CONTENTS

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 1 1.1 HISTORY ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 1 1.2 PROCESS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 1 1.3 WORKING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 3 CHAPTER-2 EQUIPMENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 4 2.1.1 Shot delivery method ................................ ................................ ........................ 4 2.1.2 Recovery and cleaning system ................................ ................................ .......... 5 2.1.4 Dust collector system ................................ ................................ ........................ 6 2.1.5 System for holding and transporting parts for shot peening. ............................. 7 2.1.6 Controls and instrumentation ................................ ................................ ........... 7 CHAPTER-3 SHOT MEDIA ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 3. 1 INTRODUCTION. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 8 3.2 SHOT SIZE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 9 3.3 SHAPE ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 10 CHAPTER-4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 11 PNEUMATIC SHOT PEENING SYSTEMS ................................ ................................ ............... 11 4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 11 4.1.1 Siphon Induction method ................................ ................................ ................ 11 4.1.2 The Gravity Induction ................................ ................................ ...................... 12 4.1.3 Direct Pressure................................ ................................ ................................ 12 CHAPTER-5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 13 SHOT PEENING PARAMETERS................................ ................................ ............................. 13 5.1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 13 5.2 CONTROL PARAMETERS ................................ ................................ .......................... 13 5.2.1 Media Control ................................ ................................ ................................ . 14 5.2.2 Intensity Control ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 5.2.3 Saturation (Intensity Verification) ................................ ................................ ... 16 5.2.4 Coverage Control ................................ ................................ ............................ 17

ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE

CHAPTER-6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 18 RESIDUAL STRESSES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 18 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18 SUMMATION OF APPLIED AND RESIDUAL STRESS ................................ ................... 19 DEPTH OF RESIDUAL STRESS ................................ ................................ ................... 20 RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION ................................ ................................ ............ 21 RESIDUAL STRESS RELAXATION DURING FATIGUE TEST ................................ ........... 21 METAL FATIGUE ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 22

CHAPTER-7 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 23 METHODS OF RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT ................................ .............................. 23 7. 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 23 7.1.1 Principles of X -Ray Diffraction Stress Measurement ................................ ....... 24 7.1.2 Hole Drilling Method ................................ ................................ ....................... 26 CHAPTER-8 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 27 SPECIFYING SHOT PEENING ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 8.1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 27 CHAPTER-9 BENEFITS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 28 CHAPTER-10 APPLICATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 30 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 PEEN FORMING ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 CONTOUR CORRECTION ................................ ................................ ................... 30 WORK HARDENING ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 PEENTEXSM ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 31 POROSITY SEALING ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 STRAIN PEENING ................................ ................................ .............................. 32

CHAPTER-11 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 33 FABRCATION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE ................................ ................................ ........ 33 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 BLASTING CABINET ................................ ................................ ............................... 33 ROTATING TABLE ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 33 NOZZLE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 34 HOPPER ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 34 SHOT COLLECTOR UNIT ................................ ................................ ......................... 34

ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE

CHAPTER-12 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 37 FORMULAE USED ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 37 12.1 SHOT STRIKING RATE ................................ ................................ ............................. 37 12.2 VELOCITY OF SHOOTING................................ ................................ ........................ 37 12.3 AVERAGE FORCE ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 38 REFERENCE ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 39

ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISTORY
Shot peening is not a new process. People have long known that prestressing or work-hardening metal could create harder and more durable metals. The process of was used in forging processes as early as the Bronze Age to strengthen armor, swords and tools. Gun barrels in the civil war were subject to peening to increase the hardness of Damascus steels, and the fillets of crankshafts in early European racecars were hand-peened with speciallymade hammers by 1922. Of course, peening has evolved substantially in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, but the general idea remains the same. Shot peening the material with thousands of tiny balls of high -velocity shot works in much the same way as peening with a hammer did in medieval times.

1.2 PROCESS
Shot peening is a cold working process used to produce a compressive residual stress layer and modify mechanical properties of metals. It entails impacting a surface with shot (round metallic, glass or ceramic particles) with force sufficient to create plastic deformation, each particle functions as a ball-peen hammer. This process creates the same effect that a peening hammer does by causing outer surface to yield in tension. The material directly beneath it is subjected to high compressive forces from the deformation and tries to restore the outer surface to its original shape. By overlapping the surface indentations, a uniform compressive layer is achieved at the surface of the material. The compressive layer squeezes the grain boundaries of the surface material together and significantly delays the initiation of fatigue cracking. As a result, the fatigue life of the part can be greatly increased. By this process less material is removed and less dust created.

1
ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE

ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE ¢ ¡ 2  is in fac a true S .     ¥         £ ©§ ¨§ ¦ ¥¤ £  .ee mac ining operation which he ps increase fatigue and stress corrosion resistance by creating beneficial residual surface stresses It has many uses in industry particularly in the manufacture of parts as different as helical springs roc ers welded joints aircraft parts transmission shafts torsion bars etc Shot Peening allows metal parts to accept higher loads or to endure a longer fatigue life in service without failure In usual applications shot peening can be done without changing the part design or its material .

machine mark. 3 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . dent. heat treatments and other stressful production processes. The failure crack will usually initiate at the part surface where tension stresses are highest and a stress riser exists (scratch. Cracks promulgate easily in areas of tensile stress because the tensile stresses are already working to pull the atoms of the metal apart. This lowering of the effective tensile stress will then allow the part to accept higher loading or to extend its service life significantly. As the shot peening is performed. By shot peening the material we introduce a layer of compressive stress by compacting the material. When parts which have been shot peened are loaded. The atoms deeper into the metal are pulled toward the surface by their bonds with the atoms in the compressive layer. etc). When the depth of the induced compressive stress layer exceeds the depth of all surface discontinuities (stress risers) their ability to start a crack is effectively masked. the atoms on the surface of the metal become crowde d and try to restore the metal's original shape by pushing outward. The atoms in the surface of a piece of manufactured metal will be under (mostly) tensile stresses left over from grinding. These deeper atoms resist the outward pull creating internal tensile stress that keeps the part in equilibrium with the compressive stress on the surface. welds. the failure producing tensile stresses are thus reduced by the amount of the compressive stresses preexisting in the part surface.1.3 WORKING Metals fail under tension loads and not under compressive loads.

Shot Peening systems are comprised of 6 basic subsystems: 1. Part movement and support system.1. Those can be divided into two categories. The choice between these two types of machine will depend on the quality of the shot -peening required and the type of part which is to be treated. compressed air or wheel. 5. rotating table machines for small parts in series. dependent on the method used for projecting the shot. 2.1 INTRODUCTION There are numerous types of shot-peening machines. 4. 3. Recovery and cleaning.1 Shot delivery method There are two ways of accelerating the steel shot: By compressed air: This system is suitable for lower production applications where maximum flexibility is needed. There are thus drum-type machines for shot-peening parts in bulk. and overhead conveyors (see schematic representation). Shot-peening machines can also vary considerably in the way the part is positioned in the stream of shot. By Centrifugal turbines.CHAPTER-2 EQUIPMENT 2. 2. Dust collection. Controls and instrumentation. These systems are very flexible in that the shot can be delivered horizontally through a rubber hose and nozzle assembly. This enables 4 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . Peening Cabinet. 6. linear conveyors for helical springs. Shot delivery method: a. By Compressed Air b.

uses in finishing operations of steel frames and weldments thereby replacing hand tools. 2. The shot is then carried by gravity or screw conveyor to a bucket elevator. The elevator carries the shot. Because of this an air blasting machine for a production line is e pensive compared to the centrifugal wheel epening machine. . Only one or two operators are needed for such a shot blasting machine. B cent ifu l tu bine: Centrifugal wheel blasting is the more common cleaning technique as well as the most economical and environmentally friendly method.2 Recover and cleaning system Recirculation and cleaning the abrasive shot is required to maintain a consistent cleaning operation. For e ample to deliver shot at a rate of 1100 kg per minute a 1650 Hp compressor and 33 workers are needed using 10 mm diameter nozzles delivering 6. The turbine delivers abrasive shot by centrifugal force in a specific and controlled direction. speed and quantity. Function of the turbine is similar to that of a fan or centrifugal pump. The shape and size of the parts determine the number of turbines used in a machine.5 kg/cm2 and on the other hand the same task using centrifugal wheel turbines only re uires a total of 100 Hp distributed to between one or a multitude of turbines housed in the same machine. removed oxides and other contaminates to an air wash separator located in the upper portion of the machine. A combination of ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE   5      % ! #" ! $ . Shot blasting machines may use one or a multitude of turbines positioned in such a way that the abrasive blast pattern covers the entire surface of the material to be shot cleaned. Power of the turbine motor is based on degree of cleaning needed and throughout speed of the material. In conventional shot peening equipment after the shot hits the part it falls into the collection hopper under the machine.

1. The recirculating and cleaning capacity of the shot in each machine is related to the shot peening power used for the turbines. 6 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . An incorrectly sized system will cause premature wear to the machine and decrease overall shot peeening effectiveness and shot consumption. Typical dust collector design uses baffle filters or cartridges. The dust collector not only evacuates dust within the machine but also keeps the surrounding area clean and dust free.baffles. Changes in airflow will reduce collector efficiency and therefore result in lower dust extraction. strainers and plates separate these contaminate which are ineffective during the shot blast operation. In the areas that are subject to direct high velocity shot.3 Peening Cabinet The machine cabinet contains dust and abrasive. Material access openings in the entrance and exit of the machine must be designed and protected to prevent abrasive spillage. The cleaned abrasive is contained in an upper hopper (feeding -box) and is subsequently fed into the shot turbine by gravity. and contribute to dust in the immediate production area. 2. Cabinets are built from low carbon steel with an inner shell made of abrasive resistant materials including high strength alloy plates an d thick rubber compounds.1. A machine mounted dust collector reduces air pressure inside the machine thereby preventing dust from escaping into the shop environment. A properly designed and sized dust collector is therefore critical to the ongoing performance of the shot peening system. loss of the cleaning power. alloy steel plates (64 RC hardness) are used which have much more abrasion resistance than other more commonly used materials like manganese steel. 2.4 Dust collector system Dust produced during shot peening is withdrawn from the machinery cabinet and continuously recirculating abrasive by a dust collector.

elevators.5 System for holding and transporting parts for shot peening. pulleys.2. part handling system. For cleaning pipes. All systems can be automated for continuous processing that will increase production. etc. ammeters and time meters for the turbine motors are all placed in a central console. 2. dust collectors. screwdrivers.) spinner hanger machines are used. (motor blocks. Handling and transporting parts through the shot peening process will depend on several factors. table and multi table machines are used. etc. continuous machines are used. bunch-welded parts. For materials in large quantities (brake. turbines. . plates. reduce operator interaction and consistently maintain a particular surface specification. For the shot peening of gears and other special components.6 Controls and instrumentation The system providing the control and instruction for the starting and stopping all functions such as. bicycles frames. For larger and heavier pieces.) tumblast machines are used. bars and wire. . The control panel is designed with sequential startup to assure the different systems are energized in the proper sequence. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE ( ' & ) 0 7 .

1 INTRODUCTION. silicate. Glass beads are widely used for peening non-ferrous components or where very low intensities may be required. should be used. since it would probably be cheaper to peen the article with glass beads in the first instance. shot of the correct material and size maintained in a condition free of cutting edges. synthetic diamond. Shot of peening is available in a variety of materials depending on the nature of the job in hand. silicon carbide. boron carbide. or piano wire. Before being used for peening it has to be blasted against a steel plate to blunt the sharp cut ends. The ceramic abrasives are dense abrasives with outstanding grinding and finishing performance on a variety of work piece materials.leaf or coil springs. Ceramic Beads Ceramic and inorganic abrasives and media include aluminum oxide. CBN. for example . titanium and stainless steel.CHAPTER-3 SHOT MEDIA 3. To accomplish a shot peening job efficiently. Various types of shots are. Copper wire is less widely used for peening and consists of spring steel wire.or for the treatment of non-ferrous articles when the possibility of ferrous contamination is acceptable. tin oxide. and cerium oxide. tungsten carbide. for example on aluminum and its alloys. fused silica. particularly in the aerospace industry where peening is widely used to increase the fatigue life on non ferrous components. The regularity of size and shape can be clearly seen in Fig. Cast steel shot is generally used for peening ferrous components . 5. Hardness of ceramic and inorganic abrasives and media varies with specific composition. It is however possible to blast components with angular non ferrous abrasive after peening with cast steel shot to remove any ferrous contamination. 8 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . shopped into lengths equal to its diameter. This is not generally done. zirconium.

3. Traditional porcelain is made from a mixture of feldspar. magnesium silicate. Po cel in materials are used for both useful industrial and ornamental applications.depending on the raw materials or minerals selected. or aluminum magnesium silicate-based . Porcelains can be aluminum silicate. and CB are among the hardest materials and are used to grind and finish very hard ceramic and alloys. boron carbide.Made by techniques similar to cast steel shot.2 S SZ ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE 3 2 4 1 6 5 6 9 . A more expensive medium and great care must be exercised to ensure that all the fabric lining of a blast machine is fully protected to prohibit the stainless quality of the shot be impaired by ferrous contamination. clay (and flint.Diamond. St inless Steel Shot .

Cut wire shot is normally conditioned before use as peening media. stainless steel. cast iron. Shot usually consists of steel. Cast shot may not be perfectly round unless conditioned .3 S AP The shot or media are pre-conditioned or rounded to radius or round off any sharp edges or corners that would otherwise scratch or mar the parts. ball.  B lls / Beads (Spherical): Media is a bead. A range of sizes or diameters may occur during the atomization or droplet formation process.3. or other metals.  Shot Cast: Shot can consist of cast round shapes. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE 9 8 7 @ 10 . stainless steel. Cast shot usually consists of steel. and 5% with cracks.SAE specification allow up to 5% of the shot to be elongated. or other metals. or spherical shape. cut wire or irregular shapes.  Shot . 10% with shrinkage.Cut Wire: Shot can consist of round. 10% with voids.

particularly.1 INTRODUCTION There are three systems of using compressed air for shot peening purposes. 3) . The method is uncomplicated and lends itself readily for use In hand cabinets. 1) . The one real objection is that most Installations do not incorporate shot Cleaning and shot grading which in the case of shot peening would not be tolerable. 11 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE .1 Siphon Induction method Siphon Induction method is one in which the shot is aspirated to the nozzle.1. Induction .siphon method. 4. so there is little Possibility of contamination of the shot.Direct pressure. The only claim that may be made is the simplicity of the system that permits constant uninterrupted working. in which the shot is projected from a blast nozzle. In consequence they are classed as clean. 2).Induction . glass beads which is a popular medium for use in this type of machine) and this fact which has been emphasized continually is not tolerable in shot-peening. but all abrasive s break down.CHAPTER-4 PNEUMATIC SHOT PEENING SYSTEMS 4.gravity method. It is true that many parts requiring peening are ground and hardened and are in the finished state.

4. A metering valve is incorporated in the system to adjust the volume of abrasive into the air stream. from there being permitted to free fall to the nozzle where it is energized by the compressed air. The essential method of incorporating screening.4. The pressure ves sel as a unit may be incorporated into hand cabinets and blas t chambers. grading and cleaning may be included.1. 12 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . with the shot being elevated above the point of usage.3 Direct Pressure This system is the most universally used. This is a neat method of providing continuous operation by elevating the shot in the recirculation system.1. It is based upon the use of a pressure vessel in which the shot is fed under pressure t o the nozzle. The value of th is system is in the. There is a precise balance between the volumes of shot and the bore size of the nozzle. adjustments that may be made positively to the air pressure.2 The Gravity Induction This system offers improved efficiency.

length). There are many fundamental parameters affecting the shot peening process. number of passes. y Distance from nozzle to work-piece. y Nozzle characteristics (diameter. the following process controls must be maintained: Media Intensity Coverage Equipment 13 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . all its process variables must be identified and controlled. y Linear and rotational speed of work-piece relative to nozzle. 5.CHAPTER-5 SHOT PEENING PARAMETERS . To achieve this. y Exposure time. deflection angle. y Hardness and size of the shot. The most common are as follows: y Shot density. Techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction require that a part be sacrificed to generate a full compressive depth profile analysis. To ensure peening specifications are being met for production lots.2 CONTROL PARAMETERS Controlled shot peening is different than most manufacturing processes in that there is no nondestructive method to confirm that it has been performed to the proper specification. y Air pressure: y Impact angle.1 INTRODUCTION The shot peening process has to be a precisely controlled and repeatable process for optimum benefit.

the broken media must be removed to prevent surface damage upon impact.Peening media must be predominantly rounded. Larger media has more mass and impact energy. The energy of the shot stream is directly related to the compressive stress that is imparted into a part. Other variables to consider are the impingement angle and peening media. the larger media will drive a deeper residual compressive layer. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE C B A D 5. This results in a non-uniform residual compressive layer and will correlate into inconsistent fatigue results.2. Damaged Surface from Broken Shot Media 5. Intensity is measured using Almen strips. It is one of the essential means of ensuring process repeatability. The residual compressive stress from the peening will cause the Almen strip to bend or arc convexly towards the peened side. Intensity can be increased by using larger media and/or increasing the velocity of the shot stream. Peening media must be of uniform diameter.2 Intensity Control Shot peening intensity is the measure of the energy of the shot stream. The impact energy imparted by the media is a function of its mass and velocity. If a mixed size batch of media is used for peening.2. When media breaks down from usage. Media Control Typical Surface from Proper Media 14 . An Almen strip consists of a strip of SAE1070 spring steel that is peened on one side only. The Almen strip arc height is a function of the energy of the shot stream and is very repeatable.

Almen strips are mounted to Almen blocks and are processed on a scrap part (Figure 11-6) or similar fixture.29 mm) C Strip: Thickness = 0. The proper designation for a 0. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE G F 15 E .024" (0.012" (0. The next thicker Almen strip should be called out if intensity is above 0.39 mm) More aggressive shot peening utilizes thicker Almen strips.051" (1.10-0.61 mm). Actual intensity is verified and recorded prior to processing the first part. C ~ 3A). The intensity value achieved on a C strip is approximately three times the value of an A strip (N ~ 1/3A.012A (0.79 mm) A Strip: Thickness = 0. The intensity value achieved on an N strip is approximately one-third the value of an A strip.There are three Almen strip designations that are used depending on the peening application: N Strip: Thickness = 0. The Almen intensity is the arc height (as measured by an Almen gage) followed by the Almen strip designation. Almen blocks should be mounted in locations where verification of impact energy is crucial.020" (0.30A).094" (2.51 mm).031" (0. The usable range of an Almen strip is 0.004"-0.30 mm) arc height using the A strips is 0.

5. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE P I 16 H . engineered process. After the production lot of parts has been processed.2. intensity verifications will be performed throughout the processing as required. This is because coverage is determined on the actual part surface which can range from relatively soft to extremely hard. It is important to not confuse saturation with coverage. intensity verification is repeated to insure processing parameters have not changed. Saturation establishes the actual intensity of the shot stream at a given location for a particular machine setup. Saturation is defined as the earliest point on the curve where doubling the exposure time produces no more than a 10% increase in arc height. For long production runs. Saturation and coverage will not necessarily occur at the same time interval. Saturation is used to verify the time to establish intensity. Saturation is determined using Almen strips that are SAE1070 spring steel hardened to 4450 HRC. The saturation curve is developed by shot peening a series of Almen strips in fixed machine settings and determining when the doubling occurs.3 Saturation (Intensity Verification) Initial verification of a process development requires the establishment of a saturation curve. Figure shows that doubling of the time (2T) from the initial exposure time (T) resulted in less than a 10% increase in Almen arc height. Coverage is described in the next section and deals with the percentage of surface area covered with shot peening dimples.This verifies the peening machine is set up and running according to the approved. This would mean that the process reaches saturation at time = T.

If coverage is specified as greater than 100 (i. 150 . Coverage is the measure of original surface area that has been obliterated by shot peening dimples.5.2.4 Coverage Control Complete coverage of a shot peened surface is crucial in performing high quality shot peening. Coverage should never be less than 100 as fatigue and stress corrosion cracks can develop in the nonpeened area that is not encased in residual compressive stress.e. Coverage of 200 time would have twice the shot peening exposure time as 100 coverage. 17 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE Q Q Q Q Q Q Q . 200 ) this means that the processing time to achieve 100 has been Increased by that factor.

Because nearly all fatigue and stress corrosion failures originate at or near the surface of a part. Compressive stress squeezes the surface grain boundaries together and will significantly delay the initiation of fatigue cracking. 18 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . Shot peening is the most economical and practical method of ensuring surface residual compressive stresses. the surface of induction hardened components may contain residual compressive stresses. compressive stresses induced by shot peening provide significant increases in part life. increasing the depth of this layer increases crack resistance. grinding or machining. It is well known that cracks will not initiate nor propagate in a compressively stressed zone. In most modes of long term failure the common denominator is tensile stress. Because crack growth is slowed significantly in a compressive layer. the benefit obtained is the direct result of the residual compressive stress produced. and with no external load applied. The magnitude of residual compressive stress produced by shot peening is at least as great as half the tensile strength of the material being peened. These stresses can result from externally applied loads or be residual stresses from manufacturing processes such as welding. a welded joint will contain high magnitude residual tensi le stresses in the heataffected zone (HAZ) adjacent to the weld.CHAPTER-6 RESIDUAL STRESSES . Tensile stresses attempt to stretch or pull the surface apart and may eventually lead to crack initiation. These residual stresses can be either tensile or compressive. For example.1 INTRODUCTION Residual stresses are those stresses remaining in a part after all manufacturing operations are completed. Conversely. In most applications for shot peening.

Depth of Co pressive Layer This is the depth of the compressive layer resisting crack growth. 19 ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE T S R U U U U . Surface Stress This magnitude is usually less than the Maximum Compressive Stress.The residual stress generated by shot peening is of a compressive nature. the surface of the component experiences the net stress from the applied load and Shot peening residual stress.2 S MMA ION OF APP IED AND RESID A S RESS When a component is shot peened and subjected to an applied load. 6. It is normally just below the surface. A typical shot peening stress profile is depicted in Figure. less (tensile) stress equates to longer part life. This compressive stress offsets or lowers applied tensile stress. A deeper layer is generally desired for crack growth resistance. Figure 1-6 depicts a bar with a three-point load that creates a bending stress at the surface. Maxi u Co pressive Stress This is the maximum value of compressive stress induced. Quite simply. As the magnitude of the maximum compressive stress increases so does the resistance to fatigue cracking. The curved dashed line is the (residual) compressive stress from shot peening. The layer depth can be increased by increasing the peening impact energy. The diagonal dashed line is the tensile stress created from the bending load.

Higher strength materials have a more rigid crystal structure.The solid line is the summation of the two showing a significant reduction of tensile stress at the surface. steel 60 HRC.3 DEP OF RESID A S RESS The depth of the compressive layer is influenced by variations in peening parameters and material hardness. notches. Figure shows the relationship between the depth of the compressive layer and the shot peening intensity for five materials: steel 30 HRC. and 2024 aluminum and titanium 6Al-4V. localized compressive stress to offset the stress concentration factor created from these geometric changes. steel 50 HRC. the more compressive stress can be induced. Compressive stress is directly correlated to a material s tensile strength. Higher the tensile strength. Shot peening is ideal for high strength materials. Shot peening induces a high magnitude. Depths for materials with other hardness values can be interpolated. This crystal lattice can withstand greater degrees of strain and consequently can store more residual stress. 20 ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE X W V . grooves. keyways. cross holes. Shot peening is highly advantageous for the following two conditions: Stress risers High strength materials Resultant Stress in a Shot Peened Beam with an External Load Applied Stress risers may consist of radii. 6. etc.

to appreciate the stability of residual stresses as a function of the load applied. RESID A S RESS DIS RIBUTION The residual compressive stresses introduced by shot-peening are the parameters that influence the improvement in the operating performance of the part. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE a ` 21 Y . therefore. It is obvious that. The distribution of the residual stresses introduced will vary.6. depend on the treatment conditions. In design calculations. It is essential. The problem is the then to find out what the magnitude and distribution of the stable" residual stresses are and to include them in our calculations. 6. that is to say the values of those stresses that are likely to be actually present in the part during most of its operating life. the nature of the steel and the shot used. one can only consider the values of the stabilized stresses. We have already seen that the depth of metal plasticized will increase with the projection velocity and the shot size. The maximum residual stress level and the residual stress gradient will depend not only on the material from which the part is made but also the depth of metal affected. for a part. This phenomenon conditions the residual stress distribution and the stability of the stresses within the material. to the greatest extent. when the part is operating.5 RESIDUA STRESS RELAXATION DURING FATIGUE TEST The residual stress levels and distribution are generally altered when parts are subjected to fatigue loading.

ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE d c 22 b .6. the metal fatigue strength of the shot peened specimen is 144 ksi (988 MPa). METAL FATIGUE The graph below compares metal fatigue strength with ultimate tensile strength for both smooth and notched specimens. For example. smooth specimen. metal fatigue strength increases proportionately to increasing strength/hardness. at a 52 HRc (1240 MPa). At higher strength/hardness levels. more than twice the metal fatigue strength of the unpeened. Comparison of peened and unpeened fatigue limits for smooth and notched specimens as a function of ultimate tensile strength of steel. With the addition of compressive stresses from shot peening. Without shot peening. materials lose fatigue strength due to increased notch sensitivity and brittleness. optimal metal fatigue properties for machined steel components are obtained at approximately 30 HRc (700 MPa). however.6.

cold work. and grain size. and produces diffraction for any orientation of the sample surface. Nonlinear elastic methods are generally not suitable for routine residual stress determination at their current state of development. provided a diffraction peak of suitable intensity and free of interference from neighboring peaks can be produced in the high back reflection region with the radiations available. and the calculation of the associated stress. 1 INTRODUCTION In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement. x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement is applicable to materials that are crystalline. being necessarily destructive. Mechanical methods (dissection techniques) and nonlinear elastic methods (ultrasonic and magnetic techniques) are limited in their applicability to residual stress determination. their spatial and depth resolutions are orders of magnitude less than those of x-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction residual stress 23 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . Mechanical methods are limited by assumptions concerning the nature of the residual stress field and sample geometry.CHAPTER-7 METHODS OF RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT 7. Although the term stress measurement has come into common usage. All require stress-free reference samples. All nonlinear elastic methods are subject to major error from preferred orientation. Spatial and depth resolution are orders of magnitude less than those of x-ray diffraction. such as strain or force and area. which are otherwise identical to the sample under investigation. relatively fine grained. Therefore. temperature. Samples may be metallic or ceramic. To determine the stress. the strain in the crystal lattice must be measured for at least two precisely known orientations relative to the sample surface. the strain in the crystal lattice is measured. All methods of stress determination require measurement of some intrinsic property. and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated. Mechanical methods. stress is an extrinsic property that is not directly measurable. In addition. cannot be directly checked by repeat measurement. assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice.

(b) = (sample rotated through some known angle ).measurement is unique in that macroscopic and microscopic residual stresses can be determined nondestructively. = 0. where n is an integer denoting the order of diffraction. results in a corresponding shift in the diffraction angle 2 . defining the orientation of the sample surface. Figure l (a) shows the sample in the = 0 orientation. x-ray detector: S. Principles of x-ray diffraction stress measurement. x-ray source. is the angle between the normal of the surface and the incident and diffracted beam bisector. the wavelength is known to 1 part in 105. D. N. The angle . Law: n = 2d sin . and is the diffraction angle. Principles of X-Ray Diffraction Stress Measurement 24 . Any change in the lattice spacing. . d. which is also the angle between the normal to the diffracting lattice planes and the sample surf ace. normal to the surface. The figure shows the diffraction of monochromatic beams of x-ray at a high diffraction angle (2 ) from the surface of a stressed sample for two orientations of the sample relative to the x-ray beam. For the monochromatic x-rays produced by the metallic target of an x-ray tube. d is the lattice spacing of crystal planes. ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE g f e hh 7. is the x-ray wavelength.

2 . Although residual stresses result from no uniform plastic deformation. but no additional increase in macroscopic stress. all residual macrostresses remaining after deformation are necessarily elastic. 2dsin = n Giving = = -cot 25 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . Changes in the interplanar spacing d can be used with the Bragg s equation to detect elastic strain through a change in the Bragg scattering angle . the sample is rotated about its surface normal to coincide the direction of interest with the diffraction plane. Measuring the change in the angular position of the diffraction peak for at least two orientations of the sample defined by the angle enables calculation of the stress present in the sample surface lying in the plane of diffraction. To measure the stress in different directions at the same point. reducing the lattice spacing and slightly increasing the diffraction angle. which contains the incident and diffracted x-ray beams. the tensile stress present in the surface increases the lattice spacing over the stress-free state and decreases 2 . only elastic strains are measured using x-ray diffraction for the determination of macro stresses. Because only the elastic strain changes the mean lattice spacing. disruption of the crystal lattice.The presence of a tensile stress in the sample results in a Poisson's ratio contraction. and the formation of micro stresses. further strain results in dislocation motion. 1b). If the sample is then rotated through some known angle (Fig. When the elastic limit is exceeded.

1. y Strain is measured using either a rosette of strain gauges. Hole Drilling: Equation = ( max + min ) A+ ( max min )B cos 2 Where A and B are hole drilling constants. thereby providing data for back calculation of residual stress. laser interferometry based on a rosette of indentations or holography. 26 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE .7. and is the angle from the axis to the direction of maximum principal stress max . moire interferometry.2 Hole Drilling Method y Principle: The undisturbed regions of a sample containing residual stresses will relax into different shape when the locality is machined. y The process involves drilling a hole into a residually stressed body with a depth which is about equal to its diameter and small compared to the thickness of the test object.For the general case of a hole drilled in an infinite plate A and B must be calculated numerically.

INTRODUCTION CHAP ER 8 HOT PEE I Figure shows a splined shaft (shaded) installed with two bearings supporting the shaft inside an assembly.009" A intensity. y Shot peening per AMS-S-13165. It is important to note that if Non-Destructive Testing is required. 0.PECIF I 8. NDT should always be performed before shot peening. engineering would specify shot peening (of the shaft) on the drawing as follows: y Area "A": Shot peen y Area "B": Overspray allowed y Area "C": Masking required y The details on the print should read: y Shot peen splined areas and adjacent y Radius using MI-110H shot.006"-0. y Mask both bearing surfaces and center shaft area. y Minimum 100% coverage in splined areas to be verified by PEENSCAN. Fi ure 1 Assembly Drawin of Spline Shaft Requirin Shot Peenin ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE q p 27 r r r i r . The outboard spline and adjacent radius would be likely fatigue failure locations from bending and/or torsional fatigue. y Overspray acceptable on adjacent larger diameter. In this case.

Can increase gear life more than 500 . When compressive stresses from shot peening are added fatigue strength increases proportionately to increased strength.1 BENEFITS y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Enhances fatigue strength. Prevents galling. y y y 28 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE v u t s v u . Can increase drive pinion life up to 400 . finished surface ready for immediate use or paint and coatings. Optimal fatigue properties for machined steel components are obtained at approximately 700 MPa.CHAPTER-9 BENEFITS 9. Can increase spring life 400 to 1200 . Prevents corrosion. Prevents hydrogen embrittlement. Can increase crankshaft life 100 to 1000 . Improves ultimate strength. Can permit the use of very hard steels by reducing brittleness. Prevents fretting. Prevents cracking due to wear. Possible to increase the fatigue strength of damaged parts extending the wear Increases lubricity by creating small pores in which lubricants can accumulate Substitution of lighter materials can be possible without sacrificing strength and durability. Can be used to curve metal or straighten shafts without creating tensile stress in a Peen forming process. Leaves a uniformly textured. any higher and the materials lose fatigue strength due to increased notch sensitivity and brittleness.

and formation of angel hair is prevented. The pellets contact with the side of the pipe is shortened. When the inside of the pipeline is roughened by shot peening. 29 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . melt and form streamers or a ngel hair.y Shot Peening can be used in a number of specialized processes such as flow treatment of pipes used to transport polymer pellets used in oil and gas industries. Polymer pellets will slide against the inside of a smooth pipeline. the polymer pellets bounce or roll instead of sliding along the inside of the pipe. These long polymer fibers will contaminate the pellet flow and clog up the transfer system.

ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE y x 30 w . The surface will bend or "arc" towards the peened side. This is accomplished by shot peening selective locations of parts to utilize the surface loading from the induced compressive stress to restore the components to drawing requirements. 10. The process is ideal for forming wing and empennage panel shapes for even the largest aircraft.CHAPTER 0 APPLICATIONS 10.2 CONTOUR CORRECTION Shot peening utilizing peen forming techniques can be used to correct unfavorable geometry conditions. The resulting curvature will force the lower surface into a compressive state. These are large bend radii without abrupt changes in contour. It is best suited for forming curvatures where the radii are within the elastic range of the metal. The thin cross section is able to be manipulated into desired contours when the peen forming is properly engineered and controlled. Therefore. It is a dieless forming process that is performed at room temperature. Residual compressive stress acts to elastically stretch the peened side. Typically aircraft wing skins have large surface area and thin cross sectional thickness. significant forces are generated from the shot peening residual stress over this large surface area.1 PEEN FORMING Peen forming is the preferred method of forming aerodynamic contours into aircraft wing skins.

Irregularities in the material consistency at the surface may be improved by impacting the surface with shot peening media. architectural finishes that are consistent.5 POROSITY SEALING Surface porosity has long been a problem that has plagued the casting and powder metal industries. Shot peening can produce substantial increases in surface hardness for certain alloys of the following types of materials: y y y y y y y Stainless steel Aluminum Manganese stainless steels Inconel Stellite Hastelloy 10. 10. peening can also be used to identify large.3 WORK HARDENING A number of materials and alloys have the potent ial to work harden through cold working. repeatable and more resistant to mechanical damage through work hardening. By increasing the intensity (impact energy).4 PEENTE SM Controlled shot peening also can be used to deliver a number of different. near -surface voids and delaminations.10. ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE € 31 . aesthetically pleasing surface finishes.

strain peening develops a greater amount of compressive stress throughout the compressive layer. STRAIN PEENING 32 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . This will offer maximum (residual) compressive stress opposing the direction of (applied) tensile stress created during cyclic loading. the surface layer is yielded further in tension because of the preloading. The additional compressive stress is generated by preloading the part within its elastic limit prior to shot peening. Extension springs must be stretched. When the peening media impacts the surface. The additional yielding results in additional compressive stress when the metal s surface attempts to restore itself. Whereas dual peening offers improvements at the outermost surface layer. compression springs must be compressed and drive shafts must be pre-torque.Strain (or stress) peening offers the ability to develop additional residual Compressive stress offering more fatigue crack resistance. To perform strain peening. a component must be physically loaded in the same direction that it experiences in service prior to peening.  10.

11. Machinery used.1 BLASTING CABINET The blasting cabinet is a cubical structure which plays a very important role in the shot peening machine.I. 11. Machinery required. 33 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . It provides the space for the various attachments and it mainly provides the space or separator chamber for the activity or process of shot Peening mach ine. Specifications. Electrical arc welding machine. grinder. Specifications cube of 457*457*457 mm.hacksaw. And rubber for covering the inner surface of the cabinet for reducing noise. drilling machine. The various parts are. Because of this we can clean up various surfaces of the components. sheet. The fabrication of shot blasting machine is done by the assembly of various parts of the shot Peening machine.CHAPTER-11 FABRCATION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE The Shot Peening Machine is fabricated mainly by the various fabrication processes.lathe machine. Material required .The material used for the making of the blasting cabinet is wooden ply attached with a C.2 ROTATING TABLE It is acicular table which is to rotate the components. Material required stainless sheet. hand grinder and measuring instruments such as verniers.Dia 304mm.

I.I sheet.grinder and sheet cutter.G. 34 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE .4 HOPPER Hopper is conical shaped storage unit which stores the shots.3 NOZZLE It is made in conical Shape for the striking of the shots on the surface of the components with high velocity. Material used. Material used high speed steel will be used. It is attached to blasting cabinet. Material required. sheet Machinery used. 11.G.sheet cutter. Machinery used.11.5 SHOT COLLECTOR UNIT Shot collector unit consists of a funnel whose one end is connected to a pipe which drains the shots in a circular vessel. 11.

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ANALYSIS AN FABRICAION OF SHO PEENIN MACHINE ‡ † 36 … .

CHAPTER-12 FORMULAE USED 12.1 SHOT STRIKING RATE Weight collected in shot collector (in Kg) Shot striking Rate (SSR in Kg/sec) = Time (In sec) 12.3 AVERAGE FORCE Favg (N) = 2mV/t o Where m = Mass of shots in Kg V = Velocity in m/sec T0 = Time of contact (10 to 100 µs) 37 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE .2 VELOCITY OF SHOOTING V2 (m/sec) = 148.746* p/ Where V= velocity of shots in m/sec P= Air pressure in kg/cm2 =Density of shot material in kg/cm 3 12.

We aim at developing a portable shot peening machine which can be used for peening number of small parts simultaneously. with the minimum expenditure on its operation and worker. The machine does not require a very skilled labour so it directly reduces the labour cost of the company. The process requires very less amount of energy which is essential part of the peening machine. 38 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . Shot peening improves their fatigue life and thus overall life of the component. The shot collector assembly of the machine collects the shot produced during the process and then are fed back into the machine.CONCLUSION During the study of shot peening machine we found t hat most of the components which undergo cyclic loading in a machine are treated extensively with Shot peening in the industries.

Prevéy.htm. http://en.com/catalog/air-blastingequipment.php.org/ICSP/confrns. http://www.org/wiki/Shot_peening. Lambda Research. Inc.surfacepreparation.com/shot_peening. http://www.wikipedia.REFERENCE y y y y AN OVERVIEW OF SHOT PEENING A Niku-Lari. 39 ANALYSIS AND FABRICAION OF SHOT PEENING MACHINE . y http://www. France. y X-RAY DIFFRACTION RESIDUAL STRESS TECHNIQUES Paul S.shotpeening. IITT.metalimprovement.

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