges are now turning me to justice. 775.[ 272 ] A." if The Caliph exclaimed. but the Kadhi did not it rise be- fore him." He said. And certain camel-owners sought justice against al Mansdr in some affair. " al Man§iir arrived at Medina. . saying.b-Salih vrise employed than in providing for it. " plaintiffs." He said " by Allah. al Mansur to be given may God reward I have thee for thy judgment.

176. Manslr. 775. and the fear of us will not take possession of their hearts save by ignoring pardon and the adoption of that chastisement. and his life has been written by as Suli (probably not now extant). 35 . that a son was born to A'bii A. asking for the names of the authorities whom the tradition- mentions in the asoriptioua of any tradition. their bones have not yet decayed and the swords of the descendants of Abu Talib have not been sheathed. " fie on thee. . their ink-horns and tablets. the disciple writing from dictation. H.D. that ?" for ye are the most bountiful of men. I. eloquence in the composition of his letter saying. on account of their liberality A people. And it would be said — sit ye children of A'bbas. " I mean to put into it what thou orderest for me." He answered. hast thou not heard the words of Ibn Harmah * That ist rf is." al he said to And from A'bdu's 8amad-b-A'li." girl And from Muhammad-.they are of soiled garments. who went early in the morning to al Mansur and informed him A.b-SaUam." and it held a thousand dirharas. and we are among a people who saw us subjects yesterday and Caliphs to-day. ?' " The next morning the and the sons of the ministers came with Mansiir foot. all ascend upon the rays of the sun. t Abu Isha^ Ibrahim-b-A'li-b-Maslamah-b-A'amir-b-Harmah died A. "verily wealth and eloquence vain-glorious. And from Muhammad-b-Sallam al Jimhi.H. This is the only information regarding him furnished by De Slane in his life of as Suli. 158. of course. and round saying. And from Muhainmad-b-Haf? al I'jli. and recited " If there sat above the sun. is " is joyed ?" there any yet left of the pleasures of the world that thou hast not enHe replied. earth. " what He replied." He said. " one thing is still Wanting-^that I should sit upon a bench. of ye Unto heayen. " verily thou hast applied punishment as if thouhadst never heard of pardon. Then Abu Dulamah drew out a purse and al Manst5r said. petitioning for an increase to his allowances and stipends." And from Yunas-b-Habib all his Ziyad-b-A'bdi'Uah al Harithi wrote to al Mansur. me 'whom didst thou mention* may the Lord have mercy on thee courtiers the traditionists. Al Asma'i says of him that he was the last of the poets. of the Faithful hath compassion on thee on that account therefore be content with eloquence. make him and the prince . said. "because the Banli Mar- wan. that it was said to al Mansur. tunic. saw al Mansur with a patched !" and she exclaimed — " the Caliph that a slave with a patched tunic He replied. the couriers of the transmitters of tradition. K. when combined in one individual. the :that but al "ye are not they —for weary of long of hair.— [ a73 ] l)uldmah. " fill it for him with dirhams. and employed but al Mansur noted on the case.

In the Awail of al A'skari it is stated that Ihn Harmah was much addicted to wine. One like A'bdu'l Malik among the Banu Umayyah. saying. and later. 158. he would exclaim. 170 (786) in the reign al H£di. Hisham and he rewarded me with ten thousand. saying. " verily I will meet thee on the bridge of as Sirat with it. O Kabii'. cffiir % ' *J^I c*i*T (j^\ life *l» The word '^'H'^ is used by Masa'&di in this sense. . " I will not abate a single restrictive al ordinance of the ordinances of God. on Abu Ayub. buy a hundred for eighty. " who will him and pass on. " His glances from both the one hand he to sides of his throne When he On On And launches them. t This in the text the word Xam| as it stands has no meaning and will not scan— I suggest and adopt the following emendation. singing to it. The Caliph treated him -with signal favor. " great is He who hath tried Ahd Jaa'far with poverty in his own kingdom." He replied. " write to thy prefect at Medina not to punish me. line is faulty : Ibn Khali. going and coming for nothing. al !Muri£iii." Al A'skari says in the Awdil that al Mansdr among the sons of Ahhas. whom thou wishest to be bereft of a child. O Ibrahim. scourge him with a hundred stripes and Harmah with eighty. and he rewarded him with half a dirham. in niggardliness. and versified. Mahdi in the same capacity.* appoint some once to take it from him . H. Verily a youth may attain honor though his mantle Be was thread-hare. he bereft." The Caliph replied. of the people saw upon him a patched tunic." and then leave Al Mangur gave him on this occasion ten thousand dirhams and said to him. "He had no right to give thee that from the public treasury. if he finds drunk. 775." "Wherefore when the watch nsed to by Ibn Harmah when he was drunk. He H. and continued in the service died in A. by that Galiph. D. contain punishment or favour. and al Manslir was so excited with delight. with the seal of the court treasurer. " whoever bringeth before thee Ibn scourge Ibn pass Harmah drunk. that he nearly fell from the The man said. patched. thou protectesb from destructionjf the other. and said. whom thou gxaxi^Sii protection.[ 274 ] A." Al Man^dr answered. became his vizier. he is He me Manslir was pleased with him and said." And al He said " contrive some expedient Manslir wrote to his prefect." and they did not finish with him until al Manstir made him drive the camel. and the collar of his tunic. in his of al Mahdi. poisoned according to some." for me. of Tadhl Rabii'-b-Yimas was cham'beTlaui to al Man?tir. for there is nothing for thee like it again with me." Salm the camel-driver once drove al Manslir's camel. A."} • Abu'l of al the deposition. " I drove animal. " what is thy need ?" replied. " take care of them. and he went into al Man?iir.

otherwise kiss it.' &c.' whereupon al among them if he be wicked. but I find under itself He exclaimed." Al Mansdr continued the homes." to inform And a man came to him and began him about the houses. save that he never began to speak until al Manslir questioned him. beginning of his Speaking of Sharik. " find me a man who will point out to me the chief rasmsions of the people. H. At time. but but he will soon ride round his ride a second it. when you can remind him. I how is my government compared with that of thine.) said. and the man began to give him information regarding length when the Caliph desired to leave him. ^' '-' "'^• Nor grant thy enemies respite in power for a single day But be beforehand with them. lest they obtain the same to-morrow. The he replied.' and he it the Banu Umyyah ?' also ' I replied. the man said." The ascriptions of these are given by as Suli who also records on the authority of Ya'kiib-b-Jaa'far as one of the instances related of the quick apprehension of al Manslxr. She said. ' we have no helpers. ordered him a thousand dirhams. Abdu'r Eahman-b-Ziyad-b-Anu'm al Ifriki narrates. when he took into his house and placed some food before me. (Kur. if he be virtuous.* " kings can tolerate every thing but three practises —revealing a secret." Among the sayings of al Mansur are.' and read ' peradventure your Lord VII. cut it ofE if When thy enemy stretches out his hand to thou art able.de Meynard.' is I answered. 'Nor any dates?' 'No. visited him. or a blow aimed at his power." ^ * This is told by Masaudi of al Mamun. he says. but found no opportunity of speaking on the subject of his reward. thee.[ a75 ] Among the lines of al Mansdr. " I was pursuing my me studies with Abti Jaa'far al Manslir before his Caliphate. 'I see no oppression under their rule. life t This story will be found in Ibn Khallikan's of ai Eabxi'-b-Yunas. " le Khalife lui ayant donnfi un bon sur le payeur de la cour. . " he said nothing to me about again And when he left him he man asked ar Eabii' for it. 'no.' Then he laid himself down will destroy your enemy. is the following it. And when he succeeded to the Caliphate. wherewith there was ' ! no flesh-meat. they bring him the virtuous them. 158. and they are few. *i«?^l iJ^ ^^jjk V"^ translated by M. ' girl hast thou any sweetmeats ?' Then he called out.t that he entered Medina and said to ar Eabii'. they bring him the wicked among Mansur lowered his eyes. Omar-b- A'bdi'l A'ziz said that a monarch : like a market that attracts to what will sell freely in it . an outrage on his harem. When thou hast formed an opinion he steadfast in For verily it is an iH-judgment that is vacillating. — A.

As a traditionist his authority is disputed. And from Yaklit-b-Jaa'far. he was distinguished as an eminent commentator on the IJuran. is unfavorable to his veracity. A. and he died A. thou art ignorant. but he went over the poem in his mind. " and this." Al Mansdr laughed and said sand dirhams. p. Damnah. that al Mansur said to Kutham-b-u'l A'bbas-b-A'bdi'Uah-b-i'l A'bbas. I. " what is the meaning of Kutham and whence is it derived ?" He replied. and the general opinion (767-8. 276 ] is own of accord. 179 (796-6. " I do not know. of MSS.). I. H. and thou not understand it by Allah." Al Manslir exclaimed. H. whereupon he sent him why God had created flies ? He Muhammad-b-A'li al replied. and behold there was in it. He cultivated poetry and such was the virulence of his satires that Omar-h-A'hdi'l A'ziz banished him to the island of Dahlak in the Red Omar's successor recalled him. he takes the things of and breaks them. He died at Basrah.( A.J and Euclid. 586. " thy name a Hashimite name. al He sumamed Ahwas (and not al Akhwa§ Ibh Khali except the autograph have it) was a descendant of one of the An?Ara. t Ahu'l IJasan MuHtil-h-Sulayman-b-Bashir. K. a distance it and them and he the same distance from The first of the Banu A'bbas who mixed with his courtiers. 158." — " confound thee ! Eabii' give him a thoual As Siili records on an ascription from Ishak of Mosul that Manslir never joined his courtiers in convivial drinking bouts or musical entertain- ments. and Syrian and Persian books were translated into Arabic. the house of A'atikah whom " Ahwas* says O dwelling of A'atikah which I avoid foes. 775. D. Through dread of upon thee my heart is fixed. the fii'st Caliph for whom and acted according to the dictates of the stars." Khur^sani says that al Manslir was the first Caliph who admitted astro- It is related that a fly was worrying for Mukatil-b-Sulaymanf and asked logers into his society." garding al Mansur. Vol. A. % Translated by A'bdu'llah Ibn u'l Mutaffa' the Katib renowned for the elegance . " I see that thou performest what thou dost promise But there are some insincere of speech who' promise what they never perform." of twenty cubits being between it. a curtain was between him and them. such as the apologue of Kalilah and • A'tdu'Ilah-b-Muhammad as the text and all the al An?ari. ! He replied. but when he sat. was al Mahdi. al O prince of the Faithful. " will the prince of the Faithful it deign to enlighten me re- ?" Al Manslir said. " the Kathim is he who broacheth a cask wine after eating and " yekthimu al ashiya" means. who was his prefect over Yamamah and Bahrayn. " to humble the mighty by their means. Sea. 150 Ibn Khali. H. De Slane." Al Maristir was displeased at his beginning to speak unasked.

" I heard A'li-b-Abi Talib say. " be fearless in thy judgments for And through my father told me on Lord saith the authority of al A'bbas that the Apostle of God said. until the A.' " And through al Mansiir from Ibn A'bbas that the prophet said. A'mr-b-Ubayd al Mu'atazali. and this custom became frequent after his time. whatever else he may acquire over and above. Arab sway and preeminence dissensions between the declined. al al Mansdr were Ibn u'l Eahman." Mangdr from the father of Ibn A'bbas that the apostle of God said. A'ta-b-Abi Muslim al Khurasani. al Aa'mash. author of the Maghazi. famous for his research. that the prophet wore his signet ring on his right hand. before Arabs. . al Kalbi. Ibn Ishak Jaa'far-b-Muhammad as Sadik. who remaineth behind perisheth. Of people of note who Sulayman al Ahwal (the one-eyed). is unlawful plunder. who al saileth in saved. He was also the first who sowed Banu A'bbas and the descendants of A'li for before that they were united in interest. and a Magian but made the. As Suli says that al Man^iir was the most learned of men in traditions and genealogy. Dauiid-b-Abi Hind. last three nights of journey is the lunar month nor when the sun in " died in the reign of al al A'la-b-A'bdi'r Mukaffa'. Shibl-b-A'bbad the ICuran of his style. save connection with me and affinity to ' me. being able to succour it not.I 277 ] was the first who appointed his freedmen to offices and preferred them A. H. Suhayl-b-Abi Salih.' the same that he said. 775. Traditions from the narration of al Matisur. And from not in the Scorpio. Yahya-b-Sai'd al Ansari. " the — by my majesty and glory. " every connection and every affinity shall be sunder- him and yet doth ed at the day of resurrection.profession of Islam : his orthodoxy however was always suspected. Khalid-b-Yazid Misri the jurisconsult. D. Abu Hazim Salimah-b-Dinar Aa'raj (the lame). and I will take vengeance upon him who seeth one oppressed. He was put to death under al Mansur's orders. 158. I will take revenge upon life the oppressor in his present and in his life to come." And from the father of Yahya-b-Hamzah al Hadhrami that he narrates. " al Mahdi appointed me to the office of Kadhi and said. And as Siili mentions an ascription through al Manslir from Ibn A'bbas that are like unto the ark the Apostle of of God said. " when I appoint a governor and fix for him his stipend. Musa-b-U'kbah. Ibn A'sakir in his history of Damascus gives the ascription of a tradition told by al Mangur from Ibn A'bbds. Yunus-b-U'bayd. " the people of it is my house Noah . He was a Persian by birth.

but a strict heart of man and the profession of the love of humanity in application of this last. H. Muham- mad-b-Abdi'r Eahman-b-Abi Layla. reader* of Mecca. A'asim Ahwal. Vol. 15^. Hamzah-b-Habib az Zayyat. Hisham-b-TJ'rwah. I. 775. permitted incestuous marriages. D. daughter Mansdr a descendant of the Himyarite J princes.[ a78 ] A. practical A Consult Weil. Hajjaj-b- Hammad al ar Eawiyah. beloved by his subjects and o£ orthodox belief. al observance of the laws of nature as imprinted in the its widest sense. seotaiians. He was the first who commanded the writing of poleof al much mical works in refutation of the Zindiks and the heretics. al Madani the jurisconsult. the second makes them read and coTiects them where they De K. tradition of Ibn shall the single authority for this. Mukatil-b- Sulayman. traditions He related and ." * The difference between a " Kixi" and a " Mukri. Ibn Juraij. p. Eurdn to his pupils. Muhammad-b-A'jldn." Muhammad-b-u'l Walid the Mawla of the Band Hashim he was one who fabricated traditions. Ibn Shirmah ad Dhabbi. and Muhammad-bA'bdi'Uah ar Eakashi. and Ad Dahabi in this place adduces a Masa'dd ascribed to the prophet. have narrated them from him. " that there was any invalidation or correction of his testimony. 1. under Mahdi. and Jaa'far-b-Sulayman al Dhaba'i. 676. is commune of but the broad principles of their school seems to have been a denial of the existence of a Supreme Being. religious systems. Art^t. " the name of al Mahdi correspond with mine and the name of his father with that of my father. + Between Khuzistan and Ispahan. Tahya-b-Hamzah. He was munificent. descended from Dd Eu'ayn a Himyrite prince. Asha'b at Tammaa'. " al on the authority of his father and Mubarak-b-Fudhalah Mahdi shall be of the descendants of my is uncle A'bbas. al Jariri." is that the first reads the 'eir. His mother was Umm Musa. the avaricious. in the year Al Mahdi Abu Abdu'llah Muhammad-b-i'l Mansdr was born at Aidajt 127 or as some say 126. AL MAHDI. extolled. 105. al Auzaa'i' and others. t His genealogy aooording to Masa'fidi. A. Mukatil-b-Hayyan. Slane. ." observes ad Pahabi. al Maii|(ir-h-A'bdi'Uali-b-pi Sabm-bAbi Sarh. of handsome countenance. and Abu Sufyan Sa'i'd-b-Tahya the Himayarite. Sulayman at Tamimi. " I have never known it said. Edbah the poet. p. Abu A'mr-b-i'l A'li. He persecuted the Ziadiks§ and destroyed a considerable number of them.." Ibn A'di records from a tradition of Othman ascribed to the prophet. the rejection of all § The precise religious or irreligious code of this free-thinking nowhere satisfactorily given. Abu Hanifah.

its father appointed him governor of A. Subsequently his father named hJm to the succession acknowledged Caliph." Then his eyes filled with tears and God wept at separating from his friends. The expeditionary fleet was commanded by A'bdu'l . but the prince of the Faithful reckons upon a reward he said. and that which it experiences. for saddens it That which it takes iU. them is seen joyful Glad for while the other sheds tears. Lower ye the wings amongst ye. The Caliph is dead. Now And the death of the Caliph in the inviolable state of pilgrimage. associated with the learned and distinguished himseH. 775. and when his father died. and indeed. O ye people ! be inwardly. and we will grant ye security and ye will be made worthy of commendation in the end. H. gladdens I have never before beheld what I have now seen nor do I experience My combing one hair while plucking out another. the honor of the Caliphate And to the other the beauteous gardens of delight. of submission imto him who hath diffused justice and hath put away coercion from ye and hath shed peace over ye. that this most clement one has arisen. he was The news reached him at Baghdad and he preached is before the people and said. D. as ye appear outwardly. During the same al Mahdi al * So the word is given both by Ibn u'l Athir and Weil. but supposes it to have been on the sea coast or on one of the arms of the Indus. he set about the removal of grievances and took a considerable part of the public stores and distributed them and treated generously his kindred and his clients. " verily the prince of the Faithful a servant he hath been summoned and hath answered to the summons. since the Lord hath approved him as a promoter of these things. By Allah." Niftawayh says that when the public treasure came into the hands of al Mahdi. and he hath been commanded and hath obeyed. grieves it. I have suffered a great separation and have been invested with a weighty charge. God hath granted to this. and he was taught polite literature and A. obedient to us. Tabaristan and dependencies. alas for the religion of Muhammad But there comes to ye after. mates it glad. In the year India was taken by force. 158. " verily the apostle of from God and I implore His assistance upon the Caliphate of the Muslims. Barabad* in of his sons Miisa al Mahdi made a covenant for the succession in favor Eadi and Harun-ar Eashid after him. The latter cannot determine the position of the town. it. I wUl consume my life between chastising and favouring ye. Weeping and smiling by turns. one that succeeds him. ." In the year 159 160.! — I a79 his ] When al Mahdi grew up. Another author observes that the first who congratulated al Mahdi on his accession to the Caliphate and condoled with him on his father's death was Abu Dulamah who said " Of my eyes one of its lord.

as the date of this enlargement. Malik-'b-Shihd'b al Masma'i. Mahdi — —Eabkah See Mecca. al died on the spot. 161. if the Caliph has passed away after his exaltation. they feared made the pilgrimage and the guardians of the Kaa'bah informed him that its breaking in from the number of coverings over it." Decline and Fall. Ad Dahahi says that he was the first who established a post from al Hijaz to al I'rak. and he ordered the . . t " The palace of peace" Yakub states this to have been erected at Rakkah. to their discomfiture Shipwreck added and a similar attempt was not repeated. by X Burton is ar Eaahid the son of al is the ancient Nicephorium. In the year 163 and the following years.observes that this was never arranged In the year 161. Ad Dahabi any sovereign before. yet she is not insane. 776-7. p. the horse following.D. he died of poison. (4th August 785). but his train of camels laden with snow could serve only to astonish the natives of Arabia and to refresh the fruits and liquors of the royal banquet. 160.: [ 280 1 A. H.abandonment of the reserved places for Imams in the mosques of Islha and lessened the size of the pulpits and restricted them to the measure of the pulpit of the Apostle of God. Chapter LII. way and Mahdi struck his back against the doorThis took place on the 22nd Muharram. In the year 167 he ordered a great enlargement of the sacred mosque (of Mecca) J and brought a number of buildings within its enclosure. In the year 169 al Mahdi died he had given chase to an animal.of and it al Mahdi. : -building . of which about a thousand died. The troops before setting sail on tlieir return wera attacked by a disease in the mouth. gave orders regarding . . conquests in the Grecian In the year 166 al Mahdi removed to Kasr u's Saldmf and he ordered to be established for him a postal service of mules and camels from the prophetical city (Medina) and from Yaman and Mecca to the royal residence. 4. and he it. and built houses along it and made reservoirs. Yea she tears her countenance and discovers Her locks and reveals her tresses. * " A pious and charitable motive may sanctify the foundation of cisterns and caravanseras which he distributed along a measured road of 700 miles. and the quarry rushed into a ruined provinces were numerous. Snow* was carried to al for was stripped and restricted to the covering Mahdi at Mecca. During this and the following years al Mahdi was energetic in the persecution of the Zindiks and in exterminating them and hunting them down throughout the provinces and putting people to death on mere suspicion. an error in giving the year 163. al Mahdi commanded the construction of the Mecca :road. It is also said that Salm al Khasir laments him as follows " There weeps over al Mahdi one that weeps As if frenzy were on her. Verily. — Surely he has left deeds which have not passed away.

" The word signifies also the heirs of parent nor ofispring. t It may lias left neither mean — " heir. verily the people of Their desires incline to thee in obedience. for the succession of his son Musa. unto them is preeminence among the Through Muhammad {Musa) after the prophet life. of their empire And As Mahdi. Thou shalt fill the earth with justice. A. Which the learned of the people used to relate to them. do what she wants and give her ten thousand dirhams. 169.' [ 281 ] The peace of God throughout each day Be upon al Mahdi from the time when he remained grcme. he whose merit the Kuraysh know tribes.aJ( (juaa." He exclaimed. and Kirmani's a person notes on this expression. Mlisa. 36 . D. Musa sways the rod of the Caliphate after him (al Mahdi) And with that are dried up the records of pens !"* Another says " — Ahmad {Muhammad) unto that like O son of the Caliph. also p. as Suli says that when he covenanted said. Until their dead shall desire to witness Of the justice of thy rule what the living Then upon thy father now be the gladness behold. Chapter on Fate. " O sinewf of the Apostle of woman God ! advanced before see to al my need. number. and can be applied to a single person as who weU as to a pi." Among accounts of al Mahdi. H. Folio — ed or altered. "I have never heard that epiVAef from any one al — (turning to his attendants). 976. it jg aji expression that signifies an unalteraWe fact. the ink of the pen that decreed a man having dried up so the tradition IJJ' '^'' '•^ f^\ •-*=> that is. 785. and all that forbidden hath The guide of his people —who are through him Protected from ignominy and deprivation. Muhammad is AU lawful things have sprung to perished." Stili records with its ascription that a said. and hereafter upon thee its garment and its mantle." Kuraysh al Khuttali says that Salih-b-A'bdi'l Kuddiis Basri was brought * all that *l. "We have left religious peace and worldly happiness lies all "Where the prince of the Faithful buried. Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah " Allegiance hath been covenanted for Mtisa at Eusafah By which God And hath made fasb the loops of Islam. a pledge of the A. meets with in the world has already been destined and cannot be avoidSee the Sahih of Bukhari.

f Al Baghawi records in the Ja'diyat on the authority of Hamdan al Isbahani that he narrates. 169. who leaning against the wall asked him concerning a tradition. ud Dahab. H. " I repent before God. himself." but as he arose. VI. " thou wilt not abandon thy ways until thou diest. " he will not prosper Faithful. after it. ^. Vol. " I was with Sharik when there came to him the son of al Mahdi. " I declare that the nape of thy neck is as the nape of the neck of a liar. Enemies hands of a fool his habits What a fool sufiers at his own. and him regarding suffer not at the Salih exclaimed." said he. he him back and said." and he recited to " Mahdi on the charge of being a Zindik." The narrator adds that after this Sharik taught traditions to them and accepted the office of Kadhi. " but some* my religion." He considered a moment and said.— [ 282 ] k. ." whereupon hecalled ' ordered him to be put to death. 785. Zahir states that ten traditionists were Mahdi. introduced." Whereupon al Mahdi ordered dishes of marrow mixed with sugar and other things. Sharik t Masalidi adds to this story that the Caliph having given Sharik an order on made some difficulty on the subject of payment." Al Mahdi then ordered for him ten thousand dirhams. " unto the prince of the Whereupon he related from so and so on the authority of Abu Hurayrah from the prophet. Lane. among them Faraj -b-Fudhalah and Ghiyath-b- Now it al Mahdi took pleasure in pigeons and recite a tradition when Ghiyath was was said to him." said Sharik. And an old man will not abandon Until he is hidden in the dust of his grave.. " yes. " didst thou not say that an old man will not abandon his habits ?" He replied. al Mahdi said." Mvacvii thing more precious. mule or aas. al brought before Ibrahim. because all these are used in fight with the enemy. or thou must instruct my sons and relate traditions to them or eat a meal with me. so he repeated Jiia * The tradition is not here given entire. upon which the paymaster said — "you have'not been selling cloth P" " No. art (3^ — the paymaster. in unto al Mahdi who said to him. it should te t-***^ j' j*'*' j' ""^^ ts* ^' " except in the hoof of « catml." Then he gave orders regardIt is related that Sharik went ing the pigeons and their throats were cut." Al Mahdi therefore let him go." " In the same way then. but Sharik did not take any notice of him. " to eat with thee will be least inconvenient to me. before al D. " one of three things thou must do either thou must take the office of Kadhi. " there shall be no wager except on a hoof* or an arrow or lance head" and he added to it. " or a wing." . or in the case of an arrow or lance head" (shooting or throwing the lance). or that of a horse. but when he was about to depart. of which he eat but the cook said. Surely thou hast interpolated that.

we dwell in the bowels of the earth They would come where we were. not pleasing to me Nor our refraining from meeting. And perfumed slave girls And music and enjoyment. To If dig up what we have buried. " I feai. *"^ ^ji i!fj«''l ts' * ^J^^ it}^ \>j Masa-ddi but differently to those in the text. that al whom Al Mahdi then said concerning this. and she said to him." The other then sank down upon and then put his question. Whenever my love is assured to her She bringeth but excuses Separation is ." The following " is by him on r his boon-Companion." Among Mahdi recited by as Siili are the following — " The people will not restrain themselves from us. whereupon he sent one clandestinely to her who knew what was in her mind." slave girl of As Siili Mahdi had a records with its ascription to Muhammad-b-U'marah."* he was passionately fond. for his knees them to throw it "away. satiety. 2akkar a singer performing before C^ J The first two lines only of the verse are given They are placed in the mouth of Abd the Caliph Harun ar Bashid. O God perfect unto me my joy : Through Abu Hafs Tor the pleasure of my comrade my life Is in song and wine. " thus should the verses of al knowledge be sought. A. keeping in fear. " it seems as though thou thinkesfc lightly of the sons of the Caliph !" He A. Omar-b-Bazii'. replied. I will continue in my afEection For her.lest he should weary of me and leave me and I should die. save that she avoided him not a little. and she likewise of him. . 169. Nay. " not so. but knowledge is too precious in the estimation of its possessors. The people do not weary Verily their endeavour is of us. • * The next Ibelieve it to line I have omitted to translate as 1 can make no sense of it and be corrupt. H. whereupon Sharik said. 785. "A girl fresh as a new moon Hath conquered my heart.[ 283 ] question and Sharik repeated Ms conduct. D. I give it for tlie benefit of those wbo may succeed better. when the former said to him.

" And from Abli TJ'baydah that he said. 785. " I hearken unto what he hath said and obey. 169. " let every one of my prefects who is named Hatim. " verily the earth belongeth to reverts to all therefore that regarding our hands for the ienefit of the Muslims.' he ordered them to wait for him." And from Ibrahim-b-Nafi'." Then the deputation said.' (Kur. so that I may make no it objection. sides and yet how can if it be waste when the water surrounds of this. I am not in a state of legal Whereon purification. Then fear God and Save us from Hatim. XXXIII. As / Siili also states with ascription to Ishak of Mosul. the authority of al Asma'i." Then he continued. until his cheek touched the ground. I will assent. ' set the example and made His angels Him for He hath verily God and his angels bless the pro' phet &c. but he said. like al Manstir.I v. which there hath been no purchase. in tJie performance of which follow He Himself said. that a present. "verily the enjoyment consists in their being authority of Mahdi-b-Sabik. I obiserve that the poetry o£ al Mahdi is much smoother and al Jnoro k. and they waited for him. and al Mahdi ' entered the arched niche of the mosque and stayed until it was said that the man had come. D." on all —now they can establish the proof And on at Basrah say. its value. be deprived of office. for he said. and he exclaimed. Therefore no one indiin God being vidual hath any claim upon it it. ' "this stream is ours by the direction of the apostle of God. and verily I desire to join the prayers behind thee." who Al Mahdi threw himself forward at the mention of the prophet. that some of the people of Basrah carried a dispute concerning one of the streams about Basrah before al Mahdi.' and this land is he waste. 284 ] S. graceful than that of his father or of his sons." And on the man called out to al Mahdi while he was among his cortege. and the people wonder- ed at the considerate courtesy of the Caliph. upon which he recited the takbir. " al Mahdi used to read to us the five appointed services of prayer One day prayers were in the mosque of Bagrah when he came there. and he said. being begun when a desert Arab exclaimed. Say to the Caliph. kept himself secluded from It was his courtiers for about a year.) He hath distinguished him by means of it . I heard al Mahdi from the pukiit " verily the Lord hath laid upon ye a command. cultivateth waste land belongeth to him. " it remains now to be shown that this is waste land. For when a virtuous man asks the assistance of a traitor He becomes a partner in his guilt. Whereupon al Mahdi said. of them and fo« their advantage. that Mahdi • at the beginning of his reign. after which he mixed with them. suggested to him that he should withdraw himself more. Hatim is a traitor to thee.

hanging from the cupolas of the Caliph's harem. for though the Caliph was up at Ktifah wilUng to bestow her upon him. on the authority of * Atu lehak Isma'il-b-u'l . hapless one If thou art to weep. He was surnamed Abu'l A'tahiyah. now verily the goods of this world are sweet and refreshing* and the rest of the tradition in full. ' the most Compassionate. a female slave of al Mahdi and his numerous odes to her. but did not advance his suit. nations. Thou art not immortal At eve.' I exclaimed. added to his notoriety. I have to observe that he was the first to speak thus in a discourse. morning they were clad in sackcloth. and also He was among the principal of the poets who flourishal Jarrar. 130. the most Merciful. and the prophet said " do the contrary of what they do let your beards grow long and shave your moustaches. When " al Mahdi died. my father related to me. affection and abhorred his face. ed in the eariy times of Islam and ranted in the same class with Bashshar and Abu NawS. Mansiir-b-Muzahim and Muhammad-b-Yahya-b-Hamzah. Abu'l A'tahiyah* said went in dyed garments. In the name of God. they in the And Didst thou live to the age of Noah: Weep for thyself. H.— [ ' a85 ] among the apostles inasmuch as He hath distinguished ye by it among A." and visited the apostle of God. narrate of Hamzah-b-Yahya that he said." Traditionsfrom the narration of al MaTidi. and sackcloths were. Ibn Khali. As Stili gives a tradition through al apostle of who said." A.passion for U'tba." and al Mahdi placed his hand upon his upper lip. " al Mahdi read to us the evening prayer and called out in a high voice. His. and he said in it. Unto every butting ram in the world Shall come a day when there shall be one butting against him. H. brought and settled at Baghdad." ' And through al Mahdi from A'bbas. . — — the shaving of the moustache means the removal of as much of it as falls upon the of lip. ' * prince of the Faithful what means this !' He replied. she disbelieved in his He died at Baghdad in 211 (A.^a3im was bom at Ain u't Tamr in A. 169. 785. D. that a deputation of Persians and they had shaved their beards and allowed their moustaches to grow long. and preachers unto this day have been guided by it as an example. 826). D.s. " the Mahdi from Abu Sa'id God preached a discourse to us from al Ehudrl the after- noon until sunset which some remember and some have forgotten. because he sold jars.

with a great comdignity of the Caliphate mand of language. he possessed intrepidity and hardiness. an aspect of awe encompassed him and upper lip . 'may I " transmit this on thy authority . M Hadi. Ibrahim-bthe ascetic. His prefects imitated him in and the wearing of arms prevailed much in his time. the most Merciful. He used to be called Musa Atbik. " Musa. and his father placed a servant in charge over him when he was a child. because his was contracted. Accounts are conflicting regarding the manner Tlxis is Some say • The text taa " Akhir.?' He replied. who whenever he saw his mouth open would say. Sufyan at Thauri.Ahmad." life an error protally of the copyist as in the All other authorities of ar Bashid. (15th of his death. and as being the first before Another author describes him as a whom men marched with sharp this and staves and strung bows. author of the treatise on prosody. whose mother was a Berber slave concubine called al Khayzuran. H. 786). as Suyiti places al Hddi's death in Eabii' I. was born at in the year 147 and was acknowledged Caliph after his father. Ibn Abi Dib. Abd JBai Muhammad. Ad Dahabi says that he was addicted to drinking and frivolous amusement. or his father as authority for religious ordipances. despot.' " this ascription is unbroken in continuity but I Ad Dahabi says. 169. D. pever knew any one adduce al Mahdi. — — I remark that he follows him. A. and did not uphold the yet withal he was eloquent. scimitars He died in Eabii' u'l Awwal* in the year 170. He continued in it for a His father ch^ged him as his last bequest to exterminate the Zindiks and he pursued them actively and put to death a large number of them. client of the Banii Hashim is the only authority for this. that the prophet called aloud In the name of God. ' yes. Ibn A'bbas. He was therefore thus distinguished. Dautid at Tai the ascetic. well educated. year and some months. whereon be would recover himself and compress his lips." Muhammad-b-u'I Walid. Hammad-b-Salamah. . 785. is not alone in this. draw your lips together !" (Atbik).[ 286 ] A. Ibrahim-b- Tahman and Khalil-b. and used to ride a brisk-going donkey. AL HADI. in accordance with the latter's deed of succession. Sept. and Ibn A'li states that he fabricated traditions. for I have noticed another that J-m'Z Of people of note who died in the reign of al Mahdi were Shu'bahSajjdj Ahu Bistdm. the most Compassionate' I said to al Mahdi. Bashshar-b-Burd the most Adham eminent of the post-classical' poets. Al Khatib says that no one ruled the Caliphate before him at his age. Musa-b-u'l Mahdi-b-i'l Mansur.

which fits in with 14th Eabii' is Weil u'l fixes the date at the is 16th Eabii' I. is * This speech not accurately given by as Suydti and marred in the telling. and said. and the man went to make his excuses. expectation of his consent from day to day And were not for my He should do what I say under compulsion. Another account to is. and al Hadi said to him. this t The verb J^J^I has not this IS the sense meaning in the Lexicons. D. And every man that taketh not advice. Ibn Athir and Masau'di concur in their narratives of it. harmony between us. he fell and a reed entered his nostril and they were both kiUed. but he rejected his brother Hdriin my counsel. upon which he was him. and they interceded for him with the Caliph. Cal. when he sought order to confer the succession on his own son. assuming absolute direction of afiairs of state. but it is plain that mtended which would be usually expressed by^" ^i " . but she caused diately affiectedt some of it to be given to a dog which was immeShe therefore conspired to put him to death when he was prostrate with fever and they smothered him with the bed covering and sat upon its sides. I counselled Hariin. by it. but the courtier clung to him and A. al murder ar Kashid It is said that his mother was an imperious woman. or beads to engage thee in devotion ?" And she is — ' arose beside herself with anger. repenteth I invite him it to a deed that will restore it. that Marwan-b-Abi Hafjah went in unto al Hadi concur in the mouth teing Eahii' Makin. the events of al Hadi's reign. See Gesh. and it reported that he sent her poisoned food. as he himself states the be one year and 52 days. " my approval exempts thee from the pain of apology. who says Jumada I.* " verily. or a but as for thee. assuredly strike off his head if and addressed her in rough lan- there attendeth a noble at thy gate. II." And on the authority of Musaa'b. It is said too that he had an ulcer in his stomach. A line of persons attended at her gate every so. hut this latter duration of al Hadi's reign te I. 786. and a a mere slip of the pen. H. . but he forbade them doing guage. it is Among recorded by Al Khatib on pacified towards the authority of al Padhl that al Hadi was wroth with a man.[ 287 T that he pushed one of his courtiers over a precipitous bank upon the A. He left seven sons. morning. Eahii' I. except Tabari. I will employ thee. are the following on when he refused to renounce the succession. 170/ stumps of a reed bed that had been cut. Of the verses of al Hddi. that his mother in Khayzurdn poisoned him. hast thou not a spindle to Kuran. der. But he turneth from and in that he doth wrong.

is —and then dischargMdsa a rain—a cloud that riseth —he appropriates power to himself—how hath he forcibly seized—and waxed strong — and then pardoned — just in disposition'— of enduring —weal and woe —the best of mortals — of the race coYin—for good and at —unto him who beholdeth—He of Mudhar — a moon that the refuge — of them that are nigh— and the glory — of those that remain. except al Hadi wAo ro<?e from Jurjan to Baghdad. A.§ he was the first to employ it and I have never poetry of this detached character by any one else. of the tribe of A'bs. Muntaha'l Arab. 786. Bai Khatlin. which dost thou prefer." X This took place when the death of his father was announced to him and he accomplished the distance according to Ibn u'l Athir. dia melloo. t See page 257. the eponymous head of which was A'bs-b-Baghidh-b. D. i . is ed ! ! tb- evil is ' full is is the! Musta'filun . two and Wiladah. *-' — varied by the diiamb ^ carminum Quaa ore fun dimeter acataieotio. 170. known to have given al birth to Caliphs. or one hundred thousand paid through the accountant's office ?" He replied " give the thirty thousands dirhams down and let the hundred thousand come round to me through the office. "the Lord is the reliance of Mdsa and in him he confides. who bore son of Tazdajird. heard * There are two of this name one a branch of the Kaya A'yldn. thirty thousand dirhams down. " shall be paid down together." The following. As Slili also says that no Caliph was ever known to ride post. The name there given is " Shahfarand. both of whom succeeded to the Caliphate.Eayth. until he came to the following verse. and recited to him a panegyric on him. § A variety of the Eajaz." . the mother of Hadi and ar Eashid." Al Hadi said " nay. and the other of the Banu Kudljaa'h sprung from A'bs-b-Khaulan. in twenty days. both Al Hadi said to him. the concubine of the last al Mutawakkil who gave birth to al A'bbas and Hamzah who both ruled the Caliphate and Kazl a concubine of the same who bore Dauud and Sulayman who governed it likewise. Walid and Sulayman and Shahint daughter son of Khusrau. al Hadi.— [ 288 ] A. H. Tazid an Nakis and Ibrahim. daughter of of Firliz al Abbas. J He adds that the impression on his signet ring was. the third epitrite '-' O | dulces notas. who bore to al Walid-bA'bdi'l Malik. As Sdli says. ujg bounty and intrepidity are to-day so evenly balanced That no one knows with which the superiority lies. I remark that there may be added to these. " this detached verse — of measure Musta'filun early. according to as Siili is by Salm al Khasir eulogising Malik-b-Marwan.* wife of A'bdu'l al . ." and the As S'lili observes that no woman is sum was taken to him. except al Khnzayran.

786. " t This is Know that your '*J| wealth and your children are a temptation to you" "^^ (^iJ^jl j ^^J \y'\ 1^1*1 j and it is men- tioned in a tradition that the death of a child is the occasion of a storing of reward unto the father. in that preeminence. He . best of those authority. the cemeteries.' O whom " the face of Mudhar hath invested with their Al Hadi said to him. is He dead whose loss the people suffer in suffice And he hath arisen who will thee for common him who is gone. some enumerating eigbt. and now grieveth thee when he hath become unto thee a reward and a mercy !" As Slili narrates that Salm al Kh5. H. " Verily Musa hath assumed the Caliphate and guidance unto salvation.— [ 289 ] is " A. he means of the people of this age. "O prince of the Faithful. VIII. See Sale's Genealogical Tables. the generations between Adnan and labmael are uncertain. I was present with hitn one day when Abu'l Khitab. as Saa'di was reciting a poem to him in his praise continuing till he came to. is dead. ! ." And Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah says similarly " Verily there pride themselves in every city On account of the grave of the prince of the Faithful. "now thou hast hit it and hast done well. And Muhammad {al Mahdi) prince of the Faithful. 170. of an act of his which I witnessed. " Save the prophet. / * Wto -was eigMeenth in direct descent from Mudhar-b-Mzar-h-Maa'd-b-Adnan . and said. says. Muhammad himself) counting no more than three. " have a care whom dost tliOii mean ? Shame on thee !" For he excepted no one in his verse whereupon I exclaimed. D. al verily I trust that the Lord will be merciful unto " ' best of those whose hands tie the waist band." and he thousand dirhams to be given to him.traces an ascription to Sa'id-b-Salm who reported to have said. others (and among these. that al loss oi his son. the Apostle of God* to whom Belongeth preeminence and thou. 37 . doth glory." Al ordered HMi fifty said. surely. Hadi condoled with a man on account of the "he made thee glad when he was to thee a temptationf and an evil. said with reference to Kur.sir recited on al Hadi the following Al Madaini verse coupling condolence and congratulation." reflected The poet then and said. Hadi on account A.

As Sdli narrates from al Mutallib-b-U'ikashah al Marri that he said. Never would the pulpits have ceased to weep over him. but one with aiiother ascription traced to the prophet. The countenance of al Hadi changed." cry. they would have wailed With a yearning plunder. As Suli mentions that was born to him. may the Lord put scorn upon him. He used to be called Abii Musa but took henceforth the surname of Abd Jaa'far. wert thou not satisfied in desiring that for the Kuraysh but thou must pass on to disparage the prophet ? Strike off his head :" (recorded by al Khatib from the ascription of as Siili) and the tradition in this narration stops thus with Ibn Ahhds. Ar Eashid liph Harlin. and we gave evidence against him. O enemy of God. He was one of the most distinguished of Caliphs and most illustrious of the princea Mamdn . and his son al Mamiin and others have related them on his. D. And had they not been consoled in his son after his death. a Caliph succeeded. I heard my father al Mahdi relate on the authority of Ibn A'bbas. A. hath also come down. we went to al Hadi as evidence against a man who had reviled one of the Kuraysh and passed on even to the disparagement of the prophet whereupon he convened an assembly for us. to which he summoned the " chief jurisconsults of his time. Abli Jaa'far-b-u'l Mahdi Muhammad-b-il Mansur Caal A'bdi'Uah-b-Muhammad-b-A'Ii-b-A'bdi'llah-b-i'l A'bbas succeeded as by the covenant of his father I. and had the man brought into his presence . Kuran reader of the people of Medina and others. in on the death of his brother Hadi on Friday night the 16th Rabii' that on this night al the year 170. and a Caliph was born. H.— [ 290 ] A. 170. and in the whole coarse of time there has never been a night but this. And if Miisa had not arisen upon them. and thou. He related traditions on the authority of his father and grandfather and Mubarak b-Fudhdlah. ' — : HAEITN U'E RASHrD. in which a Caliph died. that he said he who desireth to put scorn upon the !^uraysh. Nafi'. as the tribes yearn for the best portions of Traditions from the narration of al Sddi. and then raised it. 786. and he hung down his head. and said. Of people of note who died in the reign of al Hadi were.

given to Marwau-h-al Hatam who married him to one of his own concuhines by whom he had had a daughter called Hafsah. H. according to some a Jewisli convert." His birth took place at over Khurasan in the year 148. 786. the subject of this was extremely avaricious and asked 1000 dirhams for every verse he wrote in praise of the Abbaside Caliphs. he used to pray every day a hundred " rakaa'ts. handsome. Arab. (833-4). it. 218. and Marwan-b-Abi Khuzayran. He taught openly the creation of the Kuran and he belonged to the sect of the Murgians which is called after him the Marrisian. H. D. according to others one of the captives taken at Istathar. He who seeketh or desireth to meet thee Will finA thee either in the two sacred cities or on the most distant frontier. and he exclaimed " if I catch — him. He was purchased by Othman. I will strike off his head. incorrectly " Marisi" for Marrisi. De Sacy Chrest. p. of captivating appearance. was versed in science and literature. on a camel's saddle. t Abu A'bdu'r Eahman Bishr-b-Grhidth al Marrisi a theologian and jurisconsult of the school of Hanifah. There are likewise verses attributed On * one occasion Ibn u's SammafcJ the preacher went in unto him and descended from He was Atu Hafsah Yazid." J Abu'l Abbas Muljammad-b-Sabih surnamed al Ma^kur (or as Ibn u'l Athir says . it will be on a high-mettled charger. This girl was brought up by Yazid as his Marwan. and he held that it was not an act of infidelity to bow down to the sun and moon but only a tolten Ibn Khali. its professors." He an used to weep over his own extravagance and his sins. He undertook many military expeditions as well as pil- A.Baghdad A. Tom. 170. rejoice thee and again rejoice Tor thy two sons have come to rule the universe. He died at. 518. If in the land of the desert. Ill. creation of the The opinion of Bishr al Marrisif on the Kuran was reported to him. especially when exhortation was addressed to him. He loved panegyric and would bestow large sums in reward for to him. He from his private purse every day a hundred dirhams." until he died.: — a9i [ ] of the earth. Khuzayran who was also Haf§ah* has said regarding her " Eai when his father was Prefect over it and His mother was a slave concubine called the mother of al Hadi. never neglecting them save for some special cause. grimages. tall. If in the country of the enemy. During his Caliphate. De Slane writes of it. He loved science and and held in reverence the sacred shrines of Isldm and abhorred disputation in religion and controversy on established points pf doctrine. and he used to give in charity Ar Eashid was very and eloquent. as Abu'l A'la al Kilabi has said concerning him " A. own and he received the surname of " father of Hafsab " notice." ! fair.

but there not on earth any more esteemed by me than he —were he . H. when he was about to traditions at climb a wall to see a girl t whom he loved.' " Mansur-b-A'mmar J says "I never saw any more copious But I continued to pacify ' ' ' ' in tears when engaged in devotional exercises than three men. no. Ho also deUverod traditions. but he said. and Ibn u's A. and a professional narrator of anecdotes. and the Kurayshi said. and ar Bashid said. (son of the seller or catclier of fish). I. D. * A'bdu'r Bazzak says. ' Abu Mu'awiyah ad Dharirf says. I. ' chiefs of the Kuraysh. al Fudhayl- b-I'yadh.' and Harun wept and I once related to him the tradition. it came from him unpremeditatedly. " I was with al Fudhayl at Mecca • when Hardn is passed by and al Fudhayl said. (803). (the blind) adopted member of the tribe of Minkar. H. his pious exhortations and the elegance of his language acquired hini great celebrity. 786. Drew his origin from a family of the tribe of Tamim which had settled at Talakan in Khurasan. born at died A. ad Dhan'r H. Adam until he sobbed aloud and Moses entered into a disputation. Ibn KhaU. and another. He was the habit of going in person to the house of al Fudhayl-b-I'yadh. Ho was bom Abiward or Samarkand. K. 170. ar Bashid. when a man whom I did not perceive poured water upon my hand. H. this ar ! him ? —At and the sword — but where did he meet Bashid grew wroth and exclaimed ^the leather mat shall a Zindik impugn a tradition of the prophet !' — — him and to say.' He replied.' and there was by him one of the . Abd Mu'awiyah Muhammad-b-Khazim.' to die. passed his youth at Abiward and then went to learn Kufah.— [ 292 ] A. I was once taking a meal with ar Bashid. His devotion. and be brought to life and slain again. Do Hlaue. 195 (811). from thence he removed to Mecca where he dwelt tell his death in 187 A. thou wouldst surely behold most serious events occur. out of reverence for thy knowledge. De Slane. said to him — Sammak also in " thy humility in thy greatness is nobler than thy greatness :" then he addressed him an exhortation and made him weep. native of Khui'as&n (or of Ba?rah as some say) celebrated for his wisdom piety and eloquence as a preacher. Kufah A. 113. A." TJ'baydu'llah al Kawariri narrates that when ar Bashfd met al Fudhayl. He died at Kufah. I would that I might do battle for the sake of God and be slain. 183 (799-80). . may God ' " I never mentioned the prophet bless my lord and I related to him this tradition of his. O prince of the Faithful. dost thou know who is pouring water upon thee ?' I said. It is said that his commenced life as a highway robber and was converted by hearing a sentence of the ]§luran pronounced." before ar Eashld. it is I. K. He was a traditionist of eminence. " the people dislike this man. 226 (839-40). was a native of Kdfah. he exerted himself to the utmost to do him honor. H. Mudakkar) and known as Ibn u's Sammak.' until he was appeased. Ibn KhaU. Ho resided at Cairo % A and died A. al He » Abu at A'li al Fudhayl-b-I'yadh a celebrated ascetic. H.

t Abu Abdu'r Eahman Abdu'Uah al Marwazi. 170. 107. II) signifieth the connection that was between them in the world. Ibn KbaU. He made the pilgrimage seventy times. a robe of honor. and he gave Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah for a poem.' (alakatni). H. * This story ia related differently and protaWy more correctly in Ibn Khali. He loved retirement and was extremely assiduous in the practice of ascetic devotion. he gave an audience of condolence and commanded his nobles to condole with him on the loss of Ibn u'l Mubarak. Al Asm'ai who had a marvellous command of the Arabic language and knowledge of the poets and their works. J He was an of his traditions. the provinces. purposely used an uncommon word to attract the attention of as is . it is said that when the news of the death of Ibn u'l Mubarakf reached him. D. Ibn KbaU. A. D.|| I said. by Allah. to prevent the reed-pen being overcharged with ink. " is thou with the handsome face ! art thou he who A. for no Caliph before him. H. a horse from his own stud and ten Greek slaves. had been as munificent as he. in jurisprudence and as a singer was without a rival. two hundred thousand on Ishdk§ of Mosul. details of his funeral are given by Masa'udi. when the people dispersed 'what means could not attach me. five thousand dinars. one keepeth not within it a dirham Through munificence. tradition. Niftawayh says that ar Eashid followed in the footsteps of his grandfather Abu Jaa'far save in covetousness. died 235 (A. H. Of thy two hands. The verb ilakat means to bind to one's self or to put raw silk into an inkstand and 850). 786. what hath made from me ?' I replied. H. MausUi (son Tamun and In the text § *^i* Abu Muhammad Isbtt known by the name of Ibn u'n Nadim al of the boon companion from Mosul) a member' by adoption of the tribe of bom al Arrajan.[ 293 ] the latter said to him. 198 (814). after thee could not attach me to them. He died at Hit on the Eupbrates on his return from a military expedition in A. 181 (797). He bestowed on one occasion on Sufyan-b- TJ'yaynahJ one hundred thousand dirhams. for ***** read He died at Mecca. Born A. He sure : was a constant companion of the Caliphs in their parties of pleahe was well versed in pure Arabic and tbe history of the poets. II the oriental custom. authority of al Mujdhid. while the other sheddeth blood with a sword. answerahle lefore Qod for this people ? IJayth related to ' me on the A. he said ' came to thee. a Mawla to the tribe of Handhaa man of profound learning and of mortified life. H. Al Asma'i thee neglect of the until I narrates. Asma'i. Ibn Khali. and on another. " ar me and keep aloof Eashid said to me. that the verse them shall and the cords of relation between be cut asunder."* As an instance of his good qualities.' And he was silent but.' lah. Tbe nauseous imam of learning and piety and distinguished for the exactitude His parents lived at Klifab where be was born A. prince ' ' Faithful. 150. and Harlin began to weep and sob.' (Kur.

his ministers the Barmecides. He replied." me five thousand says that ar Eashid desired to unite the Mediterranean and the In the Murdju'd Dahab (Meadows of goli) of Mas'audi. begin. t Probably IJamzah-b-^abib az Zayyat one of the seven readers of the ^uran and maslor of al Kisai. H. of Hamid. A. The Arabic verse in the printed edition The word <-^l« should be pointed 1 i^"" and the second hemistich should is with the word is 1>>^ which has been omitted. Numerous anecdotes are told of him by Ibn KhaU whom the reader may consult. Ziyad al Bakkai. the Hafidh Abu U'wanah al Yeshkuri. and his wife in their joyousness as if they Another author says that all the days of ar Eashid were as happy had been marriage-feasts. his chamberlain al Fadhl-b-u'r Eabii' one of the most cele- brated and remarkable of men. A. his Kadhi Abu Yusuf. al Laythof Abu Yusuf al the disciple Abu Hanifah. One of his best works is the Book on Animals. 786. Sulaym the Kuran reader. people of note who died in his reign were Malik-b-Anas. Abu Ishak Fazari. H 166 (772-3). him also in his diversions. He was a native of Ba?rah. Th^ dis- metre Bajaz. D. Bashir-b-u'l Mufadhdhal. al Muslim-b-Khalid Zanji. Ismail-b-A'yyash. Ibrahim-b-Abi Yahya the master the disciples of Jarir-b-Abdi'l disciple of as Shafi'i. There are accounts of Zubaydah. the author Red Sea at a point adjacent to Farama. may God Of b-Saa'd. but which in the MS. the Hamzah. and ad Dahabi states that a narrative of the adventures of ar Eashid would extend to great length and his good actions are numerous. inoorreot. H. of Farama has al appeared and no trace of See Yakut for its history.' and he ordered dinars. celebrated for his learning and author of numerous works on every branch of science. . forbidden pleasures and musical entertainments. his-poet Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah. and then by a verse which instructed the Caliph in its meaning is as well as in the needs of the speaker. ' thou hast said well and continue to be thus for honor us in public and instruct us in private.— [ 294 1 . abandoned it.Eashid the Barmecide said to him that the Greeks would carry off the people from the sacred mosque he therefore (at Mecca) and that their ships would come up to al Hijaz . his musician Ibrahim of Mosul. the town. Ibrahim-b-Saa'd az Zuhri. to wit. Al Jahidhf observes that there were assembled round ar Eashid such a company as were never united under any other Caliph. Dhaygham illustrated it Haron. Asad al Klifi one of the most eminent of Abd Hanifah.J Sibawayh the great master of Arabic. He died at Bajrah A. . exalt him. 255 at the age of ninety. + Abu Othmin Amr-b-Bakr known as al Jihidlj (the starer) and Hadaki (the goggle-eyed) on account of the prominence of his eyes. is * Near what now el it Arish on the Mediterranean remains. diod at IJulw&n A. his boon companion al A'bbas-b-Muhammad the paternal uncle of his father. Niih al Jami'. 170. Ibn KhaU.* but Yahya-b. al Kasim-b-Maa'n.

He places this event in the year 190. and exclaimed. A'bdu'llah al U'mari the ascetic. the K!uran reader. disciple of Abti Hanifah both on the same day . but Dulsah is stated in a note to be a variant. for the word is not pointed. X Ibn u'l AtMr bas Dalsah or Dulsa. fsa-b-Yunas as Sabii'i. On abstaining from all acts which axe unlawful at that season. Musa al Kadhim saints. Ghunjar. Yahyaf-b-Abi Zaidah. Kisdi master of the Kuran readers and grammarians and Muhammad-b-u'l Hasan the preacher. Ibn u's Sammak the Marwdn-b-Abi Hafsah the poet. The following are among the events of his reign. Musa-b-Eabii'h Abu'l Hakam al Misri an Nua'man-b-A'bdi's Salam al Isbahani. e. the descendant of A'li of having invited him to rebel with him against ar Eashid. In the year 175 A'bdu'Uah-b-Musaa'b az Zubayri falsely accused Yahya-b-A'bdi'llah-bHasan. In the year 179 ar Eashid performed the lesser pilgrimage in the month of Eamadhan and remained in the state of Ihram§ until he made the greater pilgrimage and A'bdu'r Eahman-b-A'bdi'l Malik-b-Salih — went on foot to A'rafah from Mecca. and they arose and departed and az Zubayri died the same day. al Mufadhdhal-b-FudMlah Kadhi of old Cairo. A. A'bdu'Uah-b-Idris ad Kiifi. Yunas-b-Habib the grammarian. A'bdu'Uah-b-u'l Mubarak. Yazid-b-Zuray'. Abu Bakr-b-A'yydsh. Yusuf-b-u'l Majishun and others. I cannot find the name on the map." Ibn u'l Athir. Amen." Az Zubayri stammered hesitatingly but repeated it. whereupon God upon which if ever of Yahya imprecated with him the curse of them spoke falsely. In the year 176 the city of DubsahJ was captured by the Amir al A'bbasi. H. " say O God. thou knowest that Yahya did not invite me to oppose and rebel against the prince of the Faithful here. In the year 181. the fort of Saf§af was || * " Mua'mmar" according to Ibn u'l Athir. of the disciples of Abdur Eahman-b-u'l Kasim the most eminent al A'bbas-b-u'l Malik Ahnaf. Hushaym. the learned doctor of Spain.[ 295 ] the ascetic. 170. the Kurdn reader of Medina. and utterly destroy me by a chastisement from thee. one of the (the forbearing). Sa'saa'h-b-ti's Sallam. . Lord of created things. { II I. in the presence of ar Eashid and locked his hand in the hand of the other. al Fudhayl-b-I'yadh. one of the disciples of Malik. al A. Yakdb-b-A'bdi'r Eahraan. then commit me to my own power and strength. the famous poet. D. In the year 180 occurred the great earthquake in which the top of the minaret at Alexandria fell. A'bdu'l A'ziz-b-Abi Hazim. A'li-b-Mushir. Mua'tamir*-b-Sulayman. 786. and Yahya did the like. tS***-'' W^/^ y^ ej'i'^ {^yij*** t "Zakariya. al Mu'dfa-b-I'mran al Mawsili. ad Darawardi. the frontier of Syria between Antiooh and the Grecian territory.

and no one durst tell ar Eashid of the violation. D. t The printed edition has j. consult Yakdt. H. and his ministers speechless forbore from counsel. Then ar Eashid sent for an inkhorn and wrote upon the back of the letter. 180. saying. Thus a grievous calamity fell upon Islam. " Nicephorus hath violated what thou didst concede to him. whom eponymous ancestor being Khazar the The cause of their irruption was the death of the Khiikiins daughter the Barmecide Fadhl-b-Yahya had wooed. and he said " indeed hath he done so ?" He therefore set out on his And — * A Turkieh. but A'bdu'r Eahman-b-Yusuf at Tamimi versified. 168. and his courtiers dispersed from fear. A. Vol. and there took place a famous battle and a manifest victory. See Weil. otherwise the sword shall decide between me and thee. But when ar Eashid returned to ar Eakkah. Noah their son of Japhet. from Hartin the prince of the faithful to Nicephorus the Eoman dog.*^ for Jj^ . According to another account the murder of the Khalfto himself by an Arab provoked the calamity. that no one durst look upon his face. and conveyed to thee many loads of her wealth. and Nicephorus implored peace and engaged to pay a tribute which he would transmit to him every year and it was accepted. sovereign of the Arabs After preliminaries verily the Empress who preceded me gave thee the the Khazars* burst upon Armenia and fell captured by force of arms. Verily I have read thy letter. The letter ran as follows " From Nicephorus. In the year 187." When ar Eashid read the letter. tribe north. the most Compassionate the most Merciful. the captor being ar Eashid. Now when thou hast read this letter of mine. much speak to him. deeming impossible the return of ar Eashid in the winter.he reached Heraclea. of Derbend. The Khdkdn had been informed that the Muslims had put her to death. to Harun. p. the like of vrhich had not been heard of before. — rank of a rook and put herself in that of a pawn. the Eoman Emperor." Thereupon he set out the same day and did not stay until. Therefore around him* the circle of destruction shall revolve. son of an unbelieving mother. and the answer thou shalt behold and not hear. Y. the sou of —for a particular account of them. the dog violated the engagement. " In the name of God. and this through the weakness of women and their folly. 796. there came a letter to ar Eashid from Nicephorusf the Roman Emperor breaking the truce which had been established between the Muslims and Irene Empress of Eome. Give the good news to the prince of the Faithful. Verily he is a spoil that the great God hath vouchsafed thee." Abu'l A'tahiyah made some verses which were shown to ar Eashid. return what thou hast received of her substance. he was so inflamed less with rage. In the year 183 upon the true believers and piade great slaughter and carried away captive more than a hundred thousand souls.: : [ 296 ] A.

" I do not think thou knowest what I have." I safety. that thou keep ! it secret concern- ing me. and Muham- mad-b u's Sabah at Tabari mentions that his father accompanied ar Rashid to an Nahrawan.J. Xom. A- TI. § His physician.f Humayd-b-Ma'yuf set out against Cyprus. " no— by Allah." Ar Rashid said " come till I show thee. and Yazid-b-Makhlad. so that there did not remain a single Muslim captive in their territories. A. 160. Speed by as upon which victory alights though they were broken masses of cloud. Sideropolia. and devastated and wasted it by fire and carried away into captivity sixteen thousand of its people. 88 . 180. when lo there was silken bandage round about his stomach. I will at once send for a horse and they will bring me one very lean in order to increase my malady hy its roughness. the Arabs took Thebasa (Dubsah or Dalsah ?) Malacopsea. " me again after this. Sabah. Neither Yaktit nor Weil fix' the position of aa Sakaliyah." answered. until he said one day. purpose and accomplished the object of his holy war and concerning Abu'l A'tahiyah says.[ 297 ] return march in the face of tbe greatest hardships until he caused his camel to kneel in the Emperor's courtyard. territories." J I replied. p. And And lightening with bright cutting swords his standards .i'' + The printed edition has erroneouly al i^uniyah. " I have concealed this disease from men. In the year 190 he took Heraclea and spread his troops over the Roman ShurahiUb-Maa'n-b-Zaidah captured the fortress as Sakdliyah. II. There is not one of them but counts my all . and if thou wishest to know this. and I have forgotten the third. and reckons my days and finds my life too long. he thy oath. — faithfulness of God. 79o. i). for each one of my sons hath a spy upon me Masrur is the spy Mamiin." and he uncovered his stomach. and Gabriel the son of Bakhtishuu' § is the spy of al Amin. According to Theophanes. At the hand of the king who is guided to Harun hastened thundering with death. and he said.* Malakuniyah." And he sent for a horse and they brought one such as he described. % The narrative hero passes from the third to the first person with the usual JU. See Weil's notice of these names." and he Then he said " the left the road and signed to his attendants who retired. of al breathings. In the year 192 ar Rashid marched towards Khurasdn. Now hath Heraclea perished in war success. " nay may the Lord bring thee back in He continued. and he used to enter into conversation with him on the §abah I do not think that thou wilt see road. and continued until : he attained his this. Malakuniyah is stated by Yakut to be near Iconium. and he * Read *ii* for o. In the year 189 he ransomed his people in captivity with the Romans. and Andrasua.

the decrees of which hath promulgated The most Merciful in the Sacred Temple. died at The town Eakkah A. till while stiU suffering. but the Lord caused it to come to him and made all the Caliphs succeeding him. of al A'bb&B. Ibn Khali. The poets poems on the covenant of allegiance. and set out for A. glanced at me and then mounted and it bid the me farewell. would work mischief to his people. he being at the time five years of age. God invested Harlin with this jurisdiction When He chose him. When he had thus partitioned the world among these three. He afterwards covenanted for his son A'bdu'llah after al Amin in the year 182 and surnamed him al Mamiin and bestowed on him the government of all the provinces of Khurasan. Ad Dahabi says that this was the first unsettlement that came upon the Muslim state as regards the Imamate. to be of his descendants. al Mdmtin. it was observed by one of the learned. The most just of ordinances in their completion. and continued there he died. Next he covenanted for the succession of his son al Kdsim after his two brothers. 192. H. Ar Eashid had the year 175 covenanted for the succession of his son Muhammad in it on account of his mother Zubaydah's great eagerness for and surnamed him al Amin." It has been stated by some authorities that ar Eashid withheld the Caliphate from his son al Mua'tasim on account of his being illiterate. Is a deed. 807. for Tus. Jurjan. among * AM He A'bdu'r Eahman A'bdu'l Malik-b-SaUlj-'b-A'li-b-A'bdi'lIah-'b-i'l A'bbSs- b-A'bdi'l Muttalib. He was donoe. was his place of rcsi193. and al Mutamin.— [ 298 ] A. and regarding this Ibrahim of Mosul and said and that the evil of it recited congratulatory " ' The best of affairs in their issue. and did not establish a Caliph from sons of ar Eashid. H. the most elegant speaker of all the surviving descendants of Manbij which he held as appanage. that he had thrown among them what would be their injury. and the schismatic who promoteth discord. Shortly after he left in month of Safar of the year 193. and he afterwards suspended copies of the covenant in the temple of Mecca. He verified our faith and our laws. save of his stock." And A'bdu'l Malik-b-Salih says :* " The love of the Caliph is a love to which submit themselves not The sinner against God. and made him governor of Mesopotamia and the frontiers while he was yet a child. . in the year 186 and surnamed him al Miitamin. And Harun through over the earth this benignity unto us. D. hath given jurisdiction Unto al Amin.

808-9." this Zubaydah stuffed his mouth with twenty thousand dinars. since thy father used to visit me. sajfing. For he is the Caliph through his sire and grandsire jewels which he sold for Who Upon bear testimony unto him by evidence of sight and report.000. al An?ari. " O prince of the Faithful — what affair is a slave girl to be believed whenever she an assertion u'l ? do not credit her observes — Mubarak on this makes for verily she is not to be trusted. or at this slave girl who of own accord shrunk from the prince of the Faithful." Ibn " I know not at whom I should most at this wonder in her this —whether man who steeped his hands in the blood of the Muslims and seized their goods. a legist.D.[ 299 ] Salm al Khasir says regarding the covenant in favour " Say to the dwellings on the vrhite sand-hills Watered by the morning rain-clouds. the son of Zubaydah.) Some particulars of the life of or BasMd. and died at Baghdad A. that he grew violently enamoured of her and sent to Abti Yusuf. for the nobly born. daughter of Jaa'far. " hast thou any remedy for this case ?" ! He replied. H. " I have bought a slave and wish to take her at once before the hast thou a device to offer ?" legal period of abstention be passed He — • Son of the Caliph al Mansdr. or at this juris- consult and judge of the earth who it said." But Silafi records in the Tuyytiriyat As rak. . H. one of the slave girls of al Mahdi made an impression on him and he sought her hand. he acted as !^adhi to al Mahdi. H. He was a native of of Abu a learned scholar and a Hafidh. the illustrious. A. but she said. He was the first who bore the title of Kadhi u'l Kudhat (or Chief Justice) and it is said that he was the first who changed the dress of the ulema (learned) and gave it the form which it retains to this day. al Hadi and Harun by the latter of whom he was treated with great honor and respect. men and spirits have sworn allegiance to the guide unto salvation Unto Muhammad. Kufah and one While at Baghdad. 182 (798) holding the Kadhiship till his death. The anecdotes told of him by Ibn Khali are numerous. Verily of al Amin — . 193. (£10. 'violate the honour of thy Silafi records father and gratify thy lust and put also upon my shoulders ?" As on the authority of A'bdu'Uah-b-Yusuf that ar Eashid said to Abli Tusuf. with ascription to Ibn u'l Mubawhen ar Rashid succeeded to the Caliphate. A. when he built The House of Vicegerency. " I am not lawful unto thee. He was bom 113 A.* Verily God prospered the Caliphate.t and asked o£ him. t The Kadhi Ahli Yusuf Yakub Hanifah's disciples.

— [ 300 ] A. dost thou not see (I ransom thee) that separation from a friend is a momentous thing ?" it "Whereupon he sent for an inkhorn and wrote beneath with his own band " Yes and the camels marked for sacrifice. t The Caliph's emendation does not touch the scansion which is the sam« with cither word.D. And when the period Ar Rashid two ears. make war therefore and perform the pilgrimage and give of which he carried out. 193. in order to ravage the outlying provinces and returned in Shaa'bdn and performed with the people at the close of the year. The metre is Rajaz." * This legal period of abstention not being required in cases of marriage. As Siili records with ascription to Ya'kub-b-Jaa'far. " this authority will come to thee during month . that ar Eashid set out in the year in which he assumed the Caliphate." Abii Yusuf retorted " verily the doors were locked when he sent for me."* And A. " the Treasurer is at his it immediately . " that the understanding of ar Rashid was as the understanding of the learned. and he was much attached to her. from Ishak-h-Eahwayh that ar Eashid sent for Abd Yusuf who gave him his judgment on the case reguired. replied." but one of his suite exclaimed house and the doors of the Treaswry are locked. ." They were therefore opened and the money given. An Nu'mdni versified to him in describ- As if his two ears when he raises his head Were the first feather of a wing or an obliquely-nibbed pen." said " omit lyli' (as if) and say " thou wouldest think his So that the verse may run smoothly. he will order it to be exclaimed if one night. And from Said-b-Muslim ing a horse. it was a line of a verse written upon the wall.f And from A'bdu'llah-b-u'l A'bbas-b-i'l Fadhl-b-i'r Rabii' that ar Rashid swore that he would not approach a female slave of his for a certain number of days. at a hurried pace. that the first verse composed by ar Rashid was when he made the pilgrimage in the year of his accession to the Caliphate he entered a house and lo at the . O prince of the Faithful. " bring given at once before morning. and distributed the pilgrimage great sums among the Sacred Cities." .808-9. the prince of the Faithful sees good. H." Ar Rashid said to Ms attendants. Ar Rashid then ordered " Abd Yusuf one hundred thousand dirhams (£2. ! head of a chamber in " Now. and what moves In Mecca wearied. largely to the people of the Sacred Cities:" all And from Mu'awiyah-b-Salih on the authority of his father. " Yes— give her to one of thy sons and then marry her. He had previously seen the prophet Eoman in a this dream who had said to him.500) to be given to him.

not one word of which he spoke ?" Ar Eashld answeved. ." the one I have become his slave the other hath appeared and become manifest what I seized a Zindik. before Abii Ishak al Fazari. Zindik " why dost thou strike ofE my head ?" He replied " I shall from thee. He was my slave is Verily this and hath now become my master among the wonders of the age. and shared with them what we possess. me notwithstanding that we have taken their blood-revenge. 808-9. or the attractions of those whom Eastern custom rigidly excludes from the gaze of men. It is loved indicated is a female. ' I hear that the people by Allah I love no one with the love I bear to him. had elapsed. whereupon he -A-." He replied "and where art thou against the thousand traditions which I have falsely ascribed to the Apostle of God. and verily my father al Mahdi related to me on the authority of Ibn Abbas that he heard the prophet say regarding al Hasan and al Husayn whoso children of loins. and A'bdu'llah-b-u'l Mubarak who can sift and eject them letter by letter ?" As Siili records on the authority of Ishak al Ha^himi that he said. and in attempting to excite discord in our kingdom. (Kur. and the said. — loveth those two. t This is the name given in the Kurau to the father of the Blessed Virgin. verily he hateth me . so that they are more favourably inclined to the Umayyah than towards us.D." Then he In sent for Abd'l A'tahiyah and said " Cap these lines" who said.' mark of an address to one of from a jealousy of making public the circumstances of life. " The potency of love hath disclosed to him my humiliation my love for him. but these people are the most violent in bating and reviling us. and whoso hateth those two. and he hath a comely face And through And through feel. verily loveth me. A. free the people " we were with ar Rashid when he exclaimed. Ibn A'sakir records on the authority of Ibn U'layyah that ar Rashid and gave orders that his head should be struck off. According to De Slane this is still carried so far in Cairo that pubHo singers dare not amuse their auditors with a song in which the be* This mode of appealing to a mistress under is the other sex common in oriental poetry. whereas. H. suspect of hatred towards A'li-b-Abi Talib." : [ 301 ] to her. save Miriam the daughter of I'mranf and Asyah daughter of Muzahim. enemy of God. " *He shunned me when he saw me infatuated And prolonged his patience. But as to the descendants of his they are indeed the chiefs of the people and the first in merit. —and he likewise heard him say — Fatimah tlie is the chief of the women of the universe. " and where art thou. she did not seek to make him reconciled said. 193. when he discovered it.

" And Harun wept bitterly." Eashid wept until those who were around him had com- passion on him." He replied. XX. Ibrahim of Mosul said. at how much would'st thou purchase its emission ?" He replied kingdom. and when he took hold Sammak said " gently O prince of the Faithful if thou ! — Sammak den " with said. Ibn u'l Jauzi relates that ar Eashid said to Shayban." And when he had drunk. " explain this to me." He continued " verily a kingdom whose price is a draught of water and its emission. frequently occupy him to that end. that when first Eashid assumed the Caliphate. of . 39). And what most pilgrimage. and installed Yahya-b-Khalld as minister. 193. are war and The eyes of the people are blinded by the light of his face When his shining countenance appeareth before men. Ibn u's ! Ibn u's Samtnak went in unto ar Eashid who called and a goglet was brought to him." He a thou art answerable for thy people. " I ask of thee." The other said " drink. light hath shone over every city. H. for water of it. But when Hardn came. ar " Didst thou not see that the sun was wan. 808-9. made him a fifty present of one hundred thousand difhams and Yahya gave him thousand. A. Sale. Ar Eashid said. " give me an the whole my admonition. D. Harun the And in the justice of his disposition the ways of rectitude are through him established. life Asyah was the wife of Pharaoh who saved the Moses from the anger of her husband. at how much would'st thou purchase it ?" He answered " with the half of my kingdom. is not worth contending for. It is related that to drink.[ 302 ] A. its rays shone forth. Ill.' is better counsellor unto thee than one cal who saith house —yoursins are forgiven ye— for ye are the kinsfolk And ar Suli's —ye people of the prophetiof your pro- phet. Ibn u's wert forbidden this draught. In as work of the Aurak it is stated with its authorities. 257). The following " Through is by DauM-b-Eazin of Wasit on Hardn. p. of if its emission from thy body were forbid- thee. The world has become clothed with beauty through For Harun is its monarch and Tahya its minister. The Imam whose works are directed to the service of God. (Kur. is better than that thou shouldst consort with one until fear replied. " who ' will inspire thee with a feeling of security cometh upon thee. " that terrify thee until security thou shouldst consort with one who will cometh upon thee." he who saith to thee. may the Lord make it wholesome to thee. p." Whereupon ar Eashid his sovereignty. see Sale's notes.

. Abd Tahir Isma'il-b- Makki-b-Isma'il-b-Isa-b-A'uf az Zuhri was a. his style is turgid. H. and the specimens of his correspondence given by Ibn Khali. journey ever undertaken by a monarch in search of knowledge.— [ — ] 303 A. notwithstanding his professions of love towards A'li and his affected kindness to his descendants. Afterwards the Sultan Salahu'ddin-b-Aydb travelled to Alexandria and studied the Muwatta under Ibn Tahir J-b-A'uf I do not know of a third that can he added to these two. 808-9. al A'skalani. by which he intended to show that he did not recognize their claim to the Imamate. Mansur died 12." " I know of no al Fadhil* observes in one of his Epistles. § Mansur-b-u'l Zibrikan-b-Salmah called an Namari because descended from Namar-b-Kasit. This poet adroitly copied Marwan-b-Abi Hafsah in joining to his eulogies of the Caliph the disparagement of the family of A'li. 696. known as the Kadhi al Fadtiil was the son of the KMhi al Aahraf (the most nohle) and grandson of the Kadhias Sa'id (fortunate). H. at Eas u'l A'yn in the reiga of Hariin ." said that ar Eashid rewarded him for this with a hundred thou- sand dirhams. 681 (U86). has not these faults. 529 and was Vizir to al Malik an Nasir Salah-u'ddm hy whom he was treated with great favour. H. He was pre-eminent as a writer of epistles and surpassed every predecessor. show the conventional mannerism and the hackneyed tropes of all Oriental He died at Cairo A. who journeyed with : his two sons al study the Muwattaf under Malik the original of the Amin and al Mamdn Muwatta heard by to ar Eashid was in the library of the Egyptians. God hath It is caused thee to dwell in them where they meet. al Lakhmi. t The famous work on tradition by MaUk-b-Anas. the Sultan Salah-u'ddm studied the Muwatta under him. A practice pleasing to the Caliph. save that The Kddhi by ar Eashid. * AhA A'li Atdu'r Eahim (the excellent Kddhi) and Ibn J The printed edition has incorrectly the name A'li for the preposition a'la (tj^) (wO for abi (i^') The MS. letter writers. He was a native of Mesopotamia and brought by al Fadhl-b-Yahya to the notice of ar Eashid. D. (1200). H. He died A." And from a poem of his is this verse " Noble qualities and beneficence are valleys. which ia part of the basis on which the Malikite system of jurisprudence is founded. doctor of the school of Malik and a Mufti of the highest consideration. Tom. He was horn at Asoalon in A. The Hafidh as Silafi attended his lectures and as the text rightly says. 193. Such is the judgment of Ibn Khali confirmed hy the opinion of his contemporaries but to a European taste. hopeth. For he giveth unto him who hopeth from him beyond what he A. Hopes grow ample through the munificence of his hand. consult Kitab u'l Aghani." — The following is by Man§ur an Namari§ on ar Eashid " He made the Kuran his Imam and his guide When the Kuran chose him as a defence.

The Arabic scholar needs no roforenco to the life of one of the best known figures of his time. is A. ' A woman For that I see that enjoyed thrift. but what freed me first From Caliph fearing thee was thy fear of God.' ? if it While the judgment " Ar Eashid exclaimed give —" no indeed —how To ! please God. give him another it is its ascription to Ishak of Mosul. " I went in unto ar Eashid and recited to him. first Caliph of the sons of A'bbds that played at chess." hundred thousand. him one hundred thousand dirhams. 193. — Is when he hath acquired a to others." al Muhammad-b-A'li Khurasani says that ar Eashid was the al who played with hockey stick and ball and shot arrows at a target. by the reader who may be unacquainted with Arabic. little. thing. stated that Abd'l A'tahiyah said to Abu Nawas* I would that I had been before hand with thee in the verse in which thou didst praise ar Eashid. thy words are better than my verse. O Fadhl." In the Tuyyuriyat with He replied." Ishak of Mosul says. that he be in the habit of giving My gift is as the gift of the abundant in generosity. the most pleasing to me of what has been said in my praise. H. And the best of circumstances for a youth if thou knowest it. (Helen) as * quotes the following The ready wit and brilliant powers of extempore versification of ar Eashid'a famous poet may be souglit for in D'Horbelot's meagre sketch of his life. . And how should as thou verily knowest. —"among The " father of al Amin. practise And my spirit is too generous that it should be called avaricious.— [ 304 ] Al Husaya-b-rahra narrates that ar Eashid used to say A. And verily have seen that avarice bringeth contempt on those that it. al Mamun and al Mutamin ! How generous is he as an affectionate father and how generous those whom he hath begotten. men I are friends of the munificent and I see not A miser in the universe that hath a friend. I said to her. " prince of the Faithful. and the singers. And I have not. Grod be is attributed the flow their point and of the verses he hath brought us How O admirable " how beautiful their arrangement !" I said. Stay thee a thing to which there is is no way. O Fadhl.D. and classes for as Siili states that he was the of ar Siili first who appointed degrees and : Of the verses Eashid in lament over his female slave Haylanah. " Verily I used to fear thee.803-9. I fear poverty and be deprived of wealth of the prince of the Faithful is so excellent.

According to others Jumada I. I parted from my world. t The MS. mistress of the mansion in Firk. 193* (23rd March 809) at the age of forty-five. and he wept. and furniture and jewels and bullion and beasts of kinds.D. to the value of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dinars. and said " dig me for him."• ^^°' A. authors. doctors. She was my world and when she sank Into her grave. Verily people have multiplied. spare to slay me For I am neither Daylam nor Turk. but he said. ding to Wdkidi. " O son of man. The duration of his Caliphate is also a. Sunday night in the beginning of Jumada II." But he died the same day. as that of his birth. and tion. and he said. lost her ^. Another author states that Gabriel the son of Bakhtishuu' erredf in his medical treatment of ar Rashid which was the cause of his death. And mistress of the Sultan and his For God's sake. according to Hisham. As Siili says that ar Rashid left one hundred million dinars." is And quoted by as Sdli this verse by him kingdom " O. By As Allah." died at Tds in Khurasan while leading a military expediand was buried there on the 3rd Jumada II." and one was dug upon a camel. Ar Eashid ar Rashid purposed to have till him quartered. and he was borne in a covered litter a grave . matter of dispute Weil follows Wakidi whose narrative — accords with that of" as Suyliti. and it was driven along until he beheld the grave. traditionists is and splendid and poets Accor- that attended the date of his death." And he gave orders to a party who set him down. " give me time to-morrow and thou wilt enter upon the morning in health.— { " I endured afflictions 305 ] and sorrow to itself. I shall not forget thee long as the wind shaketh the boughs on the uplands. he died on Friday night. When And death took HayMnah happiness it I parted from care not my now what : when I may be. and his son Salih read prayers over him. but I Behold no creature after her. 39 . has JaJi (was rough or harsh) instead of kle text. 3rd Jumada II. and they read over him the entire Kuran while he was in the litter on the * It is as "Weil remarks. a strange fact that notwithstanding the full court kept by ar Eashid and the learned it. thou art about to come to this. It is said that ar Rashid dreamed that he was leading the prayers as Imam at Tiis. (erred) of the printed . uncertain. 808-9.

two moons. t " Paradise" the name of the palace at Baghdad. has the following partly in condolence and partly in " The stars revolve in fortunate and sinister aspects. 193. he being at that time he died allegiance was sworn in the army to When the news reached him. sceptre and signet ring giance to him. And That for it my eye weepeth We have set never before seen a sun where it riseth. and rode post from Marw till he reached Baghdad in twelve days in the middle of the month of Jumada The following " A sun hath is II. handsome. Al Amin Muhammad. The rising al Amfn makes us smile And In al the death yesterday of the are They Imam makes us weep. as Suli mentions one related by him on the authority of Anas that the Apostle of God said. Abd A'bdu'llah. 196. built by al Man^ur.t and a moon at Tus hath sunk in the grave. H. for they are the pathfire. " fear hellthough it be but for the value of a split date. he prayed before the people on the Friday and preached a discourse and announced the death of ar Eashid unto the people. And we too are in grief and joy. H. in Baghdad. He was one of the finest of youths in appearance — fair. D." And from A'li-b-Ab£ Talib that the prophet said. al When Amin. Yakut. He died A. " purify your mouths. tall." AL AMrN. and wrote elegies on the death of ar Eashid. One hath appeared at Baghdad Khuld. ways of the Kurdn." Abd Nuwas congratulation. son of ar Eashid was the heir of his father and assumed the Caliphate after him. 809. The heart weeps while the eye smiles For we are in gloom and in gladness.— [ 306 ] A. set in the East . edge of the grave. strength and vigour and of renowned bravery. A. al Amin and that GaUph's eon and successor. and deposited them with by Abii'sh Shis* lamenting ar Eashid al Amin. Ibn KhaU. possessed of great It is said that he once • Muhammad-'b-A'bdu'llah-b-Eazin al KhuzSa'i surnamed Abu'sli Shfs. He composed poema in honour of aa Kashid." Of the traditions recited by ar Eashid. and they swore alleEaja the eunuch took the mantle. .

§ So Weil translates this word j^. gality. and did homage to him as Caliph in secret. he ordered the construction of a level piece of ground near the palace of al Mansur for playing at ball. there occurred an estrangement between It is him and his brother al Mamiin. The messenger|| (of al Amin) joined the party of al Mamiin. Caliph. and allowed him to speak harshly of that prince of which al Mamuu Was informed by the messenger himself on his return. giveth thee no good counsel. he who lieth to thee. apathetic and unfit As soon as he was acknowledged for government. But al Mamiin rejected it and refused him. but defective in judgment.A. J instigated al Amin and urged him to set him aside and give the succession to his son Miisa. as in Masaudi and Ibn u'l Athir. ** For . A. polished in speech. The MS. write the name as I to al — have given it.[ 307 ] killed a H6n* with his own hands. They therefore brought it to him and he tore it in pieces and the estrangement letween the brothers was thus increased. on the following day. His counsellors urged their advice on him and Khuzaymah-b-Khazim^ said. doth not betray thee. has also ^^y^^ but without the Tashdid. and he who speaketh the truth to thee. And when he returned and informed al Amin of the refusal of al Mamiin. " O prince of the Faithful. t That is Mesopotamia. read. Hazim-b-Khuzaymah. In the year 194 he removedf his brother al :5asim from the government to which ar Eashid had appointed him. H. J He was the prime minister of al Amin and altogether wedded to his interest. His name was A'bbas-b-Miisa. said that Fadhl-b-Kabii'. Shortly after al Amin sent to him desiring him to yield Mlisa precedence in the succession to the Oaliphate before himself and stated that he had named him NAtik-b-i'l Hakk (proclaimer of the truth). He had also suffered the maltreatment of one of al M&mtin's messengers in his presence by one of his suite. "Weil. he would have no mercy on him. of great prodi.s' of the printed text. one of four delegates despatched by the Oaliph Mamiin. Ibn u'l Athir Ibn Khaldun and Weil who follows them. When the disgrace of his brother al Kaaim reached al Mamiin. 193. well-educated and accomplished. Afterwards he used to keep him informed of news and sent him advices from I'rak. he cut off all communication with al Amin and omitted his name from the uniforms§ and the coinage. have Masa-ddi. Ibn u'l Athir. he struck out his name from the succession and sent for the deed which ar Rashid had written and deposited in the Kaa'bah. and weak in mind. /g. D. but this is an error^ IT The printed text and MS. hut allowed him to retain the governorship of Kinnasrin and command of the fortresses of the marches. has "khutbah" (*i^'»') Ibn u'l Athir has I j^ with the printed text. .^ar'. He was eloquent. The MS. * Do not encourage** the officers to call The narrative of the feat is given by Ma§a'udi. being aware that when the Caliphate came to al Mamdn. 809.

the like of which had not been seen. for deposal." Some toMasaMi was a blind poet of BagMad called A'li-lD-Al)i Tffib. and he said to him who brought the reporb. The profligacy of the prince and the folly of his For Fadhl is the vizier and Bakr the councillor. Al Mamlin despatched against him Tahir-b-u'1-Husayn at He was victorious and A'li was the head of less than four thousand men.." But be would not listen to advice. A. for Kauslain sent through ! thar (his eunuch) hath taken two * This. and I have not taken anything as yet. was given to Aliby ddn by Zubaydah. and do not incite them to violate a compact. Al Amin appointed A'li-b-I'sa-b-Mahan to the mountainous districts of Hamaddn. X Masaddi haSjU j pLxj J/| ti'lil* j He also gives a closing line which ia not in the text. and set about conciliating the officers with presents. and he took with him a silver chain." set aside.§ in order as he thought to bind him with it. for verily he who deceives shall be deceived. And is never out of the lap of its nurse. according of the fish. to engage al Mamun. H. t So this line rirns in Masa'udi jy« aUa> JirH m) y # 4iJ| ^-«» ^^-«^ ir»Ji-' ly'" The one in the text is j. Weil. 810. Hnes I have omitted for reasons obvious to tbose who can read tbe original. And J what is this. His head was taken to al Mdmun and Khurasan and al Mamiin was saluted as Caliph. jjjfia:-'| ji. but that Fadhl and Bakr Seek to deface the Illustrious Book. and surnamed him Natik-b-i'l Hakk. Kumm and Ispahan forth from Baghdad in the middle in the of year 195. for they will violate their covenant of allegiance to thee.<oj 1^a3 hills jiy jl^s'^li jywi ^^^ j al But it hath summits like to upon which worthless things are flung up. and had the covenant of succession taken for his son Mdsa who was at that time a child in arms. D. Nahawand. this. § This. And were it not for the vicissitudes of Fortune. at the head of an army forty thousand strong. 194. counsellor Seeking that in which lieth the perdition of the prince. and he who perjures himself shall be betrayed.llojS. " Confound thee Leave me. but it is untranslatable. The news reached al Amin while he was engaged in fishing. When the title al Mdmun was assured of his having been he assumed of the prince of the Faithful and was thus addressed.* One of the poets has said regarding " The Caliphate is ruined by the treachery of the vizier.'^ probably the correct one. according Ibn Khal- . these two Would never be among princes and leaders. for they will some dm/ depose thee. [ 308 ] A. Amin. and his army routed. according to Tabari. A'li-b-I'sa then set Jumada II. And stranger than either one or the other Is that we should swear allegiance to a Onet that is unable to blow its nose little child.

471. in Baghdad raised a great tumult and al A. t Ten more lines of this poem may he found in Mas' audi.Jsj|jA." The siege of Baghdad continued for fifteen months. H. The circumstances of al Amin at length became desperate. and the contest continued between him and his brother. And among the pieces recited regarding it. deMeynard's translation. Lane does not give it. from his during the absence of al He was proclaimed Caliph at Baghdad Mamdn in Khurasan. mentions Jirm as a place near Badakhshan. 195. but the rabble and the vagabonds J of Baghdad.§ and troops and servants dispersed. nor several trihes so called. His flight and adventures have been He died at Sarr-man-raa A. See M. despatched their troops to demand pay of al Amin. The nobles too. sought to obtain what they could of him. " Ibrahim-b-u'l Mahdi|| told became scarce among them. that when A'li was slain. have ^mJi^.. J Kazimirski gives two plurals to this word viz. H. however. is the following " If wept tears of blood over Baghdad I lost the delights of a happy life when The eye of the envious fell its upon it And destroyed people by the engines of war.. and food and water narrates. 224 IbnKhaU. his brother. D. Taut I think this is an error.— [ . Muhammad-b-Eashid he was with al me that Amin Omar in the city of al Mansur. The old city called also the city of Ahti Jaa'far. (839). given by Tabari and others and are well known. . Brother to Hardn ar Eashid. jjfe. and so contiaued for nearly two years. by reason of which the condition of the people fell into a grievous state. The affairs of al AmIn daily grew worse through his abandonment to frivolity and follies. II Tom VI. is there such a town in YakAt who. and «X*^ . companion at large frame. Ibn Khal Jarmi (so De Slane writes the name) says that there are The Muntaha'l Arab gives the name Jarm. The * In the text this life name in his of Ahti al text and § MS. the discipline of the army was destroyed. 198. " he sent for me is marked Jurmi. p. and this lasted till the beginning of the year Then Tahir-b-u'l Husayn entered Baghdad at the point of the sword. and al al Amin fled -with his all his mother and family from the palace to the city of Manslir. parties of pleasure. and added. and A'bdu'llat-b-Sdlih al Jarmi* says. devastation and ruin waxed great and increased through the continuance of hostilities and the play of the engines of war and the liquid naphtha.min repented of having set aside A. hut not Jurm. while those of al Mamiin improved till the inhabitants of the Sacred Cities and the greater part of I'rak swore aUegianee to him. Meanwhile violence. — 309 ] the people A. He had great talent as a singer and was an agreeable He was surnamed at Tinnin or the dragon. till the splendours of Baghdad were obliterated and dirges were sung over it. and his treasures dissipated. Masa'lidi. 811. and the greater number of the Abbasides and ministers of State joined the forces of al Mamuri and none remained with al Amin to defend him.

De Slan§. He was Burnamed an Nabighah because was one of tbe he did not give any proofs of poetical talent Khali.* sayest thou to a bout of wine what I replied girl we drank together and he sent for a slave By my life. Kulayb had more allies. Save to take a king from his kingdom.813-14i. till after his 30th year.' Their departure hath made mine eye to weep and hath rendered sleepless. Ibn + So I venture to translate U!^j.' He exclaimed — ' Begone — Allah curse thee !' and she ' arose alas.j. and Ibrd- stumbled over a crystal goblet of price and broke it.v. The adversity of fortune continued to attack them Until they destroyed one another. the splendour of the moon and ?' radiance on the water? do as thou wilt. NAbighai most celebrated of the poets contemporary with Muhammad. He died during the reign of Abdu'Uah-b-uz Zubayr. for the adversity of fortune inimical.' Then she sang again But. 198. of the night.. ed her to sing and she sang a verse of an Nabighah al Jaa'di's. It deoayeth not neither shared. Verily death hath many snares.j| man having many dependents. one night. by the Lord of repose and movement.D. He said.«j( The phrase <-*JiJt aIj^ (-Lift* means Masa'Adi Okayl has numerous horsemen. H. it For separation is a cause of weeping unto friends. But the kingdom of the Lord is it is everlasting. is And to-day I weep for them greatly and lament them Until I return so incessantly that no tears are left in my eyes. Had more numerous foUowersf than thou. and I went to him and he ' dost thou not observe the "beauty its ' A. Days and nights do not recur nor Do the stars revolve in the sky and the firmament. ] A. Verily his authority passeth to another monarch.— — [ 310 said. He was born before the promulgation of Islamism and fought on A'li's side at Siffin.' The Caliph So she sang ' felt this as in ill augury and said ' sing something else. and Ibn u'l Athir the same.' Then whose name was Dhaa'f He command(weakness) and I was struct with the ill-omen of her name.' He ' exclamed ' — may Allah curse thee ' ! knowest thou nothing but that ? She replied I thought that thou didst like this. . * Ha8san-b-|f ays a al Jaa'di member of the trite of Jaa'd-Tj-Kaa'b known as an. ' and yet was stained with blood. ljAJA'O a has l/«jA.

a gate of resplendent And convey for me a message to The Say prince. son of the prince of right guidance. He was taken and imprisoned in a house and a ' — party of Persians were let in upon him. This the head of the deposed Muhammad. ation of his brother weighed sorely on al preferred that he should have been sent to consider his intention regarding him. is the following by Ibrahim al Mahdi. for he had written a letter with his own hand to Tahir-b-u'l Husayn when he was summoned to war against him in which him with total oblivion till he died in distant exile. but his reward from us we came was the sword look to thyself or meddle not — consider Abd Muslim and such as al —therefore he. " Turn to the mansion on the hills. the mantle. lected The assassinal Mdmdn. H.' and was proclaimed by his body was dragged by a rope. saying—' the at case is judged regarding which ye two called for a judicial decision' which Muhammad al Amin sprung up in great trouble. who ' placed is it upon a wall of a garden. [ 311 ] tim !—dost thou not see ? by Allah. he was slain. concerningt the ruled gold. And the polished marble with which it was faced And its gate. t Ibn u'l Athir has ts^* for lif* of the another verb in the next X The text makes tliis and line passive without any . formed of stone and tile. I cannot but think that my time is A. Cleanse the cities of God from the 'presence of Tahir It was not enough for him that he should cut J the jugular veins of to him ' O al Amin « His splendid Ibanislunent to the almost iBdependent government of Khuristo master from whose may weU have consoled him for the loss of the society of a capricious D'Herhelot says that al MAmtin could not safe. the sceptre and the praying carpet which was of palm branches lined.* al words of he said since ' O Tahir. who spent themselves in serving the A'hlasides and their end was death at their hands. and it the crier. taidy remorse he did not feel himself the founder of the dynasty that hears look upon Tahir without weeping. drawing near !' I replied nay— may Allah prolong thy life and render A.D. to power. effaced by the blowing winds At Khuld. He became his name. and they struck him with their swords." Tahir then sent the head. and him who rules. A night or two after this. no assertor of our rights hath ever arisen in our behalf. text. Mamiin for he would have him alive in order that he might to He therefore hated Tahir and neg- verified the Thus were Amin. 198. and cut him through the nape of his neck and went with his head to Tahir..' Then I heard a voice from the Tigris." Kegarding the murder of Amin.813-14v glorious thy kingdom.

but being altogether diflforont. A. He For Tahir was impure in the purpose for which he came. and admitted them to and abandoned the society of his wives and slave girls. J These were two § of his minions.— : [ 312 ] A H 198.. . to stand simply as transitive verbs which from Ibn u'l Athir. 813-14. my kinship my thou who art revered and remembered. and at another to pillage ?" should we mourn There is a poem by Khuzaymah-b-u'l Hasan supposed to be recited by Zubaydah. What 1 have suffered will afiiict Harun. in which he says § : " Tahir came. Another author observes that on his accession he sent into the districts in quest of buffoons. ^^^ ^® must* drag his limbs With a rope. for thee ? for what thou hast exposed us to one time to the engines of war. and allowed them stipends and procured a number of occasion. turned me forth with uncqvered head and unveiled. meaning thereby to act as a merciless avengerf Verily death hath settled on his eyelids " And his eye hath a troubled glance. Eemember. O prince I ransom thee with of the faithful life. The sense is made clearer it is by allowing them evident they are. the last lino especially is omitted in the MS. O Musa and thy continual frivolity ? And for thy neglect of the five devotions at their appointed times Through. may the Lord not purify Tahir from sin. • i^>jsri Ji\ ^J^ iijn u'l Athir. the government. Asd among " the verses that were composed is also Why Abii should I lament thee ? why ? for thy mirth.' . thy passion for wine ? For Shanif J I shall not mourn Nor care I for the retribution that hath Thou wert incapable of rule nor befallen Kauthar. I'i^e the slaughter of sacrificial ofEerings.D. And what hath befallen me from the basest and most mankind. Was obedience Why At rendered unto thee in the Arabian kingdom. corrupt of. There are several additional Maja'udi and some variants from those in the text. This poem stated to be written Hues in it wiU be found in Ma?a'udi where it is by Zubaydah herself to al Mdmun. And plundered my goods and destroyed my dweUings. he pur- Ibn Jarir says that when his intimacy al Amin assumed chased eunuchs and gave excessive prices for them. with cutting blades.

And on account of me. Union with him is sweet. A lion with outstretched limbs ready to spring terrible teeth. said to so he him " Cap these two.813-14. a serpent and a horse. " The Lord hath subjected unto al Amin Animals for his riding which have never been subjected to Solomon. and animals of prey and birds. and kept apart from his family A. an eagle." summoned A'bdu'llah-bUpon which he is no equal to him whom I The whole world is dazed in him. 'he knoweth not the * distress of aversion." is envied by his For c*aJ read 40 . regarding Abd Nuwas said. Parting is bitter see in and hateful. but love.' And restraint.' I visited thee " often that thou saidst. He goeth upon the water mounted on a lion* of the forest. 198. and treated them with contempt. In the same manner as the monarch that reigns brother. he hath no self- He which also built five barques in the shape of a lion.D. and his nobles. May my on heart's sake fire. are envious of him. He wasted what was in A. H. For whenever his riding camels go by land. his face and said " They have struck the apple of my Allah punish for set it eye.— — — [ 313 1 wild beasts." Those who have But he was unable to add u't Taymi the poet and exclaimed " There to these lines. have they struck him. and spent great sums on their construction. Those who him his Superiority over them. an elephant. and on one occasion he gave a boat full of gold as a present to one who sang to him the following verse " I kept retired from thee till thou so saidst." With wide jaws and As Sdli relates on the authority of Muhammad-b-A'mr ar Rumi. the public treasuries and squandered jewels and objects of price in profusion and built numerous palaces in various places for purposes of amusement. that Kauthar the eunuch of al Amin went forth to watch the fighting and a Al Amin set about wiping the blood from missile struck him in the face.

at Taymi went to al Mamlin and vaunted his praises. But when Amin was slain. " O uncle. save A'li-b-Abi Talib. But the splendour of the light of Muhammad waneth not And if the pebbles of the sons of al Mansiir be counted is like Then Muhammad among them Ahmad.D. but al al he would not allow him an audience. can I put him to death after his saying I offer praise unto Muhammad is al Amin. al Upon which al Amin gave him three mule-loads of dirhams." that the Lord wiU be verily I trust Amin for his repudiation of Isma'il-b-U'layyah. brought unto him. Though of praise there is that \» false and lieth. See hor life in Ibn Khali. and the Caliph said that sayest that the Kuran is created !" Al Masa'lidi says. Praise speaketh truly of Muhammad much Amin. and al Amin whose mother was Zubaydah daughter of Jaa'far-b-Abi Jaa'far al Mangdr her name was Amat u'l Aziz (hand: maid * of the Almighty) and Zubaydahf was a surname given to her.* " A'bdu'llah al Mamun was succoured When they oppressed him. H. al And beside it there no commodity so desired. " Come. said that Nuwas had satirized Sulayman-b-Mansur complained to al Amin that Aba him and he replied. O when he Taymi. And Do . whereupon he betook himself to Fadhl-b-Sahl who introduced him into Mamdn's presence." ia To the reader -who not acquainted -with the Arabic mention that to al this is continued in the it may he as well to same metre and rhymes with the preceding lines Amin. 198.b-Hanbal observes " merciful unto al a picked sapphire. Verily the bright moon waneth after it hath reached its fulness. some more of—" In the same manner as the monarch that reigns Is envied by his brother.813-14. the Caliph said. " no one up to —son who was it is of an adulteress — thou my time hath ruled the Caliphate being a Hashimite and the son of a Hashimite woman. A. + Zubaydah is diminutive of " Zubdah" cream or fresh butter." Upon It is this he pardoned him and ordered ten thousand dirhams to be given to him. His brother did not deal with him As his father had directed. Slane's note.— : [ 314 ] A. and had made his salutation. The covenant was violated Which they had formerly made with him. At Taymi said. his son al Hasan.

but enslaved by sensuality aad frivolity." Of people who died during his reign were : Ismail-b-U'layyah. disciple of Malik.th or 25th) al Mamin. Shakik al Balkhi the ascetic. 198. t The name of his mother who was a slave concubine. and he was prayed for as al Amin in the pulpits. nor so addressed in epistolary correspondence until al Amin reigned.— 315 [ ] tsbak of Mosul states that there were q[ualities in al Amin to be A. A'li-b-Muhammad an Naufali and others say that neither as Saffah Mansiir nor al Mahdi nor al Hadi nor ar Bashid were prayed for in the pulpits by their surnames. And if thou exaltest thyself over men through their merit. his him on account of Mamiin was in the habit " the base descent of his mother. " From the servant of God Muhammad al Amin prince of the Faithful. for thou art not pre-eminent. are the following quoted by as Stili Be not vain-glorious for thyself in the absence of the choicest of thy race. Thou Thou wilt find the reverse of thy wishes with Marajil. For that which thou * The text has erroneously " Muwarrakh. Abti Mu'awiyah ad Dharir (the blind) Muwarrij* as Saddsi. and correspondence was conducted in his name thns.. Ghundur.! ascendest the pulpit each day. and I have never met among the sons of a monarch any quicker of Abul Hasan for apprehension than he and 24. See his life in Ibn Khali. and al Amin would adduce it me. and notwithstanding his extra- — ." but the MS. found united in no other he was one of the handsomest of men in A. viz. that the first who was prayed for by his surname in the pulpits was al Amin.D. 813) he being twenty-seven years of age. Thy grandsire hath bestowed upon thee what thou didst yet forsooth desire. vagance in money. was a grammarian of Basrah. face and one of the most generous the noblest of the Caliphs by his father's and mother's side. A'bdu'llah-b-Wahb. Abu Nuwas the poet. (24ith or 25th September. versed in the art of poetry. Muwarrij ." and to the same effect al A'skari observes in his Awail. a point of al Ahmar says. H. Then pause. ia correct. Warsh the Kuran reader. For vaunting is justified alone in a perfect man. hoping shalt not obtain after me. " I used often to forget a verse by which grammar might be illustrated. Wakii' and others. nor al Among reviling al the verses of al Amin addressed to his brother al Mamun.Sla-l*. on hearing that of recounting his vices and asserting own superiority over him. a niggard in his table. skilled in letters. His assassination occurred on (the Muharram of note of the year 198. A'bdu'llah-b-Kathir the Kuran reader.

He had some amusing He died A. H. it better than the poetry of his brother and his father. of what he feareth ! kingdom. . that the following lines on his eunuch Kauthar who was serving wine to while he was reclining on a couch of narcissus flowers. Faithful. at He waa bom Ba?rah in 162 A. things ! * Generally known by the appellation of al Khalii' (the libertine). to Tahir-b-u'l Husayn — Amin said to his scribe. As Suli says. in thankfulness Unto the one and the other while they resemble thee. " al Khalii'. A lover on account of his beloved. prince of the Greeting to thee And now. is in peril. p. by any other save Ibrdhim of Mosul. Agh&ni. 198." By him also are these lines on his eunuch Kauthar " What seek the people of a lover Afflicted for one he loves ? Kauthar is my faith and my worldly fortune." records with its ascription that al as follows: From the servant of God. An account of him will be found in the Kitdb u'l 170—but the verses in the text ai'e not oitod therein. and the just risen are ascribed to him. I will abide while I live. and was admitted to the society of the Caliphs and enjoyed their favour to an extent almost unequalled adventures with Abu Nuwds. Fol." I remark that this verse is is in merit of approved merit. H. hundredth year. Whenever the tender I think it narcissus breathes. Muhammad.. O ? And hopeth. He who As "Write Siili sippeth the sweets of life Shall one day be choked by affliction. 6. And thou reproachest one who is above thee And repeatest vain words regarding me. Both my sickness and my physician The most despicable of men is he who reproveth . H. verily. 250 (864) having nearly attained his Ibn Khali. and if it is really his." his The following was composed by him when he despaired of and Tahir obtained the mastery over him. A.813-14i. a boon companion of his them to al who was never him moon had Husayn b-u'd separate from The full moon hath so pourtrayed thy beauty of thy face that I deemed I saw thee and yet saw thee not. He was a writer and a poet. An illusion of my desires hath occupied me with thee In the splendour of the one and the fragance of the other. " soul now must thou beware For where is there a refuge from Fate Every man. the sweet breath of thy brightness.D. descended from a native of Khurdsan. but others ascribe Dhahhak* him.— [ 316 1 A.

when it was announced to him that a slave asked they. " here I am at thy service") incumbent upon the pilgrim. 232. and the disclosure of what is inviolable.' engaged in the functions of the pilgrimage. that they might gain purity of speech. H. for. " I As by al Amin save ' this one." but Tahir refused his reof Ismail-b-Abi Muhammad al Yazldi. tradition. 131 and bred at Basrah. He answered 'I never heard a tradition from him but once. verses and literary knowledge. but ye are even more chaste know not of any relation of a Al Mughirah-b-Muhammad al Muhallabi said to me. and the sword cloven the sword. me and between my brother even to the rending A." tradition Siili says. and they asked him regarding al Amin and his acquirements. that he said. He received the surname of Abu'l A'yna from . and I am not sure but A. 198. Yet. t Ahu Abdu'llah Muhammad-h-al Kasim. with al Husayn-b-u'd Dhahhak. they would * This Taltiyat or cry of supplication (wMcli signifies.D. "* shall be raised giving the At Tha'alabi in the Lataif-u'l Ma'arif observes that Abu'l A'ynaf used to say. 813-14. I am content that thou shouldst write me a safe-conduct to my brother. me than that a dog should And on the authority bark at me. I saw a company of the Banu Hashim. then hath manliness destroyed manliness. p. ' was more profoundly versed in it than he. is See Burton's Mecca. replied ' He that al Mamun of his had died in Mecca. verily.[ 317 3 have proceeded between of veils. heard dies when he exclaimed from A'bbas. that he may covet this authority which is distant and remote from Mm. H. a. I would rather that a lion should rend quest. And in theological law ?' in language than they. verily. who said — I heard the — my father related to prophet say —he who me a salutation Labayk. such conduct is worthy of him. among whom was one of the sons of al Mutawakkil. To use it frequently is meritorious and is a aunnat The refrain is or practice. and if he be generous towards me. Maula to the Caliphal Mansur was a blind man remarkable for his repartees. and he used to say. " were Zubaydah to let loose her braided locks. He was born at al Ahwaz A. Al Husayn described his accomplishments as considerable. through the difEerences in our friendship and the opposition of our interests. " my father used to discourse with al Amin and al Mamlin on sub- jects in which they displayed their eloquence. " the children of the Caliphs of the House of Umayyah used to be sent out to the desert. single Talbiyat is a " shart " or positive condition.' 'And in tradition?' they said. but if he put me to death.

He died. for al MansAi? was her grandsire and as SafEah the brother of her grandsire. and it was that which seduced him into asserting the creation of the Kuran. grandsons of her husband. — (whom Weil terms the Protestants and Rationalists of Islam) necessity of its creation by the Deity.[ 318 ] upon nothing but Caliphs or heirs to the Caliphate. if I may venture upon a definition of their belief. which nickname clung to him ever after. all quarters. Mu'awiyah her grandfather. al Walid her are numerous. but an inseparable inherent Al Mdmtin adopted the opinions of the Mua'tazalites quality of it. polite accomplishments and he assembled and became a proficient in jurisprudence and the Arabic language. the same night on which al Hadi died. co. 198. the ' he received the answer TJ'yayna diminutive of A'yni (a large-eyed female) O Ahu'l A'ynA. They believed the word of who asserted tho God to have been . was from the beginning. according to others 282 A.. AL MAMITN. and and al Mamun and al Mua'tasim the sons of her husband. See page 290. and as for the heirs-apparent. and ar Eashid her husband. % The orthodox Muslims maintain. His mother was a slave concubine named Marajil who died in giving birth to him. the uncreated Logos. daughter of Tazid-b-Mu'awiyah. they al Mutawakkil L H. and al Mahdi \. Hajjaj al Aa'war (the one-eyed) and men of their class. Mu'awiyah-b-Yazid her brother. not of His essence in hypostatic union. Abu Mu'awiyah adpharir. Yazid her son. and the history of the encounters of the desert When he grew up he applied himself to philosophy and the sciences and became profoundly versed in them. her paternal uncle. according to Bome in 283. succeeded him. Yusuf-b-A'tiyah. In his childhood he applied himself to learning. Abdu'l Malik her husband. Some of his witty replies are given hy Ibn KhaU from whom the above extract is * In the life taken. son's son. in this respect. of ar Eashid. Al Mdmlin A'bdu'Uah Abli'l A'bbis the son of ar Eashid was horn 170 on Thursday night* in the middle of Eabii' I.f in the year Al Yazidi instructed him in the jurisconsults from Arabs.eternal with the Deity. f Jaa'f ar-bof the ancients his having asked to -wbioli Abu Zayd al An?firi. and on which his father ar Eashid. and al Wathik her husband's grandsons. like His Unity. He heard traditions from his father and Hushaym and A'bbad-bu'lA'wam.D.813-14. and al Amia her son. fasten Like her. Hisham and Sulayman the sons of her husband. (»«*fl^^. of the House of Umayyah was Tazid was her father. that the Kurin. al Walid. A'atikah. t For j***^ read as in the MS.Ishma'il-b-U'layyah. H. this event is given as having occurred on Friday night. Marwan-b-u'l Hakam her father-in-law. and Yazid and Ibrahim the two sons of al Walid.

possessed a natural turn for jurisprudence. copies tliereof being -WTitten vent further and affirmed. Of ar Eashid. Ibn Khali.813-14. in subjeeto The arguments of al Mamun in defence of his opinions will afterwards appear in a letter to his Prefect at Baghdad. They also was created Sale. and Kuran through thirty-three times. He composed a number of works on the science of the stars. says that al Mamun was wont to govern with justice. 198. was the most distinguished of the House of A'bbas for his prudence. in books to express the original. A. and a long series of memorable him were it not that he marred them hy what he interrogation regarding of did in forcing the creation of the Kuran. and It is related that in one of the fasts of the Eamadhan. * The son of Musa.[ 319 ] He his Abi Othman at Tayalisi and others Lave related traditions on his authority. He was very successful in his divinations. Of the A'bbas none wiser than he ever ruled the Caliphate. H. lavishly profuse of what he possessed. inspiring his intrepidity. the sixth in descent from A'li-b-Abi Talib. and had A'bdu'llah before him.sty of al Hadi. a middle middle al Mamun. " Mu'awiyah ruled through his A'mar. and judgment. I might do so. it because As Suli says that the A'bbassides preferred this surname. Abu Maa'shar. and the maje. He was notorious for to the Shiite doctrines deserved to be accounted among the greatest doctors. while he was in Khurasan and he took the surname Abu Jaa'far. H. al Balkbr the celebrated astrologer was the great master of his age in that art.f the astrologer. the by a beginning.' Al Mamiin assumed the supreme power of after the assassination of his brother in the year 198. it is reported that he said. and it possessed in their minds and and sound. his clemency aspect. and calling into counsel with him if and I chose to mention it not been for Umm Jaa'far {ZubaydaK) and the affection of the Banu Hashim for him. and he used to say. him in connection with a fourth (meaning himself). He was eloquent and fluent of speech." It used to be said that the men to an House of Band A'bbas were distinguished and an end. and A'bdu'l Malik through his Hajjaj. his sagacity and awemajesty and liberality. . He died A. was the surname of al Mansiir. as Saffah. t Abu Maa'shar Jaa'far-b-Muhammad. but I by myself. determination. the piety of al Mahdi. for the beginning was and the end al Mu'atadhid. I would have placed his concubines and wives. such as the Mudkhil {Introduction) the Zij (astronomical tables). that -whatever was an accident and liable to perish. although I knew him to be a slave to his passions. A.D. 272 (885-6J. He had many actions are r worded emiment qualities. See their doctrines in to consist of letters created in subjeeto. and yet I gave precedence to Muhammad {al Amiri) before him. he read the his attachment which indeed led him to exclude his brother al Miitamin and confer the succession upon A'li ar Eidha* as we shall shortly mention. " verily I recognise in A'bdu'llah {al Mamun) the prudence of al Mansur.

198. This was highly displeasing to the Banii'l A'bbas. but alludes to the rumour that he was poisoned. so al Mamun began his advance. " verily thou art generous to the descendants of A'li-b-Abi Tdlib. white. The followers of The adoption of green hy al Mamun. such as a majesty and an auspieiousness on account of the longevity of those who al Mansur and ar Eashid. who rose against the Ahhasidea took the opposite colour. and he remained in concealment for the space of eight years.[ 320 1 A. but the government in thy hands is employed against thy interests for their benefit than hands for thine. and the —the cherished black was again resumed.813-14. and they rose him. p. wards consented. The rebel Aliites in the reign of al recalled yellow according to Tabari. t It was strongly suspected that he died of poison administered at the instigation Mdmfin Masa'iidi attributes Uis death to indigestion from eating grapes.D. A. and he coined money in his name. however. whereupon al Mamun wrote to the people of Baghdad telling them as they were angered against him on account of his having taken the covenant of allegiance for A'li. so that it was even said. In the 201 he excluded his brother al Mutamin from the succession and appointed as heir after him A'li ar Eidha the son of Mdsa al Kadhim His extravagant (the meek) the son of Jaa'far as Sadik {the vfriffht). more powerfully would be in their " verily I have done what I have done. but they returned him a rough answer. Now it came to pass that A'li ar Eidha diedf in the year 203. attachment to the Shiite doctrines induced him to this. gave him his daughter in marriage and promulgated this in the various quarters of his empire." but he replied. Al Mamun prepared to oppose him and various affrays and engagements took place and al Mamiin set out for Irak. Al Mamiin arrived at Baghdad in Safar 204. It up against him and swore allegiance to Ibrahim the son of al Mahdi who was surnamed al Mubarak (blessed). it * According to Itn Khaldfln. wherefore he hid himself in the month of Du'l Hijjah. . 216. that he was now dead. He likewise commanded the abandonment of black garments* and the adoption of green. . word j*^^ Man?ur wore the order. of al Tom II. As Siili records with its ascription that one of the women of his family said to al Mamun. reign lasted two years all but a few days. as significant of an alliance between the two meaning grey as well as green. Weil supposes to have been suggested by an idea of a mixture of the two colours. H. that he himself purposed abdicating and resigning the government to was he who named him ar Eidha (the accepted of God and men). were so named. and the Abbasides and others entreated him to return to the wearing of black and the abandonment of green he at first hesitated but after. Al Mdmidn. soon See Weil. Now Ibrahim the son of al Mahdi heard that the people had withdrawn from their engagement Thus his to him. the A'bbasides adopted iDlack as mourning for the slaughter of so A'li many of the Hashlmites under the Umayyad dynasty.

The cost of tlie nuptials is stated by Ibn Khali to have been 60 million dirhams (about £1. He